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Predictive Maintenance

Optimization -
Developing An Effective Machinery
Management Programme
Emerson ’s Asset Optimization
Emerson’s
Mission
Deliver World-Class Services and Innovative
Technologies to Increase the Availability and
Performance of Production Assets for Improved
Bottom Line Results (operational excellence).

Mechanical Electrical Process Instruments


Equipment Equipment Equipment & Valves

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Machinery Health Management
Increases Availability and Performance of
Mechanical Equipment

Motors Pumps Gearboxes Turbines

Balance technology, expertise, and work processes


for maximum availability at best cost.

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Vibration
Analysis
Portable &
Wireless

Ultrasonics
On-Line
RBM view
Condition Laser
Monitoring Alignment
ODBC

Motor
Diagnostics
CMMS MIMOSA Balancing

Infrared
Thermography
Tribology
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Asset Optimization Services
Mechanical Equipment
Vibration analysis – portable, online, and wireless
– Motor analysis
– Laser alignment and balancing
Oil analysis
– Trivector Laboratory: industrial lubrication problem detection and detailed
analysis
– On-site Analysis Equipment
Sonic and ultrasonic analysis
Infrared thermography

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Vibration Analysis
– Identification of misalignment, imbalance, bearing
defects, structural foundation issues and electrical
related problems
Tribology

Tribology/Oil Analysis
– Identification of wear particles, chemical changes and
contaminants; “clean, dry and fit for use”
– May also be used as an acceptance determination for
the incoming oils from the Lubrication Supplier

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Ultrasonics/Sonics Survey Ultrasonics

– Air, steam trap, valve & vacuum leak detection


– Bearing lubrication effectiveness Infrared
Thermography
Infrared Thermography Survey
– Detection of proper electrical connections; switchgear
– Detection of proper insulation from heat sources
AMS Machinery Health Manager
– Integration of multiple CM technologies

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Vibration Analysis
Understanding How Machines Fail
INFANT RANDOM FAILURE WEAR-OUT
MORTALITY ZONE
ZONE
PROBABILITY OF FAILURE

STARTUP FAILURE RANDOM / OPERATIONAL FAULTS WEAR OUT

ACCEPTANCE PREDICTIVE MAINTENANCE PREDICTIVE


STANDARDS PRECISION CORRECTIONS MAINTENANCE

COMMISSIONING PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE ROOT CAUSE

OPERATING AGE
Principle #1 of Vibration Analysis
Mechanical faults generate Mechanical Defects detected
unique vibration with vibration analysis

– Geometry of the machine Belt drive faults


Imbalance
Misalignment
• diameter of the shaft, Bent shaft
number of bearing Looseness
elements, etc. Machine resonance

– Turning speed (e.g. RPM) Cavitation


Shaft Rub
Bearing Defects including:
ocage defect
oouter race defect
oinner race defect
orolling element defect
Gear defects
Electrical faults

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Vibration from Mechanical Faults
+
Time
0

0 Time
-

0 Time

-
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Understanding the Vibration Spectrum

Transducer Waveform

Amplitude
Overall
Energy Time

FFT
Spectrum

Amplitude

Frequency
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FFT Signal Processing
Amplitude

Tim
e
Amplitude

Amplitude
y
enc
u
req
Tim F
e

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A Typical FFT Spectrum

Specific peaks typically correlate to


Specific machine faults
Related to machine speed

Need Spectrum Analyzer for diagnostics, not just Overall vibration meter

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Frequency Bands in addition to
Spectrum
Divide spectrum in frequency bands based on the
types of mechanical faults that might appear on the machine

1X Imbalance

2X Misalignment
3X-Looseness
6X
BEARING
Bearing BAND
Band 11 BEARING BAND
Bearing Band 2 2

9-30X RPM
30-50X RPM

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Diagnose Nature of Fault

Imbalance typically appears at the


turning speed of the machine

Imbalance

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Diagnose Nature of Fault

Misalignment typically shows up at


either 1 or 2 x turning speed

Misalignment

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Diagnose Nature of Fault

Looseness shows up as
multiples of turning speed

Looseness

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Diagnose Nature of Fault

Bearing wear shows up at specific peaks


related to the geometry of the bearing

Bearing Wear

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Roller Bearing Vibration Faults
Four different bearing frequencies

Ball Spin Frequency


(BSF)

Fundamental Train
Frequency
(FTF)
Ball Pass Frequency
Inner Race
(BPFI)

Ball Pass Frequency


Outer Race
(BPFO)

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How Bearing Faults Generate
Vibration

Outer Race
Impacting

Inner Race
Impacting

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Motor Current Analysis
Easy to add to Vibration
program

Rotor / Stator defects


– Difficult to detect in Vibration
signature
– Use current analysis instead,
but opening MCC is risky
– Use magnetic flux analysis for
safety/convenience

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Dynamic Structural Display

ODS & Modal Analysis

ODS = Operational 23Deflection Shape


Implementation
Periodic basis using portable data collection
equipment
Continuous basis using a dedicated, permanently
installed monitoring system
– high implementation cost in terms
• capital acquisition
• disruption to production during installation
Current trend toward ‘right-sizing’
– forced to examine techniques to reduce or eliminate
manpower for data collection and analysis

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Thermography
What is infrared thermography?
A non-intrusive
technology that allows
you to “see” your
equipment’s health.
Therm - a form of the
Greek word for heat
Graph - a writing or
representation
Thermography - a
representation of heat

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How does infrared thermography
work?
Thermography is a visual
representation of
temperature.
Infrared imagers detect
heat given off a surface &
convert it into electronic
signals.
Different temperatures
correspond to different
energy levels seen by
different colors.

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Why use thermography?
Safe - Non-intrusive, non-
contact, and non-
destructive
Fast - Quick, easy data
collection
Real time analysis -
transient data can be
captured and analyzed
Cost effective - new, low-
cost imagers provide very
quick ROI

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Applications
Process
– Extrusion
– Pipe insulation breakdown
– Refractory breakdown
– Fluid storage tank level
– Food industry
– Rolling kiln
– Injection molding

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Applications
Electrical Inspections
– Unbalanced loads,
– Eddy current heating,
– Improperly sized fittings,
– Broken strands...
Electrical equipment
– Bad connections, breakers,
fuses
– Overloaded conditions
– Motor Control Center
components
– Distribution lines
– Cable trays/conduits

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Applications
Mechanical inspections
– Bearings
– Steam traps
– Gears
– Belts
– Couplings
– Motor insulation breakdown

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Applications

Leakage from a steam trap.

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Thermography benefits
Infrared inspection verifies machinery
temperature & locates potential electrical
problems.
Regular checkups assist in extending equipment
life & delaying capital expenditures for equipment
replacement.
Management knows what problems exist,
severity & specifics about the problem.
Maintenance priorities set according to the
problem severity level

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See The Heat, See The Problem

IR Thermography
shows the heat & the
Problem? problem

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See The Heat, See The Problem

“A picture is worth a thousand words. You can scan a room


very quickly, and the infrared images are powerful and very
easy to explain. Other technologies can take days to find
the problem, figure it out, and report to management.”
Senior Reliability Engineer
IR Thermography
shows the heat & the
Problem? problem

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Thermography Example
Voltage Delta T(C) % Load Emissivity Reference T Background T
480 25 100 0.85 160ºC 80ºF

Explanation: The connection end of the incoming wiring for phase B


to plant breaker 7 is warmer (+25C) than the other wiring for the same
circuit.
This indicates a poor connection or failing breaker. Recommended
actions based on delta T and voltage are to inspect and repair/replace
BEFORE THE NEXT SCHEDULED OUTAGE (Within 3 Months).

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Thermography Example (Repaired)

Explanation: Following the repairs on 10/15, the hot


connection has been fixed.

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Sonics / Ultrasonics
What are Ultrasonic signals:
Frequency Greater Than 20,000 Hz

Bearing defect Under-lubricated bearing


(4,000 Hz periodic) (30,000 Hz random)

‘A’ above middle ‘C’ Steam trap


(440 Hz) (40,000 Hz)

Sub-
sonic
Sonic Ultrasonic
Ultrasonic
Ultrasonic Range

20,000 Hz
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Sound Analysis Converts Inaudible
Signals into Audible Ones

Bearing defect Under-lubricated bearing


(4,000 Hz periodic) (30,000 Hz random)

‘A’ above middle ‘C’ Steam trap


(440 Hz) (40,000 Hz)

Sub-
sonic
Sonic Ultrasonic
Ultrasonic
Ultrasonic Range

20,000 Hz
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Where Can You Apply Ultrasonics?
Ultrasonics?
Steam
Traps
Valves
and
Piping Compressed
Air

Control Grease
Valves Lubrication
Control

Motor/ Transmission
Pump and
Distribution

Boiler Bearings
Tubes and
Gearboxes

Pneumatic
Controls
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Typical Sound Analysis Tools

1) Airborne Probe
3) Magnet Mount Probe

2) Contact Probe

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Why Use Sound Analysis?
Primary Health Monitoring technique for:
– Valves, steam traps, grease lubrication
– Simple to use and understand
– Very high return on investment

Excellent ‘second opinion’ for:


– Machinery Health Monitoring
– Electrical equipment scanning

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Application: Bearing Defects
Quick, easy test
Establish baseline
“Clicking” sound indicates
bearing damage
Trend sound level to track
developing faults
Bearing fault
(4 KHz)

Note: Trending only possible if using a


calibrated ultrasonic device)

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Application:
Lubrication Monitoring
75% of bearing failure is lubrication related*
Damage occurs from both:
– Under-lubrication (Premature bearing failure,
contamination, etc.)
and
– Over-lubrication (Ball skidding, grease overflow, seal
damage, etc.)

*Source SKF bearings

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Application: Detecting Valve Failure
Failure Modes:
– Partially open or leaking
– Sounds like rushing water

Failure can result in:


– Contamination
– Loss of product
– Damage to valves and Defective Valve
downstream equipment (40 KHz)

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Application: Monitoring Control Valves
Contact measurement to
monitor flow rate
Airborne measurement to
monitor stem packing
leaks

70
60 Defective Valve
50
Average dB

40
30 Monitoring boiler spray valves
20
(average level)
10
0
1 2 3 4 5 6
Control Valve #

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Application: Steam Traps
Sound created from turbulent
fluid flow and valve/float impact
Failed trap leads to significant
losses in steam systems
A blowing trap (1/4” orifice, 125 Inlet Outlet
lb. steam) results in steam loss
of $6,300 per year

Under lubricated bearing


(40 KHz)

Confirm fault with Thermography


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Application: Air Leaks
Primary loss of energy in
plants today.
Generates airborne
turbulence in the 40 kHz
frequency range.
A 1/8” air leak in a 100 psi
system results in a yearly
loss of $2,100 Air Leak

.005” orifice, 5 psi leak (40 KHz)

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Application: Gas Leaks
Natural gas leak
Safety hazard
83 dB amplitude,
approx. $28,000
per year

Natural Gas Leak


(40 KHz)

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Electrical Corona and Discharge
Corona caused by:
– Insulation breakdown
– Improper connections
Generates high frequency

High Voltage

High Voltage

High Voltage
waves
“Buzzing” or “Crackling” sound
Confirm with IR Thermography

Corona from Faulty Connection


(>40 KHz)

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Application: Switchyard Monitoring
Sources of corona:
– Arcing in transmission lines

– Partial discharge in
transformers

Electrical Corona
(>40 KHz)

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Application: Load Tap Changers
Responsible for nearly
half of all failures in
Substations and
Switchyards

Scan for Nitrogen Leaks


.
Corona on Load Tap Changer
(>40 KHz)

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Confirm Fault with IR Thermography
Inspection of load tap
changers requires
multiple technologies
– Scan with Ultrasonics
– Confirm with IR and
test for dissolved gas

IR scan of Load Tap Changer

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Documented Savings with
Sound Monitoring
American Electric Power
John E. Amos Plant
12 month ROI
Vibration Analysis $4,223,850
Ultrasonic Monitoring $1,217,820
Motor Testing $ 381,097
Motor Current Analysis $ 344,429
Infrared Analysis $ 343,650
Lube Oil Analysis $ 74,039
Total $6,584,885
Lubricant Analysis
What is Tribology ?

Tribology is the science and


technology of interacting surfaces in
relative motion.

Includes much more than just


OIL ANALYSIS
Vibration and Oil Analysis Used
Together

Complements vibration analysis


– providing independent and advanced indications of
mechanical wear.

Supplements vibration analysis


– monitoring three root causes of failure:
• oil chemistry
• oil contamination
• component wear

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Root Causes of Surface Degradation
Mechanical Root Causes: Lube Related Root Causes:

Imbalance Wrong oil


Misalignment Mixed oil
Improper assembly Low oil
Improper fit Degraded oil
Temperature extremes Process contamination
Improper speed/load Dilution
Incompatible materials Water contamination
Material defect Dust contamination
Seal defects

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What Causes A Lubricant To Fail?
Additive Depletion - additives are lost or
consumed during the performance of their
functions
Contamination - ingressed or generated
contamination is the primary root cause of
failure in many mechanical systems
Oil Deterioration - primarily due to oxidation
which can produce acids which are detrimental
to both componetry of machines and additives
Oil Analysis & Trivector Diagram
ABRAS WEAR - Abrasive Wear Example
Oil analysis has three
Extreme
P3 - Mobil DTE hydraulic fluid
Sample Date: 21-FEB-93
dimensions: Bad Wear - Bad
Wear
– Wear Marginal
Contamination - Extreme
Chemistry - Good
• Ferrous Fair Bad seal leaking coolant into hydraulics
• Nonferrous Good
Saw abrasive wear particles on grid 100x

– Contamination Check - Viscosity, Breather, Contamination


Action - Remove Contaminants (water?)
Estimated total water content 2.5089%
• Dust In Solution 1% +Emulsified 72%
• Water +Free 27% = 100%

• Process
– Chemistry
• Oil
• Additive
Contamination Chemistry
Oil analysis choices
On-site minilab Off-site oil lab
– No delay – No capital investment
– Test incoming lubricants – Expertise
– Ownership and control – Extensive instrumentation
– Find and fix contamination – Less labor required
– Less expensive for >30 – Less expensive for < 30
samples per month samples per month

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Oil Laboratory

Wear Debris Analysis


Particle Count with Sizes
Ferrous Wear
Spectrometric Metals
Viscosity V40, V100, and VI
Neutralization Number
Water by KF
FT-IR

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Oil Minilab

2.
Iron and Water 1.
Oil Chemistry and
Viscosity
3.
Particle Count with
Size Distribution

4.
Wear Debris Analysis
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Minilab Analysis Parameters
Parameters What is measured? Significance
Wear Parameters
Ferrous Index Iron particles > 5 microns Recent abnormal wear
Large Ferrous Indication Iron particles >> 60 microns Abrasive wear indication
Large Non-Ferrous Indication Other metals >> 60 microns Abrasive wear indication
Analytical Wear Debris Microscopic particle Wear severity and root cause
Analysis examination
Contamination Parameters
Particle Count ISO counts at 8 different sizes Dust, wear, & process
particles
Contaminant Index Non-ferrous contaminants Corrosive fluid contamination
Water Contamination Water or other corrosive fluid Corrosive fluid contamination
Free Water Droplet indication Imiscible fluid droplets in oil Corrosion and poor lubrication
Chemistry Parameters
Chemical Index Deteriorated lubricant Lubricant no longer fit for use
Dielectric Permitivity Physical property of lubricant Wrong oil or degraded oil
Viscosity ISO viscosity grade Wrong oil or dilution with fuel

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Types of Particles

Corrosion Sand Rust

Abrasion Fatigue Boundry

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Reasonable Return on Investment: 500%+
First year savings:
$420,000
– Deferred maint = $210,000
– Less oil usage = $15,000
! ! – More credible = $20,000
– Less reactive = $150,000
– More accurate = $25,000
First year cost: $80,000
– Oil analysis = $20,000
Industrial oil analysis includes:
– Contam. control = $40,000
Particle counts with ISO codes
– Improved lubrication
Particle size distribution
practices = $20,000
Ferrous density measurement
ROI = (Savings/Cost)x100
Wear debris analysis
– (420/80)x100 = 525%
Mechanical Reliability (CSI)
Services and technology for improving the availability of mechanical
equipment through condition analysis
– Vibration analysis – portable, online, and wireless
– Oil analysis
– Sonic and ultrasonic analysis
– Infrared thermography
– Motor analysis
– Laser alignment and balancing
RBMware, condition monitoring, analysis and reporting software
Reliability program benchmarking, program design, implementation
and optimization

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Asset Optimization Program Model
DESIGN
Business Plant
Failure
Objective Assessment Performance
Defense
Identification and Quantification
Planning
Benchmarking

IMPLEMENT
& EXECUTE

Technology Expertise REVIEW


Deployment Optimization Performance Improvement
Measurement Planning
and Analysis
Work
Processes
Optimization

CONTINUOUS
IMPROVEMENT

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Positioning
Machinery Health Manager is the
software platform for Machinery Health
Management
– It Includes:

• Machinery health management Technologies

• Data analysis tools & Expertise

• Work Process for reporting program results

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Machinery Health Manager
Provides tools in assisting the RBM analyst to efficiently and accurately
determine the current health of equipment

• More confidence in diagnostic calls by the analyst and management


(built-in intelligence & diagnostic options).

Effectively communicate to appropriate personnel throughout the


organization

• Communication through existing enterprise and information systems.


• Reporting condition and recommending actions for prioritizing work
• Tracking performance metrics for judging overall program success

Initial implementation made easy.


PdM Novice user-friendly.
ROI realization is much quicker.
Integration of seven technologies

Machinery Health Manager is the Platform for the entire RBM program.
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Value Points/Highlights
Integrated technologies for comprehensive
multiple diagnostic detection
Ease of use
Comprehensive setup, analysis, and
documentation tools
Built-in intelligence
Diagnostic Power
Equipment health tracking and reporting
Performance metrics documentation and
reporting
Flexible configuration capability(e.g. Single
User, LAN, WAN)

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Software for
Machinery Health Management
Data from diverse technologies
resides in one database Portable
structure Vibration
– All personnel view the
complete history for each
asset
Online
– Technologies supported: Condition
Monitoring
• Vibration – portable and
online
• Alignment & balancing
Laser
• Motor Diagnostics Alignment
& Balancing
• Infrared Thermography
• Lubrication analysis &
Ultrasonics
Motor
Infrared Monitoring

Oil Thermography
Analysis 74
Ultrasonics
Integration
Seven integrated technologies
Complete asset health condition
into a single database
All diagnosis and findings under
one asset in RBMview
Why not have all of the
symptoms of the equipment
failure
Extreme Trivector
Alarm
Wear
Alert
High Normal
Normal Know the whole story before
making a recommendation

Contamination Chemistry
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Ease of Use
Graphical User
Interface
Wizard Database setup
Don’t need to be vibration
expert to get started
Fast, comprehensive setup
means faster ROI
Automatic point, AP and AL
sets, Fault Frequencies,
Diagrams, and Nspectr setup

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Automated Database Set-up
Set-up

Assign measurement
points, parameters,
and alarm limits

Selection of
component
types

Pre-defined
Graphic display of components
configuration

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Multi-technology Analysis Tools
Multi-technology MA#7 - GEARBOX DRIVE-SUCTION ROLL
GBX-DSROLL-G3R G-BOX OUTPUT SHAFT - RADIAL
0.6
ROUTE SPECTRUM

Technology and expertise… tools for


0.5

PK Velocity in In/Sec
G G G G G G G G G G 18-OCT-94 08:37:00
OVRALL= .6516 V-DG
0.4
PK = .6892
0.3 LOAD = 100.0
BPFO harmonics show severe race defect FPM = 3518.
0.2 RPM = 381.

decision making
0.1 >FAG 61896
G=BPFO
0

0 400 800 1200 1600


Frequency in Hz

15 WAVEFORM DISPLAY
12 CF ALARM 18-OCT-94 08:37:00

Acceleration in G-s
– Vibration Analysis
9 RMS = 4.38
6 PK(+) = 14.53
3 PK(-) = 11.78
0 PK ALARM CRESTF= 3.32
-3 PK ALARM
-6
-9
-12
-15 CF ALARM
Freq: 79.29

• FFT, waveform, & phase analysis


0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350
Ordr: 12.50
Time in mSecs Spec: .04412
Label: Severe BPFO defect - need action
Priority: 4

• Automated diagnostics expertise


– Lubrication Analysis
• Trivector wear, chemistry, &
contamination analysis
– Electric Motor Monitoring
• Automated rotor & stator
diagnostics, using current & flux
– Infrared Thermography
• Palette & plot annotation tools
• Temp profile & histogram analysis
– Alignment & Balancing
• Tolerance plots by the job 78
Diagnostic Power
Multiple plotting tools
Parameter band and narrow
band alarming
Fault Frequency analysis and
overlays
Variable speed diagnostics
Parameter Status Profile
Waveform Autocorrelation
PeakVue early impacting
analysis

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Diagnose Nature of Fault
Expert
Program Documentation
System
Multiple
Multiple
Analysis
Plot
Options
Options
Report
Link

Fault frequencies
to identify specific
Fast nature of fault
Indexing

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Built-in Intelligence
Built-in
RBMwizard sets up your
database for specific assets,
not templates
Thousands of built-in
components(motors,
bearings, pumps, gearboxes,
etc) to generate helpful
diagnostic fault frequencies
Nspectr, rule based expert
system finds problems and
recommends corrective/
diagnostic actions
Great for Novice and Expert

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Automated Screening with
Expert System
Calculates
An alarm/screening report, and a first pass
Overall
at analyzing machine condition
Severity

Diagnosis
Across
Entire
Machine
Train

Calculates Calculates
Problem Certainty
Multiple
Severity
Diagnoses

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Reporting for
Machinery Health Management
Performance metrics
document program
successes and opportunities
ROI or cost avoidance
documentation
Identification of the 20% of
assets giving 80% of the
problems

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Reporting for
Machinery Health Management
Condition tracking and
documentation
Reporting for technician and
management
Actionable information at
facility and machine level
Multi-technology asset
information repository

84
Emerson ’s Asset Optimization
Emerson’s
Mission
Deliver World-Class Services and Innovative
Technologies to Increase the Availability and
Performance of Production Assets for Improved
Bottom Line Results (operational excellence).

Mechanical Electrical Process Instruments


Equipment Equipment Equipment & Valves

85