Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 68

NCSA Telnet

for the Macintosh™


Version 2.2
July 1988

UD-98
US-13
TABLE OF CONTENTS

INTRODUCTION
Purpose of NCSA Telnet ix
Special Features ix
System Requirements ix
Use of This Manual x
Organization of This Manual x
Manual Contents x
Notational Conventions in This Manual xi
Installation Note xi

CHAPTER 1: STARTING AND QUITTING NCSA TELNET


Chapter Overview 1.1
Starting the Program 1.1
Opening a Connection 1.1
Setting a Terminal Type 1.3
Opening Multiple Sessions 1.4
The Connections Menu 1.4
Aborting Connection Attempts 1.5
Quitting NCSA Telnet 1.5

CHAPTER 2: SPECIAL KEYBOARD USAGE


Chapter Overview 2.1
Keyboard Usage 2.1
Command Keys Option 2.1
Option Key for Control 2.1
Remapping the Backquote Key to ESC 2.1
Standard VT102 Keys 2.2
Macro Keys 2.3
Entering Macro Key Sequences 2.3
Abandoning an In-Process Change 2.3

1/21/11
iv Table of Contents

CHAPTER 3: ADVANCED FEATURES


Chapter Overview 3.1
Introduction to Saved Sets 3.1
Saving Your Configuration 3.1
Using a Saved Set 3.1
The Configuration Dialog Box 3.2
Window Name 3.2
Number of Columns 3.2
Backspace versus Delete 3.3
Tektronix Clear Screen 3.3
Return Sends 3.4
Echo Mode 3.4
Scrollback 3.4
The Network Menu 3.4
Send FTP Command ( -F) 3.5
Send IP Number ( -I) 3.5
Telnet Options 3.5
Suspend Network 3.5
Show Network Numbers 3.6
Configure Network 3.6
The Session Menu 3.6
Backspace or Delete 3.7
Local Echo 3.7
Clear Screen Saves Lines 3.7
Reset Terminal 3.7
Jump Scroll 3.7
Font 3.8
Size 3.8
Color 3.8
The Preferences Dialog Box 3.10
Copy Table Threshold 3.10
Command Keys 3.11
Option Key Remapped to Control 3.11
Remap Backquote to ESCape 3.11
MacBinary 3.11
Reset MacBinary for Each FTP 3.11

National Center for Supercomputing Applications


Table of Contents v

Window Don't Go Away on Close 3.12

CHAPTER 4: FILE TRANSFER


Chapter Overview 4.1
Terminology 4.1
File Transfer Procedure Using FTP 4.2
Prerequisites 4.2
Invoking FTP on the Host Computer 4.2
FTP Commands 4.3
MacBinary File Transfers 4.6
Additional Information About FTP 4.7
File Transfer Indicator 4.7
FTP Log 4.7
Background File Transfer 4.8

CHAPTER 5: TEKTRONIX 4014 EMULATION


Chapter Overview 5.1
Starting and Quitting Graphics Emulation 5.1
Graphics Window Operations 5.2
Detaching a Graphics Window 5.2
Deleting a Graphics Window 5.2
Zooming/Unzooming a Graphics Window 5.2
Copying a Graphics Window 5.2
Printing a Graphics Window 5.4

1/21/11
vi Table of Contents

CHAPTER 6: SYSTEM ADMINISTRATOR INFORMATION


Chapter Overview 6.1
Configure Network Parameters Dialog Box 6.1
Internet Number Assignment 6.1
Subnetting 6.3
NCSA Telnet Settings File 6.4
The Configuration File 6.4
Overview of the Configuration File 6.4
Placement of the Configuration File 6.4
Syntax for Entries in the Configuration File 6.4
Macintosh Information Entries in the Configuration File 6.5
Host-Specific Parameters of the Configuration File 6.7
Converting UNIX /etc/hosts Files 6.10
Hardware Options 6.11
Combined Network Drivers 6.11
Performance Tuning 6.11
Domain Name Lookup 6.12
Domain Search Order 6.12
Default Domain 6.12
FTP Password Protection 6.13
Compatibility 6.13
Ping 6.13
VT102 6.13
ICMP Redirects 6.13
FTP 6.13
Telnet 6.14
Limitations 6.14
Switcher or MultiFinder 6.14

National Center for Supercomputing Applications


Table of Contents vii

APPENDIX A: ERROR CONDITIONS

APPENDIX B: NCSA TELNET MENUS

APPENDIX C: CODE TO CONVERT /ETC/HOSTS FILES

BUGS AND SUGGESTIONS

FIGURES AND TABLES

Figure 1.1. NCSA Telnet Icon 1.1


Figure 1.2. NCSA Telnet for the Macintosh Copyright Message 1.2
Figure 1.3. Sample Session Entry 1.2
Figure 1.4. File Menu 1.4
Figure 1.5. Connections Menu 1.5
Figure 1.6 Connection Status Box 1.5
Figure 1.7. Close Connection Dialog Box 1.6
Figure 2.1. Macro Configuration Dialog Box 2.3
Figure 3.1. NCSA Telnet Set Icon 3.1
Figure 3.2. Configuration Dialog Box 3.3
Figure 3.3. Network Menu 3.5
Figure 3.4. Session Menu 3.6
Figure 3.5. Color Selection Dialog Box 3.9
Figure 3.6. Macintosh Color Picker Dialog Box 3.9
Figure 3.7. Preferences Dialog Box 3.10
Figure 4.1. Put to the Macintosh, ASCII File 4.5
Figure 4.2. Get from the Macintosh, Binary File 4.6
Figure 4.3. File Transfer Cursor Icon 4.7
Figure 4.4. Sample FTP Log 4.7
Figure 5.1. Normal Tektronix Image 5.3
Figure 5.2. Zoomed Tektronix Image 5.3
Figure 6.1. Configure Network Parameters Dialog Box 6.2

1/21/11
viii Table of Contents

Figure 6.2. Displaying the Same Information in Different Entry Formats


6.5
Figure A.1. Options for Operation When a Configuration File Cannot Be
Found A.2
Figure B.1. File Menu Options B.1
Figure B.2. Edit Menu Options B.2
Figure B.3. Session Menu Options B.2
Figure B.4. Network Menu Options B.3
Figure B.5. Connection Menu B.3

Table 2.1. Macintosh Keys Used for VT102 Terminal Emulation 2.2
Table 2.2. Common Macro Key Combinations 2.4
Table 4.1. Common FTP Commands 4.4
Table 6.1. Ethernet Values for Hardware Options Supported by NCSA
Telnet 6.11

National Center for Supercomputing Applications


INTRODUCTION

PURPOSE OF NCSA TELNET

NCSA Telnet for the Macintosh version 2.2 provides interactive access from a
Macintosh to telnet hosts on TCP/IP networks. NCSA Telnet is an implementation
of DARPA standard telnet with added features.

SPECIAL FEATURES

Special features of NCSA Telnet for the Macintosh include:

• VT102 emulation
• Simultaneous logon to a number of computers
• File transfer server (standard FTP)
• Tektronix 4014 emulation
• Domain name lookup
• Scrollback with ability to print, copy
• User-defined macro keys
• Customized window arrangement facility

SYSTEM REQUIREMENTS

The software required to run NCSA Telnet for the Macintosh Version 2.2 is a
standard Macintosh system (Version 4.2 or later). You must have one of the
following hardware configurations:
• Macintosh II, Plus, or SE, with Ether SC connected to Ethernet
• Macintosh II with EtherTalk connected to Ethernet
• Macintosh SE with EtherPort SE connected to Ethernet
• Macintosh II with EtherPort II connected to Ethernet
• Macintosh Plus, Macintosh SE, or Macintosh II connected to AppleTalk and a
Kinetics FastPath that connects AppleTalk to Ethernet

USE OF THIS MANUAL

1/21/11
x NCSA Telnet for the Macintosh

This section describes the organization of this manual, and the conventions and
nomenclature used in developing it. Before using NCSA Telnet, you should be
familiar with the Macintosh user interface. If you have not used the Macintosh
before, refer to the owner's guide that came with your Macintosh before using this
package.

Organization of This Manual

This manual is organized into six chapters and three appendixes. Each page of each
chapter is given a unique number that consists of the chapter number, a period, and
the number of that individual page (beginning with the first page of the chapter).
For example, page 2.3 is the third page of the second chapter. Each chapter is
divided into sections, and most sections are divided into subsections.

Manual Contents

This manual is organized into the following chapters and appendixes:

Chapter 1, "Starting and Quitting NCSA Telnet," describes how to start the
program, open a connection with a remote host, and quit the program.

Chapter 2, "Special Keyboard Usage," explains how to use the Macintosh keyboard
with NCSA Telnet.

Chapter 3, "Advanced Features," discusses saving sets, changing configurations,


selecting user preferences, and the Session and Network menu options.

Chapter 4, "File Transfer," explains how to transfer files between a Macintosh and
any FTP host on the network.

Chapter 5, "Tektronix 4014 Emulation," describes how to use the graphics


capabilities of NCSA Telnet.

Chapter 6, "System Administrator Information," contains information for


experienced users on installing and customizing a system.

Appendix A, "Error Conditions," lists the causes and solutions for NCSA Telnet's
error conditions.

Appendix B, "NCSA Telnet Menus," lists the program's various menus.

Appendix C, "Code to Convert /etc/hosts Files," contains information for converting


UNIX /etc/hosts files to NCSA Telnet's configuration file format.
Notational Conventions in This Manual

dothis Information shown in courier bold type represents user entries.

-key Press and hold the key and then press the key designated by
key. Release both keys at the same time.

National Center for Supercomputing Applications


Introduction xi

CONTROL-key Same as notation for -key. Press CONTROL or OPTION down


OPTION-key together with the key indicated by key, then release them at
the
same time.

variable Do not enter the actual characters shown. Command line


characters shown in lowercase courier bold italic type represent
an entry that may consist of different characters every time you
make the entry. In other words, it is a variable entry. If it
indicates a machine response, it means the actual wording of the
response will vary, depending on the filename, machinename,
and so on.

... Do not enter an ellipsis. The ellipsis indicates that you may
enter more material similar to the material preceding the
ellipsis.

[ ] Do not enter square brackets. Material or actions presented


between the square brackets are optional and should be entered
only in certain cases.

INSTALLATION NOTE

This manual assumes that NCSA Telnet has been installed on your system by a
system or network administrator who has assigned an IP address to your Macintosh.
Chapter 6 contains information to be used by system administrators and other
experienced users to install and customize NCSA Telnet.

1/21/11
CHAPTER 1

STARTING AND QUITTING NCSA


TELNET

CHAPTER OVERVIEW

This chapter is about using NCSA Telnet to open and close a connection between your
Macintosh and a remote host. It describes how to start the program, establish
connections, and quit NCSA Telnet.

STARTING THE PROGRAM

You run NCSA Telnet for the Macintosh from the Finder, just as you do any other
Macintosh application. Double-click on the NCSA Telnet icon, shown in Figure 1.1.
While the program initializes the network and configuration, the copyright
message (Figure 1.2) will remain on the screen. When it disappears, there are no
connections open and the screen is blank except for the five pull-down menus listed
across the top: File, Edit, Session, Network, and Connections.

Figure 1.1. NCSA Telnet Icon

Opening a Connection

To open a connection to a telnet host, select Open Connection from the File menu.
The connection dialog box appears, prompting you to indicate a session name and the
name of the window. In Figure 1.3, the session name is newton.

1/21/11
1.2 NCSA Telnet for the Macintosh

The National Center for Supercomputing Applications


at The University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign Presents:

NCSA Telnet for the Macintosh

Version 2.2 (7/2/88)

Figure 1.2. NCSA Telnet for the Macintosh Copyright Message

ENTERING SESSION NAMES

Session names are generally the same as hostnames. This means that if you type a
hostname, a session will be opened with that host. You can have multiple session
names for a given host. See Chapter 6 for more information on creating customized
sessions.

Figure 1.3. Sample Session Entry

INDICATING THE SESSION NAME

Session names can be indicated in four ways.

1. Any host or session name that is in the configuration file can be used. (See your
system administrator.)

National Center for Supercomputing Applications


Starting and Quitting NCSA Telnet 1.3

2. NCSA Telnet can be configured (by the system administrator) to use the domain-
based nameserver to look up hostnames. Any name that can be resolved by the
domain nameserver can be used. An example is sri-nic.arpa.

3. You can use the full Internet number of the machine, such as 192.17.22.20.

4. If the destination machine is on the same Ethernet as the Macintosh (in the case
of EtherTalk) or the gateway (in the case of LocalTalk), you can enter a pound
sign (#), followed by the host number it uses on your Ethernet. The host number is
determined by the class of addressing and the subnet mask (which your system
administrator can determine for you). For example, if your Macintosh is machine
192.17.22.20, you can access host 192.17.22.30 by entering #30.

INDICATING A WINDOW NAME

NCSA Telnet will allow you to have separate window titles and session names,
thus allowing you to rename your windows to something more appropriate. To
change the window title, type the name in the Window Name box.

RESPONSE TIME OF THE HOST

NCSA Telnet attempts to make a connection with the named host. Usually the
connection is instantaneous, and the host machine prompts you for a user name
immediately. However, the connection attempt may take several seconds. Even
after the connection has been established, if a remote host is heavily loaded it may
take additional time (up to two minutes) for the host to prompt you for a user name.

Once the connection is established, the session name in the Connections menu will
become checked, and the window will appear. From this point on, NCSA Telnet
operates as a VT102 remotely connected to the host.

Setting a Terminal Type

NCSA Telnet emulates a VT102 terminal. When you log on to a host, the host
operating system does not always know what type of terminal you are using. Consult
the operating system manual for the host you will be using for instructions on setting
the terminal type. Try setting it to vt100 or vt102. For systems that do not support
VT102 (such as many UNIX systems), use vt100 or tab132 (compatible with VT102
emulators).

The examples here show how to set the terminal type for two popular operating
systems, UNIX (using the C- shell) and VAX/VMS.

newton% set term=vt100;tset For UNIX hosts.


B$ set term /inq For VAX/VMS hosts.

1/21/11
1.4 NCSA Telnet for the Macintosh

OPENING MULTIPLE SESSIONS

To use the multiple session capabilities of NCSA Telnet, select Open Connection
in the File menu (Figure 1.4) again and enter another session name; another window
appears on the screen. To switch between active sessions, either click on the window
or select the desired connection name from the Connections menu (Figure 1.5). Or, if
you are using command key mode and you want the next session on your desktop,
press -N (for next). This action makes the window below the current session the
active one.

Figure 1.4. File Menu

NOTE: If you want to make a session active without having that window uppermost
on your desktop, hold down the OPTION key while selecting it from the
Connections menu.

CAUTION ABOUT INCOMING TEXT IN MULTIPLE WINDOWS

Although NCSA Telnet successfully handles incoming text in multiple windows at


once, we recommend that windows with simultaneously incoming text only be
overlapped horizontally. Vertical gaps between overlayed windows can cause
dramatic degradation in text output performance for the windows that are behind.

The Connections Menu

To check on the status of a connection, select the Connections menu (Figure 1.5). If
a connection name has either a diamond ( ) or a circle (•) next to it, the connection
is not currently open. The diamond ( ) means NCSA Telnet is checking the
nameserver, trying to find the session name or hostname. The circle (•) means NCSA
Telnet is trying to open the session. When a connection is established, the indicator
next to the name will go away, and the window will appear. Further, if you do not
remember these symbols and their meanings, you may select the connection in
question from the Connections menu and the Connection Status dialog box (Figure

National Center for Supercomputing Applications


Starting and Quitting NCSA Telnet 1.5

1.6) will appear with the name of the connection, the status of the connection, and
two buttons which allow you to continue with the connection attempt or abort it.

Figure 1.5. Connections Menu

Aborting Connection Attempts

To abort a connection attempt, or to get a more descriptive message about the


connection's status before a connection is made, select the Connections menu option
that corresponds to the session in question. When the Connection Status dialog box
(Figure 1.6) appears, the name of the session and its status will be presented along
with the Abort and OK buttons. Use the Abort button to abort the connection
attempt or the OK button to dispatch the dialog box.

Figure 1.6. Connection Status Box

QUITTING NCSA TELNET

To close a connection, log out of each host using the procedure for that system. If you
are unable to log out of a host, select Close Connection from the File menu (shown
in Figure 1.4) or if you are using retained windows, click in the close box, either of
which will present a dialog box (Figure 1.7) allowing you to confirm closing the
connection forcibly.

1/21/11
1.6 NCSA Telnet for the Macintosh

Figure 1.7. Close Connection Dialog Box

Finally, select Quit from the File menu.

NOTE: Telnet will allow you to select Quit from the File menu at any time during
the program's execution, but it is strongly advised that you log out of each system
before using the Quit option. If you attempt to quit when there are connections open,
you will be prompted for confirmation of this action and if you select OK, all
connections will be forcibly closed and the program will quit.

National Center for Supercomputing Applications


CHAPTER 2

SPECIAL KEYBOARD USAGE

CHAPTER OVERVIEW

This chapter discusses special uses of the Macintosh keyboard with NCSA Telnet.
The chapter describes VT102 keyboard emulation and how to define and use macros.

KEYBOARD USAGE
The interpretation of the command, option, and backquote keys can be manipulated
from the Preferences dialog box. Select the Preferences option in the Edit menu to
activate this dialog box.

Command Keys Option

By checking the Command Keys option in the Preferences dialog box, you will have
access to the command key equivalents listed on the individual menus. When you
are in this mode, note that will not translate to CONTROL. More information
about the Preferences dialog box is provided in Chapter 3.

Option Key for Control

By checking the Option key remapped to control option in the Preferences


dialog box, you can use the OPTION key as CONTROL, regardless of whether you
have Command Keys toggled on or off. More information about the Preferences
dialog box is provided in Chapter 3.

Remapping the Backquote Key to ESC

By checking the Remap Backquote to ESCape option in the Preferences dialog


box, you can use the BACKQUOTE key to send the ASCII character ESC. With this
option off, only the ESC key is available for that purpose, but with it on, the
BACKQUOTE cannot be sent without using the or OPTION keys. More
information about the Preferences dialog box is provided in Chapter 3.

1/21/11
2.2 NCSA Telnet for the Macintosh

Standard VT102 Keys

Table 2.1 lists the Macintosh keys to use for VT102 terminal emulation. Note that
the numeric keypad on the Macintosh is positionally identical to that of the
VT102, although the labels differ. If you are accustomed to typing on a VT102
keypad, you can ignore the Macintosh labels and type as usual.

Table 2.1. Macintosh Keys Used for VT102 Terminal Emulation

MacPlus Apple Desktop


To Send a VT102 Key Keyboard Bus Keyboard

BACKQUOTE -BACKQUOTE or † -BACKQUOTE or


OPTION-BACKQUOTE OPTION-
BACKQUOTE †

ESC†† BACKQUOTE ESC or BACKQUOTE

DELETE††† BACKSPACE DELETE or DEL

BACKSPACE††† -BACKSPACE or † -DELETE or †


OPTION-BACKSPACE OPTION-DELETE

LINE FEED CONTROL-J CONTROL-J

PF1 Clear on keypad Clear on keypad (or F1)

PF2 \ on keypad \ on keypad (or F2)

PF3 = on keypad = on keypad (or F3)

PF4 * on keypad * on keypad (or F4)

CONTROL-SPACE(NUL) OPTION-SPACE CONTROL-SPACE


OPTION-SPACE

Keypad keys Keypad keys Keypad keys

†Use of or OPTION key depends on setting of Command Keys option in the


Preferences dialog box.
††Use of Backquote as ESC is governed by the setting of the Remap Backquote to
ESC option in the Preferences dialog box.
†††See the discussion of Backspace and Delete in Chapter 3.

MACRO KEYS

NCSA Telnet for the Macintosh allows the use of the key combinations 0 through
9 as macro keys. These keys can be programmed to send from 0 to 255 characters

National Center for Supercomputing Applications


Special Keyboard Usage 2.3

when you press them. Select the Set Macros option from the Edit menu to activate
the dialog box from which the macros for each key may be set. Figure 2.1 shows the
Macro Configuration dialog box.

Entering Macro Key Sequences

The key sequences used to generate special control characters in the macros may
seem somewhat strange, unless you are familiar with the C programming language.
Each special character must begin with a backslash (\). Nontypable control
characters are indicated with octal numbers. Table 2.2 shows some common
characters you might enter.

Figure 2.1. Macro Configuration Dialog Box

Abandoning an In-Process Change

While you are in the Set Macros dialog box (Figure 2.1), if you want to abandon your
in-process change and revert to a key's previous setting, select the button in the
dialog box that corresponds to the macro you are editing. If you want to abandon all
of the changes that you have made so far, click on the Cancel button.

Table 2.2. Common Macro Key Combinations

Desired Character Typed Characters

BACKSLASH (\) \\

TAB \t

CR LF \r or \n

1/21/11
2.4 NCSA Telnet for the Macintosh

ESC \033

CONTROL-C \03 or \003

CONTROL-D \04 or \004

CONTROL-E \05 or \005

CONTROL-H or BACKSPACE \010

National Center for Supercomputing Applications


CHAPTER 3

ADVANCED FEATURES

CHAPTER OVERVIEW

This chapter covers some more advanced aspects of the NCSA Telnet working
environment. It describes saved sets, how to change the configuration selections,
how to change user preference options, and the Session and Network menu options.

INTRODUCTION TO SAVED SETS

A set consists of the current macro settings and each session's window location and
size, connected host, window name, scrollback setting, color, font, size, and
backspace/delete setting.

Figure 3.1. NCSA Telnet Set Icon

Saving Your Configuration

In some previous versions of NCSA Telnet for the Macintosh, nondefault settings
were made by selecting menu items in the program and had to be selected again
every time you ran the program. Version 2.2 saves current session settings when you
use the Save Set option from the File menu so that they can be recalled later with
the Load Set option.

Using a Saved Set

With the settings saved, you can use the Load Set option (also from the File menu)
to open a later session with those settings. You can also load a saved set by double-
clicking on the icon for the set datafile. This is the preferred way to launch NCSA
Telnet. Figure 3.1 shows an NCSA Telnet Set Icon.

NOTE: The settings can be edited with any editor that can edit files that are not of
operating system type TEXT.

1/21/11
3.2 NCSA Telnet for the Macintosh

THE CONFIGURATION DIALOG BOX

Figure 3.2 shows the Configuration dialog box. This is what you will see if you press
the Configure button in the dialog box that appears when you first open a connection
with Open Connection.

Window Name

The name you give the session will be used as the window title, unless you designate
a specific window name. Use the Window Name box to enter a new name for this
window. (The window name can also be changed in the Open Connection dialog box.)

Number of Columns

The column setting can be either 80 or 132. Note that if you don't see all of the
columns at one time, you must use the scrollbars to scroll the window horizontally
and see the remaining columns.

Figure 3.2. Configuration Dialog Box

Backspace versus Delete

NCSA Telnet automatically translates BACKSPACE/DELETE keypresses into


Delete codes, for compatibility with systems that prefer the use of Delete to
Backspace. If you find that your backspaces are not being accepted, the host you are

National Center for Supercomputing Applications


Advanced Features 3.3

using may only accept the Backspace, rather than the Delete code that NCSA
Telnet usually sends. To test this possibility, change the setting on this line by
clicking on the Backspace button. This will reset the default translation so the
BACKSPACE/DELETE key functions as Backspace. If the result is that your
backspaces are accepted, then the host does prefer Backspace to Delete.

The Backspace/Delete change can also be made from the Session menu, discussed
later in this chapter. If you will be dealing with this host frequently, you may
want to save your Backspace/Delete setting, using Save Set. Alternatively, your
system administrator can "permanently" reset the Backspace function for this
session or for all sessions, using the configuration file as described in Chapter 6.

Tektronix Clear Screen

The default setting for this option is Clears Screen. This means that if you are
using Tektronix drawing mode and a clear screen code is received, the screen will be
cleared and any drawing on the screen will be overwritten. If you select Creates
Window, a new window will be created for any new image being generated, and the
contents of the screen you are on will not be erased. Each new screen created in this
way will have as its name the session name and time.

1/21/11
3.4 NCSA Telnet for the Macintosh

Return Sends

Using this option, you can change the type of end-of-line marker sent by the
Macintosh. This is for compatibility with 4.2/4.3 BSD UNIX systems. The default
is to send CRLF (carriage return followed by line feed), but you can select CR-NUL if
that is needed by the host.

Echo Mode

This selection is meaningless unless you are using local echo mode, set in the Session
menu (see later in this chapter). Local echo mode can work in two ways. The
characters that you type can be buffered locally and sent when you press RETURN,
or sent immediately as you type each one. Sending characters immediately is known
as half duplex.

NOTE: Characters are always sent when control characters (including tab and
return) are typed.

Scrollback

The checked box in front of Scrollback indicates that you have selected the
scrollback feature. The corresponding box allows you to change the number of lines
saved. The default is usually 120 lines, although this may have been changed by
your system administrator in the configuration file. If you make a setting here and
then save this configuration using Save Set, the number of lines indicated here will
be saved as part of that set.

NOTE: Scrollback uses memory, so be sure to set watch your memory consumption if
you use a lot of scrollback.

THE NETWORK MENU

Figure 3.3 shows the Network menu. The options of this menu are discussed here.
Note that the -key equivalents listed for each option are only available if you
have selected Command Keys from the Preferences dialog box.

National Center for Supercomputing Applications


Advanced Features 3.5

Figure 3.3. Network Menu

Send FTP Command ( F)


-

This command is used to begin a file transfer operation. See Chapter 4 for details.

Send IP Number ( I)
-

In some cases, you need to send your internet address to a remote host. This command
sends the number to the remote system as if you had typed it at the keyboard.

Telnet Options

These five options listed are special telnet codes:

Send "Are You There?" /


Send "Abort Output" A
Send "Interrupt Process" Y
Send "Erase Character" J
Send "Erase Line" U

Suspend Network

This option allows you to temporarily suspend all network communications. The
option disables all of the receive functions so that all of your connections are kept
alive, but you will not see any incoming text.

Show Network Numbers

1/21/11
3.6 NCSA Telnet for the Macintosh

If you need to see your AppleTalk address, IP number, Network Mask, or (for those
using EtherTalk) your Ethernet address, select Show Network Numbers. This is
merely a convenience for you; it does not transmit these numbers.

Configure Network

This option is only available when there are no active connections (that is, no
connections are open, none are pending, and you are not using FTP). If you select this
box, you will see the same Configure Network dialog box you see when you first
configure the program.

NOTE: The Configure Network option should only be used by system administrators
and knowledgeable users. For more information on the use of this box, consult
Chapter 6.

THE SESSION MENU

Figure 3.4 shows the Session menu. The options of this menu are discussed here. Note
that the -key equivalents listed for each option are only available if you have
selected Command Keys in the Preferences dialog box.

Figure 3.4. Session Menu

National Center for Supercomputing Applications


Advanced Features 3.7

Backspace or Delete

A checkmark will appear beside the ASCII code, Backspace or Delete, that will be
sent when the BACKSPACE/DELETE key is pressed. Select the option you want.
See the discussion of Backspace versus Delete earlier in this chapter and
summarized in Figure 2.1.

Local Echo

This option may have a check beside it, depending on whether local echo mode
(also called line mode) is in use. Some hosts force local echo mode automatically. If
local echo mode is not forced, you still may want to select it since it may improve
keyboard response time, but it should be used carefully since it is incompatible with
most full-screen editors.

Clear Screen Saves Lines

This option toggles between saving lines and erasing lines when the clear screen
code is received. If the option is checked, all lines currently displayed on the screen
will be scrolled into the scrollback region before the screen is cleared. If it is not
checked, the cleared lines will be gone forever when the screen is cleared.

Reset Terminal

Some host programs can accidentally set graphics mode or fail to leave graphics
mode. The reset terminal command will reset all VT102 mode settings. These
include turning off wrap mode, resetting graphics mode, setting the keypad mode
back to the default, and resetting tabs to every eight spaces. To reset the VT102
screen, select this option.

Jump Scroll

The Jump Scroll option causes the screen to "jump ahead" over scrolling text. The
text is placed into scrollback, but the screen update advances to the end of the local
network buffer instead of printing every line on the screen. The purpose of this
feature is to help you when you type a command which produces so many lines of
output that you don't want to wait for it to scroll by. Select Jump Scroll and the
screen will pause, then redraw at the end of the local buffer. This won't solve all of
the network buffering problems for interactive use, but it should help.

Font

This option allows you to change the font in which all text in the current window is
displayed. To the right of the menu item there is a triangle symbol which
symbolizes that there are hierarchical options to this menu. If you stop at the Font
option or drag to the right (over the triangle), another menu will appear, listing all

1/21/11
3.8 NCSA Telnet for the Macintosh

available fonts with a check-mark next to the current font. To select a new font, just
use the new menu as if it were a normal menu. When the new font has been selected,
the window will be resized so that it can contain all of the previous text in the new
font and then the text will be redrawn in its new font.

NOTE: Fonts which are proportionally spaced (most fonts except Courier and
Monaco) will display slowly and appear spread out.

Size

This option allows you to change the size of all text in the current window. To the
right of the menu item there is a triangle symbol which symbolizes that there are
hierarchical options to this menu. If you stop at the Size option or drag to the right
(over the triangle), another menu will appear, listing all available sizes with a
check-mark next to the current size and outlines around all sizes which are
specifically available. To select a new size, just use the new menu as if it were a
normal menu. When the new size has been selected, the window will be resized so
that it can contain all of the previous text in the new font size and the text will be
redrawn in its new size.

NOTE: Sizes which do not appear outlined in the menu must be scaled by the system
software and therefore may be slow and not as sharply defined as the outlined
sizes.

Color

This option only appears on Macintoshes which are color-capable (mostly Mac II's).
Select Color to change the foreground and background colors of the current window
for both normal text and blinking text. The color selection dialog box (Figure 3.5)
will appear which allows you to choose which color to edit. By clicking on any of
the four boxes on the right side, you can change the corresponding color. After a color
is selected, the standard Macintosh Color Picker dialog box (Figure 3.6) will
appear. This allows you to choose your color by moving the mouse or typing in the
color "coordinates." Further information about the Color Picker dialog box can be
found on page 4 of the Macintosh System Software Update User's Guide for System
Version 5.0.

National Center for Supercomputing Applications


Advanced Features 3.9

Figure 3.5. Color Selection Dialog Box

Figure 3.6. Macintosh Color Picker Dialog Box

THE PREFERENCES DIALOG BOX

1/21/11
3.10 NCSA Telnet for the Macintosh

Figure 3.7 shows the Preferences dialog box. This dialog is brought up when the
Preferences item is selected from the Edit menu. The options in this dialog allow
you to customize your own environment to suit your needs and habits. Although
preferences may be changed for this particular running of the program by making
changes and hitting the OK button, most often you will want to save the options
permanently by using the Save button before clicking on OK.

Figure 3.7. Preferences Dialog Box

Copy Table Threshold

The Copy Table Threshold value determines the number of spaces which, at a
minimum, will be replaced by tabs when using the Copy Table option from the Edit
menu. The Copy Table option is used for copying tables of data from the NCSA
Telnet screen onto the clipboard. If Copy Table is used instead of Copy, all strings of
contiguous spaces which are greater than the threshold are turned into tabs before
being placed into the clipboard. This results in a format which can be pasted into
most spreadsheets and graphing programs with no loss of data and no need to edit
the columns.

Command Keys

The Command Keys box is equivalent to the Command Keys item in the Emulation
menu of prior versions of NCSA Telnet. This option selects whether command keys
( -key combinations) will be available as menu equivalents (when checked), or if
the -key will be used as the CONTROL key (when not checked).

National Center for Supercomputing Applications


Advanced Features 3.11

Option Key Remapped to Control

Select the Option key remapped to control option if you want the OPTION
key to substitute for the CONTROL key. This option is most useful on machines such
as the Macintosh Plus, which has no control key of its own.

NOTE: If you are working on a Macintosh Plus and want to use the Command Keys
option, you should only do so in conjunction with the Option key remapped to control
option; otherwise you will not be able to generate control characters.

Remap Backquote to ESCape

This option selects whether the Backquote character (generated by the key labeled
[~/`] ) should send an ASCII ESC character when it is not shifted. In this mode,
sending a backquote may be done with the OPTION or keys in conjunction with an
unshifted [~/`] key. The use of the [~/`] key for sending a tilde is unchanged in
either state.

MacBinary

The MacBinary box selects the default setting for the MacBinary Enabled option in
the File menu. With this box checked, the MacBinary Enabled option (and
consequently MacBinary mode) will be selected by default when the application is
started. See Chapter 4 for more information on MacBinary mode.

Reset MacBinary for Each FTP

The Reset MacBinary for each FTP box selects whether the state of the
MacBinary Enabled option is to be returned to its default (specified in the
MacBinary box in this dialog) upon the initiation of an FTP session. This is most
useful if you want to ensure that MacBinary Enabled is never on by default when
you start an FTP, regardless of whether you enabled it in a previous FTP.

NOTE: "Each FTP" corresponds to establishing the FTP command connection and not
the individual file transfer.

Windows Don't Go Away on Close

This box selects whether windows will go away when the sessions they are
connected to are terminated. This new feature allows you to read, copy, and print
text which is in a window whose connection has been closed. To make the remaining
window go away, just click in the close box of that window.

When this feature is enabled and you click in the close box of a currently active
connection, it will have the same effect as using the Close Connection menu item and

1/21/11
3.12 NCSA Telnet for the Macintosh

then clicking on the close box (i.e., you will be prompted for confirmation of the
close action and then the session and the window will both go away).

National Center for Supercomputing Applications


CHAPTER 4

FILE TRANSFER

CHAPTER OVERVIEW

NCSA Telnet has an internal File Transfer Protocol (FTP) server that allows
reliable file transfers between a Macintosh and any FTP host on the network. File
transfers are initiated from the FTP host. Features of the NCSA Telnet
implementation of FTP are:

• Stream transfer in text format (ASCII) or binary format (IMAGE)


• Changing the directory (through menu option or remote command line)
• Printing the current directory
• Listing files in the current directory (with wildcard specifications)
• Sending and receiving multiple files with one command, using wildcards

TERMINOLOGY

The following terms are used in this chapter.

ASCII file, text file An ASCII or text file can be read by humans, and can be used
with standard editors on the Macintosh or host. When text
files are transferred, they are translated to a format
appropriate for the receiving machine.

Binary or IMAGE file A binary or IMAGE file cannot be read by humans. When
transferred, binary files are not changed in any way (unlike
text files).

Client/Server The client is the system that requests services and the
server is the system that provides them. The client is not
always your Macintosh, despite appearances. When you use
NCSA Telnet to connect to a host, your Macintosh is the
telnet client. When you request a file transfer from your
Macintosh, the transfer is actually initiated on the host,
making the host the FTP client and your Macintosh the FTP
server. So the Macintosh is a telnet client and an FTP server
at the same time.

File transfer In a file transfer, the contents of a file are copied to a file on
another computer.

1/21/11
4.2 NCSA Telnet for the Macintosh

MacBinary file A MacBinary file is a file which has been encoded in the
MacBinary file format. This means that the file contains
all of the information contained in a normal Macintosh file
and therefore can be used for transferring applications and
other Macintosh-specific files. These files are virtually
useless on any other machine, but are in a format that will
allow them to be stored for downloading to a Macintosh
later.

FILE TRANSFER USING FTP

Prerequisites

• The host system must support FTP file transfer. If you do not know whether it
does, see your system administrator.

• You must not have disabled the file transfer capability of NCSA Telnet. That is
done with the File menu (Chapter 3), or in the configuration file (Chapter 6). If
the file transfer capability has been switched off, when you attempt to start up
FTP, you will get a message from the host to the effect that the computer is not
responding. If you get such a message, check FTP Enable on the File menu to
make sure that it is enabled.

Invoking FTP on the Host Computer

FTP is initiated by the remote host, so the FTP commands vary, depending on the
host system. For full documentation of FTP and commands within FTP, you must
refer to the manuals for the host computer. With UNIX systems, you can see online
documentation by using the man ftp command.

THE FTP COMMAND

On most systems, the FTP command is entered at the prompt, with the name or IP
address of the target machine. For example, if your Mac is named "mymachine" and
your IP address is 192.17.20.22, then you might enter:

% ftp mymachine
or
% ftp 192.17.20.22

which generates a response like this:

Connected to 192.17.20.22.
220 Macintosh Resident FTP server, ready
Name (192.17.20.22:timk):

National Center for Supercomputing Applications


File Transfer 4.3

Most FTP clients will now prompt you for your username and password. If NCSA
Telnet is configured for passwords (see Chapter 6), then these are required.
Otherwise, just press RETURN to bypass the prompts. If you are not prompted for a
username and password, then assume that you are logged in and continue with your
FTP commands.

ALTERNATE METHODS OF INVOKING FTP

The most common procedure for starting FTP uses the shortcut provided in the
Network menu called Send FTP Command. When you select this menu item, NCSA
Telnet types the ftp command described above, automatically including your Mac's
IP address and the RETURN to initiate the command. For convenience, you will
probably prefer Send FTP Command to the other ways of entering the command.
You may want to think of this as a macro that is pre-set with the FTP command and
your IP address.

Another available macro is Send IP Number (from the Network menu) which types
your IP address for you. When entering any networking command, ftp for example,
you can instantly produce your own network IP address by selecting Send IP
Number. The following sequence is equivalent to selecting Send FTP Command.

ftp
(SPACEBAR)
(Send IP Number)
(RETURN)

Use whichever method of invoking FTP you feel comfortable with. Your host
computer may not accept FTP commands as described here, so you may have to try
some variations to find the easiest method for your site. Your system administrator
may be able to help.

FTP Commands

For most FTP clients, after FTP has been invoked and passwords have been checked,
you are prompted for individual FTP commands. These commands are also
documented in the manuals for the host computer. Most of the FTP implementations
have similar commands because they are modeled after the Berkeley UNIX version
of FTP. Table 4.1 lists FTP commands that are common to most implementations.
Once you are in FTP, type help for a list of available commands.

Table 4.1. Common FTP Commands

Command Action

ascii Set mode to ASCII transfer mode (default)

binary Set mode to binary (image or I) transfer mode

1/21/11
4.4 NCSA Telnet for the Macintosh

cd Change directory on your Macintosh

dir Show filenames in Macintosh's default directory

get filename Get a file from Macintosh, send to host

help Show online list of FTP commands

put filename Send a file from the host to the Macintosh

pwd Show the current Macintosh directory name

The boldface type in Table 4.1 represents user entries.

ASCII, BINARY

The default mode for FTP transfers is in ASCII format. If you are transferring
graphics or binary data files, you must change to binary mode before using the put
or get commands. Do this by entering the command binary, or bin. To reset the
ASCII format after sending a binary file, enter the command ascii. Figure 4.1
shows an FTP transaction with an ASCII file. Figure 4.2 shows an FTP transaction
with a binary file.

DEFAULT DIRECTORY

FTP transfers files to the default directory on the local disk. To change the
directory, you can use the cd command from FTP, or the Macintosh menu option Set
Transfer Directory from the File menu. When you select Set Transfer
Directory, a dialog box will appear that allows you to choose the name of the
desired directory.

The cd command from FTP, as shown in table 4.1, has the identical effect as Set
Transfer Directory, but the directory name is entered manually instead of with a
dialog box. The cd command is entered in FTP to change the default directory for
your local disk. The Macintosh uses the colon (:) or the forward slash (/) to separate
folder names, for example:

National Center for Supercomputing Applications


File Transfer 4.5

ftp> cd ":hd20:myfolder"
or
ftp> cd "/hd20/myfolder"

The pwd command returns the name of the default directory. After the previous
example cd command, a pwd command returns:

"/hd20/myfolder" is the current directory

TRANSFER TO THE MACINTOSH

Even though you seem to be initiating the transfer from the Macintosh, the
transaction operates from the host's side. The practical effect of this makes the
commands seem intuitively "backwards." To transfer a file from the host to your
Mac, you use a put command. The form this command takes is:

put filename.ext

Figure 4.1 shows an example of a put command used with an actual file, named
temp2. The boldface type represents user entries.

newton_45% ftp -n 192.17.20.124


Connected to 192.17.20.124.
220 Macintosh Resident FTP server, ready
ftp> put temp2
200 This space intentionally left blank < >
150 Opening connection
226 Transfer complete
262145 bytes sent in 32.61 seconds (7.8 Kbytes/s)
ftp> quit
221 Goodbye
newton_46%

Figure 4.1. Put to the Macintosh, ASCII File

TRANSFER TO THE HOST

A request to send a file from the Macintosh to the host is called a get.

get filename.ext

Figure 4.2 shows a get operation, using a binary file named bridge.pic. Note that
the file was in the directory named HD20:pictures, so the cd command was used.
Again, the boldface type represents user entries. If a text file were to be sent after
this, the ASCII mode would have to be reset, using the FTP ascii command.

newton_41% ftp -n 192.17.20.124


Connected to 192.17.20.124.
220 Macintosh Resident FTP server, ready
ftp> bin
200 Type set to I, binary transfer mode
ftp> cd "/hd20/pictures"

1/21/11
4.6 NCSA Telnet for the Macintosh

250 Chdir okay


ftp> get bridge.pic
200 This space intentionally left blank < >
150 Opening connection
226 Transfer complete
262144 bytes received in 9.22 seconds (28 Kbytes/s)
ftp> quit
221 Goodbye
newton_42%

Figure 4.2. Get from the Macintosh, Binary File

MPUT, MGET

Some versions of FTP enable you to transfer multiple files sequentially, with one
command, either mput or mget, used with wildcard characters.

BUG WITH MGET: If you transfer multiple binary files using a UNIX host, note
that there is a bug in mget as implemented on some systems (especially 4.2 BSD
UNIX). When used in binary mode, mget adds a carriage return to the filenames as
they are transferred. The files themselves are not affected. Use a UNIX utility to
remove the carriage return from the filename. In ASCII mode, there is no problem.

MACBINARY FILE TRANSFERS

Sometimes it may be necessary to transfer Macintosh-only files (such as


applications and most data files) to an intermediate host without losing any of the
Macintosh-specific information. To facilitate such transfers, we have included
support for the MacBinary File Format in Version 2.2 of telnet. Through the use of
MacBinary files, you may upload Macintosh files to non-Macintosh hosts and later
download them without losing any of the Macintosh-specific data (such as icons
and the creation date).

Since MacBinary is a binary-only transfer protocol, it is only available when FTP is


in binary mode (see above). Once the FTP is in binary mode, all you have to do is set
the MacBinary Enabled option in the File menu and NCSA Telnet will take care
of the rest. All of the file operations (Get's and Put's) which occur until binary or
MacBinary modes are disabled will transfer the Macintosh file in MacBinary
format.

NOTE: For those who are writing host-based scripts to download or upload to a
Macintosh in MacBinary mode, you can use the quote MACB ENABLE and quote
MACB DISABLE commands from the host's FTP client to enable and disable
MacBinary mode respectively.

ADDITIONAL INFORMATION ABOUT FTP

National Center for Supercomputing Applications


File Transfer 4.7

File Transfer Indicator

When an FTP connection is active, the mouse cursor changes the pointer to a small
file icon (see Figure 4.3). When the FTP connection terminates, the file icon changes
back to the standard pointer or "I"-beam.

Figure 4.3. File Transfer Cursor Icon

FTP Log

To help you keep track of file transactions, NCSA Telnet shows current and past
transactions in the FTP log, as shown in Figure 4.4. To see the log, select Show FTP
Log from the File menu.

Figure 4.4. Sample FTP Log

1/21/11
4.8 NCSA Telnet for the Macintosh

Background File Transfer

File transfers are processed in the background. Therefore, while a file transfer is in
progress you can perform other NCSA Telnet activities, such as switching sessions,
adding new sessions, or changing parameters. If one FTP connection is active,
requests for another are ignored.

NOTE: Do not exit the program while a file transfer is in progress, or the file
transfer will fail.

National Center for Supercomputing Applications


CHAPTER 5

TEKTRONIX 4014 EMULATION

CHAPTER OVERVIEW

NCSA Telnet Version 2.2 can emulate the Tektronix 4014 terminal. This emulation
includes text modes, Tek 4014 text sizing, zoom, and pan. The use of Tektronix
graphics with NCSA Telnet depends on host programs that can produce graphic
images. When these programs run and produce Tektronix 4014 graphics commands,
NCSA Telnet automatically switches into graphics mode and does the drawing.

This chapter describes how to begin and end graphics sessions, and it explains how
to perform operations in graphics windows.

STARTING AND QUITTING GRAPHICS EMULATION

To start the emulator, a host program generates the Tektronix clear screen
character sequence over a currently open connection. After this command is received,
a graphics window opens. All graphics output from this session is redirected into
that window until the window is detached from the connection window or is deleted
by clicking on the close box.

1/21/11
5.2 NCSA Telnet for the Macintosh

GRAPHICS WINDOW OPERATIONS

Detaching a Graphics Window

To detach a graphics window, click on the text window for that graphic's
connection. To click on a window without detaching its corresponding graphics
window, hold down the OPTION key while you click. When a window is detached
its title no longer contains the (•) character which symbolizes it is the active
output window.

Deleting a Graphics Window

To remove a graphics window, click on the close box of the graphics window itself.

Zooming/Unzooming a Graphics Window

To magnify a portion of the drawing in a graphics window, use the mouse to draw a
selection rectangle around the area to be viewed more closely. Once you have
released the mouse, the selected section of the drawing will be expanded to take up
the entire window. To bring the magnification back to zero (and thus see the entire
drawing), just double-click anywhere in the window. Figures 5.1 and 5.2 show
pictures of the same drawing when shown in windows at normal and zoomed
magnification.

NOTE: The zoom factor is used for window Copy and Print.

Copying a Graphics Window

A graphics window can be copied to the Macintosh Clipboard. You can then paste it
into another program. Click in the graphics window to select it for copying and then
choose Copy from the Edit menu. Now the graphic can be pasted into another
Macintosh application.

National Center for Supercomputing Applications


Tektronix 4014 Emulation 5.3

Figure 5.1. Normal Tektronix Image

Figure 5.2. Zoomed Tektronix Image

Printing a Graphics Window

1/21/11
5.4 NCSA Telnet for the Macintosh

A graphics window can be printed on a local printer or a printer on the AppleTalk


network. Click on the graphics window to select it for printing and then choose
Print Selection from the Edit menu. All graphics are scaled to fit the page and
are centered. To achieve the greatest resolution on a LaserWriter, set the Reduce
or Enlarge % in the Page Setup dialog box to 25 percent. This does not change the
image's size, but makes the lines thinner.

National Center for Supercomputing Applications


CHAPTER 6

SYSTEM ADMINISTRATOR
INFORMATION

CHAPTER OVERVIEW

This chapter contains information for system administrators (and other experienced
users) to use in installing and customizing a system. The chapter explains the
Configure Network Parameters dialog box, the config.tel file, the domain name
lookup feature, passwords for FTP, and compatibility issues.

CONFIGURE NETWORK PARAMETERS DIALOG


BOX

The system administrator uses the NCSA Telnet Configure Network Parameters
dialog box (shown in Figure 6.1) to set up copies of NCSA Telnet to accommodate the
network. When NCSA Telnet is run for the first time, the Configure Network
Parameters dialog box should appear automatically; if it does not, select
Configure Network from the Network menu. In the dialog box, you should enter
the IP number for the machine, the subnet mask, and the default host.

Internet Number Assignment

The first step in configuring your copy of NCSA Telnet is setting the IP number.
There are four ways the IP number can be assigned, depending on whether the
serving gateway is using direct Ethernet (via EtherTalk), the Croft gateway
software, or the Kinetics gateway software (described later), and whether dynamic
numbers or static numbers are to be used.

STATIC IP NUMBERS (ETHERTALK, CROFT OR KINETICS)

To use static IP numbers on any of these network configurations, select the button next
to IP Number. Then, locate the text box next to that and type your four-byte internet
address with a period (.) between each of the decimal numbers (such as
192.17.20.10).

1/21/11
6.2 NCSA Telnet for the Macintosh

Figure 6.1. Configure Network Parameters Dialog Box

This number is saved in the NCSA Telnet Settings file in your System Folder, so
you need only change it when your machine's IP number changes (which it should
not do frequently).

RARP DYNAMIC IP ADDRESSING (ETHERTALK)

This version of NCSA Telnet for the Macintosh is capable of retrieving assigned IP
numbers from a network administration machine which is running the RARP
(Remote Address Resolution Protocol) daemon. The RARP daemon and protocols are
documented elsewhere and their availability is dependent upon your network
configuration and the software running on the hosts on your network. If you have a
UNIX host, you will find the RARP documentation under the name rarpd in section
8 of the manual. If you have a machine which can provide RARP service, just enter
the Ethernet address of the Mac (provided in the Show Network Numbers dialog
box) and its corresponding IP number into the RARP database and your server should
be ready.

NOTE: If you are using a UNIX RARP daemon, you need to make sure that the
Ethernet numbers are not zero-filled, e.g. 8:0:89:f0:5:0 not 08:00:89:f0:05:00.

If your network uses RARP dynamic IP addressing, then select the button next to
Assign Dynamically in the Configure Network Parameters dialog box.

ADMINISTERED DYNAMIC IP ADDRESSING (CROFT)

The Croft gateway software (which runs in the Kinetics box and is also known as
the KIP software) allows for administered dynamic IP assignment; thus, the
assignment can either be unique to each copy of the program and for each machine or
can be dynamic.

National Center for Supercomputing Applications


System Administrator Information 6.3

If your network uses dynamic IP addressing, then select the button next to Assign
Dynamically.

APPLETALK-BASED DYNAMIC IP ADDRESSING (CROFT OR KINETICS)

With Version 2.2 of NCSA Telnet for the Macintosh, dynamic addressing can be
done using the AppleTalk address as a basis for the IP number. To use this method,
select the button next to IP Number. Type in the IP number in the normal location,
substituting the following codes where appropriate.

Code Meaning

h High-order byte of the network number (Net Number/256)


l Low-order byte of the network number (Net Number mod 256)
n AppleTalk node number

For example:

IP Number Field AppleTalk Number Resultant IP#

128.174.h.n Net: 1230 Node: 35 128.174.4.35


128.174.20.n Net: 1230 Node: 35 128.174.20.35
128.h.l.n Net: 1230 Node: 35 128.4.206.35

NOTE: This method of dynamic addressing is expressly prohibited on EtherTalk,


because AppleTalk is not initialized by NCSA Telnet when running over EtherTalk.

Subnetting

If your site uses a subnetted network (as specified in RFC 950: Internet Subnetting),
check the box next to Use Subnetting Mask in the Configuration dialog box and
enter the subnet mask in the text box next to that, in hexadecimal. The format of the
subnet mask is eight hexadecimal digits with no periods. Example: ffffff00 for
24 bits for network, 8 bits for host.

NCSA TELNET SETTINGS FILE


All of the user-selectable settings for Telnet (Network parameters and Preferences
selections) are now stored in the NCSA Telnet Settings file which is placed in the
System Folder upon creation. The use of this file means that NCSA Telnet no longer
modifies itself and therefore should work fine in a distributed environment (i.e.
putting the NCSA Telnet application and config.tel files on an AppleShare
server).

1/21/11
6.4 NCSA Telnet for the Macintosh

THE CONFIGURATION FILE

Overview of the Configuration File

The configuration file (config.tel) replaces the hosts file of NCSA Telnet
Version 1.1. This file contains information on local operating parameters, plus a list
of commonly accessed hosts and optional network tuning parameters for each of
those hosts. The config.tel file is a text file and can be edited with any text
editor, such as TeachText.

The configuration file is accessed once when the program is initiated and is not used
again. All of the machine names are read into memory, so it saves memory to limit
the number of machine names you specify in the file.

NOTE: Editing the config.tel file while the program is running will have no
effect on the program's operation. To make the changes effective, you must restart
telnet.

Placement of the Configuration File

For ease of use, place the config.tel file either in your System Folder or in the
folder containing NCSA Telnet. If NCSA Telnet does not find it in either of these
places (or there is an error in the file), you will be given the error message:

cannot find or open configuration file.

as described in Appendix A.

Syntax for Entries in the Configuration File

The configuration file is a list of keywords and legal values. The overall
requirement for the entries in the file is that they alternate, keyword then value,
keyword then value, and so on. There are many different formats possible using any
of the allowable delimiters. The delimiters are the colon (:), semicolon (;), equal
sign (=), and any of the whitespace characters. To include delimiters in a value
field, enclose the field in double quotes. Quotes cannot be a part of any value field.
Wherever a pound sign (#) is found, everything from there to the end of line is
treated as a comment.

Though multiple formats can be used in the same file, you will probably want to
find and keep a consistent format. For example, the entries in Figure 6.2 specify the
same information. Note that Example #3 is not a recommended format, but is
included as an example of how strange an entry may look.

name=nic # comment field to end of line ->


host=sri-nic.arpa
hostip=10.0.0.51
scrollback=300

National Center for Supercomputing Applications


System Administrator Information 6.5

contime=60

- - - - - -Example #1- - - - - - - - -

name=nic; host=sri-nic.arpa; hostip="10.0.0.51";


scrollback=300; contime=60

- - - - - -Example #2- - - - - - - - -

name
nic
host sri-nic.arpa : hostip=10.0.0.51; scrollback=300;
contime:60

- - - - - -Example #3- - - - - - - - -

Figure 6.2. Displaying the Same Information in Different Entry


Formats

Macintosh Information Entries in the Configuration File

The first entries in the configuration file are the Macintosh environment entries.
They specify what types of hardware are to be used and other parameters. In this
list, sample values are included after the equal (=) signs to indicate the correct
format.

Entry Meaning

arptime=5 Specify how long to try to reach a host on the local


wire, in seconds. A value of 5 works fine for the network
at NCSA, but larger values may be needed for hosts
that are slow to respond. Smaller values are more
convenient to use.

1/21/11
6.6 NCSA Telnet for the Macintosh

Entry Meaning

domaintime=2 Time in seconds to wait between the first domain lookup


and the second. If you only have one nameserver, then
this is the same as a simple timeout. If you want to
rotate nameservers quickly because the first one may be
down, set this to a smaller number.

domainretry=4 Number of times to query domain nameserver(s). Each


time a retry is sent, the timeout value (above) is
doubled. Each time a retry occurs, NCSA Telnet tries
the next nameserver, wrapping around to the first
nameserver when there are no more.

ftp=yes FTP serving is enabled by default. Access to your


Macintosh can be controlled by the FTP password file.
To disable FTP serving by default, change this line to
ftp=no. NOTE: This can be toggled in the File menu as
well.

passfile="ftppass" Specify the file in which FTP usernames and passwords


can be found. There is no default name for this file. If
the file is specified, then FTP will prompt for the
username and password for all FTP attempts. If the file
is not specified, then there is no password checking for
FTP. For more information, consult the FTP password
section later in this chapter.

timeslice=3 This option is useful only when you are using the
MultiFinder. You use it to select the amount of time you
are willing to wait between processing information so
that other programs can run in the background. The
default is 3 Macintosh clock ticks. You should increase
this number if the background operations are more
important or decrease it if telnet operations are more
important.

commandkeys=yes With this option you can control the default state of
the command keys option on the Preferences dialog box.
This entry is obsolete and is only included for
compatibility with previous versions of NCSA Telnet.

hardware=AppleTalk NCSA Telnet can support several different kinds of


Ethernet devices. For most configurations, AppleTalk
will suffice, as it is used for Kinetics FastPath, but for
direct Ethernet users, consult the Hardware section
later in this chapter to determine the correct setting.

National Center for Supercomputing Applications


System Administrator Information 6.7

Entry Meaning

termtype=dec-vt100 This option allows you to assign the string returned by


NCSA Telnet in response to the telnet terminal type
negotiation command. The default value for this field
is dec-vt100.

Host-Specific Parameters of the Configuration File

After the Macintosh configuration options, you may have zero or more hosts, with
host-specific information for each host. Typically, the first host listed will be
name=default, which stores the default values for the other hosts. Any keyword
listed under later hosts will override the default setting for that host.

NOTE: The keyword name is special because it separates entries.

The parameters following name up to the next keyword name are all associated
with the session name. The parameters are installed whenever a connection is
opened with that session name.

Entry Meaning

name=nic This name is the primary name associated with a list of


parameters. It is common to have more than one session
name for a host, each with different parameters,
perhaps with different amounts of scrollback. A name
entry is required for each entry because it separates
entries.

host=sri-nic.arpa This is the hostname or alternate name. If you want to


associate both a session name and a hostname with a
particular set of parameters, you may include both.
Note that the name parameter is required, while the
host parameter is optional. The rule of thumb is: When
you have only a hostname, insert it as name=hostname.
If you have both a session name and a hostname, enter
both name=sessionname and host=hostname. When
you want to open a new connection, either the hostname
or sessionname works.

hostip=10.0.0.51 This is the IP address of the host. If this is not present,


the domain nameserver must be queried to get the IP
number of the host. For efficiency, include the IP
addresses of all commonly accessed hosts. IP addresses
of gateways and nameservers are required to be in the
configuration file.

1/21/11
6.8 NCSA Telnet for the Macintosh

Entry Meaning

gateway=1 This specifies the gateway precedence for this host. To


reach hosts not connected to your local network, you
must have at least one gateway entry. The hostip
keyword must be present for this host. Gateway numbers
must start at 1 and increase by ones. Gateway 1 has the
highest precedence, but the first gateway to respond to
an ARP will be used. ICMP redirects can affect how
gateways are used, but not permanently.

nameserver=1 This specifies the nameserver precedence for this host.


NCSA Telnet uses UDP to query domain nameservers for
machine names that are not in the configuration file.
Each machine that is to be used as a nameserver must
have this keyword listed. The hostip keyword must be
present for this host. Nameserver 1 has the highest
precedence. Nameserver numbers must start at 1 and
increase by ones.

scrollback=100 This specifies the number of lines of scrollback for this


session. Be aware that scrollback occupies at least 86
bytes per line saved. There can be a different number of
lines of scrollback for each session. Plan your use of
scrollback wisely unless you have memory to spare.

erase=delete This sets the backspace translation for this host. Some
hosts prefer the BACKSPACE key to send DELETE and
some prefer the BACKSPACE key to send
BACKSPACE. Set this value erase=delete or
erase=backspace.

crmap=4.3BSDCRNUL This is a special compatibility option for 4.3 BSD


UNIX. There is now a bug fix to take care of the
problem, but some hosts may still want CRNUL to be
used for end-of-line. The default is crmap=CRLF,
which sends CRLF when you press RETURN. In line
mode, CRLF is always used.

duplex=half This parameter only applies to hosts that negotiate


non-echoing mode but do not expect local line editing. If
set to half, all character keys are sent and echoed to
the screen immediately, otherwise the characters are
echoed locally and queued until a RETURN or
CONTROL character is sent. This parameter has no
effect in echo mode (i.e. when local echo is off).

National Center for Supercomputing Applications


System Administrator Information 6.9

Entry Meaning

contime=10 This is the connection timeout in seconds. When you are


making a connection attempt, after this amount of time
has elapsed NCSA Telnet gives up on opening the
connection and deletes the window. For congested or
slow networks, this value should be made larger.

retrans=25 This is the initial retransmission timeout in 60ths of a


second. Increasing the value of this parameter may
help in reducing the initial burst of retries that is
typical of connections with high round-trip times.

mtu=512 This is the largest amount of data to put in the packets


that are sent. If you are sending to the ARPANET, you
should use mtu=512. If you are sending to local hosts
and are using EtherTalk , you should use mtu=1500.
NOTE: Do not set mtu to be greater than 512 if you are
using a Kinetics FastPath.

maxseg=512 This is the largest segment that can be received. This


value can control the size of packets that are sent over
the connection. Reducing this value can eliminate IP
fragmentation that we cannot reassemble. A value of
maxseg=512 should force the sending host to never
fragment. As with the mtu setting, do not set it larger
than 512 if you are using a Kinetics FastPath.

rwin=512 Unfortunately, some of the popular Ethernet hardware


cannot handle receiving back-to-back packets. This
requires us to limit the TCP receive window that we
advertise to other hosts. For communicating to slower
hosts or when using high performance hardware, a
larger window (4096) may work better. NOTE: 4096 is
the maximum setting.

copyfrom=nic The copyfrom parameter is probably the most


important one. It causes all unspecified parameters to be
copied from a previous entry. Note that the entry to
copy from must appear above the entry to copy to. For
machines of a similar type, only one entry has to be
customized and the rest include copyfrom commands. For
a given host, parameters that are specified along with
a copyfrom command override the copyfrom directive.

1/21/11
6.10 NCSA Telnet for the Macintosh

Entry Meaning

nfcolor={0,0,0} normal, foreground color


nbcolor={0,0,0} normal, background color
bfcolor={0,0,0} blink, foreground color
bbcolor={0,0,0} blink, background color

These options can be used to specify default colors for


Macintosh computers which can handle color sessions.
The format of the color specifier is { red, green,
blue }, where red,green, and blue are the integer
numbers corresponding to the requested colors (as shown
in the standard Macintosh Color Picker dialog box,
shown in Chapter 3). These options have no effect on
non-color Macintosh computers, and their presence is
harmless.

clearsave=yes Scrollback is now updated when the screen is cleared.


When clearing the screen, all of the visible lines are
saved into the scrollback region. If you prefer not to
have the text saved when the screen clears, set
clearsave=no. In the case of host programs which
clear the screen one line at a time, the lines are never
saved into the scrollback region.

font="Monaco" This option allows you to designate a default font for


all windows created from this session. The font name is
a text string and must exactly match the name of the
desired font in your System File.

fsize=9 This option allows you to designate a default font size


(in points) for all windows created from this session.

Converting UNIX /etc/hosts Files

It is possible to set up a special command on a UNIX or VMS host that transmits an


updated configuration file via FTP to the Macintosh.

Included with the distribution of NCSA Telnet is an awk script called newh. (It is
also listed in Appendix C.) Used with the following command under 4.XBSD UNIX,
it will convert the /etc/hosts file into a format compatible with NCSA Telnet's
configuration file. Note that domain name lookup should make this operation
obsolete, or make it apply to only a small subset of your /etc/hosts file. Enter:

% awk -f newh /etc/hosts >config.temp

After creating this new file, prepend the Macintosh-specific information and
download it to the Macintosh.

National Center for Supercomputing Applications


System Administrator Information 6.11

HARDWARE OPTIONS

Combined Network Drivers

There is only one distribution program for NCSA Telnet Version 2.2. All of the
network drivers are combined into one application. You must use the hardware entry
in the configuration file to inform NCSA Telnet which method of Ethernet
connection you are using. Choose from the list in Table 6.1.

Table 6.1. Ethernet Values for Hardware Options Supported by NCSA Telnet

Value Ethernet Connection


Ether Attempt to figure out which device and (if applicable) slot
Ether9 EtherTalk board or Kinetics EtherPort II board in slot 9
Ethern EtherTalk board or Kinetics EtherPort II board in slot n
EtherSC Kinetics EtherSC
EtherSE Kinetics EtherPort SE
AppleTalk AppleTalk network (default value)

Performance Tuning

The values of maxseg, mtu, and rwin in the configuration file must be set correctly
to get maximum data transfer throughput between machines. Here are some rules of
thumb to use when setting these values.

• The maximum reasonable values for these parameters are:


rwin=4096
mtu=1024
maxseg=1024

• The setting required for users running NCSA Telnet over AppleTalk protocols,
and any other troublesome network situation, also the most conservative setting,
is:
rwin=512
mtu=512
maxseg=512

• The best setting for local network use with an Ethernet board is:
rwin=4096
mtu=1024
maxseg=1024

• The best setting for ARPANET use, or any situation with a lot of unknown
gateways, but with an Ethernet board is:
rwin=4096
mtu=512
maxseg=512

1/21/11
6.12 NCSA Telnet for the Macintosh

rwin specifies how much data the other computer is allowed to send you at any one
time, so it depends mostly upon your local Ethernet board. If the board can handle
it, always set rwin=4096. maxseg is used to avoid fragmentation. If you ever get
fragmented packets, lower the value of maxseg for that host until fragmentation
stops occurring.

DOMAIN NAME LOOKUP

When NCSA Telnet cannot find a name in the configuration file, it may still find
the IP number if you are running a domain nameserver. At least one nameserver entry
is required in the configuration file, but there may be more than one. If one
nameserver fails to respond, the one with the next higher precedence is queried. As
soon as a response is received, NCSA Telnet will attempt to open a telnet connection.

Domain Search Order

When you enter a name to open a connection, there is a specific search order:

1. The name is looked up as a session name from the configuration file.

2. The name is looked up as a hostname from the configuration file.

3. The name is sent as a domain query to the first nameserver.

4. If the domain request times out, the query is repeated, but to another nameserver.
This is repeated until the maximum number of retries is reached or a response is
received.

With the domain nameserver, the number of hosts in the configuration file can be
kept to a minimum. Each host in the configuration file will be a commonly used
computer. The IP addresses for rarely used hosts will be accessible if the domain
name retrieval system can resolve those hosts.

Default Domain

NCSA Telnet 2.2 can append a default root domain if desired. To enable this
feature, use the domain= keyword (as discussed in the Configuration File section) to
specify the root domain that you want appended. If a hostname which is not in the
Configuration File is requested and that name does not contain a period (.), the
domain request is made with the default domain appended to that name.

FTP PASSWORD PROTECTION

National Center for Supercomputing Applications


System Administrator Information 6.13

The presence of the passfile keyword in the configuration file enables FTP
password protection. If you have a password file, FTP will not allow any FTP
connections to open without a correct username and password. You can have several
usernames and individual passwords for each user. The passwords are encrypted,
but not with a secure encryption system. Only trusted users should have access to the
password file. Use the program Telpass (included with the NCSA Telnet
distribution) to encode passwords.

COMPATIBILITY

Ping

NCSA Telnet responds to ping (ICMP echo) requests. This may be used by other
hosts to determine whether your Macintosh is online.

VT102

The VT102 emulator is nearly complete. VT102 features not emulated are double
width and double height characters, VT52 mode, and origin mode for cursor
positioning.

ICMP Redirects

Some gateway configurations (such as FastPath with current Kinetics gateway


software) do not support ICMP redirects. ICMP redirects currently work only with
the EtherTalk-based configurations.

FTP

The FTP server in NCSA Telnet is close to the DARPA specification for the
minimum implementation. Exceptions are:

• The command connection does not perform telnet negotiation.


• Block mode of FTP is not supported.
• Some error conditions may display as command not understood instead of
returning more appropriate messages.

FTP has not been thoroughly tested on low-bandwidth or low-reliability networks.


It should be most successful on local networks, with possibly very low throughput
for long-haul or satellite networks.

Telnet

1/21/11
6.14 NCSA Telnet for the Macintosh

The standard Telnet protocol has several potential options that can be invoked if
both parties of the telnet connection agree. NCSA Telnet refuses most of these
options, but accepts echo (option 1); suppress go ahead (option 3); and terminal
type (option 23). There are some obscure features of the telnet specification that
are not supported in this implementation: out-of-band interrupts are not
available, go ahead signals do nothing, and telnet acknowledge signals are not
acknowledged. If there are any problems with the limitations of NCSA Telnet,
please submit a bug report.

Limitations

There is a 20-session limit for NCSA Telnet. This is somewhat arbitrary and may be
altered if there appears to be a need for it. NCSA Telnet can run out of memory,
often before the 20-session limit. You are notified on the screen if this happens.

Switcher or MultiFinder

NCSA Telnet works with Switcher and MultiFinder. When you run NCSA Telnet
with either of these, use a minimum of 400K for the partition, and about 512K if you
plan to use Tektronix emulation or a large scrollback region.

National Center for Supercomputing Applications


APPENDIX A

ERROR CONDITIONS

Most of the error conditions in NCSA Telnet are nonfatal. The most important and
common error messages are listed here with a short summary of the symptoms and
causes.

The following messages may appear on your screen during the operation of NCSA
Telnet. Any other messages that appear are protocol-specific messages that may
require additional diagnosis from the system administrator. If a message that is not
documented here occurs repeatedly, please contact your system administrator first,
and if no solution is found, submit a bug report on the form provided at the end of
this manual.

AppleTalk initialization failed; couldn't install listener


or
EtherTalk initialization failed; couldn't install listener

Cause:
NCSA Telnet is having difficulty conversing with AppleTalk or EtherTalk,
respectively. There are a number of possible causes for this, such as the use of
conflicting and improperly coded AppleTalk (or EtherTalk) programs.

Solution:
If you are concurrently using another AppleTalk product, try running NCSA Telnet
without it. Otherwise, reboot, check that AppleTalk is connected in the Control
Panel or Chooser desk accessory, and try running NCSA Telnet again.

Cannot find or open configuration file

Cause:
NCSA Telnet normally operates with a configuration file. This file could not be
found.

Solution:
A dialog box, shown in Figure A.1, appears on your screen. Click on this error dialog
box to continue. You will then see a dialog box from which you may elect to quit the
program and return to the Finder, continue to work in NCSA Telnet without a
configuration file, or find a suitable configuration file elsewhere on your disk.

1/21/11
A.2 NCSA Telnet for the Macintosh

Figure A.1. Options for Operation


When a Configuration File Cannot Be Found

If you choose to find a different file, NCSA Telnet displays a standard file dialog
box from which you can select the text file to use as your configuration file. This
does not permanently change the name or place that NCSA Telnet looks for its
configuration file. To prevent the error dialog box from being displayed again, put
your configuration file into the folder containing NCSA Telnet or the System
Folder.

ICMP: Destination unreachable

Cause:
Another machine—probably the gateway—has determined that your message
cannot reach its destination from your system.

Solution:
Check the IP address in your configuration file. Notify your system administrator
that the gateway cannot connect you to the destination you want to reach. There
may be a problem with the gateway.

Local Host or gateway not responding

Cause:
Possible reasons this error occurs are: network problem, a configuration file problem,
the computer you want to connect to is down, or the gateway that you need is down.

Solution:
If the computer is on your local network, check to see that the network is up and
running. If the computer is not on your local network, check to see if the gateway is
up and running. Ask the system administrator to check the specification of the
gateway in your configuration file. Check the IP number of the computer to which
you are trying to connect. Check to make sure that your computer is attached to the
network. Check the integrity of the network cable.

Memory allocation error, cannot open port

Cause:

National Center for Supercomputing Applications


Error Conditions A.3

Your system ran out of memory. This is the most common barrier to opening more
sessions.

Solution:
Log off of some of your sessions or provide more memory in which NCSA Telnet can
run. Providing more memory may mean buying more or allocating more memory
under Switcher or MultiFinder.

No internal TCP ports available

Cause:
You are trying to do too many activities at the same time, or some combination of
your activities has not closed the TCP sessions correctly. This will happen if you
open too many sessions to other computers.

Solution:
Close some of your existing sessions. If necessary, exit the program by logging off all
of the other computers and restart NCSA Telnet.

1/21/11
APPENDIX B

NCSA TELNET MENUS

This appendix includes all menus specific to NCSA Telnet.

Figure B.1. File Menu Options


(See Chapters 1 and 3)

1/21/11
B.2 NCSA Telnet for the Macintosh

Figure B.2. Edit Menu Options


(See Chapters 2 and 5)

Figure B.3. Session Menu Options


(See Chapter 3 )

National Center for Supercomputing Applications


NCSA Telnet Menus B.3

Figure B.4. Network Menu Options


(See Chapter 3)

Figure B.5. Connection Menu


(See Chapter 1)

1/21/11
APPENDIX C

CODE TO CONVERT /ETC/HOSTS FILES

This is the contents of the awk script newh, which converts UNIX /etc/hosts files
to the new configuration file format. Use:

awk -f newh /etc/hosts > newfile

{
if (substr($0,1,1) != "#") {
if (substr($2,1,1) == "@") {
print "name=" $3 " ; hostip=" $1
j = 4
}
else {
print "name=" $2 " ; hostip=" $1
j = 3
}
for (i=j; i<=NF; i++) {
print "name=" $i " ; copyfrom=" $(j-1)
}
}
}
BUGS AND SUGGESTIONS

We would appreciate notification of any bugs you have found and suggestions that
you might have. You may send an electronic mail message to (Internet format):

telbug@ncsa.uiuc.edu

or send this report by mail to:

NCSA TELBUG
152 Computing Applications Building
605 E. Springfield Ave.
Champaign, Illinois 61820

Name:

Installation:

Address (Electronic):

Address (U.S. Mail):

Telephone: ( ) -

Version of NCSA Telnet and Macintosh system software:

Description of Problem/Suggestion:
NCSA Telnet Version 2.2 source code and documentation are in the public domain. Specifically,
we give to the public domain all rights for future licensing of the source code, all resale rights, and
all publishing rights.

We ask, but do not require, that the following message be included in all derived works:

Portions developed at the National Center for Supercomputing Applications at


the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.

PROBLEM REPORTS

Mail all suggestions and manual corrections to:


NCSA Documentation and Publications Department
152 Computing Applications Building
605 E. Springfield Ave.
Champaign, Illinois 61820

DISCLAIMER

THE UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS GIVES NO WARRANTY, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, FOR THE


SOFTWARE AND/OR DOCUMENTATION PROVIDED, INCLUDING, WITHOUT LIMITATION,
WARRANTY OF MERCHANTABILITY AND WARRANTY OF FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR
PURPOSE.

TRADEMARK ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

Apple, AppleTalk, AppleShare, EtherTalk, LaserWriter, LocalTalk, MacDraw, Macintosh, Macintosh


Plus, Macintosh SE, Macintosh II, MacPaint, MacWrite, MultiFinder, and Switcher are trademarks of
Apple Computer Inc.
UNIX is a registered trademark of AT&T.
CricketDraw is a trademark of Cricket Software.
Ether SC, EtherPort SE, EtherPort II, and FastPath are trademarks of Kinetics, Inc.
SuperPaint is a trademark of Silicon Beach Software, Inc.
Tektronix 4014 is a trademark of Tektronix Inc.
Ethernet is a trademark of Xerox Corporation.