Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 27


  Description of the main  Required  Identify 1 –  Identify 1-2  How does this task  What are the main  How does this task tie 
task  time  2 teaching  learning goals  contribute to students’  scientific/mathematics  conceptually to the next 
strategies  connected to  understanding of the  practices in this lesson?  task? 
(# of class  and 1  this lesson.  phenomenon/anchorin
periods)  assistive  g event?[1] 
technology  (We attached 
and  the related 
describe  standards and 
how they  highlighted 
would be  them to keep us 
used  on track)  
in your unit 
to support 

# LAUNCH  ½-1 class  Teachers  n/a  Students are viewing  Asking questions (let  This will give students 
0  will use a  the anchoring  students come up with  motivation for future 
Day 0: Maybe at the end  Sound Field    phenomenon. The  driving question).  explanation. In order to 
of one lesson or the  System to  story/video will garner  define what happened 
beginning of another,  project  student interest and  on an atomic level, 
launch anchoring  their voices  provide the driving  students must first know 
phenomenon.  for the  question for the unit.  what an atom even is. 

After telling the story of  student will 
the anchoring  also be 
phenomenon, this video  sitting in 
will be shown (like the  the front of 
tanker car video) and  the 
students will be asked to  classroom. 
present an initial drawing 
of what they think  GIve SLD 
happened on an atomic  students 
level to cause this  extra time 
reaction.  on their 
FACT if 
(Could be structured as an  needed.  
exit slip or a FACT before 
unit begins)  Play the 
times with 
captions on 
for hearing 

#1  HISTORY OF ATOMIC  3 classes:  SLD  SWBAT  In order to describe  Developing and using  After developing their 
THEORY  students  construct a  what happened  models  own models of the atom 
1 & 2-  will be given  model of their  between the sodium  based on experimental 
Day 1 and 2: Students will  research  abbreviated  scientist’s  and water on an atomic  evidence, students will 
be assigned to  readings  version of the  level, students first  construct a class model 
mixed-ability groups. In  and  and mixed  atom after  need to know what an  Obtaining, evaluating, and  of the atom. This class 
these groups, students  poster  into groups  reading (based  atom even is. The  communicating  model will be a replica of 
will be given a reading  with higher  on the  development and  information  the modern model of the 
about a contributing  3-  ability  experimental  history of the atomic  atom, which students 
historian for the atomic  Gallery  readers. In  evidence).  theory sequences the  will discuss in further 
theory (Ranging from  walk and  this way,  S.C.912.P.8.3  buildup of the modern  detail in the next lesson.  
Democritus to right  class sort  they will  Explore the  atom by experiments 
before current scientists).  have more  scientific  that took place over 
equitable  theory of atoms  many years.  
After reading, students  access to  (also known as 
will be asked to discuss  the content.   atomic theory) 
with their groups and  by describing 
draw a model of what  Hearing  changes in the 
their scientist believed  impaired  atomic model 
the atom looked like  students  over time and 
based on their discovery.  will be able  why those 
This will be done on  to work in  changes were 
poster paper  small  necessitated by 
groups in  experimental 
  close  evidence.) 
proximity to 
Day 3: 
students.  SWBAT​ define 
After the finalization of  the main 
posters, students will do a  additions to the 
gallery walk of all the  atomic theory 
posters as groups to take  that their 
student will 
quick and precise notes  scientists made 
be able to  through 
on each part of history. 
use hearing  drawing and 
aids.  verbal 
Finally, students will work 
with the teacher to come 
up with a “class model” of  The Sound  RI.9-10.2 
what the atom looks like.  Field  Determine a 
This will require a  System will  central idea of a 
text and 
sequencing of ideas to  be used for 
analyze its 
“build the atom from the  large class  development 
ground up”.   discussion  over the course 
and hearing  of the text, 
impaired  including how 
student will  it emerges and 
be sitting in  is shaped and 
refined by 
the front of 
specific details; 
the  provide an 
classroom.    objective 
summary of the 


# MODERN ATOMIC  1 day  The Sound  ​ WBAT ​define 

S The structure of the  Although this lesson is  Knowledge of the 
2  THEORY  Field  proton,  atom is crucial to  structured as a lecture,  structure of atoms is the 
System will  neutron,  understanding what  students will still be  precursor for 
Day 4: Using the students’  be used  electron, ion,  was going on in the  obtaining valuable  understanding the 
model, revisit the basic  during the  isotope, and  explosion. Knowing the  information for explaining  periodic table. Students 
parts of the atom through  lecture and  octet rule.  structure and function  the phenomenon at hand.   need to know the 
direct instruction.   hearing  of the atom will give  components of the atom 
impaired  SWBAT  students the ability to  that the periodic table is 
Use a lecture with iClicker  assemble a 
student will  understand why the  interested in describing. 
questions embedded to  simple model of  explosion occurred. 
sit in the  This lesson is the prior 
gauge student  front of the  the modern  The electron's  knowledge needed for 
understanding. Focus on  classroom.   atom.  placement and the  the next activity.  
the charge and mass of  octet rule are 
protons, neutrons, and  Provide  SWBAT  particularly crucial as 
electrons. After refreshing  written  recognize and  the drive for a stable 
students on these  definitions  explain the  outer valence shell is 
concepts, introduce both  in large font  difference  what causes the 
isotopes and ions.  on  between an  reaction.  
PowerPoint  isotope and an 
Use the rest of the class  so that  ion. 
lecture to return to the  hearing 
Bohr model of the atom  impaired   
from the history section.  student has 
Explore  the 
Remind students of their  another way 
model and define the  of collecting  theory  of atoms 
octet rule based on Bohr’s  data rather  (also  known  as 
model.  than  atomic  theory) 
hearing.  by  describing 
  the  structure  of 
Ask  atoms  in  terms 
of  protons, 
neutrons  and 
often to 
electrons,  and 
summarize  differentiate 
definitions  among  these 
in their own  particles  in 
words. Use  terms  of  their 
student-frie mass,  electrical 
charges  and 
locations within 
the atom. 
g or writing 

…  ​THE PERIODIC TABLE  ​2 days  Project  SWBAT​ explain  After understanding  ​Developing and using  After studying atomic 
instructions  why the  both atomic theory and  models  theory and knowing how 
http://sunrisescience.blo on the  periodic table is  the order of the  this ties to the periodic 
g/wp-content/uploads/ board for  ordered how it  periodic table, students    table, students can 
2018/02/Periodic-People SLD  is  will be able to  potentially understand 
-Intro-to-Periodic-Table- students  understand the  the structure and 
Activity.pdf  and hearing  SWBAT  composition of a wide  properties of any 
impaired  describe the  range of elements-  element.  
Day 5:   connection 
students.   including sodium. They 
between  will also be able to  Now that students have 
Engage: Talk to students 
Used mixed  periodic groups  combine this  this knowledge, they can 
about things that are 
ability  and properties   knowledge with their  apply it to how these 
ordered/have patterns in 
groups to  knowledge of the octet  elements might interact 
nature. Ask students for 
enhance the  SWBAT ​deduce  rule to propose why  with one another 
different examples. 
experience  structure and  sodium is so unstable. 
Connect this to the  function of any 
of every 
periodic table having  given element 
order​.   on the periodic 
Use an  table (avoiding 
Explore: Students will 
alerting  more 
engage with a small group 
device like a  complicated 
in this “Periodic People” 
flashing  transition 
activity. In this way, 
light or loud  elements) 
students will use their 
timer to 
prior knowledge of atoms  help  HS-PS1-1 
and patterns to find out  Matter  and  its 
how the periodic table is  Interactions 
structured. Circulate the  student  Use  the 
classroom and find a good  know when  periodic  table 
sequence of groups to  it is time to  as  a  model  to 
predict  the 
form an explanation. Ask  transition 
students questions while  out of the  properties  of 
circulating. Come back  group  elements  based 
together as a class and  activity and  on  the  patterns 
begin discussing  come back  of  electrons  in 
reasoning for sorting.  together as  the  outermost 
a class.   energy  level  of 
Day 6:  atoms. 

Explain: Use the students 

sequenced activities to 
begin forming a class 
explanation of the 
periodic people activity. 
From there​, ​ask students 
in a group discussion to 
relate different parts of 
the activity to the 
different parts of the 
atom. Write student ideas 
on the board during this 

Evaluate: Give students an 

exit slip with different 
random elements from 
the periodic table. Ask 
them to tell you as much 
as they can about that 
element based on their 
knowledge of the atomic 
theory and by using the 
periodic table. 

  CHEMICAL BONDING 1  1  Project  Students will be  Students see a  Developing and Using  Students will understand 
instructions  able to explain  molecular model  Models  why bonds form 
Day 7: Covalent bonding  given to  that araction  animation two  between atoms like two 
each group  between the  hydrogen and one  Planning and carrying out  hydrogen atoms form 
Initially, there will be a  investigations 
for SLD  protons and  oxygen forming a  hydrogen gas (H2) and 
direct instruction piece to 
students  electrons of  covalent bond to form  two hydrogen atoms and 
define and explain energy 
and hearing  two atoms  a molecule and then  one oxygen atom form 
level models. Then a 
impaired  cause them to  draw and describe the  water (H2O). This is an 
discussion on the 
students.   bond.   process. Students see  important concept to 
conditions that are 
that mutual attraction  understand before going 
needed for covalent  Used mixed  Students will be  between the protons  over the process of ionic 
bonds will introduce the  ability  able to draw a  and electrons of the  bonding covered in the 
task (using H2O as the  groups to  model of the  atoms and available  next lesson 
main example). This  enhance the  covalent bonds  space in the outer 
discussion is started after  experience  between the  energy levels of the 
the students see an  of every  atoms  atoms is necessary for 
animation of how two  student.   forming covalent 
hydrogen atoms and one  HS-PS1-1. Use 
oxygen atom form a  The video  the periodic 
covalent bond.  animation  table as a model 
Main Task: Destroying  will have  to predict the  [specifically looking at 
H2O  closed  relative  H20 molecules and 
captions for  properties of  how they form and 
Tell students that a mad  hearing  elements based  break their bond] 
scientist claims to know  impaired  on the patterns 
how to “rip apart” bonded  students.  of electrons in 
molecules and they are  the outermost 
going to work in teams to  energy level of 
try and figure out how he  atoms. 
did it.  

Thinking question during 

the investigation: What is 
produced when the 
covalent bond in water 
molecules are broken? 

Students will be given 

materials and instructions 
for each group, where 
once they assemble the 
scientist's tool, they can 
insert it into the water to 
see the molecules be 
ripped apart.  
A worksheet is provided 
where they will be noting 
observations and drawing 
pictures of what they 
think is happening 

Expected results: 

Soon after placing the 

“tool” in the water, 
bubbles will rise from the 
lead tips. Students should 
be able to infer that the 
gas rising is H2 and O2. 


Each water molecule 

breaks into 2 hydrogen 
atoms and 1 oxygen atom. 
Two hydrogen atoms then 
bond to form hydrogen 
gas (H2 ) and 2 oxygen 
atoms bond to form 
oxygen gas (O2 ). Each 
water molecule has all the 
atoms needed to make 1 
molecule of hydrogen gas. 
But with only 1 oxygen 
atom, a water molecule 
only has half of what is 
needed to make 1 
molecule of oxygen gas. 
So, 2 water molecules will 
produce 2 molecules of 
hydrogen gas but only 1 
molecule of oxygen gas.   

After the discussion, ask 

students to revise their 
group’s drawings of the 
bonds that are breaking 
and forming during the 

  CHEMICAL BONDING 2  1  Project  Students will be  Students apply what  Developing and using  After understanding the 
instructions  able to explain  they have learned  models  different types of bonds 
Day 8: Ionic bonding  given to  the process of  about protons,  and how to conceptually 
each group  the formation  electrons, and energy  -Develop a model to  connect them, the 
Review what the  predict and/or describe 
for SLD  of ions and  levels to learn about  students will have drawn 
components of covalent  phenomena. 
students  ionic bonds.  ionic bonding. Further,  models and made 3d 
bonds are and introduce 
and hearing  Students use  models of molecules. 
the concept of ionic  Students will be  animations, drawings,  -Use a model to predict 
impaired  This directly leads to the 
bonding. Show animation  able to identify  and physical models of  the relationships between 
students.   next lesson of lewis 
and ask the students to  and model ionic  ions to understand the  systems or between 
structures (another way 
write down differences  A list of new  bonds  components of a system. 
attractions and  to represent molecules 
between what they know  vocabulary  conditions necessary  in science). 
about covalent bonds and  with their  HS-PS1-3: Plan 
for forming an ionic 
what they think is  correspondi and conduct an  bond. Overall, this will 
happening in the  ng  investigation 
animation. Remind them  definitions  to gather 
to look at their notes on  will be  evidence​ ​to  help students visually 
energy levels.  distributed  compare the  conceptualize NaCl. 
for ESE  structure of 
[Students will see that  students.  substances at  [specifically looking at 
both ionic and covalent  the bulk scale  the makeup of NaCl] 
bonding start with the  The video  to infer the 
attractions of protons and  animation  strength of 
electrons between  will have  electrical 
different atoms. But in  closed  forces between 
ionic bonding, electrons  captions for  particles. 
are transferred from one  hearing 
atom to the other and not  impaired   
shared like in covalent  students.  

Before the main task, 

explicitly describe the 
concept of ions: Tell 
students that when an 
atom gains or loses an 
electron, it becomes an 
ion. For example, when 
sodium loses its one outer 
electron from the third 
energy level, the second 
level becomes the new 
outer energy level and is 
full. Since these electrons 
are closer to the nucleus, 
they are more tightly held 
and will not leave.  
When chlorine gains an 
electron, its third energy 
level becomes full. An 
additional electron cannot 
join, because it would 
need to come in at the 
fourth energy level. This 
far from the nucleus, the 
electron would not feel 
enough attraction from 
the protons to be stable. 

Main task: 

The students are going to 

use one marker, 2 small 
styrofoam balls, 2 medium 
styrofoam balls, and 
toothpicks to create two 
NaCl units. Then in 
groups, they will connect 
their lines of molecules to 
create the cubic grain of 
salt displayed on the 


The students will use the 

materials to mark “-” and 
“+” on the corresponding 
sized styrofoam balls to 
create NaCl molecules 

As a Group: 

The students will all work 

in together to create a 
grain of salt  

By doing this, the 

students will have to 
decide that the “-” goes 
on the smaller ball and 
the “+” goes on the larger 
one, as well as by 
connecting the molecules 
together should make a 

  CHEMICAL BONDING 3  1  ESE  Students will be  Student’s will apply  Developing and Using  Chemical Bonding and 
students  able to  their knowledge of  Models   Chemical reactions 
Day 9: Representing  will have  interpret and  covalent and ionic  directly relate to each 
bonding with lewis dot  their list of  draw Lewis dot  bonds to make models.  - Use a model to predict  other. During chemical 
diagrams  vocabulary  diagrams for  This lesson will look at  the relationships between  reactions, the bonds that 
and  individual  the molecules that are  systems or between  hold molecules together 
Introduce Lewis dot  components of a system 
definitions  atoms and both  a defining aspect of our  break apart and form 
structures to students by 
to refer  covalent and  phenomena.   new bonds, rearranging 
asking: over the last two 
back to, as  ionic  atoms into different 
days, we did a ton of 
well as  compounds.  substances. Each bond 
notes from  requires a distinct 
activities, what did we  class  MS-PS1-1  amount of energy to 
make?  discussion  Develop  either break or form; 
that are  Models​ ​to  without this energy, the 
[mad scientist tools,  written on  describe​ t​ he  reaction cannot take 
drawings, NaCl block]  the board.   atomic  place, and the reactants 
composition of  remain as they were.By 
What’s a word for those 
simple  completing our subtopic 
things that you created? 
molecules and  of chemical bonds, we 
extended  can start to look at 
structures.  chemical reactions. 
Now today we are going 
to be learning about a    
type of model most 
chemists use when 
looking at molecules: 
Lewis Dot Structures. 

Main Task: 

Two worksheet pages 

Page 1: 

Comparing energy level 

diagrams used in previous 
lessons to the lewis dot 

To looking like: 

[after completing first 

page have table groups 
discuss what is similar 
and different in the two 
methods of depicting 

Page 2: 

Making Lewis dot 

structures of H2, H2O, 
O2, CO2, NaCl, and CaCl2 

  CHEMICAL REACTIONS 1  1  Used mixed  Students will be  This lesson puts the  Developing and Using  How does this task tie 
ability  able to explain  phenomena into  models  conceptually to the next 
Day 10:  groups to  that for a  perspective. It  task? 
enhance the  chemical  illuminates that a  Analyzing and Interpreting 
A small candle flame is  Data 
experience  reaction to take  chemical reaction is 
used to demonstrate a 
of every  place, the  taking place, and what 
chemical reaction  Engaging in argument 
student.  bonds between  that actually means.  
between the candle wax  from evidence 
atoms in the 
and oxygen in the air. 
reactants are 
Students will use atom 
broken, the 
model cut-outs to model 
the reaction and see that 
rearrange, and 
all the atoms in the 
new bonds 
reactants show up in the 
between the 
atoms are 
formed to make 
the products. 
Discuss the differences 
Students will 
between a physical 
also be able to 
change and a chemical 
explain that in a 
Main Task:  reaction, no 
atoms are 
The teacher will light a  created or 
candle then cover it with  destroyed.  
a clear jar until the candle 
puts itself out, asking how  MS-PS1-2. 
would you describe this  Analyze and 
phenomena?  interpret data 
The students are  on the 
separated into groups  properties of 
where they will make  substances 
observations and  before and 
inferences about the  after the 
candle. [ask them to think  substances 
in terms of the different  interact to 
elements that are at play]  determine if a 
Modeling activity:  reaction has 
After a discussion on what 
they think could be  MS-PS1-5. 
happening, hand out  Develop and 
materials for the students  use a model to 
to “build” their  describe how 
interpretation of the  the total 
chemical reaction.   number of 
atoms does not 
Students are given 
change in a 
cutouts of atoms: 
Hydrogen, Carbon, and 
reaction and 
oxygen, two pieces of 
thus mass is 
construction paper, and a 
cutout of an arrow. 

On their before paper, 

labeled reactants, the 
students will arrange the 
element cutouts into the 
initial reactants. Once 
finished the students will 
arrange the arrow 
pointing to the next piece 
of construction paper 
labeled Products “after”. 
One note taker will draw 
the element cutouts onto 
the reactants 
construction paper. Only 
after this step is done the 
teacher will give the 
group the go ahead to 
move their elements and 
rearrange them on their 
products sheet. (after 
they conclude their cut 
outs the note taker will 
draw the products onto 
the paper). 


Groups will be called to 

present their hypothesis 
(what they think the 
reaction looks like). The 
students will analyze each 
reaction and come to a 
consensus (one equation).  

  CHEMICAL REACTIONS 2  1  ELL  Students will be  Expands on reactions,  Developing and using  As the last lesson in this 
students  able to identify  specifically products  models  unit, the students should 
Day 11:  can be  precipitates.  and the notion of a  be able to take this last 
provided  precipitate. Introduces  Engaging in argument  expansion to be able to 
Students will explore the 
instructions  Students will be  the idea of reactions in  from evidence  explain our anchoring 
reaction between baking  able to model a 
in their  a closed or open  event, which is our next 
soda and calcium  chemical  Constructing explanations 
native  system.  task 
chloride. They should  reaction.  and designing solutions 
language as 
observe a precipitate, a 
precision is 
gas, and a small  Students will be 
temperature increase.  able to identify 
Then they will draw a  signs that a 
for the 
model to explain their  chemical 
safety of 
observations. Finally, they  reaction took 
students in 
will use their model to  place.  
this lesson.  
predict what will happen 
if the reaction were  Students will be 
repeated in a closed  able to make 
system on an electronic  predictions 
notes in 
balance.   about reactions 
in closed and 
will be 
Chemical rxn:  open systems 
noted on 
the board 
2(NaHCO3) + CaCl2 ->  MS-PS1-2 
for the 
CaCO3 + CO2 + 2(NaCl) +  Analyze and 
H2O  interpret data 
on the 
Students will follow the  properties of 
instructions for adding  substances 
calcium chloride and  before and after 
baking soda into the  the substances 
beakers of water. There  interact to 
should be a designated  determine if a 
note taker to write down  chemical 
the group’s observations.  reaction has 
Student’s should place a  occurred.  
thermometer in the 
beaker and note if there  MS-PS1-5 
are temperature changes  Develop and 
(there will be).   use a model to 
After completing the  describe how 
experiment, student’s  the total 
should INDIVIDUALLY  number of 
draw a model of the  atoms does not 
phenomena.   change in a 
Discussion:  reaction and 
thus mass is 
The teacher should select  conserved. 
a few students to explain 
their models and what   
they thought happened in 
the experiment, as well as 
asking for evidence to 
back up their claims.  

**This is a good 
opportunity to stress the 
importance of 
communication in 
science. Scientists 
collaborate with other 
scientists to share ideas 
and challenge each 
other’s ideas. They defend 
their ideas, but they are 
open to other ideas 
supported by evidence. 
This advances scientific 

Explanation of the 
products in the 

Calcium carbonate is 

insoluble in water; 
therefore, it appears as a 
precipitate. Sodium 
chloride is also produced. 
However, it is insoluble in 
water, so it remains in 
solution. The bubbles 
observed are carbon 
dioxide. The reaction is 
exothermic because more 
energy is given out by 
bond making than is 
needed for bond breaking. 

Worksheet has the 

following questions: 
1. List three signs of 
a chemical 
reaction based on 
your observations 
2. What do you think 
happened to the 
particles in baking 
soda and calcium 
chloride after they 
mixed? Draw a 
model in the 
space below. You 
may include 
arrows, images, or 
any other symbols 
you think might 
help people 
understand your 
3. Bakers use baking 
soda to make 
cakes and other 
baked goods rise 
and become nice 
and ”cakey”! Based 
on your model, 
why do you think 
baking soda 
causes a cake to 
4. Based on your 
model, why do 
you think that you 
dissolved calcium 
chloride and 
baking soda in 
water first? 
5. We repeat this 
activity using a 
flask with a 
narrow neck 
instead of a 
beaker for calcium 
chloride. First, we 
will put all the 
materials on an 
electronic balance 
along with a 
balloon. Then the 
baking soda is 
added to the flask 
calcium chloride 
and quickly add 
the balloon to the 
top of the fask. 
What do you think 
will happen to the 
reading on the 
balance? Will it go 
up, go down, or 
stay the same? 
Explain your 
reason for your 

  PUTTING IT TOGETHER  1  Provide all  illustrate  and  This is the  Constructing Explanations  The summative 
students  explain  the  measurement of how  assessment in the next 
Day 12: Students will be  with a word  anchoring  well students are able  lesson will be measuring 
placed back into the same  phenomenon 
bank of the  to apply what they  whether students can 
by  using 
mixed-ability groups that  different  learned in the unit to  transfer their knowledge 
knowledge  of 
they were in for the  terms and  the anchoring  to a novel situation or 
launch lesson.  ideas  structure  of  phenomenon.  not. 
covered in  atoms,  the 
These groups will work  periodic  table, 
the unit (for 
together with all of the  and  the 
knowledge they have  presence  of 
obtained from the unit to  patterns. 
come up with the atomic 
explanation for the  Project the  Matter  and  its 
phenomenon.  instructions  Interactions 
for the  Construct  and 
Students will be asked to  revise  an 
activity in 
draw their ideas on a  explanation  for 
words on 
poster sheet and write  the  outcome  of 
explanations for  a  simple 
everything that is  chemical 
for the  reaction  based 
hearing  on  the 
  impaired  outermost 
student.  electron  states 
(Leave  of  atoms, 
trends  in  the 
these up on 
periodic  table, 
the board)  and  knowledge 
of  the  patterns 
of  chemical 

(same as above) 
  ASSESSMENT  1  SLD    Assessment of  Engaging in Argument  n/a 
students  SWBAT  understanding of unit  from Evidence 
Day 13:  will be able  illustrate  and  concepts 
explain  the  Constructing Explanations  
to reference 
The final summative  anchoring 
a word bank  phenomenon 
assessment for students 
to help with  by  using 
will be two essay/free 
the written  knowledge  of 
response questions.  electrons, 
portion of 
the  structure  of 
Students will be given two  atoms,  the 
elements, K and Ne. They  periodic  table, 
will be asked about how  and  the 
these two elements will  presence  of 
students  patterns. 
react in water. Students 
should be   
will explain their thinking 
allowed  HS-PS1-2 
in a minimum of five  Matter  and  its 
extra time 
sentences with a picture.   Interactions 
on their 
Construct  and 
revise  an 
(think ~10 
explanation  for 
minutes or  the  outcome  of 
able to  a  simple 
come in  chemical 
after  reaction  based 
school)  on  the 
electron  states 
Use an 
of  atoms, 
trends  in  the 
device (such  periodic  table, 
as an alarm  and  knowledge 
on the  of  the  patterns 
computer)  of  chemical 
to let  properties. 
know when 
to begin 
and end 


[1]​ Informed by the curriculum development project supported by a grant from the National Science Foundation and 
conducted at the Learning Research and Development Center of the University of Pittsburgh: ​Schunn, C., & Stein, M. K. (2009). 
Collaborative research: Modeling engineered levers for the 21st century teaching of STEM. Proposal to the National Science