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# FUNDAMENTALS

FUNDAMENTAL CONCEPTS
Basic quantities: The following four quantities
are used throughout Mechanics :
1- Length : Length is needed to locate the position of a
point in space and thereby describe the size of the
physical; system.
2- Time : Time is conceived as a succession of events.
Although the principles of statics are time
independent, this quantity does play an important role
in the study of dynamics
3- Mass : Mass is a properties of Matter by which we can
compare an action of one body with that of another.
4- Force : In general, force is considered as a “ Push” or “
Pull” exerted by one body on another
FUNDUMENTAL CONCEPTS

## Particle : A particle has a mass, but a size that can

be neglected
Rigid Body: A rigid body can be considered as a
combination of a large number of particles
in which all the particles remain at a fix
distance from one particle to the another one
before and after applying a load.
Concentrated Force: A concentrated force represents
act a point on a body.
NEWTON’S THREE LAWS OF MOTION
First Law: A particle originally at rest, or
moving in a straight line with constant
velocity, will remain in this state
provided the particle is not subjected to
an unbalanced force

## Second Law: A particle acted upon by an

unbalanced force F experienced an
acceleration a that has the same
direction as the force and a magnitude
that is directly proportional to the force.

## Third Law : The mutual forces of action

and reaction between two particles are
equal, opposite, and collinear
UNITS OF MEASUREMENT

Systems of Units
CONVERTION OF UNITS
Conversion of Units 1 slug =32.1740486 pounds

## The International System of Units - Perfexes

EXAMPLE-1
EXAMPLE-2
EXAPMLE-3
EXAPMLE -3 (CONT.)
FORCE VECTORS
Scalar : A quantity characterized by a positive or
negative number is called a scalar. (mass, volume
and length), denoted by A
Vector : A vector is a quantity that has both
magnitude and a direction (Force and Moment).
Denoted by , a vector represented graphically,
VECTOR OPERATION

## 1- Multiplication and Division of a vector by a scalar

a- Product of vector A and scalar a = aA (has same
magnitude if a is positive and opposite if a is
negative
b- Division of a vector by a scalar ,
VECTOR OPERATION
Two vectors A and B
R=A+B=B+A

## Special case; if A and B have the same line of

action then the parallelogram law reduces to an
algebrical sum
VECTOR OPERATION
3- Vector subtraction
the resultant difference between vectors A and B
R`= A – B = A + (-B)

Trigonometry
Resolution of Vector :
A vector may be resolved into two components
having any line of action for example a and b

There are two common problems in statics involve
either finding the resultant force, knowing its
component, or known force into two component
EXAMPLE-1
EXAMPLE-2
EXAMPLE-2
EXAMPLE-3

## If θ is not specified, then by vector triangle, F2 may be added to F1 in various ways

to yield the resultant 1000N force. In particular, the minimum length or
magnitude of F2 will occure when its line of action is perpendicular to F1. Any
other directions such as OA or OB, yields a large value for F2, see figure