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Федеральное агентство связи

Федеральное государственное бюджетное


образовательное учреждение высшего образования
«Сибирский государственный университет
телекоммуникаций и информатики»

(СибГУТИ)

П. А. Ярышева

ACROSS TECHNOLOGY

Учебное пособие по грамматике и чтению


для студентов технических направлений

Новосибирск
2017
УДК 43(075.8)

Утверждено редакционно-издательским советом СибГУТИ

Рецензенты: к.п.н., доцент НГПУ Киселева Е. В.


к.п.н., доцент НГПУ Кожемякина О. А.

Ярышева П. А. Across technology : Учебное пособие по грамматике и


чтению для студентов технических направлений / Сибирский
государственный университет телекоммуникаций и информатики; каф.
иностранного и русского языков. – Новосибирск, 2017. – 63 с.

Учебное пособие включает в себя правила и упражнения по грамматике


английского языка, учебные тексты, игры, а также аутентичные статьи по
специальности для самостоятельной работы над научно-технической
литературой на английском языке и подготовки студентов к сдаче зачета и
экзамена.
Пособие предназначено для студентов технических направлений
СибГУТИ, очной и заочной форм обучения.

© Ярышева П. А., 2017

© Сибирский государственный университет


телекоммуникаций и информатики, 2017
Оглавление
Simple Tenses ........................................................................................................ 5
Упражнения на времена группы Simple .......................................................... 6
Continuous Tenses ................................................................................................. 9
Упражнения на времена группы Continuous ................................................. 11
Perfect Tenses ...................................................................................................... 15
Упражнения на времена группы Perfect ........................................................ 16
Perfect Continuous Tenses ................................................................................... 20
Упражнения на времена группы Perfect Continuous ..................................... 21
Passive voice ........................................................................................................ 24
Упражнения на Passive voice ......................................................................... 24
Participle .............................................................................................................. 28
Упражнения на причастия ............................................................................. 30
Infinitive .............................................................................................................. 34
Упражнения на инфинитив ............................................................................ 35
Gerund ................................................................................................................. 36
Упражнения на герундий ................................................................................... 38
Приложение ........................................................................................................ 43
Cтатья 1 The Great Transmogrification of Atoms to Bits ................................. 43
Статья 2 The Nervana Systems Chip That Will Let Intel Advance Its Deep
Learning ........................................................................................................... 44
Статья 3 Machine Learning Tools Help Google Science Fair Finalists Find Lost
Objects, Predict Breast Cancer Risk............................................................... 45
Статья 4 Software, the Invisible Technology .................................................... 46
Статья 5 China's New Supercomputer Is World's Most Powerful ..................... 47
Статья 6 Use a GPU to Turn a PC Into a Supercomputer ................................ 48
Статья 7 3D-Printed Plastic Blocks Generate Complex Acoustic Holograms .. 50
Статья 8 The Little Hack That Could: The Story of Spotify’s “Discover Weekly”
Recommendation Engine .................................................................................. 51
Games .................................................................................................................. 53
Game 1 - Computer acronyms .......................................................................... 53

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Game 2 - Roleplays on the topic of inventions ................................................. 53
Game 3 - Networking Game ............................................................................. 55
Таблица неправильных английских глаголов................................................... 57
Список использованной литературы................................................................. 61
Список источников ............................................................................................ 61

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Simple Tenses
Времена группы Simple употребляются для констатации факта – действие
происходит в прошлом, настоящем или будущем, длительность и время
завершения действия не указываются.
Образуются времена группы Simple следующим образом:

Present Simple
Для образования Present Simple обычно используется глагол в первой форме1.
Лицо, число Утвердительная Вопросительная Отрицательная
1, 2 лицо ед. I/ you/ we/ they Do I/ you/ we/ they I/ you/ we/ they do
и мн. ч. draw draw not draw
3 лицо ед. ч He/she/it draws Does he/she/it draw He/ she/ it doesn’t
not draw
*Стоит обратить внимание, что в 3 лице ед. числа к глаголу добавляется
окончание «(е)s». В прошедшем простом времени и будущем глаголы во всех
лицах и числах одинаковы.
В предложениях с настоящим простым временем используются слова always,
sometimes, often, usually.
Present Simple употребляется:
-обычное, постоянное действие (действие происходит вообще): She lives in
Rome. Она живет в Риме.
-действие в широком смысле (происходит в течение времени): Jim studies
Chinese. Джим изучает китайский.
-общеизвестные истины: The sun rises in the morning. Солнце всходит по
утрам.

Past Simple
Для образования прошедшего времени используется глагол во второй форме
(если он неправильный) (см. таблицу неправильных глаголов на странице 57)
Если глагол правильный, то к нему добавляется окончание –ed (live – lived).
Прошедшее простое время часто употребляется с обстоятельствами времени
(yesterday, a month ago, last week).
Лицо, число Утвердительная Вопросительная Отрицательная
1, 2 лицо ед. I/ you/ we/ they Do I/ you/ we/ they I/ you/ we/ they did
и мн. ч. wrote wrote not write
3 лицо ед. ч He/she/it wrote Does he/she/it wrote He/ she/ it did not
write

Past Simple употребляется:


-обычное, повторяющееся действие в прошлом: Last year I visited my parents a
lot. В прошлом году я часто навещал своих родителей.
-Перечисление действий: I entered the house, came up to the window and opened
it

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См. таблицу неправильных глаголов на странице 57.

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Future Simple
Для образования будущего простого времени используется форма
will+Infinitive (will do)
Лицо, число Утвердительная Вопросительная Отрицательная
1, 2 лицо ед. I/ you/ we/ they Will I/ you/ we/ they I/ you/ we/ they
и мн. ч. will draw draw will not draw
3 лицо ед. ч He/she/it will Will he/she/it draw He/ she/ it will not
draw draw

В предложениях с Future Simple используются следующие слова-маркеры:


tomorrow, next week, next year.
Future Simple употребляется:
-Описание известных фактов: iPhone 8 will come with a stainless steel frame.
Айфон 8 выйдет в обрамлении нержавеющей стали.
-Простое действие в будущем: I will study programming. Я буду изучать
программирование.

Упражнения на времена группы Simple


1. Put the verbs in the Present Simple. Translate the sentences.
1. Workers (use) handheld computer devices to collect data at customer site.
2. Computers (be) part of many machines and devices that once required
continual human supervision and control.
3. Smart cards (store) vital information such as health records, drivers’ license,
bank balances and so on.
4. A smart house (have) a built-in monitoring system that can turn lights on and
off, open and close windows, operate the oven, and more.
5. Multimedia (combine) text with sound, video, animation, and graphics,
which greatly (enhance) the interaction between user and machine.
6. ROM (hold) instructions which are needed to start up the computer.

2. Put the verbs in the present form.


go, use, prefer, surf, check, like, walk, come, do, use
My name is Jack. In the evening I usually (1) ___________ my homework. Then I
(2) ___________ in the Internet. I (3) ___________ watching videos on
YouTube! They are super! Then I (4) ___________ my dog. After that I (5)
___________ home, (6) ___________ my Instagram and (7) ___________ to
bed. My sister is little. She doesn't (8) ___________ Instagram. She (9)
___________ Periscope. She (10) ___________ it every day.

3. Put the verbs in the Past Simple. Translate the sentences.


1. There isn't a cloud in the sky, but it (be) cloudy in the morning.
2. Mrs. Clay usually finishes her work at half past three, but she (finish) it later
yesterday afternoon.
3. Every day I help mom about the house, but last week I was very busy with
my exam. So I (not/help) her much.

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4. Tom isn't playing tennis tomorrow afternoon, he (not/play) tennis yesterday.
5. We generally have lunch at 12.30, but yesterday we (have lunch) later.
6. Now my brother smokes a lot, but he (not/ smoke) before.
7. My dad always goes to work by car, but last week he (go) to work on foot.
8. The weather is nice today, but it (be) bad yesterday.
9. We seldom watch television, but last week we (watch) a lot of interesting
programs.
10. I sleep well, but last night I (not/sleep) at all.
11. Usually my brother comes home from work at 18.00 a.m., but last week he
was on duty and (come) home a little later.
12. I walked quickly because I (feel) cold.
13. It (take) him two hours to get to London.
14. My husband (speak) to his boss last week.

Для того чтобы выполнить следующее упражнение, необходимо изучить


следующее правило – условное предложение 1ого типа.
В условных предложениях первого типа обычно используются два времени –
это Future Simple и Present Simple. Этот тип предложений обозначает
реальные, осуществимые в будущем или настоящем условия. Образуется
такое предложение по следующей схеме: If+Present Simple, Future Simple.
Приведем пример: If the weather is fine, we will go for a walk. В главном
предложении, без if, используется Present Simple. В придаточном, с if
используется Future Simple. Обращайте внимание, что придаточное
предложение может находиться как в начале, так и после главного
предложения. (We will go for a walk, if the weather is fine).

4. Choose Future Simple or Present Simple. Translate the sentences.


а) 1. If you (not be) at home by six, I (eat) without you.
2. If mother (not go) to the market early, she (not get) fresh fish.
3. If nothing (go wrong), they (deliver) the furniture today.
4. I (take) an umbrella in case it (rain).
5. If the situation (get) worse, I (lose) my job.
b) 1. He (become) an architect after he (graduate) from the university.
2. I (have) to stop my daughter before she (get) into trouble.
3. The information (study) carefully as soon as it (deliver).
4. The weather certainly (change) for the better after the rain (stop) and the
sky (clear up).
с) 1. The secretary (want) to know if the new head (make) any changes.
2. Tell me if you (finish) your book in summer and when exactly you (do) it.
3. People standing on the bus stop (wonder) if it (stop) raining soon.
4. Nobody (know) if he (keep) his promise.
5. It's interesting if he (be) late again.
6. Tell me the exact time when they (come).

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5. Put the verbs in the Future Simple. Translate the sentences.
1. Approaching this limit (require) new technologies.
2. In theory, AFM (atomic force microscopy) (allow) densities of 300 to 400
gigabits per square inch.
3. Recordable CD-ROM’s and DVD’s (remain) the dominant high-capacity
removable storage media for the next decade.
4. These developments (drive) the industry in the next few years.
5. Speech (become) a major component of user interfaces, and applications (be)
completely redesigned to incorporate speech input.
6. Multimodal interfaces (involve) more than just traditional input devices and
speech recognition.

6. Put the verbs in the Past Simple. Translate the sentences.


1. SRI International and Xerox’s Palo Alto Research Center (do) their
pioneering research into graphical user interfaces in 1970s.
2. I (try) to print a document but nothing came out of the printer.
3. Hackers (close) Hotmail for five hours.
4. Japan (produce) the first commercially available robotic pet.
5. Bill Gates (introduce) the Windows NT operating system in 1993.
6. The first Apple-IBM (appear) in 1984.

7. Read and translate the text. Before reading the text examine the vocabulary.
Vocabulary
carry out – выполнить
storage – хранение
enhance – улучшать
used to – привыкнуть
cycle – цикл
defense – защита
attain – достигнуть, добиваться

Computers
Computer is an electronic device that can receive a set of instructions
called program and then carry out them. The modern world of high technology
could not be possible without computers. Different types and sizes of computers
find uses throughout our society. They are used for the storage and handling of
data, secret governmental files, information about banking transactions and so
on.
Computers have opened up a new era in manufacturing and they have
enhanced modern communication systems. They are essential tools in almost
every field of research, from constructing models of the universe to producing
tomorrow's weather reports. Using of different databases and computer networks
make available a great variety of information sources.
There are two main types of computers, analog and digital, although the
term computer is often used to mean only the digital type, because this type of

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computer is widely used today. That is why I am going to tell you about digital
computers.
Everything that a digital computer does is based on one operation: the
ability to determine: on or off, high voltage or low voltage or — in the case of
numbers — 0 or 1 or do-called binary code. The speed at which the computer
performs this simple act is called computer speed. Computer speeds are
measured in Hertz or cycles per second. A computer with a «clock speed» of
2000 MHz is a fairly representative microcomputer today. It is capable of
executing 2000 million discrete operations per second. Nowadays
microcomputers can perform from 800 to over 3000 million operations per
second and supercomputers used in research and defense applications attain
speeds of many billions of cycles per second.
Digital computer speed and calculating power are further enhanced by
the amount of data handled during each cycle. Except two main types of
computers, analog and digital there are eight generations of digital computers or
processing units. The first generation was represented by processing unit Intel
8086.
The second generation central processing unit was represented by
processing unit Intel 80286, used in IBM PC AT 286. The third generation is
Intel 80386, used in IBM PC AT 386. The microprocessors of the fourth
generation were used in computers IBM PC AT 486.
There are also central processing units of the fifth generation, used in
Intel Pentium 60 and Intel Pentium 66, central processing units of the sixth
generation, used in computers Intel Pentium 75, 90,100 and 133. Few years ago
appeared central processing units of seventh and eighth generations. They are
much more powerful and can perform from 2000 to over 3000 million
operations per second.

Answer the questions after reading the text


1. What is computer?
2. What for it is used?
3. What are the main types of the computer?
4. Which type of the computer is used more widely nowadays?
5. How many operations per second can a microcomputer do?
6. How many generations of processors exist?

Continuous Tenses
Времена группы Continuous употребляются для выражения длительного
действия, которое совершается в настоящий момент или совершалось в
прошлом в определенный момент или произойдет в будущем также в
определенный момент.
Образуются времена группы Continuous следующим образом:

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Present Continuous
Для образования Present Continuous обычно используется вспомогательный
глагол to be в настоящем времени (am, is, are) и причастие настоящего
времени смыслового глагола (V-ing).
Лицо, число Утвердительная Вопросительная Отрицательная
1, 2 лицо ед. I am drawing Am I drawing? I am not drawing
и мн. ч. you/ we/ they are Are you/ we/ they You/ we/ they are
drawing drawing? not drawing
3 лицо ед. ч He/she/it is Is he/she/it He/ she/ it is not
drawing drawing? drawing

Present Continuous употребляется:


-Длительное действие, совершающееся в момент речи (Jane is checking her
Twitter – Джейн проверяют свой Твиттер)
-Длительное действие, совершающееся в настоящий период времени (I’m
studying mathematics at the university – Я изучаю математику в университете)
-Заранее запланированное и подготовленное действие в ближайшем будущем
(I’m seeing my solicitor tomorrow morning - Завтра утром я встречаюсь со
своим адвокатом)
В предложениях во времени Present Continuous часто используются
следующие обстоятельства времени: now, today, at the moment, this week, this
year (I’m not playing football today – Сегодня я не играю в футбол)

Past Continuous
Для образования прошедшего времени используется вспомогательный глагол
to be в форме прошедшего времени (was, were) и глагол с окончанием -ing.
Лицо, число Утвердительная Вопросительная Отрицательная
1, 2 лицо ед. I was drawing Was I drawing? I was not drawing
и мн. ч. you/ we/ they were Were you/ we/ they You/ we/ they were
drawing drawing? not drawing
3 лицо ед. ч He/she/it was Was he/she/it He/ she/ it was not
drawing drawing? drawing

Past Continuous употребляется:


-Два длительных действия, совершавшихся одновременно.
While Jim was watching a new film, Sarah was doing her Chinese lessons.
Пока Джим смотрел фильм, Сара делала свои задания по китайскому.
-Длительное действие в прошлом, прерванное другим действием в прошлом.
I was drinking my coffee, when the phone rang. Я пила кофе, когда зазвонил
телефон.
В предложениях во времени Past Continuous часто используются следующие
обстоятельства времени: all day long, all day yesterday, all the time, at that
moment, at six o’clock, the whole evening, etc.) (At six o’clock he was having
breakfast – В шесть часов он завтракал.)

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Future Continuous
Для образования будущего длительного времени используется формула will
be + V-ing (will be watching).
Лицо, число Утвердительная Вопросительная Отрицательная
1, 2 лицо ед. I/ you/ we/ they Will I/ you/ we/ they I/ you/ we/ they
и мн. ч. will be drawing be drawing? will not be
drawing
3 лицо ед. ч He/she/it will be Will he/she/it be He/ she/ it will not
drawing drawing? be drawing

Future Continuous употребляется:


-Действие, которое будет совершаться в определенный момент в будущем
(When you come I’ll be reading a book – Когда ты придешь, я буду читать)
-Запланированное действие в будущем (This book will be putting on sale this
May – Эта книга будет продаваться в мае)
В предложениях во времени Future Continuous часто используются
следующие обстоятельства времени: tomorrow, next week, some time, at five
o’clock etc. (I’ll be meeting him tomorrow – Я встречаюсь с ним завтра.)

Упражнения на времена группы Continuous


1. Put the verbs in the Past Continuous. Translate the sentences.
1. Around me people (to talk) German, Italian and English.
2. Robert (to talk) to some of the other guests on the terrace when Hardy came.
3. Michael (to look) at his watch.
4. All night long the stars (to glitter).
5. Lizzie (to eat) and didn’t raise her head.
6. He drank some of the wine and ate several chunks of bread while he (to
wait) for his dinner to come up.
7. The family (to prepare) for the party.
8. She (to argue) that only Belinda knew how to treat men.
9. A few minutes later Dixon (to hurry) through the streets to his bus stop.
10. They moved across the room, which (to start) to fill up, to a vacant
corner.

2. Choose the right form of the verb (Present Simple or Present Continuous).
Translate the sentences.
1. The professor (speak) five foreign languages.
2. Now he (speak) Dutch.
3. I usually (drive) to my work.
4. Be careful! You (drive) too fast.
5. You (eat) fruit every day?
6. What's the name of the fruit you (eat) with such pleasure?
7. She (not understand) what the teacher (explain) now.
8. I generally (feel) well in winter but right now I (feel) miserable.
9. Paul (hate) it when it (rain) outdoors.

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10. The concert (take) place on Saturday.
11. It's a national holiday today. The bank (work)?
12. Nelly, why you (hurry) so much? – My plane (leave) at 7 o'clock.

3. Choose the right form of the verb (Past Simple or Past Continuous). Translate
the sentences.
1. I (sit) on the bench for half an hour and then (begin) reading a book.
2. –You (see) him this morning? – Yes. He (stand) in the hall laughing.
3. The businessman (fly) to England yesterday.
4. We (walk) in silence for 5 minutes, then he (speak).
5. He (not like) to play while others (work).
6. Sorry, what you (say)? I (not listen).
7. Why you (make) so many mistakes in the last test? – I (think) about my
boyfriend.
8. When the taxi (arrive) I still (pack) my things.
9. When the telephone (ring) I (wash up) and (ask) Mary to answer the call.
10. What Father (do) while Mother (wash up)?
11. Ann (look for) her cat in the garden at about that time.
12. They (leave) the house when we (arrive).
13. He (invite) me to the theatre and I (accept) the invitation with pleasure.
14. When I (come) to the theatre my friend already (wait) for me.

4. Put the verbs in the Present Continuous


1.Not only is computing equipment getting smaller, it (get) more sophisticated.
2.Now that computers and software that computers (proliferate) in many areas
and networks are available for people to access data and communicate with
others, personal computers (become) interpersonal PCs.
3.Cheaper and more powerful personal computers (make) it possible to perform
processor-intensive tasks on the desktop.
4.Breakthroughs in technology, such as speech recognition, (enable) new ways
of interacting with computers.
5.The convergence of personal computers and consumer electronics devices
(broad) the base of computer users and (place) a new emphasis on ease of use.
6.Companies (develop) products that organize information graphically in more
intuitive ways.
7.The machine (play not) MIDI sound files.
8.Our programmer (play) computer games now.
9.Our layer (look) through his iPad pictures now.
10.Our programmer (create) a new website at the moment.

5. Fill in the blanks with appropriate verbs in Past Continuous


to do, to drive, to read, to talk, to listen, to discuss, to have, to make, to check, to
study.
1. During lunch yesterday, we ___________ about our generation.
2. Last Sunday, we ___________ nothing the whole day.

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3. From 9 p.m. till 10 p.m. yesterday, our programmer ___________ pictures of
fireworks.
4. All day long yesterday, I ___________ without a driving license.
5. At midday yesterday, my colleagues ___________ a new project.
6. All night long, my aunt ___________ a love novel.
7. At 5 p.m. yesterday, we ___________ tea and carrot cakes.
8. Two managers ___________ fun of our secretary the whole day yesterday.
9. Late in the evening, my friend _________ still ________ his Facebook
profile.
10. We ___________ to the beautiful music on You Tube the whole night
through.
11. In 1992, an undergraduate called Linus Torvalds____________ computer
science in Helsinki, Finland.

6. Past continuous or past simple? (A-C)


Find the second part of each sentence. Put each verb into the correct form.
Vicky (have) a beautiful dream when she (touch) the wire.
Vicky was having a beautiful dream when the alarm clock rang.
When Andrew (see) the question, when I (find) a £10 note in it.
When Andrew saw the question, he knew the answer immediately.
1 The train (wait) when the alarm clock (ring).
2 I (read) a library book the crowd (rush) in.
3 Sarah (have) an electric shock he (know) the answer immediately.
4 When the doors (open), they (see) that the sun (shine).
5 When the campers (wake), when we (arrive) at the station.

7. Read and translate the text. Before reading the text examine the vocabulary.

Vocabulary:
regardless of size – независимо от формы и размера
on the basis of cost and performance – на основе затрат и производительности
enhanced graphics – улучшенная графика
central processing units – ЦПУ, Центральное процессорное устройство
execute trillions operations – производить триллионы операций
at the threshold – на пороге
artificial intelligence – искусственный интеллект

The History of Computer Development


The rapidly advancing field of electronics led to construction of the first
general-purpose electronic computer in 1946 at the University of Pennsylvania. It
was Electronic Numerical Integrator And Computer or ENIAC, the device
contained 18,000 vacuum tubes and had a speed of several hundred multiplications
per minute. Its program was wired into the processor and had to be manually
altered.

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Later transistors appeared. The use of the transistor in computers began in
the late 1950s. It marked the advent of smaller, faster elements than it was possible
to create with the use of vacuum-tube machines. Because transistors use less power
and have a much longer life, computers alone were improved a lot. They were
called second-generation computers.
Components became smaller and the system became less expensive to build.
Modern digital computers are all conceptually similar, regardless of size and
shape. Nevertheless, they can be divided into several categories on the basis of cost
and performance.
The first one is the personal computer or microcomputer, a relatively low-
cost machine, usually of desk-top size. Sometimes they are called laptops. They are
small enough to fit in a briefcase. The second is the workstation, a microcomputer
with enhanced graphics and communications capabilities that make it especially
useful for office work. And the server computers, a large expensive machine with
the capability of serving the needs of major business enterprises, government
departments, scientific research establishments. The largest and fastest of these are
called supercomputers.
A digital computer is not actually a single machine, in the sense that most
people think of computers. Instead it is a system composed of five distinct
elements: a central processing unit, input devices, memory storage devices, output
devices and a communications network, called a «bus» that links all the elements
of the system and connects the system itself to the external world.
Talking about a central processing unit or the heart of computer; I would like
to add that there were several generations of microprocessors. The first generation
was represented by processing unit Intel 8086. The second generation central
processing unit was represented by processing unit Intel 80286, used in IBM PC
AT 286. In the end of 80s such computer costs about 25-30 000 rubles in the
former USSR. The third generation is represented by Intel 80386, used in IBM PC
AT 386. The microprocessors of the fourth generation were used in computers
IBM PC AT 486. There are also central processing units of the fifth generation,
used in Intel Pentium 60 and Intel Pentium 66, central processing units of the sixth
generation, used in computers Intel Pentium 75,90,100 and 133. Few years ago
appeared central processing units of seventh and eighth generations.
Computer speeds are measured in gigahertz today. Recently, an optical
central processing unit has been invented, which is capable of executing trillions
discrete operations per second or it is as fast as the speed of light.
So, we are at the threshold of new computer era, when artificial intelligence
could be invented. There are no questions with «if», the only question is «when».
And time will show us either computers become our best friends or our evil
enemies as it is shown in some movies.

Answer the questions after reading the text:


1. When was the first general-purpose electronic computer constructed?
2. When did the use of transistor in computers begin?
3. Are all modern digital computers conceptually similar?

14
4. What is laptop?
5. What is a server computer?
6. What is supercomputer?
7. How many elements can be distinguished in a computer?

Perfect Tenses
Времена группы Perfect употребляются для обозначения действий,
закончившихся в определенный момент в настоящем, прошлом или будущем.
Образуются времена группы Perfect следующим образом:

Present Perfect
Для образования Present Perfect обычно используется вспомогательный
глагол to have в настоящем времени (have, has) и причастие прошедшего
времени смыслового глагола.
Лицо, число Утвердительная Вопросительная Отрицательная
1, 2 лицо ед. I /you/ we/ they Have I/ you/ we/ I / you/ we/ they
и мн. ч. have drawn they drawn? have not drawn
3 лицо ед. ч He/she/it has Has he/she/it He/ she/ it has not
drawn drawn? drawn

Present Perfect употребляется:


-С наречиями ever, never, often, already, yet и т.д. (I haven’t eaten my breakfast
yet – Я еще не завтракал)
-Действие, совершившееся к настоящему моменту, результат которого
имеется налицо в настоящем времени (My laptop has broken down – Мой
лэптоп сломался)
-Описание состояния, которое длится по настоящий момент включительно
(I’ve known him since we were at school – Я знаю его еще со школы)
-Прошедшее действие без указания конкретного времени его совершения
(My brother has had three car accidents – Мой брат уже трижды попадал в
аварию)
-Недавнее прошедшее действие без указания конкретного времени его
совершения (I’ve missed my bus – Я опоздал на автобус)

Past Perfect
Для образования прошедшего времени обычно используется
вспомогательный глагол to have в прошедшем времени (had) и причастие
прошедшего времени смыслового глагола.
Лицо, число Утвердительная Вопросительная Отрицательная
1, 2 лицо ед. и I /you/ we/ they Had I/ you/ we/ they I / you/ we/ they
мн. ч. had drawn drawn? had not drawn
3 лицо ед. ч He/she/it had Had he/she/it He/ she/ it had not
drawn drawn? drawn

15
Past Perfect употребляется:
-С обстоятельствами времени, начинающимися с by (By the time he came, we
had already finished our meal – К тому времени как он пришел, мы уже
закончили есть)
-Прошедшее действие, которое уже совершилось до определенного момента
в прошлом (By the time we got to the cinema, the film had already started –
Когда мы пришли в кинотеатр, фильм уже начался)

Future Perfect
Для образования будущего длительного времени используется
вспомогательный глагол to have в форме будущего времени (will have) и
причастие прошедшего времени смыслового глагола.
Лицо, число Утвердительная Вопросительная Отрицательная
1, 2 лицо ед. I /you/ we/ they Will I/ you/ we/ they I / you/ we/ they
и мн. ч. will have drawn have drawn? will have not
drawn
3 лицо ед. ч He/she/it will have Will he/she/it have He/ she/ it will
drawn drawn? have not drawn

Future Perfect употребляется:


-С обстоятельствами времени, начинающимися с by (Jane will have had her
exams by June – К июлю Джейн уже сдаст экзамены)
-Предполагаемое прошедшее действие (You will have heard the news about
Tom, I suppose? – Я полагаю, что ты уже слышал новости о Томе?)
-Будущее действие, которое совершится до определенного момента в
будущем (By the time we get home, the film will have begun – Когда мы
доберемся домой, фильм уже начнется)

Упражнения на времена группы Perfect


1. Find Perfect Tenses Forms in these sentences.
1.I’ve scanned it about a third of these photographs.
2.The ability of tiny computing devices to control complex operations has
transformed the way many tasks are performed, ranging from scientific research
to producing consumer products.
3.In the last ten years, police have installed speed trap units on many busy
roads.
4.When he had written a basic kernel, he released the source code to the Linux
kernel on the Internet.
5.At the Intelligent Room, a project of Massachusetts Institute of Technology’s
Artificial Intelligence Lab, researchers have given sight to PCs running
Microsoft Windows through the use of video cameras.
6.Researchers have long noted that users have a tendency to treat their personal
computers as tough they were human.

16
2. Put the verbs in the form of Present Perfect.
1. I'm afraid I (forget) my book at home.
2. … the secretary (yet/come)?
3. I (learn) the rhyme. Сould you listen to me?
4. … you (ever/be) to Italy?
5. They (already/inform) me about the accident.
6. He is the most handsome man I (ever/know).
7. Kevin (already/leave) for Manchester.
8. He (not/receive) any letters from her this week.
9. I (not/hear) from him since he left Paris.
10. I (not/see) Tom for 5 years.
11. … you (have) a holiday this year?
12. We (see) some good films recently.
13. They (wait) for you for half an hour.
14. Mom (have) a headache since she came from the theatre.

3. Choose the right form of the verb (Past Simple or Present Perfect)
1. He (forget) his French since he (leave) Paris.
2. Years ago he (be) very poor, and (not know) how to live. He (become) very
rich now.
3. I can get to my work easily now, as I (buy) a new car.
4. He is a man who (live) a remarkable life.
5. What you (do) last night?
6. I (get) a fax from Boston an hour ago, but I (not answer) it yet.
7. She (learn) to play chess when she (be) 16, but she (not play) much since
then.
8. I (have) my teddy bear since my parents (give) it to me.
9. Yesterday I (work) on my computer for four hours, but I (not print) the
material yet.
10. I (live) in London for seven years and now I miss it a lot.
11. Dickens (begin) to write when he (be) very young.
12. The rain (stop) and the sun is shining in the sky now.
13. You ever (spend) your holidays in the Crimea?
14. The lecture (not/begin) yet and the students are talking in the classroom.

4. Choose the right form of the verb (Past Simple or Past Perfect)
1. The teacher was a stranger to me. I … never (see) her before.
2. The house was very quiet when I (get) home.
3. We (feel) happier when they (leave).
4. She (give) him the book his teacher (recommend).
5. They (finish) the translation by five o'clock.
6. Tom wasn't at home when I (arrive). He just (go) home.
7. Margaret was late for work. Her friend (be) very surprised. She … never (be)
late before.
8. By the time we (arrive), the party (finish).

17
9. I (not/can) buy the record because I (lose) the money.
10. When we (buy) the house, it (be) empty for several years.
11. When he (write) and (send) the letter he (feel) better.
12. They (to complete) the test when the teacher (come).
13. The typist (type) the article by 5 o'clock.
14. More than a year (pass) since I first (meet) him.
15. The whole family (go) to bed when Tom (return).
16. I (not/go) to the museum with my group because I (be) there before.

5. Choose the right form of the verb (Past Simple / Present Perfect)
Since computers were first introduced to the public in the early 1980's,
technology (change) a great deal. The first computers (be) simple machines
designed for basic tasks. They (have, not) much memory and they (be, not) very
powerful. Early computers were often quite expensive and customers often (pay)
thousands of dollars for machines which actually (do) very little. Most computers
(be) separate, individual machines used mostly as expensive typewriters or for
playing games.
Times (change) have changed. Computers (become) powerful machines
with very practical applications. Programmers (create) a large selection of useful
programs which do everything from teaching foreign languages to bookkeeping.
We are still playing video games, but today's games (become) faster, more exciting
interactive adventures. Many computer users (get, also) also on the Internet and
(begin) communicating with other computer users around the world. We (start)
international communities online. In short, the simple, individual machines of
the past (evolve) into an international World Wide Web of knowledge.

6.Read and translate the text. Before reading the text examine the vocabulary.

Vocabulary:
assignment – задание
controls – средства управления
breaking news – срочная \главная новость
decline – снижение
dedicate – посвящать
face-to-face communication – живое общение
improve – улучшать
media – средства массовой информации, СМИ
research – исследование
social network – социальная сеть, соцсеть
trustworthy – достоверный
to be in touch with – находиться в контакте\на связи с...

18
Are Social Networking Sites Good for Our Society?
According to the Oxford Dictionary, a «social network» is a dedicated
website or other application which enables users to communicate with each other
by posting information, comments, messages, images, etc.
There are several types of social networks. Some of them are primarily for
socializing with existing friends; others can help you to find specific information.
The most basic feature of these websites is a profile with a list of «friends»
who are also users of the site. A profile is generated from answers to questions,
such as age, location, interests, etc. Some sites allow users to upload pictures, add
multimedia content or modify the look of the profile. User profiles often have a
section dedicated to comments from friends and other users. To protect user
privacy, social networks typically have controls that allow users to choose who can
view their profile, contact them, add them to their list of contacts, and so on. Apart
from chatting with your friends and meeting new people who share your interests,
social networks allow you to follow pages of celebrities you are interested in or
groups that post information you need.
Today social networking sites spread any information faster than any other
media. Over 50% of people learn about breaking news on social media. At the
same time, not all the information spread in the social media is trustworthy. There
were several cases when rumors spread in a social network caused panic in Mexico
City in 2012.
Many users complain about lack of privacy but, on the other hand, there are
cases when posts in social networks helped police to catch criminals.
Whereas in general Internet helps students to do better at school and they
often use social networks to discuss educational topics and school assignments, the
researches show 20% decline in test results of students who used social networking
sites while studying.
Social networks seem to have improved our communication a lot. They help
not only to keep in touch with friends and relatives who live far away but also to
improve relationship with old friends and make new ones. At the same time some
adults and especially teenagers have experienced problems with face-to-face
communication after spending too much time in online dialogues.
Although social networks help employers to find employees and job-seekers
to find a job, overuse of them can harm job stability. Researches prove that 40% of
8 to 18 year olds spend 54 minutes a day on social media sites. When alerted to a
new social networking site activity, users take 20 to 25 minutes on average to
return to the original task.
To sum up, all these fact show us that we should be careful while using
social networks. They are great source of information and give us new
opportunities for communication, but we should be aware that some information
may be false and misleading. And what is more, we should not waste or precious
time and forget about face-to-face communication in real life.

Answer the questions:


1. What is the definition of «social network»?

19
2. What types of social networks do you know? What is the difference between
them?
3. What are the main features of most social networks?
4. Translate the underlined expressions. Use them in your own sentences about
social networks.
5. Explain what these numbers from the text mean: 20, 50, 20-25, 54, 2012

Perfect Continuous Tenses


Времена группы Perfect Continuous обозначают процесс, который начался и
длился в течение некоторого времени до некоего момента в настоящем,
прошлом или будущем.
Образуются времена группы Perfect Continuous следующим образом:
Present Perfect Continuous
Для образования Present Perfect Continuous обычно используется
вспомогательный глагол to be в форме Present Perfect (have been, has been) и
причастие настоящего времени смыслового глагола.
Лицо, число Утвердительная Вопросительная Отрицательная
1, 2 лицо ед. I /you/ we/ they Have I/ you/ we/ I / you/ we/ they
и мн. ч. have been they been drawing? have not been
drawing drawing
3 лицо ед. ч He/she/it has Has he/she/it been He/ she/ it has not
been drawing drawing? been drawing

Present Perfect Continuous употребляется:


-С обстоятельствами времени for a long time, for a month, since, etc. (It’s been
raining since five o’clock – Дождь идет с пяти часов)
-Действие, которое началось в прошлом и еще совершается в настоящее
время (I’ve been cleaning the house but I still haven’t finished – Я убирал в доме,
но все еще не закончил)
-Подчеркнуть продолжительность длительного действия (I’ve been writing
letters all morning – Я все утро пишу письма)

Past Perfect Continuous


Для образования прошедшего времени обычно используется
вспомогательный глагол to be в форме Past Perfect (had been) и причастие
настоящего времени смыслового глагола.
Лицо, число Утвердительная Вопросительная Отрицательная
1, 2 лицо ед. I /you/ we/ they Had I/ you/ we/ they I / you/ we/ they
и мн. ч. had been drawing been drawing? had not been
drawing
3 лицо ед. ч He/she/it had been Had he/she/it been He/ she/ it had not
drawing drawing? been drawing

Past Perfect Continuous употребляется:

20
-С обстоятельствами времени for a long time, for a month, for an hour, etc. (I
had been knitting for an hour when my husband came – К моменту, когда
пришел мой муж, я вязала уже около часа)
-Длительное действие, начавшееся ранее другого прошедшего действия,
выраженного Past Simple и еще происходившее в момент совершения
второго (It had been snowing for an hour when I left home – Когда я вышел из
дома, уже час как падал снег)
-Длительное прошедшее действие, которое закончилось перед моментом
наступления другого прошедшего действия (He was very tired when he came
home as he had been playing tennis – Так как он играл в теннис, то пришел
домой уставшим)

Future Perfect Continuous


Для образования будущего совершенного длительного времени используется
вспомогательный глагол to be в форме Future Perfect (will have been) и
причастие настоящего времени смыслового глагола.
Лицо, число Утвердительная Вопросительная Отрицательная
1, 2 лицо ед. I /you/ we/ they will Will I/ you/ we/ they I / you/ we/ they
и мн. ч. have been drawing have been drawing? will have not been
drawing
3 лицо ед. ч He/she/it will have Will he/she/it have He/ she/ it will
been drawing been drawing? have not been
drawing

Future Perfect Continuous употребляется:


-С обстоятельствами времени, начинающимися с by (By this year I’ll have
been acting for ten years – В этом году исполнится 10 лет, как я играю на
сцене)
-Длительное будущее действие, которое начнется ранее другого будущего
действия (или момента) и будет еще совершаться в момент его наступления
(By the end of the month, I'll have been working at this factory for twenty years –
К концу этого месяца я буду работать на этой фабрике уже 20 лет).

Упражнения на времена группы Perfect Continuous


1. Fill the gaps with for, since or ago. Translate the sentences.
1. Dad isn't at home. He went to the work an hour … .
2. Jill hasn't been there... three years.
3. –Is it snowing? –Yes, it started two hours ... .
4. They have lived there … 1984.
5. They got that flat twelve years … .
6. We haven't seen each other … 5 years.
7. Our family haven't heard from him … five months.
8. Oh, John! As usual you are late. I've been waiting for you … 9 a.m.
9. He has worked for this company … April.
10. Two years … Deny bought a new car.

21
11. We have been waiting here now … an hour.
12. He has been working hard … he entered the University.
13. My friend has been learning Spanish … three years.
14. I sent a letter to my parents a week … .
15. … when have you been working for this company?

2. Choose the right form (Present Perfect or Present Perfect Continuous).


Translate the sentences.
1. He (play) the piano since six o'clock in the morning. He only just (stop).
2. –What you (do) up to now? –Nothing special, but I (cook) dinner.
3. The police (not find) the criminal yet. They (look) for him since
Saturday.
4. Ann (fail) her exam three times because she is so bad at doing sums. But
she (practice) for a week now, I hope she will pass it in the end.
5. I know him well. I (know) him since our childhood.
6. Where you (put) my keys? I can't find them.
7. Your eyes are red. You (cry)?
8. Do you think George (finish) the translation? He (write) for so long!
9. I think I can smell smoke on Debbie's clothes. I'm sure she (smoke).
10. Here you are! I (look for) you everywhere. Where you (be)?
11. –Since when (sit) her? Have you (wait) long? – For three hours.
12. He (have) a very interesting and brilliant career.
13. She (play) chess since she was nine.
14. I bought a new car last summer but I (not/sell) my old car yet, so now
I’ve got two cars.

3. Choose the right form of the verb (Present Continuous or Present Perfect
Continuous). Role-play the dialogue.
Mr. Smith: So tell me a little bit about yourself, Mr. Harris. I would like to find
out a little bit more about your background.
Mr. Harris: I (work) in the programming industry for over ten years. I worked
for Google for six years and Microsoft for four and a half. During that time, I
heard many good things about Cardiff Electric and that's why I (apply) for the
new sales position.
Mr. Smith: Tell me a little about your hobbies and interests.
Mr. Harris: In my spare time, I hike in the mountains outside of town, volunteer
at the Sierra Club and play tennis. In fact, I (compete) in a tennis tournament
this weekend.
Mr. Smith: Really, how long (you, play) playing tennis?
Mr. Harris: I (play) since high school. I love the sport.
Mr. Smith: Great! We like dedication here at Cardiff Electric. You mentioned
you volunteer at the Sierra Club. My daughter (work, currently) with them on
the sea turtle project. They (try) to create a wildlife sanctuary near the bay.
Mr. Harris: Do you know Kyle Harris? He's my brother. He (work, presently)
on the same project.

22
Mr. Smith: I know Kyle quite well. Any brother of Kyle's would be a welcome
addition to Cardiff Electric. Just one more thing, we (look) for somebody who
is fluent in Spanish; we are working with people from Mexico very often.
Mr. Harris: No problem. I (study) Spanish since elementary school.
Mr. Smith: Sounds like you are the perfect candidate.

4. Read and translate the text. Before reading the text examine the vocabulary.
Vocabulary:
found, v – основать
extend, v – расширяться, увеличиваться
spreadsheets – программа табличных вычислений
word processing – текстовый редактор
employee – служащий
shareholder – акционер, пайщик, владелец/держатель акций
doubt – сомнение

Microsoft Company
Paul Allen and Bill Gates founded the Company in 1975.
Microsoft is best-known American company involved in software
production. Microsoft's wealth and power is growing up for years. It is a giant
company. Microsoft's $25 billion market value tops that of Ford, General Motors.
Some time ago, Microsoft dominated the PC market with its-MS-DOS
operating system, the basic software that let the computer understand your
commands and carry them out, appeared in the beginning of 80s. MS-DOS ran on
90 percent of the worlds IBM and IBM-clone computers. Then, Microsoft has
extended that presence with releasing of Windows, which is probably the most
important and popular operating system in the World. And now it dominates the
market.
Firstly, Microsoft released Windows '95 in 1995. It was a graphics interface
environment that ran on top of MS-DOS and replaced DOS in future versions.
Then, Microsoft released Windows '98, Windows NT, Windows Millennium,
Windows 2000 and Windows XP.
Microsoft also supplies about 50 percent of the world's software
applications. Among them, there are three well-known Office Packs; they are also
called Microsoft Office programs such as Excel (spreadsheets), Microsoft Word
(word processing), Access (databases) and Outlook Express (e-mail)- There were
releases in 1997, 2000, and 2002, when appeared Microsoft Office XP. Microsoft
is also in the market of networking, multimedia and even books. And as an early
supporter of the Macintosh computer, Microsoft virtually owns the Mac
application market.
It has been calculated that Microsoft controls 80-85 % of the entire PC
software industry. The company has hundreds of products and thousands of
employees, making it one of the largest companies. Many of the company's
shareholders are now millionaires and a few including Bill Gates and Paul Allen

23
are billionaires. Microsoft is no doubt the fastest growing company in the PC
software industry.

Answer the questions:


1. Who founded the Company?
2. When was Microsoft founded?
3. What does the company produce?
4. What was the first Microsoft operating system that dominated the PC
market?
5. How many Windows operating systems did Microsoft release?
6. Is it a rich company?
7. Does the Company dominate the PC market?

Passive voice
Пассивный залог обозначает действие, которое совершается над предметом.
Он образуется при помощи вспомогательного глагола to be в
соответствующем времени и при помощи причастия прошедшего времени
смыслового глагола.
Simple Continuous Perfect
Present I am asked I am being asked I have been asked
Past I was asked I was being asked I had been asked
Future I will be asked - I will have been
asked

Употребление пассивного залога:


-Лицо, совершающее действие, неизвестно – My purse has been stolen (Мой
кошелек украли)
-Лицо, совершающее действие, не имеет значения в данной ситуации – I was
advised to obtain a visa in advance (Мне посоветовали получить визу заранее)
-Лицо, совершающее действие, очевидно и не нуждается в упоминании – Ann
has been arrested! (Энн была арестована!)
-Лицо, совершающее действие, можно заменить существительным «люди»
или местоимением «ты/вы» - Bicycles are widely used in rural areas
(Велосипеды широко используются в сельской местности)
-При описании процессов, когда акцент делается на действии – Then the
packets are packed into boxes of twenty four (Потом пакеты складываются в
коробку, по 24 штуки в каждую)
-Для того, чтобы не называть лицо, ответственное за конкретное действие – It
has been decided to reduce all salaries by 5 % (Было решено сократить все
зарплаты на 5 %)
-В центре внимания находится лицо или предмет, который подвергается
действию – The prize was won by Jack (Джек выиграл этот приз)

Упражнения на Passive voice


1. Define, which of these sentences can be transformed in Passive voice.

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1. They didn't ask her name.
2. Michael saw Mary in the park.
3. Has anyone answered your question?
4. They danced all night.
5. On Sunday evening we all met at my friend's.
6. Someone told us a funny story yesterday.
7. You can't park your car in the street before this office.
8. This kind of flowers doesn't bloom very often.
9. His parents have brought him up to be polite.
10. The plane from Los Angeles was several hours late.
11. The fire has caused considerable damage.
12. My shoes don't fit me.
13. People must obey the law.
14. He was having a bath.
15. A famous designer will decorate the hall.

2. Make the sentences as in example, using following words:


to discover, to invent, to write, to make, to sing, to compose, to design, to
name, to build, to paint, to shoot.
Модель: The telephone was invented by A. Bell.
Mickey Mouse Sir Christopher Wren
Penicillin Gustav Eiffel
St. Paul's Cathedral the Beatles
Oliver Twist Eric the Red
The Statue of Liberty Alexander Fleming
Yesterday Isaak Newton
Porgy and Bess Picasso
Gravity Walt Disney
America Charles Dickens
Guernica Columbus
Greenland George Gershwin

3. Translate the sentences with Passive Voice


1. The article has been often referred to.
2. The listener was listened to with great attention.
3. The date of the visit was agreed upon at last.
4. In this hospital the patients are well looked after and provided with all the
necessary medicines.
5. Their persistence in work was well thought of.
6. New taxation laws were widely commented on in press.
7. The problem of unemployment is only briefly touched upon in the paper. 8.
Several changes in the factory management were brought about by important
economic factors.
9. When they tried to put forward their proposal, they were only laughed at. 10.
As soon as the fire broke out the firemen were sent for.

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11. A radical change in the payment practices was insisted upon by the trade
unions.
12. His skill and experience can be relied upon.
13. Differences in education must be taken into account when considering the
job applications.
14. The cat was looked for everywhere.
15. Our arguments were listened to with great attention.

4. Transform the following sentences from active to passive voice:


People widely use electronic devices - Electronic devices are widely used by
people.
1. Electronic devices control the work of power stations.
2. They calculate the trajectories of spaceships.
3. People discover new phenomena of nature due to electronic devices.
4. Scientists designed a variety of tubes for specialized functions.
5. American scientists invented the transistor in 1948.
6. Integrated circuits greatly reduced the size of devices.
7. New types of integrated circuits increased packing density.
8. Electronics has extended man's intellectual power.
9. Scientists are looking for new ways for the improvement of integrated
circuits technology.
10. Jack Kilby developed the concept of integrating device and built the first 1С
in 1958.

5. Open the brackets and choose the verb in active or passive.


1. Electronic devices (help; are helped) people discover new phenomena of
nature. 2. The transistor (replaced; was replaced) by vacuum tubes thanks to its
numerous advantages. 3. Due to transistors all circuit functions (carried out;
were carried out) inside semiconductors. 4. Electronic devices (use; are used) in
scientific research. 5. Before the invention of the transistor its function
(performed; was performed) by vacuum tubes. 6. The reliability of electronic
systems (connect; is connected) with the number of discrete components. 7.
Semiconductor integrated circuits (helped; were helped) to increase reliability
of devices. 8. New types of integrated circuits (have developed; have been
developed) lately.

6.Read and translate the text. Before reading the text examine the vocabulary.

Vocabulary:
embrace, v – охватывать, окружать
design, v– задумывать, придумывать, разрабатывать
survive, v– выжить
nuclear war – ядерная война
path – путь, маршрут

26
available – доступный, имеющийся в распоряжении, наличный
packet switching – пакетное переключение
accurate – точный
approximately– приблизительно, примерно
receive, v – получать
reliable – надежный
intercept, v – перехватить (сигнал и т. д.)
encode, v – кодировать, шифровать
notwithstanding – тем не менее, однако, все же
crack, v – взломать
circulate, v – передвигаться/двигаться в пределах чего-то
tremendous –разг. огромный, гигантский, громадный; потрясающий

Internet and Modern Life


The Internet has already entered our ordinary life. Everybody knows that the
Internet is a global computer network, which embraces millions of users all over
the world and helps us to communicate with each other.
The history of Internet began in the United States in 1969. It was a military
experiment, designed to help to survive during a nuclear war, when everything
around might be polluted by radiation and it would be dangerous to get out for any
living being to get some information to anywhere. Information sent over the
Internet takes the shortest and safest path available from one computer to another.
Because of this, any two computers on the net will be able to stay in touch with
each other as long as there is a single route between them. This technology was
called packet switching.
Invention of modems, special devices allowing your computer to send the
information through the telephone line, has opened doors to the Internet for
millions of people.
Most of the Internet host computers are in the United States of America. It is
clear that the accurate number of users can be counted fairly approximately,
nobody knows exactly how many people use the Internet today, because there are
millions of users and their number is growing.
Nowadays the most popular Internet service is e-mail. Most of the people
use the network only for sending and receiving e-mail messages. They can do it
either they are at home or in the internet clubs or at work. Other popular services
are available on the Internet too. It is reading news, available on some dedicated
news servers, telnet, FTP servers, etc.
In many countries, the Internet could provide businessmen with a reliable,
alternative to the expensive and unreliable telecommunications systems its own
system of communications. Commercial users can communicate cheaply over the
Internet with the rest of the world. When they send e-mail messages, they only
have to pay for phone calls to their local service providers, not for international
calls around the world, when you pay a good deal of money.

27
But saving money is only the first step and not the last one. There is a
commercial use of this network and it is drastically increasing. Now you can work
through the internet, gambling and playing through the net.
However, there are some problems. The most important problem is security.
When you send an e-mail, your message can travel through many different
networks and computers. The data is constantly being directed towards its
destination by special computers called routers. Because of this, it is possible to get
into any of the computers along the route, intercept and even change the data being
sent over the Internet. But there are many encoding programs available.
Notwithstanding, these programs are not perfect and can easily be cracked.
Another big and serious problem of the net is control. Yes, there is no
effective control in the Internet, because a huge amount of information circulating
through the net. It is like a tremendous library and market together. In the future,
the situation might change, but now we have what we have. It could be expressed
in two words– an anarchist's dream.

Answer the questions after reading the text:


1. What is the Internet?
2. When and where did the history of Internet begin?
3. Why was the Internet designed?
4. What is modem?
5. Where are most of the Internet host computers?
6. What is the accurate number of internet users?
7. What is the most popular Internet service today?
8. What are other popular services available on the Internet?
9. What is the most important problem of the Internet?
10. Why is there no effective control in the Internet today?
11. Is there a commercial use of the network today?

Participle
Причастие – это неличная форма глагола. Она обладает свойствами, как
глагола, так и прилагательного и наречия.
Существует три типа причастий: Participle I (Present Participle), Participle II
(Past Participle) и Perfect Participle.
Как образуются причастия:
Формы Активный залог Пассивный залог
Present writing Being written
Past - Written
Perfect Having written Having been written

Переходные и непереходные глаголы


Переходные глаголы обозначают действие, которое по своему смыслу
переходит на некий предмет, который может быть выражен прямым
дополнением (переводится на русский как дополнение в винительном падеже
без предлога).

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The girl is writing a letter.
Девочка пишет (что?) письмо.
Непереходные глаголы выражают действие, которое не переходит
непосредственно на некий предмет, они не могут иметь при себе прямого
дополнения.
Например, «собирать» можно только что-то: марки, грибы или автомобиль,
само значение глагола подразумевает наличие дополнения. Такие глаголы,
как «путешествовать» и «отдыхать», такого дополнения не требуют.
My friend lives in Cardiff.
Мой друг живет в Кардиффе.

Формы Переходные Непереходные


Активный залог Пассивный залог Активный
Participle I Writing Being written Coming
Participle II - Written -
Perfect Participle Having written Having been Having come
written

Функции причастий в предложениях:


Participle I:
-Именная часть составного сказуемого (The thought of dying alone was horrible
– Мысль о смерти в одиночестве была ужасной)
-Часть составного глагольного сказуемого (I see him passing my house every
day – Я вижу, как он ежедневно проходит мимо моего дома)
-Определение (Look at the trees growing in our garden. Посмотри на деревья,
растущие в нашем саду.)
-Обстоятельство образа действия (He rode away whistling – Он уехал прочь,
насвистывая)
-Обстоятельство времени (Having come back from the chapel they immediately
set down to breakfast – Вернувшись из часовни, они сразу же сели завтракать)
-Обстоятельство причины (Knowing that he wouldn’t be able to buy food on his
journey he took large supplies with him – Зная, что во время путешествия у него
не будет возможности купить еду, он взял с собой внушительный запас
продуктов)
-Обстоятельство сравнения (He is still smiling as if expressing god’s joy and the
happiness of humanity – Он все еще улыбается, словно испытывает неземную
радость и все человеческое счастье)
-Обстоятельство сопутствующих обстоятельств (Gwendolen was silent, again
looking at her hands – Гвендолен молчала и снова не отрывала взгляд от своих
рук)
-Сложное дополнение (Did you hear the clock striking? – Ты слышал, как били
часы?)

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Participle II:
-Именная часть составного именного сказуемого (I am deeply impressed at his
devotion to Jane – Его привязанность к Джейн производит на меня глубокое
впечатление)
-Часть составного глагольного сказуемого (his aunt Polly stood surprised a
moment, and then broke into a gentle laugh – На мгновение тетя Полли замерла
от удивления, а потом тихонько рассмеялась)
-Определение (A pair of homeless collectors of recyclable materials found bags
stuffed with stolen money – Пара бездомных сборщиков мусора нашла сумки,
набитые украденными деньгами)
-Обстоятельство уступки (Staff are friendly though tired – Персонал ведет себя
дружелюбно, несмотря на усталость)
-Обстоятельство сравнения (As if torn with inner conflict and indecision, he
cried – Он заплакал так, словно его терзал внутренний конфликт и
неуверенность)
-Обстоятельство условия (If questioned by the police, your child may be
searched, but not strip searched – При допросе полицейские могут обыскать
вашего ребенка, но производить полный личный досмотр не имеют права)
-Обстоятельство времени (We respond well when questioned – Когда нас
спрашивают, мы хорошо отвечаем)

Perfect Participle:
Обстоятельство времени – (Having finished his last book the famous writer
decided to take a long holiday - Закончив свою последнюю книгу, известный
писатель решил отправиться на продолжительные каникулы)
Обстоятельство причины – (Having lost his wallet, he could not buy the
present to his wife. - Потеряв свой бумажник, он не смог купить подарок своей
жене.)

Упражнения на причастия
1. Translate the phrases with:
А. Participle I
Computers using vacuum tubes; the machine calculating mathematical
problems; the computer keeping instructions in its memory; binary code storing
data and instructions; the vacuum tube controlling and amplifying -electronic
signals; computers performing computations in milliseconds; electronic . pulses
moving at the speed of light; students coding the information by using a binary
code; devices printing the information; keyboard terminals replacing vacuum
tubes.
Б. Participle II
The given information; the name given to the machine; the coded data; the
device used in World War II; the invention named ENIAC; the machine called
EDVAC; instructions kept in the memory; the engine designed for storing data;
data stored in a binary code; vacuum tubes invented by J. Neumann; the

30
general-purpose machine proposed by Ch. Babbage; the machine provided with
the necessary facts.

2. Translate the sentences containing Participle I и Participle II.


1. When entering the Internet, I always find a lot of interesting information. 2.
Though never built Babbage's analytical engine was the basis for designing
today's computers. 3. When written in a symbolic language programs require
the translation into the machine language. 4. While operating on the basis of
analogy analog computers simulate physical systems. 5. When used voltage
represents other physical quantities in analog computers. 6. Being discrete
events commercial transactions are in a natural form for a digital computer. 7.
As contrasted with the analyst, the computer system architect designs
computers for many different applications. 8. While dealing with discrete
quantities digital computers count rather than measure. 9. When using a
microcomputer you are constantly making choice – to open a file, to close a
file, and so on. 10. As known all computer systems perform the functions of
inputting, storing, processing, controlling, and outputting.

3. Translate the sentences containing Perfect Participle Active и Perfect Participle


Passive.
1. Having finished the research the scientists made the analysis of the data
obtained. 2. The designer left the office having looked through all the
documents. 3. Having discussed the functions of storage units we passed on to
the consideration of control processing unit. 4. Having limited the information
capacity of a single bit to two alternatives the computer designers expressed
data by a combination of bits. 5. Having translated the program into machine
language the computer architect put the program into the machine. 6. Having
been coded the instruction was transmitted to the central processing unit. 7.
Having been transmitted to the central processing unit the instruction made
arithmetic-logical unit perform some computations. 8. Having been regulated
by the operator the equipment operated well. 9. Data having been entered
correctly into the computer component of a data processing system, the need for
further manipulation by humans is eliminated. 10. Having been well prepared
for the examination the pupils could answer all the questions the teacher asked
them.

4. Translate the sentences containing Participle I, Participle II, Perfect Participle


Active и Perfect Participle Passive.
1. Electromechanical memories depend upon moving mechanical parts for their
operation. 2. The time required for the computer to locate and transfer data to
and from a storage medium is called the access time. 3. Being not visible
software makes possible the effective operation of computer system. 4. Having
invented magnetic tapes the Germans used them as the secondary storage
medium. 5. When properly programmed computers don't make computational
errors. 6. Having been introduced in the early 1960s magnetic disc storage has

31
replaced magnetic tape storage. 7. The control unit interpreting instructions is
one of the important parts of any computer system. 8. Data recorded in the form
of magnetized dots can be arranged to represent coded patterns of bits. 9. As
contrasted with magnetic tapes magnetic discs can perform both sequential and
random processing. 10. While having no moving mechanical parts electronic
memories can transfer data at very high speed.
5. Read and translate the text. Before reading the text examine the vocabulary.

Vocabulary:
affect – влиять
common good – общее благо
crucial – важнейший, ключевой
development – развитие
enforce, v – зд. приводить в силу (закон)
face, v – сталкиваться
highly qualified – высококвалифицированный
otherwise – иначе, в противном случае
peculiarities – особенности
postpone, v – откладывать, переносить (во времени)
properly – как следует, должным образом
rapidly – быстро
renewable natural resources – возобновляемые природные ресурсы
to solve a problem – решать проблему
solution – решение
transmit, v – передавать, переслать
unemployment – безработица
up-to-date – новейший, современный

Scientific and technical progress


The basis of scientific and technical progress of today is new informational
technology which is very different from all the previous technologies. Thanks to
up-to-date software and robots new informational technologies can make many
processes much faster and transmit information more quickly. It is important today
because the quantity of information grows rapidly.
New informational society has its peculiarities. Firstly, more and more
employees work in the sphere of service and information. Secondly, more and
more huge databases appear to collect and store the information. And finally,
information and IT become goods and start playing important part in the country's
economy.
These processes affect social structures and values.
It becomes important to learn to get new knowledge quickly and sometimes
to change your qualification. IT can first lead to unemployment, but later create
even more workplaces especially for highly qualified professionals. While the
hardest work can be performed by robots and routine calculations by computers, in

32
the future people with the most creative mind and numerous fresh ideas will get
better career chances.
On one hand technology development gives more access to professional and
cultural information and leads to new forms of individual enterprises, but on the
other hand there is a danger of total control of private life unless special laws are
enforced by the government.
Another danger is «intellectual terrorism» when computer viruses block
important programs.
There are other directions of technical and scientific progress of today.
One of them is the development of new ecologically clean sources of energy
using sun, gravitation, winds or rain. New kind of transports and new agricultural
methods that do not harm our nature are being developed today.
Breakthroughs in science have led to creation of artificial viruses for new
medicines and products, body organs for transplantation and productive soils for
growing vegetables and crops. Many new materials and technologies are being
used in our everyday life.
All these innovations may have influence on our life, social relations and
globally on our Earth.
The influence can be very different: from psychological and health problems
of children who spend too much time online to an opportunity to prevent genetic
diseases for future generations.
But the most difficult problems the humanity faces are global problems.
The first and foremost is ecological problem: pollution of air, water and soil,
exhaustion of natural resources. Renewable natural resources such as oxygen,
forests, flora and fauna do not have enough time to regenerate. This leads to
different changes in climate and nature such as depletion of ozone layer and other
things that has not been properly studied by scientists yet.
Other crucial problems include wars, epidemics, and demographic problems.
The only way to solve them is to work globally and in cooperation with
other countries. And here the humanity should find a way to use new technologies
for the common good. The solution of these problems cannot be postponed
because otherwise people will have fewer chances to survive on this planet.

Answer the questions after reading the text:


1. Why is IT progress different from other progresses?
2. What are the peculiarities of information society?
3. What is the role of information in this society?
4. According to the text who will have better career chances in the near future
and why?
5. What are the possible dangers of wide access to information?
6. What ecologically clean sources of energy do you know?
7. How can scientific innovations influence our everyday life?
8. What are the key problems that humanity faces today?
9. How can these problems be solved?
10. What ecological problems are mentioned in the text?

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11. What are the benefits of the scientific and technical progress?
12. What are the drawbacks of the scientific and technical progress?
13. Find in the text synonyms to the words «new», «fast», «important» and «to
send». Can you think of other synonyms to these words?
14. Translate the underlined words and use them in your own sentences.

Infinitive
Инфинитив называет действие без указания лица или числа.
В предложении инфинитив может выступать в следующих функциях:
-подлежащее (To compromise appears advisable – Компромисс кажется
целесообразным)
-часть составного именного сказуемого (His greatest wish was to tell her
everything – Его самым большим желанием было все ей рассказать)
-часть составного глагольного сказуемого (He seemed to know all about it –
Казалось, он знает об этом все)
-дополнение (He didn’t want to be left alone – Он не хотел, чтобы его
оставляли одного)
-определение (He gave her permission to leave – Он разрешил ей уйти)
-обстоятельство (I did my best to stop her – Я сделал все от меня зависящее,
чтобы ее остановить)
-вводный член предложения (To tell the truth, I’m sick and tired of this nonsense
– Честно говоря, мне надоела вся эта ерунда)

Случаи употребления инфинитива без частицы to:


После модальных глаголов must, can, I could do it tomorrow
may, need, dare, shall, will, should, Я могу сделать это завтра
would
После глаголов to feel, to hear, to see, She saw his car drive off
to watch etc. Она увидела, как отъехала его
машина
После глаголов to make и to let He made me move my car
Он заставил меня переставить
машину
После выражений had better, would He does nothing but complain
rather, would sooner, sooner than, do Он только и делает, что жалуется
nothing but/except
Второй инфинитив после союза and He intended to sit in the garden and
write letters
Он собирался сидеть в саду и писать
письма

34
Образование форм времени и залога инфинитива:
Формы Active Passive
Simple To invite To be invited
Continuous To be inviting
-
Perfect To have invited To have been invited
Perfect To have been inviting
Continuous -

Упражнения на инфинитив
1. Translate the sentences or phrases with Infinitive:
А. 1. Computers were designed to perform thousands of computations per
second. 2. To make computers more reliable transistors were used. 3. They
were applied to reduce computational time. 4. To integrate large numbers of
circuit elements into a small chip, transistors should be reduced in size. 5. To
use integrated circuit technology new computers were built. 6. Analytical
engine was invented to store data.
Б. The problem to be solved; the work to be finished; the cards to be punched;
calculations to be performed; the machine to be shown at the exhibition; the
device to be provided with the necessary facts; computers to be used for data
processing; efforts to increase reliability; electronics to connect systems and
subsystems; the speed of response to depend on the size of transistor; computers
to perform thousands of calculations per second; vacuum tubes to control and
amplify electric signals; these are circuits to use a large number of transistors;
operations to be performed.

2. Remember the forms of Infinitive and translate the sentences:


1. A printer is an example of a device to produce output in a human-readable
format. 2. The high-speed devices to be used as secondary storage are both
input and output devices. 3. The progress of electronics to have resulted in the
invention of electronic computers was a breakthrough of the second part of the
20-th century. 4. Mendeleyev's periodic law to have been accepted as a
universal law of nature is of great importance nowadays. 5. When output is
available, output interfaces must be designed to reverse the process and to adopt
the output to the external environment. 6. The memory stores the instructions
and the data to be quickly retrieved on demand by the CPU. 7. Computers to
have been designed originally for arithmetic purposes are applicable for great
variety of tasks at present. 8. The film to have been running for over a month
this year attracts attention of many spectators. 9. The CPU of a computer to be
arranged in a single or very small number of integrated circuits is called a
microprocessor. 10. Russia was the first country to start the cosmic era.

35
3. Read and translate the text. Before reading the text examine the vocabulary.

Vocabulary:
virtual reality – виртуальная реальность
invention – изобретение
helmet – шлем
surgeon – хирург
Virtual Reality
Not long ago computers were considered an amazing invention. Today they
form part of our everyday life. The latest thing today is Virtual Reality. A Virtual
Reality system can transport the user to exotic locations such as a beach in Hawaii
or the inside of the human body.
The Virtual Reality system is still in the early stages of its development. At
the moment it is necessary to put a large helmet on your head to see the simulated
world and you have to wear a special glove on your hand in order to manipulate
the objects you see there. Lenses and two miniature display screens inside the
helmet create the illusion that the screen surrounds you on every side.
You can «look behind» computer– generated objects, pick them up and
examine them, walk around and see things from a different angle.
Already today Virtual Reality is used in medicine. In hospitals, surgeons
could plan operations by first «travelling» through the brain, heart or lungs without
damaging the body. It is also used in police training schools. In schools pupils
could explore the Great Pyramid or study molecules from the inside. Developers of
Virtual Reality say its potential is powerful.
The word which comes closest to describing Virtual Reality is «simulator».
Virtual Reality technology resembles the flight simulators that are used to train
pilots. But of course there are dangers as well as benefits.

Answer the questions after reading the text:


1. What is Virtual Reality?
2. Why do you need to wear helmet and special glove?
3. What are the possible uses of Virtual Reality?
4. What are some of the disadvantages of Virtual Reality?
5. Do you think Virtual Reality is an important invention or not?

Gerund
Герундий выражает название действия и обладает свойствами
существительного и глагола. В русском языке такая форма отсутствует.
Образование формы герундия:
Формы Active Passive
Simple Taking Being taken
Perfect Having taken Having been taken

36
Функции герундия в предложении:
Подлежащее Talking mends no holes.
Разговорами горю не поможешь
Часть составного именного I can’t ask him for help. That would
сказуемого mean telling him everything about you
and myself
Я не могу попросить его о помощи.
Это значило бы все рассказать ему о
нас.
Часть составного глагольного We intend going to Switzerland and
сказуемого climbing Mount Blanc
Мы намереваемся поехать в
Швейцарию и покорить Мон Блан
Дополнение She enjoyed singing and playing to him
Ей нравилось петь и играть для него
Определение He was born with the gift of winning
hearts
У него врожденный талант покорять
сердца
Обстоятельство Цели One side of the gallery was used for
dancing
Одна часть галереи использовалась
для танцев
Условия She has no right to come bothering you
and papa without being invited
Она не имеет права приходить без
приглашения и беспокоить тебя и
папу
Времени After saying this he left the room
Произнеся это, он покинул комнату
Образа She started her father by bursting into
действия tears
Она сильно удивила своего отца тем
что разрыдалась
Уступки In spite of being busy he did all he could
to help her
Несмотря на свою занятость, он
сделал все возможное, чтобы помочь
ей
Причины I dared not attend the funeral for fear of
making a fool of myself
Я не осмелился пойти на похороны,
чтобы не попасть в дурацкое
положение

37
Упражнения на герундий
1. Translate in Russian:
1. Debugging a program is a hard job.
2. One of the benefits of buying a system is that it has detailed
documentation with it.
3. By performing different kinds of operations on a computer, people solve
a lot of different problems.
4. Programming is the process of preparing, testing, correcting instructions
for a computer.
5. Logical operations consist in comparing, selecting, sorting, matching &
determining.
6. After performing calculations a computer displays some result.
7. (His) Ivan's being a brilliant programmer is a well-known fact.
8. We saw the operator having made the machine operate.

2. Put the verbs in brackets into the correct form of the Gerund.
1. Dr. Hollerith suggested (to use) punched cards to record census data.
2. In 1642 B. Pascal succeeded in (to invent) desktop machine that could
add and subtract.
3. After (to appear) in the microcomputer market in 1981 the IBM PC
appealed to an expanding business clientele.
4. The role of cybernetic philosophy consists in (to analyse) the influence of
computer on human life.
5. A great variety of tasks began (to solve) more rapidly with the help of the
new generation of computers.

3. Form a gerund from these verbs and complete the gaps. Translate sentences into
Russian:
to follow, to own, to cook, to grow, to lose, to listen, to read, to smoke, to lie, to
joke
1. _________ is important because it enriches you in all aspects.
2. _________ makes people laugh.
3. _________ flowers adds some freshness in our lives.
4. _________ is the art of preparing food with the use of heat.
5. _________ is harmful to health.
6. _________ a pet provides love, companionship, and hours of
entertainment.
7. _________ to music increases self-esteem, and decreases the feeling of
isolation.
8. _________ instructions is an important skill used by everyone.
9. _________ a voice is often associated with throat problems.
10. _____ to close people is probably one of the most common wrong acts
that we carry out.

38
4. Choose the right translation of the verb with following forms: Infinitive, Gerund,
Participle I, Participle II.
1. That was the machine provided with the necessary facts about the
problem to be solved.
а) Машину обеспечили необходимыми фактами, чтобы она решила
проблему.
б) То была машина, снабженная необходимой информацией о задаче,
которую предстояло решить.
в) Эту машину обеспечили необходимой информацией о решаемой
задаче.
2. The computers designed to use 1С were called third generation
computers.
а) Компьютеры сконструировали для использования ИС и назвали их
третьим поколением.
б) Компьютеры назывались третьим поколением, потому что в них
использовались ИС.
в) Компьютеры, сконструированные, чтобы использовать ИС,
назывались компьютерами третьего поколения.
3. Mark I was the first machine to figure out mathematical problems.
а) Первая машина для вычисления математических проблем была Марк
I.
б) Марк I явилась первой машиной для вычисления математических
задач.
в) Марк I была первой машиной, которая вычисляла математические
задачи.
4. Early computers using vacuum tubes could perform computations in
milliseconds.
а) Первые компьютеры, использующие электронные лампы, могли
выполнять вычисления в течение миллисекунд.
б) Ранние компьютеры использовали вакуумные лампы, которые
выполняли вычисления за миллисекунды.
в) Рано компьютеры, использующие электронные трубки, выполняли
вычисления за миллисекунды.
5. Vacuum tubes to control and amplify electric signals were invented by
Neumann.
а) Изобретенные Нойманом вакуумные лампы регулировали и
усиливали электрические сигналы.
б) Нойман изобрел электронные лампы для управления и усиления
электрических сигналов.
в) Электронные лампы, которые регулировали и усиливали
электрические сигналы, были изобретены Нойманом.
6. Neumann's machine called the EDVAC was designed to store both data
and instructions.
а) Неймановскую машину, называемую EDVAC, сконструировали для
хранения информации и команд.

39
б) Машина Ноймана, названная EDVAC, была создана, чтобы
запоминать как информацию, так и команды.
в) Машину Ноймана, которая хранила данные и инструкции, назвали
EDVAC.
7. Computers were developed to perform calculations for military and
scientific purposes.
а) Компьютеры были созданы, чтобы выполнять вычисления для
военных и научных целей.
б) Компьютеры создали для выполнения военных и научных
вычислений.
в) Созданные компьютеры выполняли вычисления военного и научного
назначения.
8. An American clerk invented a means of coding the data by punching
holes into cards.
а) Американский служащий изобрел посредством кодирования
информации перфокарту.
б) Американский клерк изобрел перфокарту, кодируя информацию.
в) Американский служащий изобрел средство шифрования
информации путем пробивания отверстий в карте.

5. Open the brackets using:


A. The right non-finite form of verb:
1. Computing is a concept (embraced; embracing; for embracing) not only
arithmetics, but also computer literacy. 2. We can make the computer do
what we want (inputted; to input; by inputting) signals (turning; turned;
without turning) switches on and off. 3. Computers have a means (by
communicating; of communicating; communicated) with the user. 4.
Computers work according to the instructions (giving; given; to give) to it
by users. 5. The transistor (inventing; invented; for inventing) in 1948
completely changed the vacuum tubes.
Б. Verb in Passive or Active:
1. Computers (applied; are applied; are applying) for automatic piloting and
automatic navigation. 2. The programs (write; have written; are written) to
help people in the use of the computer system. 3. As digital computers
(count; counted; are counted) quickly, they widely (use; used; are used) in
business data processing. 4. Once data (entered; have entered; have been
entered) correctly into the data processing system, the possibility of error
(reduced; is reduced; are reduced). 5. It is known that an analyst (use; uses;
is used) a computer to solve specific problems.

6.Read and translate the text. Before reading the text examine the vocabulary.

Vocabulary:
captivate, v – пленить
last, v – длиться

40
overload – перегрузка
cellular phone – сотовый телефон
dial up – набирать номер, звонить
answering machine – автоответчик
handle, v – обращаться, иметь дело с
amount – количество
fiber optic cables – оптоволоконный кабель
opposed – зд. вместо
binary code – бинарный код, двоичный код
amount of bandwidth – пропускная способность
coaxial cable – коаксильный кабель
increase 1,000 fold, v – увеличить(ся) в 1000 раз
lane – линии движения
clog – засорение, препятствие

The Future of the Internet


Everywhere we go, we hear about the Internet. It's on television, in
magazines, newspapers, and in schools. One might think that this network of
millions of computers around the globe is as fast and captivating as television, but
with more and more users logging on every day and staying on longer and longer,
this «Information Superhighway» could be perhaps more correctly referred to as an
expressway of big city centre at rush hour.
It is estimated that thirty five to forty million users currently are on the
Internet. According to a recent statistics, an average Internet call lasts five times as
longer as the average regular telephone call. 10 percent of the Internet calls last 6
hours or longer. This can cause an overload and, in turn, cause telephone network
to fail.
The local network was designed for short calls which you make and then
hang up, but Internet calls often occupy a line for hours. With so many users in the
Internet and their number is growing by 200 percent annually, it certainly provides
new challenges for the telephone companies. The Internet, up to the beginning of
the 90s, was used only to read different texts. Then in the early 90's, a way was
made to see pictures and listen to a sound on the Internet. This breakthrough made
the Internet to be most demanded means of communication, data saving and
transporting.
However, today's net is much more than just pictures, text, and sound. The
Internet is now filled with voice massages, video conferencing and video games.
With voice massages, users can talk over the Internet for the price of the local
phone call.
Nowadays we no longer have to own a computer to access the Internet.
Now,-devices such as Web TV allow our television to browse the Web and use
Electronic Mail. Cellular phones are now also dialing up the Internet to provide E-
mail and answering machine services. The telephone network was not designed
and built to handle these sorts of things. Many telephone companies are spending
enormous amounts of money to upgrade the telephone lines.

41
K. Kao and G. Hockman were the first to come up with the idea of using
fiber optic cables, as opposed to copper wire, to carry telephone signals. Fiber
optics uses pulses of light to transmit binary code, such as that used in computers
and other electronic devices. As a result the amount of bandwidth is incredibly
raised. Another solution for the problem is fast modems which satisfy the need for
speed.
By accessing the Net through the coaxial cable that provides television to
our homes, the speed can be increased 1,000 fold. However, the cable system was
built to only send information one way. In other words, they can send stuff to us,
but we can't send anything back, if there is no modem available.
Yet another way is being introduced to access the Internet, and that is
through the use of a satellite dish just like the TV dishes currently used to deliver
television from satellites in space to your home. However, like cable connection,
the information can only be sent one way.
Faster ways of connecting to the Internet may sound like a solution to the
problem, but, just as new lanes on highways attract more cars, a faster Internet
could attract many times more users, making it even slower than before.
To help solve the problem of Internet clogs, Internet providers are trying
new ways of pricing for customers. So, in business time any connection to Net cost
more than your connection in the night.
In conclusion, I should add that if we want to keep the Internet usable and
fairly fast, we must not only improve the telephone lines and means of access, but
also be reasonable in usage.

Answer the questions after reading the text:


1. How many users are currently in the Internet?
2. How long does an average Internet call last?
3. What can cause the overload of the telephone system?
4. What was the main purpose of the Internet up to the 90s?
5. Do we need to have a computer to get access to the Internet today?
6. Who was the first to come up with the idea of using fiber optic cables?
7. What is the alternative way to get access to the Internet today?

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Приложение
Cтатья 1
The Great Transmogrification of Atoms to Bits
Libraries move to curating digital rather than physical collections
By Paul McFedries
As I mentioned in my February 2013 column, “Balancing Act,” the belief
that our life offline is separate from our life online has been denounced as digital
dualism. But there’s less of a debate when it comes to differentiating between
analog objects and digital data. Yes, the print and electronic copies of the same
book contain the same words, but it’s obvious to most people (and, increasingly,
to researchers) that the two reading experiences are quite different.
We need to understand such differences because the world is going to see a
lot more digital data in the near future. This includes born-digital [pdf] data, which
is originally created in an electronic format, as well as born-analog data, which
starts life as a physical object and then is reborn digital. A great example of this
digitization came earlier this year when the New York Public
Library announced that it was making more than 180,000 digitized items available
to anyone with an Internet connection, no questions asked.
That librarians would turn themselves into digital curators is no surprise,
since as analog curators for the past few centuries they have been constantly
bumping into the physical constraints of storage space and material decay. One
approach is to get rid of stuff, and librarians and archivists employ a pleasing
variety of terms related to the removal of unwanted or duplicate material from their
collections: Weeding and culling generally refer to the removal of individual items,
while purging, screening, and stripping are most often used for the removal of
multiple related items. But the main problem with physical materials is that they
possess what archivists call, poetically, inherent vice: the tendency for something
to deteriorate over time because of some fault in the material itself (for example,
the presence of lignin in cheap paper, which causes the paper to yellow) or the way
the material reacts with its surroundings (for instance, the fact that bugs eat some
books because they’re attracted to the mold that grows in damp paper).
The digitization of analog materials can solve these problems, and engineers
are constantly trying to find faster ways to turn atoms into bits. For now, though,
we mostly have to rely on the skills of scanops (scanner operators) to generate
those bits, although on their less skilled days those operators end up scanning their
own body parts, such as fingers and hands, a phenomenon known as Google hands.
Some companies are applying the principles of crowdsourcing and gamification to
the digitizing realm, creating leisure activities that let users contribute to the
process. (I would be remiss if I didn’t mention the opposite process: turning digital
Web documents and data into books and zines, a genre called the printed Web.)
Ideally, digitized data is online (readily available), but it might end up either
offline (not available) or nearline (only indirectly available). It can also end up
in dark archives (which are inaccessible to the public), dim archives (which are
usually inaccessible but can be made accessible), or light archives (another term
for those that are fully accessible).

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Having digitized some data, the archivist now faces a new problem: the
eventual obsolescence of the data structures or media used to store the data,
necessitating a format migration (or a media migration) to something newer.
Copying the data without changing the format or media type is called refreshing.
There is a large cottage industry of life coaches and self-appointed gurus
who recommend, with varying degrees of urgency and stridency, that we become
digital dualists and spend less time online. Fulminations against digitization are
harder to find, and that’s just as well, since, with enlightened institutions such as
the New York Public Library leading the way, having digital access to books,
photos, and other analog materials can only be a good thing. Try to ignore the
fingers.
This article appears in the April 2016 print issue as “Curating the Digital
Age.”

Статья 2
The Nervana Systems Chip That Will Let Intel Advance Its Deep Learning
By Jeremy Hsu
Deep-learning artificial intelligence has mostly relied upon the general-
purpose GPU hardware used in many other computing tasks. But Intel’s recent
acquisition of the startup Nervana Systems will give the tech giant ownership of a
specialized chip designed specifically for deep learning AI applications. That could
give Intel a huge lead in the race to develop next-generation artificial intelligence
capable of swiftly finding patterns in huge data sets and learning through imitation.
Nervana has leaned heavily on GPU hardware to build its own portfolio
of deep-learning AI services for both companies and independent developers. But
the startup has also been developing its own specialized deep-learning hardware,
called Nervana Engine, that includes only the components necessary for running
deep-learning algorithms and eliminates the extra components used for general-
purpose GPU tasks. Nervana claims that when the Engine chip comes out in 2017,
it will deliver around 10 times as much computing power for deep learning as the
best of today’s GPUs.
“Nervana’s AI expertise combined with Intel’s capabilities and huge market
reach will allow us to realize our vision and create something truly special,”
said Naveen Rao, CEO and cofounder of Nervana, in a blog post.
Software algorithms known as artificial neural networks are the heart of
deep-learning AI. Such algorithms learn how to perform certain tasks through
imitation and by observing correctly labeled examples as they sift through huge
amounts of data. To accommodate deep learning’s voracious appetite for data,
Nervana’s Engine hardware design includes High Bandwidth Memory technology
that has stacked memory and densely packed data channels to swiftly move around
large amounts of data.
The end result: 32 gigabytes of on-chip storage and up to 8 terabits per
second of memory access speed. By comparison, the GDDR5 memory technology
used in GPUs has memory access speeds of just 224 gigabits per second.

44
Intel clearly saw value in acquiring both Nervana and its deep-learning chip.
Investors familiar with the acquisition deal pegged the startup’s purchase price
at somewhere in the range of $408 million, according to Recode.
The purchase gives Intel a possible edge in the market for deep-learning
hardware while sidestepping the general-purpose GPUs produced by rival tech
giant Nvidia, said Karl Freund, senior analyst for deep learning and HPC at Moor
Insights & Strategy, in an interview with EE Times. Intel currently produces
multicore Xeon and Xeon Phi processors and other hardware, but has had no
equivalent to the GPUs that currently dominate deep learning.
“[Nervana’s] IP and expertise in accelerating deep-learning algorithms will
expand Intel’s capabilities in the field of AI,” said Diane Bryant, executive vice
president and general manager of the Data Center Group at Intel, in a blog post.
The 48-person Nervana team will remain at its San Diego headquarters and
maintain a “startup mentality” as part of the deal. Nervana will also continue
developing the Engine deep-learning hardware alongside other existing products
such as its Neon deep-learning framework, a programming language and set of
libraries intended to help outsiders create deep-learning models.
Intel’s big bet on Nervana signifies the growing importance of deep learning
and the broader field of machine learning. The purchase is the latest in a string of
deep-learning startup acquisitions by major tech companies such as Google, IBM,
and Amazon. To learn more about the race between startups and tech titans to
develop deep learning services, see the IEEE Spectrum article “Now You Too Can
Buy Cloud-Based Deep Learning.”

Статья 3
Machine Learning Tools Help Google Science Fair Finalists Find Lost Objects,
Predict Breast Cancer Risk
By Tekla S. Perry
Anika Cheerla's submission to the Google Science Fair used machine
learning to improve the accuracy of breast cancer risk prediction
This week, 16 teams of teens from around the world assembled in Mountain
View to demonstrate the results of research projects at the Google Science Fair.
I’ve been attending these finals for several years now and am always
impressed with how creatively the teens use the technologies of today. And this
year was no exception: machine learning is hot in the tech world, and the teens are
embracing it.
Consider 14-year-old Anika Cheerla’s submission. A Silicon Valley girl
from Cupertino, Calif., Cheerla was curious about the current state of breast cancer
prediction, and discovered that prediction methods using digital mammograms are
just 64 percent effective, typically simply considering the percentage of dense
tissue in a breast. She developed software that considers a broader range of
features, including dense and non-dense regions, and, using a database of digital
mammograms from Stanford University, built and began training classifiers to use
in predicting risk. She discovered that the area closest to the nipple has the highest
predictive power, and her system can take that into account. Right now her system

45
is about 84 percent effective. She is hoping to improve her system by training it on
more images and adding additional machine learning capabilities.
CreditGoogle Science Fair finalist Shriank Kanapurti went through several
iterations of his system designed to keep track of objects around you–and help you
find your lost keys. He tested the system on his grandfather.
Shriank Kanapurti, a 16- year-old from Bangalore, India, turned to machine
learning to help the forgetful find misplaced objects. His approach,
called KeepTab, involves a wearable camera constantly recording images of what’s
in front of you, and designed software that extracts the objects from the images and
figures out what they are in relation to other objects in your environment. To date
he says he has trained the software on 600,000 images. He uses Google-Now’s
natural language software to communicate with his system–you can say “Locate
my keys,” and it will respond, “Your keys are on the television”. He’d like to
eventually see his software run with less obtrusive wearables, like a future version
of Google Glass.

Статья 4
Software, the Invisible Technology
We used to go to stores to buy it. Now software is so ubiquitous, we don’t even
notice it
By G. Pascal Zachary
Five years ago Marc Andreessen, the Web pioneer and celebrated tech
investor, predicted software would eat the world.
He turned out to be right. Too right. Software is eating the world, and also
eating itself.
The cannibalization of software defies easy explanation. Software is the
motor of the world’s digital economy. Code is the ground of our computationally
rich existence. Software applications and platforms are the source of vast wealth
for Apple, Google, Facebook, Amazon, and many other tech titans. Yet even as
software grows in importance, code becomes less visible, less tangible, less
understood, and–perhaps most paradoxically–less valuable in monetary terms.
How has this great shift happened? Software originally coevolved with
computers themselves. The IBM System/360, the business computer of choice in
the 1960s, came bundled with code, and if customers needed more or different
programs, they asked IBM. In 1980, IBM chose to rely on outsiders, notably
Microsoft, for PC code, igniting a ferocious race to sell programs as distinct
products.
Over the past 20 years, the program as artifact has vanished. Consumers
download new versions, patches, and feature improvements as easily as switching
on their devices. They rarely pay for this. Software battles now occur over
platforms, which define an experience such as shopping (Amazon), searching
(Google), or networking (LinkedIn). Competitive advantage is now achieved
through superior software, but software supremacy is neither the aim nor the result
of the new game.

46
“Software on wheels,” for instance, now defines the car of the future, and is
the reason why Google and Apple, the reigning kings of code, each are pushing for
a big role in next-gen autos. No surprise that Toyota, Ford, and Daimler want their
own software expertise, not to peddle programs to drivers but to enhance their new
models. Without cool software, these venerable automakers might not even survive
(see Tesla’s and Google’s self-driving cars).
View Uber in this same light. The company is best understood not as a taxi
service on steroids but as a software-management system for personal
transportation.
The bottom line: No one gets rich making software anymore. The days of
Bill Gates building a fortune on the strength of shrink-wrapped programs sold like
disposable diapers is gone. Software today can make you rich only by enabling you
to do something else that people pay for.
Netflix, Facebook, and Google don’t get a dime from selling software, yet
their revenue-producing services depend on continuously and seamlessly
improving their code. Similar examples are legion.
The new logic of software has different implications for those who make it,
sell it, and use it. For makers, code no longer spawns tycoons and celebrities. The
last person to get famous from writing software was Linus Torvalds; and this year
he celebrates the 25th anniversary of his seminal achievement. Today’s top coders
are largely if not wholly unknown by the wider public; at best, they are cult
figures, revered in underground communities.
Another paradox: As software becomes ever more essential to creating the
digital experience, the invisibility of software is a victory for the apostles of “the
free.” Hippies, misfits, and dropouts improbably created fabulous wealth through
pricey apps in the last two decades of the 20th century. Some among these
characters, notably Richard Stallman, promoted a counter-ethos that conceived of
software as a public good, available without charge to all.
That free software sits at the heart of an explosion of profitable digital
services is the latest, greatest riddle of global capitalism–and a sobering message
for the poets of programming. Code writers are essential and well paid but
increasingly interchangeable and anonymous.
For this, we should not pity the programmer, and we should remember:
Hope springs from the unseen.
This article appears in the November 2016 print issue as “The Invisible
Technology.”

Статья 5
China's New Supercomputer Is World's Most Powerful
By Rachel Courtland
For the last three years, China has topped the Top500 list of the most
powerful supercomputers with its massive Tianhe-2. But today, the Top500 group
announced that Tianhe-2 has been ousted by another Chinese supercomputer,
the Sunway TaihuLight. The new machine, which is based at the National
Supercomputing Center in Wuxi, can perform a key benchmark test called Linpack

47
at 93 petaflops (a thousand trillion floating point operations per second)–nearly
three times the speed of the Tianhe-2.
The new rankings further solidify China’s status as a supercomputing force
to be reckoned with. In addition to this new machine, the United States has, for the
first time, lost its status as the country with the most systems on the list; China now
has 167 systems to the U.S.’s 165.
Unlike the Tianhe-2, which used Intel Xeon chips to take the top spot, the
processors inside the Sunway TaihuLight are homegrown. At each of the
machine’s 40,960 nodes, the supercomputer uses a new 260-core chip, designed by
the Shanghai High Performance IC Design Center.
According to the Top500 site, Sunway TaihuLight will be used for research
and engineering work, including weather modeling and advanced manufacturing.
Although supercomputing progress has slowed in recent years, there are
still-more-powerful machines on the horizon. The United States, for one, has a
batch of new machines in the works. According to a report on Sunway TaihuLight
by Top500 team member Jack Dongarra, 2018 could see the arrival of three new
U.S. Department of Energy machines, the speediest of which will be Summit, a
200-petaflop supercomputer to be installed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory in
Tennessee.
The top 10 supercomputers from the June 2016 Top500.org list.
Name Country Teraflops Power (kW)
Sunway TaihuLight China 93,015 15,371
Tianhe-2 China 33,863 17,808
Titan United States 17,590 8,209
Sequoia United States 17,173 7890
K Computer Japan 10,510 12,660
Mira United States 8,587 3,945
Trinity United States 8,101 N/A
Piz Daint Switzerland 6,271 2,325
Hazel Hen Germany 5,640 N/A
Shaheen II Saudi Arabia 5,537 2,834

Статья 6
Use a GPU to Turn a PC Into a Supercomputer
By Mark Anderson
As Moore’s Law slows for CPUs, dedicated graphics co-processors are
picking up some of the slack. Just as GPUs are changing the game in deep learning
and autonomous cars, the GPU-powered desktop PC might even begin to keep
pace with the conventional supercomputer for a portion of supercomputer
applications.
For instance, a group of Russian scientists are reporting this month that
they’ve been able to solve computational problems in nuclear physics using an off-
the-shelf, high-end PC containing a GPU. And, they say, after fine-tuning their
algorithm for GPUs, they were able to run their calculations faster than the

48
traditional, CPU-powered supercomputer their colleagues use. Bonus: they ran
those calculations for free as opposed to their colleagues, who must pay for access
to the supercomputer to run their computations.
“I have no doubts that many research groups over the world can reach the
similar results in their own fields such as geophysics, seismology, plasma physics,
[medical] diagnostics, etc.” says Vladimir Kukulin, professor of theoretical physics
at Lomonosov Moscow State University. “But only by combining two above
ingredients: Reformulation of the whole problem, and then by inventing some
effective way how to parallelize the whole execution in thousands or even millions
of independent threads.”
The problem Kukulin’s group was tackling involved the extensive
calculations needed to describe scattering problems in their field – such as when
one nucleon collides with a particle or another nucleon and produces a spray of
particles and daughter nuclei as a result. This nuclear many-body problem, Kukulin
says, could require calculations involving matrices containing millions of
elements.
Matrix algebra with this many moving parts can stymie even a
supercomputer. But, Kukulin says, his group realized, too, that calculations with
giant matrices can mean independent threads of instructions to run in parallel with
many other similar threads. The parallelizability of his group’s nuclear
calculations, in other words, meant it was a prime candidate for running efficiently
on a GPU.
The GPU, originally designed to handle matrix-heavy calculations needed to
generate real-time graphics, is finding unexpected applications in a number of
fields today, including Bitcoin mining, molecular modeling, and the applications
noted above. Kukulin says the list of computational tasks the GPU can handle, a
list that now includes nuclear physics, will only increase.
Overall, he says the kinds of problems that could lend themselves to GPU-
supercomputing on the cheap are those whose individual elements are not
interdependent on one another. Because interdependence means that individual
elements (i.e. threads in a GPU’s calculations) would have to go through regular if-
then logic gates, checking for each element’s ongoing influence on other elements
of the calculation.
And such conditional logic steps are probably going to involve the CPU,
which slows an otherwise streamlined calculation down. Instead, to maximize the
speedup a GPU can produce, he says it’s best to find a way of expressing one’s
problem – or find an approximation that enables the expression – as a system
containing many discrete and unconnected elements.
“You should write your problem into a form that allows you to massively
parallelize,” he says. “It’s necessary to avoid somehow any conditional.”
So complicated simulations, where every component’s interaction is
dependent on other components and their trajectories in time, would be difficult to
translate into a GPU-ready problem. By contrast, he says, tsunami early warning
systems that predict tidal wave landfalls in faster-than-real-time have sped up when
run on GPUs as opposed to traditional CPU supercomputers.

49
Kukulin says 3D ultrasound imaging, a compute-intensive medical
diagnostic tool, could be more widely embraced if medical offices needed only a
few thousand dollars for a desktop PC as opposed to many thousands of dollars for
access to a supercomputer.
Ultimately, then, problems fit for GPU speedup require not just
programming finesse but also expertise in the field of application to find the right
way through the problem that could produce a GPU speedup.
“This is some art, but not [just] in programming,” Kukulin says.

Статья 7
3D-Printed Plastic Blocks Generate Complex Acoustic Holograms
By Evan Ackerman
The closest thing we have right now to a Star Trek–style tractor beam is a
technology based on moving small objects with sound. Last year, researchers from
the Public University of Navarre, in Spain, demonstrated how ultrasonic acoustic
holograms can be used to manipulate things in midair, using arrays of ultrasonic
transducers and some reasonably complicated modeling and programming. The
overall complexity of the acoustic hologram–a 3D structure made of sound–that
you can create in this way (and consequently what you can do with it) is limited
primarily by the characteristics of your transducer array, and because transducers
can only get so small, this is a significant limitation.
An acoustic hologram manifests itself as variations in air pressure. You can
make pressure structures like vortices and bottles, which can trap small,
lightweight things in areas of low pressure inside areas of high pressure. Creating
the structures involves the creation of a sound field where a bunch of different
sound waves of varying amplitudes constructively and destructively interfere in
just the right way to make exactly the structure that you want. One way to do this
is with an array of individual transducers, each one emitting a slightly different
sound wave.
But in a paper published in Nature this week, a team from the Max Planck
Institute for Intelligent Systems, in Germany, describe a new way of easily creating
very high resolution acoustic holograms that work in air or water. Rather than
relying on a whole bunch of small transducers, they use just one giant transducer
instead. It sits underneath a special 3D-printed transmission hologram made out of
finely contoured plastic.
In this new research, the single transducer emits one type of sound wave,
which means that you can't use it to create a sound field that'll do all that much for
you. What the researchers realized, however, is that the only important thing is
finding a way to generate all of those different sound waves–which you can do
without more than one transducer if you're clever and willing to make a few
compromises.
The trick is to use a 3D-printed hunk o’ plastic. Or, to get needlessly
technical, a “3D-printed monolithic element.” Or, to get less needlessly technical,
“a finely contoured solid plastic block.” The block is attached to the transducer,
and when it transduces, the sound wave has to propagate through the block before

50
it's emitted into space. Since sound moves slower through the block than it does
through air or water, by carefully printing the top of the block in a very specific
pattern to vary its thickness, you get the same effect as using a transducer array
made up of individual transducers that are each as small as the resolution of your
3D printer. This allows the creation of acoustic holograms that are about 100 times
as detailed as anyone has been able to make before.
Images: Kai MeldeThe acoustic hologram at the upper right is able to
generate the image of a bird.
In common use, the word “hologram” refers to a structured field of light or
sound, but it can also refer to the spatial storage of a wave front in a way that
allows the characteristics of that wave front to be reconstructed when you pump
some energy back through the storage medium. In this particular case, the
“hologram” is the plastic block, which converts a sound wave from a single
transducer into a complex sound field.
The obvious downside with this technique is that you can't dynamically
change the acoustic field, since it's fixed by the 3D-printed plastic plate. You can
set up acoustic fields that move objects, but they'll move along a fixed path. One
potential workaround is 3D printing a single hologram that encodes multiple sound
fields at different frequencies. That would allow you to dynamically select the
hologram by twiddling the transducer.
In terms of practical applications, the researchers mention super-resolution
imaging, selective heating, and personalized medicine. But what's most relevant
here is the fact that it's now very quick, easy, and cheap to create ultrahigh
resolution acoustic hologram-based tractor beams for that spaceship that I'm totally
not secretly building in my garage.

Статья 8
The Little Hack That Could: The Story of Spotify’s “Discover Weekly”
Recommendation Engine
By Tekla S. Perry
“Empower bottom-up innovation and amazing things will happen.” That’s
what Spotify software engineer Edward Newett says. He was responsible for one
of those amazing things: a way to help Spotify users discover new music
called Discover Weekly. This tool launched about a year ago; it now has 40
million users and is helping to build the careers of new artists.
Spotify software engineer Edward Newett started building the Discover
Weekly recommender system as a side project.
Newett joined Spotify in 2013, initially working on a team developing a web
page with personalized information, news about artists, album releases, and local
concerts, along with a recommender system that offered suggestions of albums a
user might find appealing. The recommendation feature, Newett recalled, seemed
like a good idea, but wasn’t heavily used. “My hunch was that navigating to this
page and looking at albums was too much work,” he said, speaking at the third
annual @Scale conference held in San Jose last week. @Scale brings together
engineers who build or maintain systems designed for vast numbers of users,

51
including engineers from companies like Google, Airbnb, Dropbox, Netflix, and
others.
Newett thought he could come up with a better way, and in 2014 convinced
a colleague to help him hack together a prototype of a tool they called Discover
Weekly. Discover Weekly would give users a personalized playlist of music they’d
never listened to, designed to fit their musical tastes.
The Discover Weekly engineers didn’t want to commit a lot of time to the
project until they were convinced it was worth doing. So they changed Spotify’s
traditional engineering approach to include more frequent user tests.
To come up with the individualized lists, the two scrounged together a
variety of machine learning tools used in other parts of the Spotify system. Their
system looks at what the user is already listening to, and then find connections
between those songs and artists and other songs and artists, crawling through user
activity logs, playlists of other users, general news from around the web, and
spectragrams of audio. It then filters the recommendations to eliminate music the
user has already heard, and sends the individualized playlist to the user. To make it
clear that this playlist was personalized, they decided to illustrate each with an
image of the user, pulled from Facebook. And they determined that they would
refresh the lists weekly, on Monday mornings.
To test Discover Weekly in early 2015, the two engineers quietly pushed
their new tool out to the Spotify accounts of all company employees. “Everyone
freaked out in a good way,” Newett said, saying things like “‘It’s as if my secret
music twin put it together.’”
“We were feeling good, but we hadn’t tested it on [typical] users, so we then
rolled it out to one percent of the user base,” he recalls, and again, he recalls, the
reaction was awesome.
Then came the mid-2015 rollout to the the rest of Spotify’s customers, some
100 million active users around the world. “We had to refresh 100 million playlists
every Sunday night, with about a terabyte of new data.”
Discover Weekly quickly became a habit for people, Newett reports, giving
them something to look forward to on Monday mornings. Then, a few months after
the mid-2015 launch, he says, the team had its “first production incident–it didn’t
update.” Some users “went into blind rage or existential crisis.”
For Newett, that reaction validated the tool’s popularity.
Since then, the team moved the system from its own servers to Google’s
Cloud Bigtable, and now runs its recommendation algorithms several days ahead
of time, rather than trying to crunch through recommendations for its entire user
base on Sunday for Monday release.
“This wasn’t a big company initiative,” Newett says, “just a team of
passionate engineers who went about solving a problem we saw with the
technology we had.”

52
Games
Game 1 - Computer acronyms
What do the following acronyms stand for? See if you can find any words you
don’t know at the bottom.
ADSL
Alt (key)
AI
AT&T
ATM
BASIC
CD ROM
CPU
GPS
HTML
ISP
LAN
www
All-purpose Alternative American
Area
Artificial Asymmetric Automatic
Beginner’s Central Code
Compact Digital Disk
Global Hypertext Instruction
Intelligence Internet Language
Local
Line Machine Mark-up
Memory Network
Only Positioning
Processing Provider Read
Service Subscriber Symbolic
System Telegraph Telephone
Teller Unit Web
Wide World

Game 2 - Roleplays on the topic of inventions


Do a selection of the roleplays below, each time pretending that you are at a time
when the thing that you are talking about has recently been invented or could
soon be.
1. You think that you can invent one of the things on the list but the head of the
funding committee (your partner) thinks it isn’t likely that your research will
be successful. Try to persuade them to give you as much money as you can
get.

53
2. You are both futurologists. One of you thinks that one of the things on the
list will be invented (fairly) soon and the other thinks it will be invented far
into the future if ever. Discuss until one of your run out of arguments or you
reach a compromise position.
3. Imagine you have invented one of the things in the list but your boss won’t
accept that that is a good idea. Roleplay trying to persuade him or her that it
will be popular and profitable, and try to get as many people as you can on
your team to develop it.
4. You are the government committee which must decide on the restrictions of
use on one of the inventions. Decide what the restrictions should be, one of
you arguing that there should be tighter restrictions and the other that there
should be fewer or no restrictions.
5. You are the committee to award the Nobel Prize for Engineering and three
of the things in the list are on the shortlist. Decide together which invention
should be given the prize.
6. Pretend one of you is an inventor who has just retired and the other is an
interviewer from a newspaper or engineering magazine. Roleplay an
interview about the history of your invention.
7. Roleplay trying to sell one of the things on the list to someone who has
never heard of it (because it is a new invention at the time you are speaking).
Try to persuade them that it is worth trying.
8. Roleplay a phone conversation from someone who bought one of the
products for the first time at your suggestion but isn’t happy with their
purchase. Try to persuade them to keep using it.
9. You both claim to have invented one of the things in the list. Argue about
how you developed what you did before your partner and so you should be
credited with the invention.
10. It is twenty years after the invention of one of the things on the list. Argue
about whether it was overall a good thing that it was invented or not, using
your imagination about what the consequences were. You think it was a
good idea and your partner disagrees.
11. One of you thinks that an invention above will have a huge impact, whereas
the other thinks normal life won’t change much. Argue until you come to a
compromise or one of you gives up.
Do the same roleplays, but pretending you are in or just before the time of one of
the past and/ or future inventions below.

Inventions used now


3D movies
Anti-virus software
Ball bearing

54
Bar code
Email
GPS
Industrial robot
Instant messaging
Internet
Laptop (computer)
Mouse
MP3 player
Past inventions
Clockwork toys
Dot matrix printer
Floppy disk
Laser disk
Minidisc
Overhead projector (= OHP)
PDA
Possible future technologies
Androids/ Robots which are indistinguishable from people
Chips in our brains
Choosing your dreams from a menu
Limitless cheap electrical energy, e.g. from fusion reactors
Virtual reality that is indistinguishable from real life
Replicators (= Machines that can scan and copy anything)
Reprogramming people’s minds
Uploading our minds (personalities, memories, etc) into supercomputers.

Game 3 - Networking Game


This is a game where students can practice their small talk skills, and see how
networking works in real life.
Explain to the students that they are at a party, and each one will get a certain
character they have to play. Then explain what networking is and how it is a great
source of making acquaintances, getting information, and even getting jobs. It is a
very common practice in the US.
Cut strips such as each strip has one character on it and distribute them to the
students. If one student does not have a match, the teacher can take on one of the
roles.
Tell the students they are going to a party and they do not know anyone. The goal
is to talk to as many people as possible, until they find the person who has the
same interests/ jobs as their own, and who can help them.
Tell the students to start with some small talk, and gradually move into talks about
their jobs. As the party progresses, some students can direct the others to talk to the
person with the same interest. The teacher should mingle as well and listen in to
conversations, and encourage students to mingle and not to stay by themselves.

55
Students will see how small talk, being friendly, and talking to as many people as
possible can lead to getting the information they need for their jobs.
What is Networking?
network n. & v. a group of people who exchange information, contacts, and
experience for professional or social purposes. (The Oxford Dictionary), To
interact or engage in informal communication with others for mutual assistance or
support.
It is a known fact that some of the best jobs aren't listed anywhere except in the
mental catalogues of CEOs and managers.
So how do you apply for jobs that aren't advertised anywhere, which exist only in
the seemingly inaccessible minds of working America's movers and shakers? You
meet people who might have insight into your job search. You talk to people who
know people who could help you out. You chat it up with strangers at parties. You
cold-call people you've read about in the newspaper. You write cordial letters to
prominent community leaders. You cultivate an arsenal of contacts. In short, you
network.

1. You are the CEO of a startup company in New York. Your company is
going really well, and you are looking to hire. You are interested in smart
computer programmers.
2. You are a student at CUNY. You study Computer Programming, and love it.
You have some experience from internships, but you need more. You really
hope to get a job after you graduate in June. You are the first in your class,
and will graduate with honors. You want to work for a small company, not a
big one!
3. You are a Math teacher, who recently moved to New York. You are looking
for a job in a small private school or tutoring school. You are very talented,
and got great references.
4. You were offered a job at Microsoft a few years ago, but you did not take it
because of family reasons. Now you regret your decision. You cannot get in
touch with your recruiter at Microsoft, and do not know anyone who works
there. You would like to meet someone who works at Microsoft, and maybe
send them your resume.
5. You are a software engineer (computer programmer) at Microsoft. Microsoft
hires a lot of people through internal referrals, so you do not mind when
people give you their resumes. Actually Microsoft will pay you a fee if they
hire that person, so it is in your best interest to refer people.

56
Таблица неправильных английских глаголов
PAST
VERB PAST SIMPLE ПЕРЕВОД
PARTICIPLE
Возникать,
arise [ə'raiz] arose [ə'rəuz] arisen [ə'riz(ə)n]
происходить
awake [ə'weik] awoke [ə'wəuk] awoken [ə'wəukən] Будить, проснуться
was [wɔz], were
be [bi:] been [bi:n] Быть
[wз:]
beat [bi:t] beat [bi:t] beaten ['bi:tn] Бить
became
become [bi:kʌm] become[bi:kʌm] Становиться
[bi:keim]
begin [bi'gin] began [bi'gæn] begun [bi'gʌn] Начинать
bet [bet] bet [bet] bet [bet] Поспорить
break [breik] broke [brouk] broken ['brouk(e)n] Ломать
bring [briŋ] brought [brɔ:t] brought [brɔ:t] Приносить
build [bild] built [bilt] built [bilt] Строить
burn [bз:n] burnt [bз:nt] burnt [bз:nt] Гореть
buy [bai] bought [bɔ:t] bought [bɔ:t] Покупать
catch [kætʃ] caught [kɔ:t] caught [kɔ:t] Ловить, хватать.
choose [tʃu:z] chose [ʃəuz] chosen [tʃəuz(ə)n] Выбирать
come [kʌm] came [keim] come [kʌm] Приходить
cost [kɔst] cost [kɔst] cost [kɔst] Стоить
cut [kʌt] cut [kʌt] cut [kʌt] Резать
deal [di:l] dealt [dɛlt] dealt [dɛlt] Иметь дело
dig [dɪg] dug [dʌg] dug [dʌg] Копать
do [du:] did [did] done [dʌn] Делать
draw [drɔ:] drew [dru:] drawn [drɔ:n] Рисовать, тащить
dream [dri:m] dreamt [dremt] dreamt [dremt] Мечтать, дремать
drink [driŋk] drank [dræŋk] drunk [drʌŋk] Пить
drive [draiv] drove [drouv] driven ['drivn] Водить
eat [i:t] ate [eit] eaten ['i:tn] Есть
fall [fɔ:l] fell [fel] fallen ['fɔ:lən] Падать
feel [fi:l] felt [felt] felt [felt] Чувствовать
fight [fait] fought [fɔ:t] fought [fɔ:t] Бороться

57
find [faind] found [faund] found [faund] Находить
fly [flai] flew [flu:] flown [floun] Летать
forbade
forbid [fə’bɪd] forbidden [fəbɪdn] Запрещать
[fə’beɪd]
forgotten
forget [fə'get] forgot [fə'gɔt] Забывать
[fə'gɔt(ə)n]
forgave
forgive [fo'giv] forgiven [fo'givn] Прощать
[fo'geiv]
freeze [fri:z] froze [frouz] frozen ['frouzn] Замерзать
get [get] got [gɔt] got [gɔt] Получать
give [giv] gave [geiv] given [givn] Давать
go [gou] went [went] gone [gɔn] Идти
grow [grou] grew [gru:] grown [groun] Расти
hang [hæŋ] hung [hʌŋ] hung [hʌŋ] Вешать
have [hæv] had [hæd] had [hæd] Иметь
hear [hiə] heard [hз:d] heard [hз:d] Слышать
hide [haid] hid [hid] hidden ['hidn] Прятать
hold [hould] held [held] held [held] Держать
hurt [hз:t] hurt [hз:t] hurt [hз:t] Ушибить
input [‘ɪnpʊt] input [‘ɪnpʊt] input [‘ɪnpʊt] Ввести, вводить
keep [ki:p] kept [kept] kept [kept] Содержать
know [nou] knew [nju:] known [noun] Знать
lay [lei] laid [leid] laid [leid] Класть
lead [li:d] led [led] led [led] Вести
learn [lз:n] learnt [lз:nt] learnt [lз:nt] Учить
leave [li:v] left [left] left [left] Оставлять
lend [lend] lent [lent] lent [lent] Занимать
let [let] let [let] let [let] Позволять
lie [lai] lay [lei] lain [lein] Лежать
lose [lu:z] lost [lɔst] lost [lɔst] Терять
make [meik] made [meid] made [meid] Производить
mean [mi:n] meant [ment] meant [ment] Значить
meet [mi:t] met [met] met [met] Встречать
overcome overcame overcome Преодолеть,
[əʊvə’kʌm] [əʊvə’keɪm] [əʊvə’kʌm] побороть

58
pay [pei] paid [peid] paid [peid] Платить
prove [pru:v] proved [pru:vd] proven [pru:vn] Доказывать
put [put] put [put] put [put] Положить
quit [kwit] quit [kwit] quit [kwit] Выходить
read [ri:d] read [red] read [red] Читать
relayed Передавать,
relay [rɪ’leɪ] relayed [rɪ’leɪd]
[rɪ’leɪd] транслировать
ring [riŋ] rang [ræŋ] rung [rʌŋ] Звенеть
run [rʌŋ] ran [ræŋ] run [rʌŋ] Бежать
sawed [sɔ:d]/ sawn
saw [sɔ:] sawed [sɔ:d] Пилить, распилить
[sɔ:n]
say [sei] said [sed] said [sed] Говорить
see [si:] saw [sɔ:] seen [si:n] Видеть
seek [si:k] sought [sɔ:t] sought [sɔ:t] Искать
sell [sel] sold [sould] sold [sould] Продавать
send [send] sent [sent] sent [sent] Посылать
set [set] set [set] set [set] Ставить
Стрелять,
shoot [ʃu:t] shot [ʃɒt] shot [ʃɒt]
фотографировать
show [ʃəu] showed [ʃəud] shown [ʃəun] Показывать
shut [ʃʌt] shut [ʃʌt] shut [ʃʌt] Закрывать
sing [siŋ] sang [sæŋ] sung [sʌŋ] Петь
sit [sit] sat [sæt] sat [sæt] Сидеть
sleep [sli:p] slept [slept] slept [slept] Спать
speak [spi:k] spoke [spouk] spoken ['spouk(e)n] Говорить
speed [spi:d] sped [spɛd] sped [spɛd] Спешить, мчаться
Произносить по
spell [spel] spelt [spelt] spelt [spelt]
буквам
spend [spend] spent [spent] spent [spent] Тратить
spring [spriŋ] sprang [spræŋ] sprung [sprʌŋ] Прыгать
stand [stænd] stood [stu:d] stood [stu:d] Стоять
swim [swim] swam [swem] swum [swʌm] Плавать
take [teik] took [tuk] taken ['teik(ə)n] Брать, взять
teach [ti:tʃ] taught [tɔ:t] taught [tɔ:t] Учить

59
tell [tel] told [tould] told [tould] Рассказывать
think [θiŋk] thought [θɔ:t] thought [θɔ:t] Думать
understand understood understood
Понимать
[ʌndə'stænd] [ʌndə'stud] [ʌndə'stud]
write [rait] wrote [rout] written ['ritn] Писать

60
Список использованной литературы
1. Evans V. Career paths. Electronics/ V. Evans, J. Dooley. M; Express
publishing, 2014. – 40 p.
2. Бим М.М. English grammar for computer science students/ М.М. Бим, Л.И.
Бушмелева, Л.К. Дворецкая, А.Ю. Илютина, О.Н. Коновалова, М.А.
Круглова, О.И. Опарина, Л.Б. Саратовская, О.Н. Фадеева. М.:
Московский Государственный Университет им. М.В. Ломоносова,
Факультет вычислительной математики и кибернетики, 2010. – 268 с.
3. Гольцова Е.В. Английский язык для пользователей ПК и
программистов: Самоучитель/ Е.В. Гольцова. – СПб.: Учитель и
ученик, КОРОНА принт, 2012. – 480 с.
4. Ильченко В.В. Всё об английском глаголе. Полный справочник в
таблицах и схемах/ В.В. Ильченко, М. : Эксмо, 2014. – 224 с.
5. Камянова Т.Г. Сборник упражнений к основным правилам английской
грамматики для школьников. English Grammar Rules & Exercises/ Т.Г.
Камянова М.: Эксмо, 2016, – 432 с.
6. Карлова Т.М. English grammar for technical students. / Т.М. Карлова,
Сыктывкар: Сыктывкарский Лесной Институт (филиал)
государственного образовательного учреждения высшего
профессионального образования «Санкт-Петербургская
Государственная Академия им. С.М. Кирова», 2004. – 177 с.
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Учебное издание

П. А. Ярышева

ACROSS TECHNOLOGY

Учебное пособие по грамматике и чтению


для студентов технических направлений

Редактор: Т. С. Ильина
Корректор: И. Л. Гончарова

Принято редакционно-издательским советом № 2 от 07.11.2017,


подписано в печать 18.11.2017,
п. л. 3,9, заказ № 143, 63 стр., электронная версия – 614 Кб

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