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CH#10: Thermoproperties of Matter

Heat capacity: the amount of heat energy required to raise the temperature of a
body by 1 ◦C
Q
C=
∆ϑ

where Q= heat, C= heat capacity and ∆ ϑ = change in temperature

 SI unit: J/◦C

Specific heat capacity: the amount of heat energy required to raise the
temperature of a 1 kg mass by 1 ◦C
c
C= or Q=mc ∆ ϑ
m

where c= specific heat capacity and m = mass

Latent heat: the energy released/absorbed by a substance during a change of


state, w/out a change in the temperature. SI unit: J
Q=ml

where Q= latent heat and l = specific latent heat

 Specific heat capacity of fusion: quantity of heat energy needed to change


unit mass of an object from solid -> liquid state, with no change in
temperature.
Lf =ml f

where Lf = latent heat of fusion and lf = specific latent heat of fusion


 Specific heat capacity of vaporization: quantity of heat energy needed to
change unit mass of an object from liquid -> gas state, with no change in
temperature.
Lv=m l v

where Lv = latent heat of vaporisation and lv = specific latent heat of vaporisation

Evaporation
The change of state from liquid to gas that occurs at all temperatures. The surface
evaporates first.

The Process

1. Molecules in a liquid are always moving randomly


2. Surface molecules that have enough energy to overcome the downward
attraction of the molecules below them and the atm escape into the
atmosphere
3. Less energetic molecules are left behind and the average kinetic energy of
the molecules decreases. Therefore, average liquid temperature decreases.
This is why evaporation cools.

Evaporation rate is affected by:


 Temperature: a rise in temperature results in a rise in the evaporation rate
Q ∝ E . R . where E.R. = Evaporation rate
 Exposed liquid surface area: a larger area exposed leads to a greater
evaporation rate.
SA ∝ E . R .
 Wind: greater wind means a greater removal of the liquid molecules as
they escape, hence speeding up evaporation
Wind ∝ E . R .
 Pressure: reduced atmp leads to an increased E.R.
1
P∝
E.R.
 Humidity: the amount of water vapour in the air. A rise in humidity lowers
the E.R.
1
H∝
E.R.
 Liquid's boiling point: liquids with lower bps evaporate faster as their
bonds are weaker.
1
Bp∝
E. R.

Boiling Evaporation
Occurs at a particular temperature Occurs at all temperature
Relatively fast Relatively slow
Takes place throughout the liquid Takes place only at the liquid's surface
Bubbles form No bubbles form
Temperature constant Temperature lowered
External thermal energy source req. No external thermal energy source req.