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Федеральное агентство железнодорожного транспорта

Уральский государственный университет путей сообщения

Т.Б. Исаева

English for Presentations

Екатеринбург
2010
3
Федеральное агентство железнодорожного транспорта
Уральский государственный университет путей сообщения
Кафедра «Иностранные языки и межкультурные коммуникации»

Т.Б. Исаева

English for Presentations

Методические рекомендации по подготовке


и защите дипломных проектов на английском языке
для студентов очного отделения факультета экономики
и управления и механического факультета

Екатеринбург
2010

4
УДК 658.3.014.1.007.316.46
ББК Ш 143.21 – 923
И 85

Исаева, Т.Б.
И 85 English for Presentations: метод. рекомендации. – Екатеринбург : УрГУПС,
2010. – 64 с.

Данные методические рекомендации предназначены для студентов всех курсов


очного отделения специальности 080102 – «Мировая экономика» факультета экономики и
управления и 071800– «Мехатроника» механического факультета, а также для магистров и
аспирантов.
Методические рекомендации могут быть использованы как на аудиторных занятиях,
в группах и при индивидуальном обучении, так и при самостоятельном изучении материала.

УДК 658.3.014.1.007.316.46
ББК Ш 143.21 – 923

Рекомендуется к изданию решением кафедры «Иностранные языки и


межкультурные коммуникации», протокол № 7 от 25 марта 2010 г.

Составитель: Т.Б. Исаева – старший преподаватель английского языка


кафедры «Иностранные языки и межкультурные
коммуникации», УрГУПС

Рецензент: Н.И. Сорокина – заведующая кафедрой «Иностранные языки


и межкультурные коммуникации», канд. пед. наук, УрГУПС

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© Уральский государственный университет
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Contents

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Part I……………………………………………………………………… 4
Let’s get started……………………………………………………….….. 4
Structuring a presentation………………………………………………… 8
Hot tips “to jump start” your presentation………………………………... 9
Dealing with nervousness………………………………………………… 10
Today’s topic is…………………………………………………………... 10
Tips on presenting to English – speaking audience…………………….… 12
Visual aids………………………………………………………………... 13
Describing a visual……………………………………………………….. 14
Saying numbers…………………………………………………………... 15
Talking about trends……………………………………………………… 17
Some advice to describe trends on graphs and charts……………………. 19
Concluding a presentation………………………………………………... 20
Handling the question and an answer session…………………………….. 22
Powerful techniques………………………………………………………. 26
Some additional techniques to help communicate the message………….. 26
Love your audience … not everyone is like you…………………………. 28
Presentation activities for different personality types……………………. 30
Multiple intelligences…………………………………………………….. 31
Some presentation activities for “intelligences”…………………………. 32

Part II Test yourself………………………………………………………. 33

Part III Full presentations………………………………………………… 56

List of references…………………………………………………………. 64

Part I

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Let’s get started

Some estimates say that over 30 million presentations are given every day.
Many of these presentations are given in English by non-native speakers. Many are
given badly as presenters often don’t know how to go about structuring and shaping a
presentation or how to use English to maximum effect during a presentation. Giving a
presentation in English is a real challenge, even for those who have a good
knowledge of the language. Presenters need a skill set and a level of professionalism
and confidence that means they can do much more than just “get by”.
Giving a presentation is like taking your audience from start to finish on a
journey. At the start your audience require some basic information before they
accompany you on this journey. Once they have the information, they’re on your
side, attentive and ready to listen in every step of the journey along to your final
message.

Who
Introduce yourself. Clearly, the amount of information you give about
yourself and your work and the level of formality you use, depends on the
presentation you’re giving. For example, for a presentation to a group of your
colleagues, you probably don’t need to give your name and background and you can
use informal language. A presentation to a new client can require more detailed
information about your background and experience and more formal approach. Make
sure that you’re comfortable talking about your past and present experience in such
cases.

Why
Tell your audience destination – the reason they’re there to listen to you and
the purpose of your presentation. If the audience don’t know why they should listen,
they won’t have any reason to accompany you along your journey. The “why” is
linked to the conclusion, your final message – is probably the most important part of
your presentation.

What
Outline the roadmap – the main points that you’re going to develop and the
order in which you would like to develop these. When your audience have a clear
view of the roadmap you want to navigate, they can follow you more easily and can
also see you’re planned, prepared and effectively managing the presentation. There
are good reasons for giving roadmaps, as research shows your audience listen better
and remember better and more when they know the structure and shape of your
presentation. The technique we use to give the roadmap is called “sequencing”. This
is a very simple technique as it involves using language such as one, two, three or
firstly, secondly, thirdly. Nevertheless, it is also highly effective as “sequencing” or
“ordering”, as it is sometimes called, is a principle of memory by which we recall
information.

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How
Put yourself into the audience’s shoes: address your audience’s needs. Your
audience won’t listen to you as you go into the main part of your presentation if they
have other concerns. They may be thinking: How long do I have to sit here? Do I
have to take notes? When can I ask questions? Is there any coffee here? It can
therefore be used to answer such questions in your “start” so that your audience are
ready to listen. Your “start” should include these points but at the same time not be
too long. Ninety seconds is a good guideline as there’s evidence that you begin to
lose listeners after this amount of time. Your audience tends to listen to your every
word and form an impression of you in these ninety seconds. An accurate “start”
helps to create a good impression and you should aim to be grammatically accurate at
this stage.

The following phrases can be used for opening a presentation:

Welcoming the audience


1. Good morning / afternoon ladies and gentlemen.
2. Hello /Hi, everyone.
3. First of all, let me thank you all for coming here today.
4. I’m happy / delighted that so many of you could make it today.
5. It’s a pleasure to welcome you today.
6. It’s good to see you all here.

Introducing yourself
1. On behalf of Mr. Keane, may I welcome you to Jackson Inc. My name is …
and I’m responsible for …
2. Let me introduce myself. I am … I am …
3. Before I continue, let me tell you something about myself.
4. Morning everyone. Thank you for coming. My name is … and I am in charge
of …
5. For those who don’t know me, my name is … and I am the managing director.
6. Morning everyone. I’m … and I’m a … at …
7. As you probably know, I’m the new HR manager.
8. I’m head of logistics here at Air Spares.
9. I’m here in my function as the Head of Controlling.
10. Let me just start by introducing myself. My name is …

Explaining why your topic is relevant for your audience


1. My purpose today is to …
2. Today I would like to give you a general overview of …
3. Today, I’m going to bring you up to date with …
4. My objective today is to …
5. What I am going to do today is review …

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6. The reason we are here today is to …
7. My talk is particularly relevant to those of you /us who …
8. Today’s topic is of particular interest to those of you/us who …
9. My / the topic is very important for you because …
10. By the end of this talk you will be familiar with …

Saying what the topic is


1. I’m going to develop three main points. First, …second, …third, …
2. I’ve divided my presentation into three main points. I would like to begin with

3. So, I’ll be addressing three main points and the first one is going to be …The
second point will be … 4. And finally the last point is …
4. I’m going to outline three proposals. Firstly, I’ll … Then, I’d like to …and
finally …
5. As you can see on the screen, our topic today is …
6. Today’s topic is …
7. What I’d like to present to you today is …
8. The subject / topic of my presentation is …
9. I’m here to today to present …
10. I’ll be talking about …
11. In my presentation I would like to report on …
12. In my talk I’ll tell you about
13. Today I’m going to talk about …

Addressing your audience’s needs


1. I’ll pass round copies of my slides so you can make notes as I go through the
presentation.
2. The presentation should last about five minutes.
3. We’ll take a short coffee break at about 10.30.
4. If you have any questions, I’d be grateful if you could leave them until the end.
5. I’m happy to take any questions after that.
6. We can take two or three questions at the end of each point.
7. Please feel free to interrupt me at any time if you have a question.

Structuring a presentation

Most formal and many informal presentations have three main parts and
follow this simple formula:
1. Tell the audience what you are going to say! = Introduction
2. Say it! = Main part
3. Tell them what you said! = Conclusion
There are several ways you can tell the audience what you are going to say.
Some structures that can be used are presented in the table below.

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would like + infinitive will + infinitive
Today I’d like to tell you about our new I’ll begin by explaining the function.
plans.
This morning I’d like to bring you up to I’ll start off by reviewing our progress.
date on our department. After that, I’ll move on to my next
point.
going to + infinitive will be + verb + - ing
I’m going to talk to you today about I’ll be talking about our guidelines for
new developments in the R&D internet use.
Department.
This afternoon I’m going to be reporting During the next hour we’ll be looking at
on the new division. the advantages of this system.

The purpose of the introduction is not only to tell the audience who you are,
what the talk is about and why it is relevant to them; you also want to tell the
audience (briefly) how the talk is structured.

Here are some useful phrases to talk about the structure:

1. I’ve divided my presentation into … main parts: x, y, and z.


2. In my presentation I’ll focus on three major issues.
3. First of all, I’ll be looking at …, second …, and third …
4. So, first of all …
5. I’ll begin (start) off by explaining …
6. I would like to begin by …
7. Let’s start with my presentation.
8. Then /Next / after that, I’ll go on to…
9. Next we come to …
10. My next point is …
11. Finally, I’ll offer some solutions.
12. And finally …

The final part of the introduction deals with the organization of the talk: how
long it will last, whether there will be handouts, and how questions will be handed.

Timing:
· My presentation will take about … minutes.
· It should take about … to cover these issues.
· This won’t take more than …

Handouts:
· Does everyone have a handout /brochure / report? Please take one, and pass
them on.
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· Don’t worry about taking notes. I’ll put all the important statistics on a handout
for you.
· I’ll be handing out copies of the slides at the end of my talk.
· I’ll email the Power Point presentation to you / anybody who wants it.

Questions:
· There will be time for questions after my presentation.
· If you have any questions, feel free to interrupt me at any time.
· Feel free to ask questions at any time during my talk.
· We will have about … minutes for questions in the question and answer period.

Experts say that the first few minutes of a presentation are the most important.
If you are able to get the audience’s attention quickly, they will be interested in what
you have to say. Here are some few techniques you can use to start your talk.

Ask a rhetorical question Tell them a story or anecdote

Is market research important for brand I remember when I attended a meeting in


development? Paris …
Do we really need quality assurance? At a conference in Madrid, I was once
asked the following question: …
Start with an interesting fact Give them a problem to think about

According to the article I read Suppose you wanted to set up a new call
recently, central banks are now buying center. How would you go about it?
euros instead of dollars. Imagine you had to reorganize the sales
Did you know that fast food department. What would be your first
consumption has increased by 60% in step?
Europe since 2002?

Hot tips to “jump start” your presentation

Meet the people


Make your audience feel welcome as they arrive. Smile, make introductions,
say a few words about yourself and ask some questions. Offer some refreshments.
This technique helps break ice, calm your nerves, build a relationship, initiate
dialogue and create interaction. It is good for presentations to small groups.

What’s in it for me? (WIIFM)


Address the audience’s needs and concerns by telling them what benefits they
will gain from listening to your presentation and use the word “you” when you do
this. This technique helps you focus on the needs of your audience, focus on benefits
and not features, create desire and anticipation, raise expectations and build rapport.
It is good for sales pitches or presentations where you need to persuade or convince.
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Enrolment questions
Question the audience directly and get them to respond to you by answering
“yes” or “no” or by raising hands. This technique helps you focus the audience on the
subject, generate an interactive relationship, create dialogue and build interest. It is
good for small to medium-sized audience.

Quotations
Find something original or exciting in newspapers, magazines, books, in-
house literature, press releases or on the Internet. Make it clear that you are using
somebody else’s words. This technique helps you give another voice, build credibility
and create interest. It is good for all types of presentation shocking statement or
starting statistic.
Say something which is short and simple but unusual, surprising and / or
provocative. Clarify your source. This technique helps you get a high level of
attention with a shock effect and give another voice. It is good for most presentations
but take care the shock effect does not alienate the audience.

Expert testimony or historical evidence


Give objective evidence or facts from an authoritative source. This technique
helps you give another voice, be convincing and build credibility.

Question and answer


Ask something and then go on to answer it yourself. This technique helps you
raise expectations, engage the audience in problem-solving thinking and make the
audience want to see “what’s on the next page”. It is good for presenting
recommendations or solutions.

Summarized all that has just been said the introduction can be divided in 7 points:

Checklist for introductions

1. Welcome the audience.


2. Introduce yourself (name, position, functions).
3. State your topic.
4. Explain why your topic is important for the audience.
5. Outline the structure of your talk.
6. “What comes when” say when you’ll be dealing with each point.
7. Let the audience know how you’re organizing the presentation (handouts,
questions, etc.).
Dealing with nervousness

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The American author Mark Twain once put it like this: “There are two types
of people: those that are nervous and those that are liars”. So, once you accept that
almost everybody who gives a presentation – whether formal or informal, long or
short, to strangers or colleagues – is nervous, then, you just need to find ways to deal
with nervousness and even learn how to use it to your advantage. Let’s first look at
the ways to deal with and reduce nervousness.

Prepare well
“Failing to prepare is preparing to fail”. Preparation is the key to a successful
presentation. Nothing will relax you more than knowing exactly what you want to say
and having practiced saying it. Make sure you practise your talk until you feel at
home with it – then you can concentrate on other things.

Learn to relax
Doing stretching or breathing exercises before your talk can help you to
reduce nervousness. One example: before your presentation, sit comfortably with
your back straight. Breathe in slowly, hold your breath for about five seconds, then
slowly exhale. You can relax your facial muscles by opening your eyes and mouth
wide, then closing tightly.

Check out the room


Make yourself familiar with the place where you will be speaking. Arrive
early, walk about the room, and make sure everything you need for your talk is there.
Practise using only equipment (e.g. microphone, video projector) you plan to work
with.
Know your audience. If possible greet your audience as they arrive and chat
with them. It will be easier to speak to people who are not complete strangers.

Concentrate on the message


Try to focus on the message and you audience – not on your own fears.

Visualize success
Imagine yourself speaking to your audience in a loud and clear voice. Then
visualize the audience applauding at the end of your talk as you smile.
Use the steps to reduce nervousness, but also remember that being nervous
isn’t all bad. Many experienced presenters say that they can also use your
nervousness to give you that extra energy that you need to give a good performance.

Today’s topic is …

Signposting (phrases to organize your presentation) helps you structure and


shape the main content of your presentation. Signposts create verbal paragraphs or
verbal signals and raise the attention curve at the beginning and end of each point of
your presentation. The technique allows you to guide the audience through the

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structure of your presentation linking one point to the next. The audience can’t see
your notes and can’t look forward to see what is coming. You know where you are
going on your journey and you need to guide your audience by telling them exactly
where you are on the roadmap of your presentation. This is a simple but highly
effective technique that adds clarity to your presentations. Phrases below are
examples of signposts.

Saying what is coming


1. In this part of my presentation, I’d like to talk about …
2. So, let me give you a brief overview.

Summarizing a point
1. Before I move on, I’d like to recap the main points.
2. Let me briefly summarize the main issues.
3. I’d like to summarize what I’ve said so far …
4. So, that’s the general picture for …
5. I’d like to conclude this point by saying
6. So, we’ve looked at …
7. That completes my overview of …
8. Let’s just recap …

Indicating the end of a section


1. This brings me to the end of my first point.
2. Let me briefly summarize the main issues.
3. I’d like to summarize what I’ve said so far.
4. That’s all I want to say about …

Moving to the next point


1. This leads directly to my next point.
2. This brings us to the next question.
3. Let’s now move on / turn to …
4. After examining this point, let’s turn to …
5. Let’s now take a look at …
6. Moving on now to …
7. Now turning to …
8. This leads me to a point …
9. So, that covers this point.
10. My next point is …

Referring back
1. As I said / mentioned earlier
2. Let me come back to what I said before
3. Let’s go back to what we were discussing earlier.
4. As I’ve already explained …

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5. As I pointed out in the first section …

Referring to other points


1. I have a question in connection with (concerning) …
2. There are a few problems regarding …
3. With respect / regard to planning, we need more background information.
4. According to the survey, …

Adding ideas
1. In addition to this, I’d like to say that …
2. Moreover / furthermore, there are some interesting facts we should take a look
at.
3. Apart from being to expensive, this model is too big.
4. As well as that, we can offer …

Talking about (difficult) issues


1. I think we first need to identify the problem.
2. Of course we’ll have to clarify a few points before we start.
3. We will have to deal with the problem of…
4. How shall we cope with …
5. The question is: why don’t we …
6. If we don’t solve the problem now, we’ll get / run into serious trouble soon.
7. We will have to take care of this problem now.
8. We are currently having difficulties with

Tips on presenting to an English-speaking audience

1. Clear and simple structure. Remember that your audience will benefit most
from a very clear and logical structure. Don’t overload the audience and try to
use simple language.
2. Your introduction. Some experts say this is the most important part of your
presentation. In the first few minutes you can get your audience’s attention,
build rapport, and create a positive impression.
3. Topic and objective. Clearly say what topic and the objective (or purpose) of
your talk is. Repeat the topic and objective at some later time.
4. Signposting. Let the audience know at all times what you want to do and how
you want to do it. This method is common in the American business world – so
use it!
5. Repeating new information. Always repeat new details. This helps your
audience remember them and ensures optimal float of information.
6. Summarizing points. At the end of each section summarize the main facts to
make sure everybody is following.

15
7. Interaction with the audience. American audiences expect direct interaction.
So treat them as individuals; show them that you care about their individual
needs.
8. Presenter’s role. The presenter is often considered as important as his or her
topic, and the presenter’s role is to make sure the presentation – even one on a
dry topic – is interesting and entertaining. To achieve this goal American
presenters often use their personalities more and tend to be more enthusiastic
than people from many other parts of the world.

Checklist for the main part of a presentation

1. Briefly state your topic again.


2. Explain your objective(s).
3. Signal the beginning of each point.
4. Talk about your topic.
5. Signal the end of each part.
6. Highlight the main points.
7. Outline the main ideas in bullet- point form.
8. Tell listeners you’ve reached the end of the main part.

Visual aids

To be effective a good visual must focus on only a few points. It’s important
not to have too much information on one slide or transparency. Slide overload is bad
because people will then spend time reading the slide rather than listening to the
presenter. Normally use bullet points to structure information, never write complete
sentences. Headlines are important too.
Above all, a slide or an overhead must be readable. If the audience can’t read
the slide, they will soon give up. That’s why font size is very important. It should be
as large as possible. And sometimes it’s also a good idea to use different colors to
highlight some points. Using many different colors can be confusing though.
When presenting text on the overheads or PowerPoint slides, it is good to use
the rule of six which mean:
· a maximum of six lines per slide
· a maximum of six words per line
If you stick to this rule, you won’t risk overloading your bullet charts with too
much information.
The presenter is the focus of the presentation – not the visuals. The key
purpose for using visual aid is to help the audience understand the topic better. So the
visuals should only be used to support the presenter’s message. If a visual distracts
the audience’s attention from what you are saying, it’s useless.

16
What you say and what you show should always go together 100%. So when
you’re not talking about the slide, it shouldn’t be visible.
It’s very important that the presenter speaks to the audience and doesn’t read
to them. The speaker must make eye-contact and not watch the monitor or screen
while he or she is talking. It’s extremely boring when someone just reads slides word
for word as if it were an essay or something.
It’s called “Death by PowerPoint” when people use so many sound effects
and animations that the audience attention is completely taken away from the
delivery of the message. PowerPoint is a fantastic tool, but just because it has so
many effects you don’t have to use them all. Overuse is overkill here.

Describing a visual

During a presentation we can use different kinds of visuals:


· a bar chart
· a table
· a technical drawing
· a map
· a graph
· a pie chart
· organizational chart / organigram(me)
The first rule of preparing effective visuals is that they should be clear and
easy for the audience to follow. Sometimes it is necessary to explain a more
complicated visual and it is always necessary to point out the most important
information.

Introducing a visual
1. Let’s now look at the next slide which shows …
2. To illustrate this, let’s have a closer look at…
3. The chart on the following slide shows …
4. I have a slide here that shows …
5. The problem is illustrated in the next bar chart.
6. According to this graph, …
7. You can see the test results in this table.
8. As you can see here, …
9. Now I’ll show you …
10. Let’s move on now and look at the figures for …

Explaining a visual
1. First, let me quickly explain the graph.
2. You can see that different colours have been used to indicate …
3. The new models are listed across the bottom.
4. The biggest segment indicates …
5. The key in the bottom left-hand corner …
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6. If you look at the top right-hand corner …
7. The blue dotted line represents …
8. The top half shows …
9. The figures in this table show …

Highlighting information
1. I’d like to stress / highlight / emphasize the following point(s).
2. I’d like to start by drawing your attention to …
3. Let me point out that …
4. I’d like to focus your attention on …
5. I think you’ll be surprised to see that …
6. What’s really important here is …
7. Let’s look more closely at …
8. What is interesting / important here is …
9. It is important to notice that …
10. I would like you to concentrate on this …

Saying numbers

Numbers, especially long ones, are often difficult for the audience to
understand. Try to say numbers slowly and clearly, and point them while speaking.

2m – two million (2,000,000) 235m – two hundred and thirty five


million
1.6bn – one point six billion 98% – ninety-eight per cent
¾ – three-quarters $150,000 – one hundred and fifty
thousand dollars
0.185 – naught/zero point one eight 2009 – two thousand and nine
five

Remember that:
1. We use a comma in English to show thousands and a point to show the decimal
place.
2. We say “2 million” or “10 billion”.
3. We say “2 million dollars” or “170 pounds”.
If you give numbers during your presentation, you don’t always need to give
exact figures. An audience can be confused by too much complexity, and it is often
better to use approximate figures in presentations as they are easier for the audience
to understand and remember. Lead your audience to your conclusion by using
approximations:

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- (less) +/ - (about the same) + (more)
a little less than about, almost just over
just under approximately well over
around, nearly
roughly

While giving numbers during your presentation, you often need to emphasize
the most important points. You can do this by the following ways:

Using a verb (stress, emphasize, etc.) Rhetorical questions


I’d like to stress the following point. What conclusion can we draw from this?
I’d like to draw your attention to the So, what does this mean?
latest figures. So, how good are the results?
I’d like to emphasize that our market So, how are we going to deal with this
position is excellent. increase?
So, where do we go from here?
Why do I say that? Because …
Do we really want to miss this
opportunity to …?

Using what adverb + adjective construction


What is really important is how much we It would be completely wrong to change
are prepared to invest. our strategy at this point.
What we should do is talk about I think this fact is extremely important.
intercultural problems. totally unacceptable
extremely dangerous
absolutely safe
incredibly cheap
highly interesting
absolutely necessary
surprisingly good
completely useless

Making contrasts Describing results


although This was because of …
despite The unexpected drop was caused by …
however as a result
nevertheless consequently
on the one hand … on the other hand as a consequence
whereas therefore
while thus

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Talking about trends

We can describe movements and trends in English in different ways:

1. Verbs of change.

Upwards Downwards Other


climb decline fluctuate
expand decrease remain stable
go up drop stabilize
grow fall stay the same
increase go down level off
pick up hit a low remain steady
reach a high plunge even out
recover come down hold firm
rise deteriorate stagnate
gain dip slip back
improve shrink
peak slump
jump take off
bottom out slide
reach a peak
shoot up
recover

· A dramatic movement may be expressed by the verbs: rocket, soar, dive, dip.
· A slight movement can be indicated by: edge up, edge down, dip.
· The amount of increase can also be indicated using these verbs: halve, double,
triple, quadruple, and increase tenfold.

2. You can be dramatic by adding adjectives and adverbs to your trend


descriptions.

Adjectives + nouns Adverbs + verbs


a sudden increase increase slightly
a moderate fall drop significantly (slightly)
a gradual decline (rise) rise sharply
a slight rise (increase) decline slightly
a rapid growth decrease steadily
a sharp jump fall dramatically
a significant decrease grow considerably
the greatest increase

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3. Prepositions.

· Profits rose 11% to $2.7 billion.


· Profits have gone up from 3 million to 4 million euros.
· Our business grew by 10% last year.
· There’s been a decrease in annual sales of 1 million euros.
· Last year profits stood at 2.5 million pounds.
· Our household income has actually dropped by 10% to 15 %.
· The proportion of the food budget that we spend in restaurants has risen from
2% to 4% in the same period.
· Our expenditure on ready meals fluctuated somewhere between $250 million
and $300 million just 2 years ago.
· This has now jumped by nearly $400 million to almost $700 million.

4. Different verb forms.

Past simple
We use the past simple to talk about trends that happened in the past and that
now finished. It is often used with words and phrases referring to finished periods of
time (last year, from 2003-2008, ten years ago, when we installed the new production
process).
· Sales fell between 2000 and 2003.
· Sales increased during the summer months last year.

Present perfect
We use the present perfect to talk about trends that started in the past period
and haven’t yet finished. It is often used with words and phrases referring to
unfinished periods of time (since, for, this year).
· Sales have risen since 2003.
· Sales have deteriorated this month.

Past perfect and perfect continuous


We use the past perfect or past perfect continuous to talk about trends that had
already happened before another event in the past.
· Sales had already improved when we introduced the new product line in 2006.
· Sales had been fluctuating before we streamlined the processes.

Present continuous
We use the present continuous to talk about trends and changes that are
happening now or around now.
· Sales are improving now.
· The sales figures are getting worse and worse.

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Will
We use will to predict future trends.
· Sales will pick up next year.
· Sales won’t improve in some markets in the foreseeable future.

Some advice to describe trends on graphs and charts

1. Think about the number of visuals you want to use – don’t overdo it!
Remember: less is often more.
2. Before showing the graph or chart, prepare the audience foe it. Say something
which makes them interested in what they will see. This technique is called
“media teasing”.
3. Give the audience time to understand what they see before you start explaining
the details.
4. If the movement you want to describe is very complex, simplify it. Divide the
graph into two or three parts and summarize the main developments.
5. Provide an interpretation of the graph’s movement. The audience wants to
know there are ups and downs in the graphs, what they mean, and what
consequences they have.
6. Use the TTT method when presenting graphics: touch (or point to) a detail on
the projection, then turn to the audience, and finally talk to them
7. Use interesting and varied language to describe trends. You need alternative
expressions to describe similar developments.

Checklist for visuals Checklist for using visuals (graphs &


charts)
1. Prepare each visual carefully and
separately 1. Make your visual as clear and easy
2. Check whether the visual really to understand as possible.
shows what you are saying. 2. Start by telling your audience what
3. Make sure your audience can the graph / chart illustrates.
read the visual (font size and 3. Highlight the key points.
color). 4. Say why these points are important
4. Find effective headlines. (and explain the cause or effect).
5. Keep design and content simple. 5. Use different verbs to express
6. Use bullet charts for text. movement / development.
7. Reduce text to a minimum. 6. Use the same key words and
8. Always prepare audience for phrases you used on your bullet
visuals. charts.
9. Present information clearly and
logically
10. Remember the rule of six.

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Concluding a presentation

You should stay in control until the very last second and follow these steps at
the “finish” of your presentation.
Firstly, pause briefly and signal clearly that you are now ready to finish the
presentation. The audience will start to listen again closely at this point.
Then, take your summary, giving a brief overview of what has already been
said. The summary is a reflection of your “what” and looks back. It should not be too
long as you will lose your audience’s attention again, but detailed enough to cover
your points. This can be a difficult balance to achieve! A good summary gives your
listeners time to reflect on the content and builds up to your conclusion, making tour
conclusion stronger, more powerful and more effective. A conclusion without a
summary can sound incomplete as your audience may not have listened to every
point during the main part of the presentation and the purpose can be lost. Avoid
giving any conclusions while you are making your summary.
After this, give your conclusion. This is a reflection of your “why” and looks
forward to what you want people to do or think after your presentation. It should
follow logically from your summary. There are different kinds of conclusions: you
can make a call for action, make a recommendation or assure your audience that
they’re better informed. This is the destination of your journey and the most
important part of your presentation.
Finally, make your closing remarks by thanking your audience, asking for
questions or passing round your presentation handouts.

Signaling the end of the presentation


1. So, that brings me to the end of my presentation.
2. So, that completes our presentation.
3. Well, that covers everything I want to say.
4. I’m now approaching / nearing the end of my presentation.
5. Ok, I think that’s everything I wanted to say about …
6. As a final point, I’d like to …
7. Finally, I’d like to highlight one key issue.

Summarizing the main points


1. Let me summarize what we’ve looked at.
2. I’ll briefly summarize the main issues.
3. I’d like to summarize.
4. Let me just go over the key points again.
5. To sum up …
6. At this stage, I’d like to go over …
7. To summarize, I’ll run through my three topics.
8. Before I stop, let me go over the key issues again.
9. Just to summarize the main points of my talk …
10. I’d like to run through my main points again …

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11. To conclude / in conclusion, I’d like to …

Giving a conclusion
1. I suggest / we’d suggest
2. I’d like to conclude by strongly recommending …
3. I trust you gained an insight into …
4. To conclude, I’d like to leave you with the following thought …
5. In my opinion, the only way forward is to
6. In my opinion, we should …
7. In conclusion, I’d like to leave you with the following idea.
8. We therefore (strongly) recommend that …
9. Based on the figures we have, I’m quite certain that …

Making a closing remark


1. Thank you for your attention.
2. I’ll now hand out …
3. If you have any questions, I’d be happy to answer them.
4. Thank you for listening.
5. Are there any questions?
6. We just have time for a few questions.
7. And now I’ll be happy to answer any questions you may have.

You can make your conclusion more effective using questions, quoting a
well-known person, referring back to the beginning or calling the audience to action:

Using questions Referring back to the beginning


1. After all, isn’t that why we’re 1. Remember what I said at the
here? beginning of my talk today?
2. Let me just finish with a Well, …
question: If we don’t do it, won’t 2. Let me just go back to the story I
somebody else? told you earlier.
3. Remember, …

Quoting a well-known person Calling the audience to action


1. As … once said, … 1. So that’s the plan. Now let’s go
2. To quote a well-known and put it into practice!
businessman, … 2. So now it’s your turn.
3. To put in the words of … 3. Now let’s make a real effort to
achieve this goal!

The American presentations guru Charlie F. Elroy suggested his strategies for
effective conclusions. Here they are:

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1. Summarize the main points
This is the most widely used method but boring! However, sometimes you
will find it’s the best strategy. Just sum up the main points you have covered in the
middle section.
2. Quote a famous person
Quote something from a famous person that fits the content of your talk and
use it as a final statement. You can find lots of quotations on the Internet. If you can’t
find one, make it up. As long as it fits, no one will ever know.
3. Ask a provocative question or make a surprising statement
Ask a question which surprises, shocks or provokes your audience – anything
to make them think and to make a lasting impression. Or you can just say something
unusual, unexpected, or even shocking to help support your key points.
4. Use the “sandwich” technique
Think of your presentation as a sandwich with two slices of bread
(introduction + conclusion) and the cheese in the middle (the main part). The
“sandwich” strategy means that you have a connection between the beginning and the
end of your talk. If, for example, you start telling a joke or (funny) story in the
introduction, stop at an exciting moment and move on to the main part. Then finish
the story / joke in the conclusion.
5. Thank the audience
Fuggedabowdit (forget about it)! Forget standard phrases such as “Thank you
very much for your attention’ or “Thank you for listening”. After a good presentation,
it is the audience who should be thanking you!

Handling the question and answer session

Answering strategies

1. The question and answer session is the most difficult part of a presentation
and some presenters don’t like it. You never know what questions will be asked, so
you can’t really prepare and you feel nervous. The problem is you have to say
something quickly and don’t have the time to think of a clever reply. That’s why it’s
important to try and predict all the questions you might be asked. Before a
presentation, always make a list of questions you expect people ask. Then think about
possible answers and practise them. Sometimes even get friends and colleagues to ask
you questions. Of course, you can’t anticipate all the questions but at least you don’t
need to worry about the ones you have thought about. You feel much more confident
this way. But if you know who your audience is, it is possible to anticipate most of
the questions you expect to be asked. Some of the most common questions will be
something like that:
1. What has to be done? 5. How long does it take?
2. How much does it cost? 6. Is there a deadline?
3. What are the alternatives? 7. Do we get support/
4. Who will be responsible? 8. What can go wrong?

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2.You need to decide when you want to answer questions. Allowing
questions during your talk usually creates a rather informal, relaxed and friendly
atmosphere because the questioner shows some respect for the presenter. You can
answer questions directly and involve the audience. On the other hand, answering
after the presentation gives you more control of your structure and timing. If you
want questions after the talk, you can say that your time frame is very tight or the
topic is rather complex. Sometimes you may be asked questions during the
presentation, even if you have asked the audience to wait. Whereas some questions
can and should be answered quickly (for example, when a participant hasn’t
understood something you’ve said), you might prefer to postpone unwelcome
questions or comments using the following phrases:

· If you don’t mind, I’ll deal with this question (come back to this question) later
in my presentation.
· Can we get back to that a bit later?
· Would you mind waiting with your questions until the question and answer
session at the end?
· Can we get back to this point a bit later?
· I’d prefer to answer your question in the course of my presentation.
· Would you mind waiting until the question and answer session at the end?
· Perhaps we could go over this after the presentation.

After answering questions, especially those that require a long answer, it is


sometimes necessary to remind the audience what you were talking about before the
interruption. You can use the following phrases:

· Before we continue, let me briefly summarize the points we were discussing.


· So, back to what I was saying about …
· So, now I’d like to return to what we were discussing earlier.

3. It is sometimes necessary to reformulate a question (i.e. say it in another


way) before answering it. This not only gives you time to think, it also allows you to
make sure you have understood the question. With a large or noisy audience, it
allows other participants to hear the question (again) and finally, it gives you the
chance to change the tone of the question, e.g. making it less aggressive. You can use
the following phrases and the techniques in the table below to reformulate questions:

· I see. So, what you’re asking is …


· If I understand you correctly, you want (would like) to know …
· Ok, let me just repeat tour question so everybody can hear it.
· If I could just rephrase your question!
· So, you are asking …
· So, your question is about …

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· The question is about …
· You would like to know …

The question is: You reformulate to make it: By:


negative positive leaving out
negative
Isn’t there better solution? What would be a better
solution? words such as no,
never, none
aggressive neutral avoiding words
which sound
Do you honestly believe we You’re asking whether I think aggressive or have
can get the contact? it is possible to get the a negative
contact. meaning such as
honestly, really,
disaster

4. If you do not understand the question, politely ask the person to repeat it or
explain it. You can use the following phrases for asking for clarification:

· I’m sorry. Could you repeat your question, please?


· I’m afraid I didn’t quite catch that.
· I’m afraid I don’t quite understand your question.
· So, if I understand you correctly, you would like to know whether …
· So, in other words you would like to know whether …
· If I could just rephrase your question, you’d like to know …
· Does that answer your question?

You can simply repeat a question, using the same words in the same order,
but using falling intonation. The question then becomes a statement.

5. Sometimes you may not want to answer a question, perhaps because it’s the
wrong time for it or the question is irrelevant. When avoiding giving an answer, make
sure that your tone of voice is friendly and your reply is polite.

· If don’t mind, I would prefer not to discuss that today.


· Perhaps we could deal with this after the presentation / at the same time.
· I’m afraid that’s not really what we’re here to discuss today.

6. If you don’t know the answer to a question, be honest and say it. Offer to
find out or name a person who can answer the question. You can use the following
phrases:

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· Sorry, that’s not my field. But I’m sure Peter Batt from Sales could answer
your question.
· I’m afraid I don’t know the answer to your question, but I’ll try to find out for
you.
· I’m afraid I’m not in a position to answer that question at the moment. Perhaps
Maria could help us.
· Sorry, I don’t know that off the top of my head.

Asking questions

There are different ways of asking questions in English. If you want to be


more polite (and less aggressive), it is better to use less direct questions. They are
introduced with: Could you tell me …?, May I ask …?, Do you mind telling me
…?, Would you mind telling me …?, I wonder…, I want to know… etc. and their
verb is affirmative. There are no changes in the verb tenses as in Reported questions.
If the indirect question starts with: I wonder… or I want to know…, then the question
mark is omitted.

Direct questions Less direct questions

When do you plan to move to Geneva? Could you tell me when you plan to
move to Geneva?
What is the project status? Do you mind if I ask what the
project status is?

Note that in polite questions it is often necessary to change the word order or
add words like if or whether:
What’s the current project status? > Can you tell me what the current project
status is?
Is that the final decision? > Could you tell me whether / if that’s the final
decision?

Checklist for questions

1. Listen to carefully.
2. Make sure you have understood the question correctly.
3. Reformulate the question in your own words.
4. If you want to postpone the question, say why politely.
5. If you don’t know the answer, say so and offer to find out.
6. Answer relevant questions politely but briefly.
7. Check that the questioner is satisfied with your answer.

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Powerful techniques

1. When we’re presenting, it can feel unnatural to say the same words over
and over again. But it is noticed that repetition really works. It really helps clarify and
consolidate the key points. So, try to use repetition. If you can get over the unnatural
feeling, it’s an easy technique and it actually makes presenting in English less
difficult as you don’t have to find different words for the same things.
2. You can repeat a phrase or a slogan like a mantra. Sometimes it’s this
mantra that everyone remembers long after the presentation is over. Classical orators
used this technique and one of the most famous examples is the Martin Luther King
speech where he used the “I have a dream” mantra. People even call it the “I have a
dream” speech. Mantra has to be precise, to the point and memorable. When you get
the mantra right, everybody remembers it.
3. Remember the Rule of Three. It’s so easy. Good presentations often have
lists with three different words, three identical words, three phrases or three
sentences. Most experts attribute the Rule of Three to Aristotle’s Art of Rhetoric in
which he referred to “three types of speeches” and “three forms of proof”. Pythagoras
said three was the “perfect number”. Lists of three have a sense of completeness and
research shows that listeners wait for and expect the third item in a list. It’s a fairly
simple but highly effective technique.
4. Use rhetorical questions as they create expectation and a feeling of
dialogue. They are also a useful tool outlining and signposting the structure. You
should use grammatically correct questions though if you are presenting in another
language. It’s no good asking a question if the audience don’t understand it or
because you asked something too complex.
5. Give real life examples or examples that everybody knows. This really
speaks to the audience as they remember things when they relate them to themselves,
events or people. Examples bring things to life. It’s all about creating associations.
6. A number of effective techniques we use today go right back to the
classical writers on rhetoric. Take contrast, for example – if you compare one thing to
another, you are making a contrast. “We are bigger than our competitors” is an
example. Another contrast technique is to use words that are opposites. Kennedy did
it in that famous speech, “symbolizing an end not a beginning” and “United, there is
little we can do … Divided, there is little we can do”. He used “not … but” in the
same speech too. “We observe today not a victory of party but a celebration of
freedom”. From a language point of view, these are really not complicated techniques
for non-native speakers to use.

Some additional techniques to help communicate the message

What characterizes an effective presenter?


Effective presenters do a competent job and give well-organized and well-
structured presentations. They give solid information to their audience and explain

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complex information effectively and logically. An expert presenter employs a whole
range of additional techniques to help communicate the message.

Why do effective presenters need to learn more skills?


These presenters often put on their “business face”. They tend to be formal
and objective and this sometimes makes it difficult for audience to follow and take in
information. Such presenters can fall to truly inspire, connect and take their audiences
to a different level.

If we took at imagery first, what’s the difference between simile,


metaphor and analogy?
A simile is a comparison between two things, using the word like, e.g. The
product is like a shooting star. A metaphor also makes a comparison, but doesn’t use
like, e.g. The product is a shooting star.
An analogy can be defined as an extended metaphor, e.g. The product is a
shooting star and it is the brightest thing in the sky.

How does imagery work?


The presenter takes two seemingly unrelated items and makes a comparison
between them. There is a kind of shock effect and the audience begins to resolve this
by making a connection between two items. This creates pictures and associations,
fires the imagination and brings the presentation to life. It’s no surprise that imagery
is often remembered long after a presentation is over.

What kind of presentations work well with imagery?


Imagery can be particularly used for those presenters who have to make
technical or specialized presentations; an effective simile or metaphor can help an
audience understand complex issues without using complex language.

What’s a story?
It’s a narrative with a beginning, middle and end that frequently brings up
unanswered questions, crises or conflicts that are resolved by the end of the story.
Humor can be a part of the narrative.

Why do stories help audience understand and remember information?


Stories are very powerful in organizing and giving information and in creating
meaning. It is easy to understand and recall information when is part the flow of a
story and connected to other events in a narrative. A story builds a relationship
between the audience and presenter and keeps the listeners engaged as they
participate in the narrative, wanting to know what happens next and how the story
ends. Emotions are addressed and this is also important for memory and learning
since the emotional center of the brain is situated near to the part of the brain
responsible for long-term memory. In addition, stories put people in a state of relaxed
awareness – an alpha state – which is a more receptive state for absorbing

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information. It’s no coincidence that story telling has a long oral tradition in most
cultures.

What characterizes a good storyteller?


Good storytellers are positive, enthusiastic and relate stories that make a
relevant point. They make the message clear and make connection between the story
and the presentation.

What’ an anecdote?
An anecdote can be defined as a true or a personal story that can also include
self-disclosure. When a presenter discloses personal information, he or she shows a
human side and the audience empathizes. Anecdotes should not be too long or
include too much detail. Ronald Reagan was known as “The Great Communicator”
and he used anecdotes extensively.

Love your audience … not everyone is like you

Have you heard of Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI)? This is a


psychometric instrument based on the theories of Carl Jung’s psychological types. It
doesn’t assess intelligence or aptitude. According to Jungian theory, individuals are
born with a predisposition for certain personality preferences. There is no “best”
preference and all preferences are equally valid and important. MBTI identifies basic
preferences:
· Extraverted or Introverted: Do you prefer to focus on the outer world or on
your own inner world?
· Sensing or Intuitive: Do you prefer to focus on the basic information you take
in or do you prefer to interpret and add meaning?
· Thinking or Feeling: When making decisions, do you prefer to first look at
logic and consistency or first look at the people and special circumstances?
· Judging or Perceiving: In dealing with outside world, do you prefer to get
things decided or do you prefer to stay open to new information and options?

MBTI identifies and describes sixteen personality types, they all exist and
there will be a number of different types in any audience. Not everyone is like you
and considering other types is a useful strategy in preparing a presentation.

If you are an Extravert, you probably …


· Know a lot of people, and count many of them among your close friends; you
like to include as many people as possible in your activities.
· Don’t mind reading or having a conversation while the TV or the radio is on
the background; in fact you may well be obvious to this “distraction”.
· Find telephone calls to be welcome interruptions; you don’t hesitate to pick up
the phone whenever you have something to tell someone.

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If you are an Introvert, you probably …
· Enjoy the peace and quiet of having time to yourself; you find your private
time easily invaded and tend to adapt by developing a high power of
concentration that can shut out TV, noisy kids or nearby conversations.
· Are perceived as “great listeners” but feel that others take advantage of you.
· Wish that you could get your ideas out more forcefully; you resent those who
blurt out things you were just about to say.

If you are a Sensor, you probably …


· Find most satisfying those jobs that yield some tangible result; as much as you
may hate doing housekeeping, you would rather clean your office than think
about where your career is headed.
· Would rather work with facts and figures than ideas and theories; you like to
hear things sequentially instead of randomly.
· Think that fantasy is a dirty word; you wonder about people who seem to spend
too much time indulging their imagination.

If you are an Intuitive, you probably …


· Believe that boring details is a redundancy.
· Find yourself seeking the connections and interrelatedness behind most things
rather than accepting them at face value; you’re always asking “What does that
mean?”
· Tend to give general answers to most questions.

If you are a Thinker, you probably …


· Would rather settle a dispute based on what is fair and truthful rather than what
will make people happy.
· Don’t mind making difficult decisions and can’t understand why so many
people get upset about things that aren’t relevant to the issue at hand.
· Remember numbers and figures more readily than faces and names.

If you are a Feeler, you probably …


· Consider a “good decision” one that takes others, who seem to be on time.
· Keeps lists and use them; if you do something that’s not on your list, you may
even add it to the list just so you can cross it off.
· Are accused of being angry when you’re not; you’re only stating your opinion.

If you are a Perceiver, you probably …


· Love to explore the unknown, even if it’s something as simple as a new route
home from work.
· Have to depend on last-minute spurts of energy to meet deadlines; you usually
make the deadline, although you may drive everyone else crazy in the process.

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· Don’t like to be pinned down about most things; you’d rather keep your
opinions open.

Presentation activities for different personality types

Perceiving Types Extraverts


1. Present options. 1. Talk face-to-face.
2. Let the audience make the 2. Present to groups and allow
conclusions. interaction.
3. Don’t press for an immediate 3. Respond to questions and
decision. comments.
4. Give time foe a decision and 4. Emphasize action.
follow up. 5. Include social interaction.

Sensing Types Feeling Types


1. Be clear, down-to-earth and 1. Be friendly.
practical. 2. Make the audience feel special.
2. Give plenty of facts, examples 3. Begin with areas of agreement.
and evidence. 4. Emphasize human benefits and
3. Keep to the point. happiness.
4. Give the details. 5. Use personal examples.
5. Emphasize tangible short-term 6. Give some personal details.
results.
6. Check comprehension.
Judging Types Intuitive Types
1. Be punctual. 1. Give the big picture, the broad
2. Be well organized. implications and the long-term
3. Give a plan. possibilities.
4. Begin at the beginning and end at 2. Emphasize concepts and ideas.
the end. 3. Don’t give too many details.
5. Be decisive and give conclusions. 4. Inspire.
6. Emphasize schedules, deadlines 5. Emphasize the unusual and
and timetables. innovative.
6. Expect and welcome ideas,
additions and changes.
Thinking types Introverts
1. Get straight to the point. 1. Give time for reflection both
2. Be brief and concise, but present before and after the presentation,
a complete argument. possibly by addressing issues in
3. Present clear goals and writing.
objectives. 2. Do one-to-one presentations.
4. Define terms and explain what 3. Stick to the business and don’t
you mean. include social interaction.
5. Present all advantages and
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disadvantages.
6. Emphasize rational processes and
consequences.
7. Use logical arguments.

Multiple intelligences

The theory of multiple intelligences was developed by Dr Howard Gardner,


professor of education at Harvard University. Here is an extract from Frames of
Mind.
In Frames of Mind the existence of seven separate human intelligences was
proposed:
Linguistic intelligence involves sensitivity to spoken and written language,
the ability to learn languages, and the capacity to use language to accomplish certain
goals. Lawyers, speakers, writers, poets are among the people with high linguistic
intelligence.
Logical – mathematical intelligence involves the capacity to analyze problems
logically, carry out mathematical operations, and investigate issues scientifically.
Mathematicians, logicians, and scientists exploit logical – mathematical intelligence.
Musical intelligence entails skill in the performance, composition and appreciation of
musical patterns. Bodily – kinesthetic intelligence entails the potential of using one’s
whole body or parts of the body (like the hand or the mouth) to solve problems or
fashion products. Obviously, dancers, actors, and athletes foreground bodily –
kinesthetic intelligence. However, this form of intelligence is also important for
craftsmen, surgeons, bench-top scientists, mechanics, and many other technically
oriented professionals. Spatial intelligence features the potential to recognize and
manipulate the patterns of wide space (those used, for instance, by navigators and
pilots) as well as the patterns of more confined areas (such as those of importance to
sculptors, surgeons, chess players, graphic artists, or architects).
Interpersonal intelligence denotes a person’s capacity to understand the
intentions, motivations, and desires of other people and consequently, to work
effectively with others. Salespersons, teachers, clinicians, religious leaders, political
leaders, and actors all need acute interpersonal intelligence. Finally, intrapersonal
intelligence, involves the capacity to understand oneself, to have an effective working
model of oneself – including one’s own desires, fears, and capacities – and to use
such information effectively in regulating one’s own life.

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Some presentation activities for “intelligences”

Linguistic Spatial
1. give written handouts 1. pass round objects
2. read a poem 2. demonstrate a product
3. show a film 3. use a 3D model of a product
4. encourage the audience to take 4. show a film
notes 5. decorate room with posters and
pictures

Logical – Mathematical Bodily – Kinesthetic


1. demonstrate a product 1. pass round objects
2. show a film 2. do a physical activity (e.g.
3. solve a problem stretching exercises)
4. do a calculation 3. let audience walk around
5. use sequences 4. encourage the audience to take
notes

Musical Interpersonal
1. use a song or a mantra 1. work with a partner
2. vary the pace and use pausing 2. initiate a discussion
3. show a film 3. show a film
4. play music

Intrapersonal
1. show a film
2. give time personal reflection
individual work

35
Part II

Test yourself

1. Match these less formal phrases with the more formal phrases in the
table.

What I want to do toady is I know you are all very busy As you know, I’m …
… …
OK, shall we get started? It’s good to see you all here. Hi, everyone.
Today I’m going to talk In my talk I’ll tell you about
about … …

More formal Less formal


Good afternoon, ladies and
gentlemen.
Today I would like to …
Let me just start by introducing
myself. My name …
It’s a pleasure to welcome you
today.
In my presentation I would like to
report on …
The topic of today’s presentation is

I suggest that we begin now.
I’m aware that you all have very
tight schedules …

2. Complete sentences 1 – 8 with the correct form of the verb and a


sentence ending from the box below.

you on the proposed training project you up to date on SEKO’s investment


you how the database works you an interview of our present market
at business opportunities in Asia position
by telling you about what Jane’s on our financial targets for the division
group is working on

1. give Today I’d like to …


2. show I’ll be …
3. talk During the next two hours we’ll be …
4. bring I’d like to …
5. report This afternoon I’m going to …
6. update Today I’d like to …
36
7. look This morning we’ll be …
8. begin Today I’ll …

3. Complete the sentences with the words in the box.

after all areas divided finally start then third

a. I’ll be talking to you today about the after-sales service plans we offer. I’ll …
by describing the various packages in detail. … I’ll go on to show you some
case studies. …, I’ll discuss how you can choose the best plan to meet your
customers’ needs.
b. I’ve … talk into three main parts. First of …, I’ll tell you something about the
history of our company. … that I’ll describe how the company is structured
and finally, I’ll give you some details of our range of products and services.
c. I’d like to update you on what we’ve been working over the last year. I’ll focus
on three main …: first, our joint venture in Asia; second, the new plant in
Charleston. And …, our redevelopment project.

4. Complete the sentences with the prepositions in the box.

with about at for into of on to

1. Thank you … coming all this way.


2. I’ve divided my presentation … three main parts.
3. First of all, I’ll give you an overview … our financial situation.
4. First, we’ll be looking … the company’s sales in the last two quarters.
5. In the first part of my presentation I’ll focus … the current project status.
6. Point one deals … APG’s new regulations for internet use.
7. Secondly, I’ll talk … our investment in office technology
8. After that I’ll move on … the next point.

5. The project manager of a construction company is giving a


presentation to his colleagues. Put the sentences in the right order.

a. This morning I’d like to update you on the current status of work at the
construction site. The information I give you today should help you with
planning your next steps.
b. For those of you don’t know me, my name is Gordon Selfridge. Let me just
write down for you. Ok. I’m the project manager in charge of the Bak Tower
building project in Dubai.
c. I’ve divided my presentation into three main parts.
d. Hello, everyone.
e. Then I’ll move on to the problems we’re facing with our local suppliers.

37
f. First of all, let me thank you for coming here today. I’m aware that you’re all
busy preparing for an annual meeting this week, so I really appreciate you
taking time to be here.
g. I’ll start off by showing you some photos of the building site and discussing the
progress we’ve made since January.
h. My talk should take about 30 minutes. Please feel free to interrupt me at any
time with questions.
i. I’ll end with some ideas for reducing labor costs that we’ve been looking for.
j. Oh, and don’t worry about taking notes. I’ll be handing out copies of the
PowerPoint slides.

6. Replace the highlighted words in the presentation with words or


phrases from the box.

after that begin I’m realize responsible for sections turn

1. I’ll start off by showing you …


2. I’ve divided my presentation into three main parts.
3. For those of you who don’t know me, my name is Gordon Smith.
4. Then I’ll move on to the problems.
5. I’m the project manager in charge of our Dubai building project.
6. I’m aware that you’re all busy preparing for the annual meeting.

7. Match the two parts to make typical sentences from the introduction.

1. For those of you who don’t know me a. to take notes. Everything is on the
handout.
2. Feel free to b. about ten minutes.
3. this won’t take more c. I’m Bob Kay in charge of the software
division.
4. I’ll be passing out d. ask questions at any time.
5. This part of the presentation will take e. for questions after my talk.
6. I’ll start off by giving you f. an overview of our product range.
7. There’s no need g. handouts in a few minutes.
8. There will be time h. than 20 minutes of your time.

8. Match items from the three columns to make attention-grabbing


openings.

1. Did you know that that can’t is a four-letter Who would you tell
word first?
2. I read an article compete with the Chinese by eliminating one olive
somewhere from each salad served in
the first class
38
3. imagine American Airlines saved Of course we can!
$40,000 in 1987
4. Can we really you won a million euros I tend to agree with that!

9. Put the words in the right order to make sentences.

1. shall OK get we started.


2. my today subject presentation of satisfaction is the customer.
3. will presentation thirty my about take minutes.
4. issues on three focus I’ll.
5. by looking of status will the current project we the start at.
6. that did know popular China car is this very in you.

10. Match examples of jump starts (a –g) with the techniques 1 – 7.

1. What’s in it for me? (WILM).


2. Question and answer.
3. Expert testimony or historical evidence.
4. Quotations.
5. Meet the people.
6. Shocking statements or startling statistics.
7. Enrolment questions.

a. The benefit for you is that you will have a better product that wills a better job.
b. In today’s newspaper, our CEO started “The Internet is the aggressive
revolutionary army of our age. It will kill our children” and I’m going to show
you why we need to rationalize our business before we lose it completely.
c. We often talk about creativity and promoting a culture of creativity. But what
do we mean exactly? I’m sure each of you would give a different answer. So,
I’m here today to answer this question and explain exactly what we mean when
we say “creativity” in our company.
d. Hi my name’s Laura Schmidt. Please help yourself to coffee or tea while we’re
waiting for everyone to arrive.
e. I’m holding the latest government health report in my hands. It states that the
chance of getting some cancers has actually risen from in twelve to one in nine
in the last few years. This report goes on to link this to household products and
says that more than 500 – more than 500 – manufactured chemicals found in
the everyday environment are believed to mimic and disrupt hormones. Today,
I’m going to examine what this means for us in our business sector.
f. How many of you have pitched for new business and failed to get it? How
many of you here hate giving presentations? How many of you think your
presentations are boring and uninspiring? Raise your hands. Thanks. Well, this
afternoon we will be exploring …

39
g. Young girls between the ages of nine to fourteen stated that their number one
fear is getting fat. They’re more afraid of becoming fat than they are of nuclear
war, climate change or losing their parents. Our new wellness product range is
all about sensible diet and changing attitudes and what I’d like to do is …

11. Make signpost sentences using elements from each column.

1. Before I move on to come back to next question.


my next point,
2. This brings the issue point, which is price.
3. This leads let me go this question later.
4. Let’s now turn to we were discussing our new sales strategies.
5. As I mentioned to the next a brief overview of our
activities.
6. I’d like to before, I’d like to give you earlier.
7. Let’s go back to what us directly to my through the main issues
once more.
8. As I said earlier, I’ll be focusing on of customer service.

12. Complete the sentences with words from the box.

back covered discussing inform leads main points


sum up wanted

1. Let me summarize the …


2. We will be … our sales targets today.
3. In my talk I’ll … you about new marketing techniques.
4. Before I move on, let me just … what I’ve said so far.
5. I think we have … everything for today.
6. Ok, that’s all I … to say about time management.
7. This … directly to my second point.
8. Let’s go … to what I said at the beginning of my presentation.

13. Complete these sentences from the presentation with the correct form
of verbs from this box.

solve accept cope deal have identify prevent run

1. As you probably know, … we currently … difficulties with our new men’s


cosmetic line.
2. I’d like quickly …the problems and then make some suggestions on how we
can … with the consequences.

40
3. We’ve been trying to … with these problems – the delays, the poor quality – all
along, but so far we’ve not been able to find ways to … them from happening
again.
4. It’s clear we can no longer continue to … these conditions.
5. If we … (not) our supply problems within the next two weeks, we … into
serious trouble with respect to our Christmas business.

14. Choose the correct verb to fit the sentence.

1. How are we going to solve / deal / tackle with delivery problems.


2. I don’t think we can cope / tackle / take care with few people.
3. We think it’s important to identify / deal / cope the problem now.
4. Who will take care / deal / tackle of our business clients?
5. We have been trying to cope / solve / take care the software problem.
6. Before we go on, let’s identify / clarify / solve this question.

15. Complete the sentences with the words from the box.

according to apart from concerns moreover regarding with regards

1. I’ll give you an overview of some figures … to car exports.


2. … , I’d like to tell you something about the new software.
3. Let’s now turn to the question which … customer service.
4. …. A few spelling mistakes, the new brochure is very good.
5. Let me give you some details … our Chinese factory.
6. … the handbook, the scanner is user – friendly.

16. Match the two parts to make sentences used to refer to media.

1. On the next page a. from this picture, the design is absolutely new.
2. My next slide shows b. customers have complained about the service.
3. As you can see c. how much the market has changed.
4. Let me just show you some d. I’ll show you or latest poster.
5. To illustrate this e. at the figures on the next page.
6. Let’s now have a closer f. which shows the market development in 2008.
look
7. Here we can see how many g. interesting details.
8. I have a slide h. you will see a photo of the new XTK model.

17. Match the two parts to make sentences.

1. What I’d like to do a. important advertising is for us.


2. I’d like to highlight the b. for our success?
41
3. So, what are the reasons c. this model is selling quite well in the
US.
4. I’d like to point out how d. turnover last year was excellent.
5. It’s interesting to note that e. is to discuss the latest sales figures.
6. I should repeat that our f. is the quality of these programs?
7. what we can’t do is g. main problem areas.
8. So, just how good h. increase our budget.

18. Complete the sentences with the correct adverb – adjective


construction from the box.

extremely absolutely safe incredibly cheap highly interesting


dangerous
absolutely absolutely necessary completely useless surprisingly good
interesting

1. What we should remember is that this chemical process is ….


2. It’s … to improve the quality of our products if we want to win new customers.
3. This is … point.
4. We will be pleased to hear that our turnover last month was …
5. Unfortunately, we found out that some of the rest results are …
6. I’m pleased to say that the crash test shows that the system is …
7. Right now this item only costs $1.50 – I think that’d …

19. Complete this presentation with words from the box.

let’s talk draw your attention have a look it’s quite remarkable
about
you’ll see the figures also show that we can explain on the one hand

I’d like to … (1) to the regions where poverty has been reduced. If you look at
the bar chart on the left, … (2) that the proportion of global population living on less
than $1 a day has dropped. … (3) in South Asia the proportion of extremely poor
people has been reduced from 41 to 31%. … (4) how much progress has been made
by China. … (5), poverty has increased in many parts of Africa, Latin America, and
Eastern Europe. How … (6) this uneven development? To answer this question, we’ll
… (7) at the latest study from the World Bank. First, … (8) the figures that indicate
global process.

20. Choose the correct word to fit the sentences.

1. Online banking is mainly used by our younger customers. Many of our older
customers consequently/ however / therefore find it difficult to handle modern
computer technology.
42
2. However / whereas / although the euro is quite strong, we managed to increase
our exports to the US.
3. Whereas / therefore / despite we made a profit of $240,000 last year, this year’s
profit is only $110,000.
4. On the other hand / despite / although the growing demand, we didn’t sell
more cars than the year before.
5. We have to pay more for oil and gas. Consequently / however / despite our
products have become more expensive.
6. Poster campaigns are extremely important. Thus / On the other hand / as a
result we also need advertisements in daily newspapers.

21. Match the two parts to make sentences used to talk about visuals.

1. Let’s now have a look a. shows our revenues since 2007.


2. The black line gives us b. the next pie chart.
3. Each line on the graph indicates c. at how the new division will be
structured.
4. In the upper – hand corner d. attention to the figures in the left
– hand corner.
5. the graph on the following slide e. you can see the specifications for
the TP model.
6. now I’d like you to take f. the sales figures for the VW Fox.
7. The names of the new models are listed g. table on the right.
8. You can see the test results in the h. a look at the next slide.
9. this aspect of the problem is illustrated in i. the production output of a
different product.
10. I’d like to draw your j. across the top.

22. A head of department from a private medical insurance company is


telling colleagues from Italian parent company about the last year’s health
spending. Complete the gaps with the words from the box.

amo account amount attention divided see shown surprised total

This pie chart shows our total health spending for the last year and how it is
… (1) among the various sector areas. Let’s begin with the biggest area, which is …
(2) in green. We can … (3) that 31% of our total health spending went to hospital
care last year. The second big area with a … (4) of 23% is “other spending” – that’s
the red segment here. It includes dental services and home health care. I think you
will be … (5) to see that nearly the same … (6) – that’s 22% - was spent on doctors
and clinical services. This was mainly because of the increase in medical technology
costs. I’d now like to draw your … (7) to the prescription drugs, which … (8) for
10% of our total costs.

43
23. Use the notes to make sentences in the past simple or present perfect.

1. Telephone costs / rise / since / January.


2. Sales / drop / at the beginning of the year.
3. Energy consumption / increase / over the past 30 years.
4. Gas prices / go up / last month.
5. Number of customers / grow / since 2006.
6. Surprisingly / interest rates / fall / yesterday.
7. TBN’s share price / hit a low / after the crash in 1999.
8. Online bookings / double / since May last year.
9. Between May and July / order volume / fluctuate.

24. Read the following sentences and check whether rise and raise have
been used correctly. If not, correct the sentences.

1. We haven’t raised prices since 1January 2003.


2. Unemployment raised to a record high at the beginning of this year.
3. Why did they rise their rates last December?
4. Train fares have risen by 5% in the past two years.
5. Interest rates will raise again this year.
6. The company rose the dividends in March.

25. Choose the correct verb to fit the sentences.

1. Productivity has a hit low / has gone down / fell in November.


2. Output climbed up / has improved / recovered since 2008.
3. After the take over in May sales grew up / have decreased / plunged.
4. This year our market share raised / has grown / dropped down by 10%.
5. Staff numbers have doubled / rose up / have risen this year.
6. In 2009 sales have climbed / slumped / have risen.

26. Put the sentences that describe the graph in the correct order.

a. In June, however, the programme’s market share plunged to 6%.


b. Over the next three months, the figures continued to rise steadily and reached
record levels each month: 11% in July, 12% in August, and 14% in September.
c. The next graph shows the market share of Lifestyle Today for the first six
months after it was launched in April 2008.
d. This drastic decline has a simple cause. We lost a large part of our audience to
live transmissions of two major sporting events: Wimbledon and
Confederations Cup.
e. As you can see, we started off with a rather low market share of about 7%.
f. Fortunately, this was only a temporary setback.
g. Audience ratings improved significantly, climbing to 10% in May.

44
27. Rewrite the sentences using an adjective + noun expression and one of
the sentence beginnings from the box.

There was / has been … This was followed by … We have seen …

1. The turnover has increased slightly since May.


There has been a slight increase in turnover since May.
2. Income fell sharply last year.
3. This number of jobs has declined drastically this year.
4. Hotel rates dropped slightly in Munich.
5. Tourist numbers increased suddenly.
6. Social security costs have grown steadily.

28. Sometimes it is necessary to interrupt the visual by explaining the


reason behind the fact (the cause) or its consequence (the effect). Use the words
from each column to make sentences.

1. There are several caused for the decrease in productivity.


2. We chose this method has lead a new overtime policy.
3. The resulted by the collapse of one of our partner firms.
4. Our new policy reasons of this move was a drastic increase in our
costs.
5. The slump was thanks to to a significant rise in sales.
6. Downsizing and in a drastic fall in staff numbers.
7. We increased our prices because our sales went up!
8. Our output doubled result we needed reliable figures.

29. Complete the presentation extract with the correct prepositions.

This graph shows our online sales figures for the EU market … (1) 2009. In
the first quarter, online sales averaged … (2) 50,000 and 52,000 euros. In April, sales
increased … (3) 61,000 euros and remained steady … (4) the end of the second
quarter. In the third quarter we notice a sharp rise … (5) 61,000 to 87,000 euros, an
increase … (6) almost 50 per cent. In October and November, sales fluctuated … (7)
the 85,000 euro mark. This was followed by a slight decline in December, with online
sales … (8) 10 per cent, reaching 73,000 euros … (9) the end of the year.

30. Unscramble the sentences to make typical sentences from a


conclusion.

1. Well, / the end of / today / brings me / to / my talk / that.


2. Before I / key issues / go over / the / stop, / let me / again.
3. As a / means / let me say / for us / what this / final point.
4. Finally, / like to / issue / highlight / I’d / one / key.
45
5. To sum / looked at / product range / up then, / the new / first / we.
6. That / logistics / just about / to say / about / I wanted / everything / covers.

31. Complete the sentences with words from the box.

come back figures we have final point briefly summarize


now approaching suggest that to highlight my opinion

1. If I may … the pros and cons.


2. Based on the … , it’s clear that we must act quickly.
3. Well, I’m … the end of my talk.
4. Ok, I’d now like … the key figures.
5. Let me take one …
6. In … , we need a new sales strategy.
7. Let me … to the key issue.
8. I … we work together with our French partners.

32. Match the two parts to make final statements from conclusions.

1. To put it in the words of Albert a. “Look for your choices, pick the best
Einstein, one, and then go with it.”
2. I would like to finish my talk b. with an important question.
3. Let me go back to c. about the new branch in Tokyo?
4. So, now it’s d. get down to work!
5. remember that story I told you e. what I said at the start of this talk.
6. As the famous basketball coach Pat f. “The important thing is not to stop
Riley said: questioning.
7. Ok, and now let’s g. up to you.

33. Complete the sentences with prepositions.

1. Based … what we know, we can optimize our procedure.


2. … my opinion, we should go ahead with the project.
3. Ok, this brings me … the end of my talk.
4. What does this mean … our business?
5. Let me just go … the key issues again.
6. We found … that our sales force needs more support.
7. Well, that’s all I wanted to say … strategic planning.
8. We saw that the delays were caused … technical problems.

46
34. Look at the clues in brackets and underline the word which should be
stressed in each sentence.

1. Clearly, we need to look at this again. (it’s obvious)


2. Clearly, we need to look at this again. (twice wasn’t enough)

3. We will never get such a perfect opportunity again. (this is our only chance)
4. We will never get such a perfect opportunity again. (but perhaps the
competition will)

5. I’d like us to work out a strategy. (and nobody else)


6. I’d like us to work out a strategy. (a plan is important)

7. There hasn’t been a dramatic increase in production costs. (but there has been
an increase)
8. There hasn’t been a dramatic increase in production costs. (the increase was in
personal costs)

9. I think we’ve made a good start. (but you might not agree)
10. I think we’ve made a good start. (but there is still a lot to do)

11. This is not the only option. (There might be others)


12. This is not the only option. (I have a better one)

13. Sales this month have been quite good. (but not brilliant)
14. Sales this month have been quite good. (we are pleased)

15. Where do we go from here? (I have absolutely no idea)


16. Where do we go from here? (normal question)

35. Match the two parts to make sentences.

1. Good point, but I’d prefer a. any question please?


2. Perhaps we could b. deal with this at some other
time.
3. Could you repeat c. off the top of my head.
4. I’m afraid that’s d. not to discuss that today.
5. I’m sure Ms Major e. answer my question?
6. Sorry, I don’t f. not my field.
7. I’m afraid I don’t know that g. could answer that question for
you.
8. I’m afraid I’m not h. in a position to comment on
that.
9. Does that i. quite understand your question.
47
36. Complete the dialogue with phrases from the box.

Could you give us Does that mean Are there any questions Go ahead
Excuse me No, no, not at all
I suggest you speak to I’d be interested Would you mind May I ask

Presenter: _______ (1)?


Susanne: Yes, I have a question. _______ (2) some background information
on Track Ltd?
Presenter: Certainly. They’re one of the leading manufactures of outdoor
equipment in the UK with more than 35 factories worldwide.
Tim: _______ (3) telling us why you’ve chosen them as partners?
Presenter: _______ (4). The answer’s quite simple. We were very impressed
with the quality of their products and their prices are very attractive.
Annette: __________ (5) a question?
Presenter: Yes, of course. _______ (6).
Annette: _______ (7) to know what their terms of payment are.
Presenter: I’m afraid I can’t answer that question. _______ (8) Sylvia Baker
– she would be the right person to ask.
Alex: _______ (9). You mentioned a London office. _______ (10) we do
business through them?
Presenter: That’s right. We need to discuss the details though.

37. Complete the sentences with verbs from the box. Sometimes more
than one answer is possible.

answer deal go mention mind move prefer recap summarize

1. Well, actually, I’d … to answer your questions after the presentation.


2. To … what we were discussing let me … the following points.
3. Sorry, but I’d rather not … with this question now as we’ll be looking at that in
detail later on this morning.
4. Let me just … back to what we were discussing earlier.
5. I’ll … this question in the course of my presentation.
6. Before we … on, let me briefly … the main points we have been talking about.
7. I’m sorry, but would you … waiting until the question period?

38. Test yourself. See how much you’ve learned about giving
presentations in English.

1. Indicating the start of a talk: … of all I’d like to talk about the new project.
2. Reprint: To speak when somebody else is speaking.
3. The opposite of increase: We have experienced a dramatic … in orders.
48
4. Another word for vary: Orders generally … between 1.2 and 1.4 million.
5. Indicating the end of one section and the start of the next: This … me directly to
my next topic.
6. Written material for the audience: I’ve prepared a … for you.
7. In a few words: Let me just go over this again …
8. Another word for approaching: I’m … the end of my talk.
9. ZSMUMIRAE: To restate the main point briefly.
10. Another word for said: As I … earlier, the situation is improving.
11. Very small: There has been a … decrease in sales this year.
12. If you don’t mind, I’d … not to discuss this today.
13. Another word for part.
14. Another word for increased: The British government has … taxes again.
15. DECURONIT: Let me … myself. My name is Brian Winston.
16. What’s the preposition? She’s the regional manager, responsible … Europe.
17. (PowerPoint): Let’s look at the next …
18. A good visual for showing percentages. (2 words – 3,5)
19. To deal with something (like a question) later.
20. Another word for emphasize: I’d like to … the main advantages.
21. Another word for subject: Today’s … is market segmentation.
22. RUGIFES: Here you can see the sales … for 2009.
23. To repeat the same question or information in different ways.
24. Facts and figures displayed in blocks or rows and columns.
25. A polite way of asking somebody to do something: Would you … repeating
that?
26. Another way to say regarding: With … to.
27. To make sure something is clear.
28. What’s the preposition? If we don’t do something, we will run … serious
trouble.
29. PAZEEMISH: Let me … the fact that we need to act quickly.
30. A general description of the most important facts: I’ll begin by giving you an

31. Another word for role: I am here in my … as head of marketing.

39. Look at the text below containing three small ones.

What is genetic data?

· Our DNA consists of 4 bases A, C, T and G; so our genetic data is a string of


these 4 letters, e.g. …AGGGGATTTAAA…

· But at each genetic location a person can have 1 or 2 types, so can encode the
genetic data in terms of 0 and 1s, e.g. …0101001010101…

49
Why do we simulate genetic data?

· Lots of methods in literature about how to locate disease genes.

· To assess a method, apply it to data set and compare predicted location with
actual location.

· But need data sets with known location of disease gene… not many of these.

· Use simulated data sets.

Why is simulating genetic data challenging?

· Real genetic data is not a random set of 0 and 1s.

· There are complex correlation structures due to thousands of years of


evolution.

· Realistic simulated data should contain these structures.

Grammatically inconsistent lists are confusing and difficult to follow.


Simplify the text by (1) applying the ‘less is more’ principle and cutting the number
of words and (2) making the bullet points grammatically consistent.

Examples

Bullet points starting with verbs Bullet points starting with adjectives

· Attack market · Larger market

· Simplify product line · Simplified products

· Cut prices · Reduced prices

Bullet points starting with nouns

· Market attack

· Simplification of product line

· Price reduction

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40. Numbers and approximations

a. Read aloud 1 – 5 and pronounce them clearly.

1. 4,579 employees 2. 30,33 metres 3. $995 4. 7.385% 5. €5.1 million

b. Now read aloud 1 – 5 below.

1. around 4,500 employees

2. just over 30 metres

3. $1,000 more or less

4. approximately 7.4%

5. roughly €5 million

c. Read the examples of approximations below.

Our agency has worked on 1,024 brands.

Our agency has worked on over / just over / more than 1,000 brands.

The number of brands is just above 1,000.

Our agency has worked on approximately / about / round about / roughly /


more or less 1,000 brands.

Our agency has worked on 1,994 brands.

Our agency has worked on well over / well above 1,000 brands.

Our agency has worked on nearly / just under / almost 2,000 brands.

Now present sentences 1 – 10, using approximations.

1. We have 693 offices in 153 cities worldwide.

2. Our revenue was €333.33 billion last year.

3. There was a 5.67% increase in sales.

4. Ingredients: 82.7% water.

5. 78.9% stated a strong preference for Product Y.

6. Europe: last twelve month, category spending is $12.9 million, down


0.2%.

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7. Total forecast value: £2,697.

8. Australia: 193,399 professional engineers.

9. Fast process: 22-29 seconds.

10.We manufacture a total of 721 different products.

41. Brainstorm all the words you already know to describe the following
graphs:

1. an upward
trend

4. the lowest
point

42. Complete the gaps in these presentation extracts

1. To our surprise, it was the sales of Product A that (1) t……… ……….
Over the Christmas period with sales 51% above target and Product B that (2)
s………. with sales 34% below target. As a result, we are redesigning the packaging
for Product B and are forecasting that sales will (3) r………… by Easter. If this does
not happen and sales show no (4) i…………, we will seriously have to consider
taking Product B off the market.

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2. In this period, Brand A’s market share (1) s……….. ………… from 9% to
8% and Brand B’s share (2) p……….. from 6%to just 1%. Our Brand Z (3) r………..
from 10% to 25%. If we look at the budget for TV advertising during this period, we
can see clearly that Brand Z (4) d………… its budget from €250,000 to €500,000.
The print advertising budget (5) r………… …………... during the same period but
was concentrated on the target market.

3. I’d now like to focus on the carbon dioxide content. Have a look at this
graph. There have been (1) u……… ………… ………… in the carbon dioxide
content since the first unit was installed three years ago. It has (2) f………. between
0.33% and 4% as we have experienced multiple failures. The units are now working
efficiently and carbon dioxide content is (3) h………. ………… at 0.33% and we
expect this to (4) s………… at 0.2% by the end of the year.

4. Let’s move onto the statistics. In 1900, 15% of the workforce was aged
over 55 and by 2000 this had (1) g……….. ………… to 33%. We expect this to (2)
j………… to roughly 40% by 2030. Life expectancy was approximately 46 years in
1900 but this has (3) s…………. ………….. to round about 80 today. What does this
all mean for us when we look at the question of age delivery?

43. Choose the best adverb or adjective for each sentence.

1. Sales shot up slowly / slightly / dramatically and surpassed all our


expectations.

2. The coverage rate decreased significantly / slightly / steadily by 10% every


year.

3. There was a huge / slight / significant rise in unit price from €0.75 to €0.77.

4. The marketing department has grown considerably / gradually / slowly in


the last three years and doubled its size.

5. A fast / gradual / small rise in raw material prices has slowly but surely
eroded our margin.

6. Up to now we have ignored the small / steady / rapid growth in the sector
but the growth is so fast that we cannot continue to do this.

7. There was a sharp / gradual / fast and noticeable jump in wastage in a very
short time.

53
8. The online marketing costs are dropping slightly / substantially /
significantly. However, the decline is so small that we shouldn’t include it in the final
figures.

44. Complete this presentation extract with the correct prepositions.

Let’s move on to the statistics. In the 1960s we spent about 25% of our
household income on food, but this has now actually dropped (1) …..….. 10% (2)
…….. 15%. However, the proportion of the average food budget that we spend in
restaurants and on takeaways has risen dramatically (3) ……… 2% (4) ……… 33%
in the same period. Most importantly, I would like to point out that annual national
expenditure on ready meals fluctuated somewhere (5) ………… £250 million and
£300 million just 10 years ago but this has now jumped (6) ……….. nearly £400
million (7) ………. almost £700 million. This has resulted from an increase (8)
……….. 100% in the numbers of single households and a decline (9) …………. The
time we spend cooking our main meal. This was around 2.5 hours in the 60s but has
fallen significantly and today stands (10) …………. 15 minutes. What does all this
mean for us in the packaging industry?

45. Look at the graphs and complete these presentation extracts, using
the correct form of the verbs in brackets

1. I’d like to show you the


budget for sponsorship and event
marketing in the last five years. As you
can see, it was at about €1 million five
years ago and (1) ………… (climb)
considerably in the next three years.
But please note that it …………
(rocket) since then and is now at the €5
million mark. The budget (3) …………
(go up) again next year.

2. Let’s take a detailed look at customer complaints about the hotline last
year. We started with a total of 127 in January and this (1) ………… (rise) sharply to
185 in April and this level (2) ………… (remain) steadily until June. The number (3)
…………. (reach) a peak in July with 250 during the summer holiday period. We
introduced a thre-shift system on the hotline at the end of December. Complaints (4)
…………. (fall) dramatically before that but were still at an unsatisfactory level. I’m
pleased to report that there (5) ……….. (be) a gradual drop in complaints since then.
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At the moment the number of complaints (6) ………… (level off) a little but we
believe that we (7) ……….. (hit) an all time low by December.

300
250
200
150
100
50

J F M A M J J A S O N D J J F M A M J J A S O N D
Year 1 Year 2
Graph 2

46. Now, look at this graph and complete sentences 1 – 6, describing the
sales. What tenses did you use and why?

1. ………………………………………
… last June.
2. ………………………………………
… before the joint venture.
Sales

3. ………………………………………
… last November.
4. ………………………………………
… from last November to now.
5. Now…………………………………
………………… .
6. ………………………………………
…. next January.

47. Read the statements below and write a rhetorical question that could
go before each of them.

Example
We employ around 150 people in China. How many people do we employ?

1. We employ around 150 people in China.


2. Last year we hired 50 new engineers in the Netherlands.
3. We are currently recruiting ten new sales office staff.

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4. We are going to start recruiting for the Hong Hong office in June next
year.
5. One solution is to use consultants to examine the problem.
6. No, we’ve never used an external company on this kind of project.
7. I strongly recommend buying a new office building.
8. The next step is to arrange a meeting with the client.
9. In my second point I’ll be looking at where we can go from here.
10.I am now going to deal with this in my third point.

48. Read the statements below and write a rhetorical question that could
go after each of them.

Example
We’ve solved the problem. How did we do this?

1. We’ve solved the problem


2. The client insists that we increase internal security.
3. The plant has had its best year as regards safety.
4. We are going to have to go after new business in the next year.
5. That brings me to the end of my second point.
6. We have increased market share in Europe.
7. However, we have lost market share in North America.
8. This is the not the first time we have made such a mistake.
9. To tell the truth I found this quite a difficult task.
10.We thought it was the best campaign we had ever created but the client
hated it!

49. A Yale University study identified the following words as the twelve
most powerful words in the English language. Why do you think these words are
powerful?

The Yale 12: discover(y), guarantee(d), love, new, results, save, easy, health,
money, proven, safety, you.
Put the words from the Yale 12 list into the gaps in the presentation
extract below.
(1) ……………. Are going to (2) ………………. The (3) ……………...
features we have incorporated into our updated software package. As you will (4)
…………….., the software is very (5) ……………… to use and (6) ……………….
From extensive testing have (7) ……………….. its success. Its enhanced parental
controls offer increased online (8) …………… for children and also monitor the
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length of time spent online. You can compare these times with the World (9)
……………… Organisation’s (WHO) maximum recommended times. In fact, we’re
so confident that we (10) ……………… that our software will (11) ………………
you both time and ………………. .

50. Choose the best response (a, b or c) for questions 1 – 8. Then define
the question and the strategy the presenter uses to answer each question.

1. When you say ‘pay freeze’, what do you mean exactly?


a. I don’t know.
b. So, you’re asking me about the worsening of your employment
conditions.
c. Let me put it in another way, …

2. Why did you spend so much money on marketing? What was the budget
for the spring catalogue? And what is the total budget for this year?
a. What is your question exactly?
b. You’ve raised three points there. Let me take them one by one. First,
the marketing budget.
c. So, you want to know how much money we spent. Well, that’s difficult
question.

3. It’s too expensive.


a. What’s your question exactly?
b. So, you’re asking me about pricing structure.
c. No, it’s not.

4. I’m really not happy with the way you went about this. What went wrong?
a. So, you’re asking about what errors we have identified in the system.
b. I’m sorry you’re not happy.
c. Nothing went wrong actually.

5. Don’t you agree that the second option is actually better?


a. No, I don’t.
b. So, you would like me to run through the advantages of the second
option in more detail.
c. You’re asking me whether I agree with you or not.

57
6. I’d like to ask a question about your third option.
a. I’ll be addressing that point later in my presentation.
b. That’s not relevant at the moment.
c. I don’t want to answer that now.

7. So, that’s the engineering plan, but what about the budget?
a. The budget’s not my job.
b. I don’t know anything about money.
c. Our financial director Michael Braun is probably the best person to
answer that, Michael?

8. Could you tell me about your company’s differential edge?


a. No, I can’t understand you.
b. I didn’t get that. Could you repeat your question in other words?
c. Sorry, no, my English is not good enough.

58
Part III

Full presentations

Presentation 1

Hello, dear members of the state examination (qualification) commission!

I’d like to present my diploma research project. The theme is: The role of a
transport component in providing external economic relations between the
Sverdlovsk region and China.
Nowadays bilateral trade and economic relations between Russia and China
are drastically increasing. It is expressed in high rates of growing goods turnover,
activation of the interregional and frontier communication, appreciable strengthening
of interest to mutual cooperation in Russian and Chinese business society. To
maintain economic relations and development of international trade there is a
necessity to create reliable transport communications.
The objective of this diploma project is to define the role of a transport
component in the bilateral economic relations.
In order to achieve the objective it is essential to fulfill the following tasks:
First of all, to analyze the level of transport communication development
between Russia and China;
Secondly, to investigate the level of bilateral economic relations development
of Sverdlovsk region and China;
Thirdly, to characterize two basic schemes for foreign trade cargo
transportation on Shanghai – Yekaterinburg route, to reveal their strengths and
weaknesses, opportunities and threats for the company “Panalpina World Transport”;
And finally, to suggest the ways of improving transport support in bilateral
relations between the Sverdlovsk region and China.
In the first chapter characteristics of railway, sea and mixed cargo
transportations in China – Russia communications are considered. I’d like you to
focus your attention on slide 3 that illustrates the fact that over the past six years the
volume of goods exchange doubled due to direct railway communications.
In the second chapter the level of external economic relations development
between China and the Sverdlovsk region is analyzed. The following factors are
favorable for the development of economic and trade relations between Russia and
China, China and the Sverdlovsk region:
· geographical affinity of the two countries
· common directions of economic reforms for both countries
· both nations are interested in acceleration of social and economic development
Let’s now look at the slide 5 which shows characteristics of transport
operations between the Sverdlovsk region and China. What I’d like to point out here
is that import from China to the Sverdlovsk region increased by 28% in 2005 – 2006.
It should be also mentioned that China was the seventh trade partner of the
59
Sverdlovsk region in 2006. The graph on slide 5 illustrates a dynamic development of
foreign trade parameters between China and the Sverdlovsk region. You can see that
both import and export have reached a high in the last 15 years. It is expected that
import and export will reach the level of 290 and 300 million dollars respectively.
The overall tendency for bilateral economic relations is forecast to be upwards.
In the third chapter the basic schemes of cargo transportations on Shanghai –
Yekaterinburg route, used by the company “Panalpina” are characterized.
Optimization schemes are suggested in the context of foreign economic relations
activation between the Sverdlovsk region and China. For analysis we have used
SWOT – analysis based on empirical knowledge, obtained during a work period for
“Panalpina “company.
Let’s look more closely at the first scheme – the scheme of transportation by
direct railway communication. From Shanghai to Manchzhuria cargo is transported in
a Chinese rolling stock. When a train reaches the frontier transition point
Manchzhuria – Zabaikalsk, the cargo is then loaded on the train of 1520 mm track.
After cargo re – load a mode of national customs transit has to be registrated which
allows import cargo to travel to the place of destination. After registration of this
mode the cargo goes to the destination point. I’d like to highlight some disadvantages
of the scheme illustrated on slide 8:
· the absence of cargo tracking system in China
· low carrying capacity of a frontier check-point
· the absence of shipment schedules between railway systems
· delays in providing information on re-load of import cargo into Russian
railway cars
· the absence of storage areas for big consignments
· threats to rolling stock congestion at the check-point
· threats to railroad tariffs increase in this direction (Zabaikals – Yekaterinburg)
The second scheme is the scheme of sea transportation through Vostochny
port and further in Russia along the Transsiberian Railway. When the cargo is
discharged, registration of national customs transit mode begins. After that the cargo
goes to the station of destination. You can see the following disadvantages and
threats of this scheme on slide 10:
· the dependence of the scheme on geographical, navigation and weather
conditions
· insufficient capacity of cargo handling areas in Vostochny port and at
Vostochnaya – export railway station
· threats for congestions of containers to be loaded
· threats for railroads tariffs increase in the direction Vostochny –
Yekaterinburg.

The SWOT – analysis of the two schemes allows to make a conclusion that
any scheme is not exceptional. As a rule, the given schemes should supplement each
other. The preference of any of them should be based on real situations arising in
Shanghai and Vostochny ports. For a forwarding company, there is no sense to vary
60
the preferences of choice in transportation schemes. The option of using both
schemes in a different ratio is optimum. For participants of the external economic
relations monitoring of conditions and quality of transport support is an essential
requirement to succeed. It can also help plan business operations correctly. The role
of a transport component in this case is proved.
Some ways to solve the problems of transport support in bilateral economic
relations are listed in slide 11. Suggested ideas could be valuable not only for the
company “Panalpina” but for other participants of external economic relations as
well.
In the section “Safety and ecological compatibility of the project” basic
parameters of organization of transport operator’s workplace are given.

Thank you very much for listening. I am happy to take any questions if you
have any.

Presentation 2

Good afternoon everyone. Thank you very much for coming to my


presentation. Let me introduce myself. I am César Ramirez, and I am a lawyer
working for an international law firm. Today I would like to give a general overview
of the growing and really broad area of trademark law. So I’ll be addressing three
main points, and the first one is going to be “what”. What we protect when we say
“trademarks” and what we actually mean by the word “trademark”. The second point
will be why we care about trademarks and why we should be concerned with
trademarks. And finally, the last point is how we protect trademarks, how the law is
concerned with trademarks, and how courts and judges protect trademarks. Excuse
me.
So let me just turn to my first point. What a trademark is, is a very important
question because that will determine whether or not we’ve got a flame and we’ve got
a right. So the first thing to note is that a trademark is any sign that could be used by a
trader to identify his or her goods from other traders’ and at the same time to
distinguish those goods from the goods of other traders. The concept of a sign has not
always been the same, though. It’s been changing over time and is actually being
broadened and broadened as time goes by. So in the beginning for example, a
trademark would just be used as an identifier. Nowadays, for example, a trademark
can be used, for example as a general appearance, as the persona, as the image, etc. of
a general company. So the concept has actually been evolving and growing very, very
steadily and fast over the past decades.
The second question is “Why we protect trademarks?” and over here I would
like to draw your attention to the fact … and to the actual rationale behind the
protection and, at the same time, I would like to talk about two main points here. The
first one is consumers, while the second one is the information. So the reason why we
protect trademarks is because they are supposed to be carries of information that tell
the consumer where the goods come from and at the same time, they reassure the

61
consumer that the goods they are buying, he or she is buying, come from the same
undertaking, from the same origin and is a constant quality. So rather than me going
into a supermarket and trying to find out whether or not those goods are actually of a
good quality, the quality I expect, I can just use the trademark, and always expect the
same quality with confidence. So that is the rationale of main protection for
trademarks.
Finally, this point brings me to my second, to my third point, which is … so
and this brings me to my third point, and last point, which is, how we protect
trademarks, and at this point I would like to draw your attention to the fact that there
is a very basic and, at the same time, very important principle in trademark law which
is “confusion”. We protect trademarks to the extent that there is confusion, and that is
… not only the consumer is confused as to the origin of the goods but also, if the
consumer is confused, as to the fact that the goods may be affiliated or could be
endorsed or sponsored by the producer.
So this third point brings me to the end of my presentation.
To summarise, we’ve looked at what a trademark is and its definition. We’ve
looked at why we protect trademarks and why we are concerned with them, and
thirdly we’ve looked at how we protect them. So, I hope and I trust that this has given
you a really good insight into what trademark law is and that it might be thought-
provoking for you. Thank you very much for listening and if you’ve got any
questions, please feel free to ask.

Presentation 3

Right. The protection of trademark law has been recently conceded to be the
protection of the psychological functions of trademarks. In this presentation about
trademark law I would like to give you an overview of what trademark law is about,
why it’s important, and how we protect trademarks in the marketplace. The points I
will be addressing are, what is a trademark and how the concept of a trademark has
evolved over the course of time. Why we think, and the law concedes, trademark law
to be important, and trademark in particular, why the protection is fundamental for
the functioning and the smooth running of the market. And finally, I’ll be looking at
how, in the market place, trademarks are protected by courts and by the judges.
So let me turn to my first point. “What is a trademark?” is a question that all
practitioners and all lawyers always ask themselves before turning to the question of
infringement. Infringement is a point I will be addressing in the third point, now, I’ll
be coming to that later on. At this point, let me just say that a trademark is any sign
that may function as an identifier of the origins of goods and as well as some sort of
distinguisher that will tell the difference between some goods from other goods. That
is the origin of some goods from one trader from another trader. To illustrate my
point I would like to give you an example of Nike: as a word, Nike as a sign, and
Nike as a slogan. All these three forms of a trademark are protected in different way
and in different extent but they are all recognized by the law. So at this point I would
like to say a few words about what is not a trademark and should not be confused

62
with a concept of a trademark. The first one is a copyright. The second one is the
concept of a patient, and the third one is the concept of a design. Each of these rights
is independent in its own right and should be distinguished from the rest. The first
one, copyright, is a right used to encourage art and literature and the production of
books, and for this particular one we’ve got a different test which is that the work
claiming to be protected should be original, it should have some creativity.
For a patent to be protected, we should be looking at whether or not the thing
to be protected is or has been invented and is new. So at this point you can see that
there is a big difference between saying “I’ve got a copyright” or saying “I’ve got a
patent”. This is an invention, this is a creation. This is new, and this could be taken
from already existing elements in nature. And the third one, which sometimes
overlaps with the other rights, is a design. A design could be something that is the
outside appearance of a product, for example or a particular drawing, in the case of
the fashion industry, for example. So, enough about the definition of a trademark and
the difference between a trademark and other intellectual property rights.
Now let’s move on to why we protect trademarks in the market place. At this
point, I would like to draw your attention to the fact that trademark law is mainly
concerned with the protection of consumers and the information that consumers get
in the market place when they make purchasing decisions. Originally, and I’m talking
about going back in time about a century ago, trademark law would always be
concerned with the protection of the origin of the goods when they reached the
consumer. Indirectly, trademark law also protected the traders that put the goods on
the market, and the main protection was, if the consumer is not actually misled, right,
then the trader should not be given an extra right. Over the past couple of years,
protection has been moved from the main cornerstone, which is consumers, to
traders, but that is a different point which I may be addressing in a minute.
Now this brings me down to my third point, which is infringement. Just as the
consumer has been the cornerstone of trademark protection, so has confusion, on the
part of the consumer, has always been regarded as a cornerstone of protection. The
question of whether or not the consumer is confused is relevant to whether or not
you‘ve got a right and you have a claim against another trader. However, the point of
confusion, the element of confusion has been also expanded over the course of years,
and now we’ve got different sort of confusion. The more relevant, for example is
origin confusion, and then affiliation confusion, and then sponsorship confusion.
That’s is not only the consumer thinks that the goods come from another
manufacturer or the same manufacturer, but also if the consumer thinks that the
manufacturer has endorsed … or another trader is affiliated with those goods on
which the mark appears.
So, to summarise the three points I have made, let me just say that we’ve
looked at the concept of a trademark and we’ve attempted to differentiate it from
other intellectual property rights. Then we looked at why we are concerned with
trademark law and on this point we looked at two main elements which are
consumers and information. And finally on the question as to how we protect
trademarks, we’ve looked at the main point, which is infringement and the

63
cornerstone of infringement is confusion. So I hope that this overview of trademark
law has given you a very important insight into the protection of trademarks and that
might actually excite you and you might have found it a bit thought-provoking.
Thank you very much for listening, and, please, if you have any questions, do ask.
Thank you.
Presentation 4

Good morning everyone. Feel very welcome to my presentation. Let me just


introduce myself. My name is César Ramirez, and I am a trademark solicitor, and this
morning, I am going to give you an overview of what I do, and I have chosen a
particular topic and that’s called “trade dress”. So, it tastes like, it smells like and it
looks like, but it’s not the same thing. I’ll be addressing three main points in my
presentation. The first one will be what I mean by “trade dress”, what the subject
matter is, and the definition of that and I’ll give you several examples along the
course. And in my second point I would like to talk about the different actions that
we may take to stop trade dress infringement. And finally in my third point, I’ll be
looking at why we actually protect trade dress and why it’s actually important, and
relevant to the public.
So, moving on to my first point, the subject matter, what trade dress is. Trade
dress briefly is the general appearance, or the visual appearance of a particular
product. So to illustrate my point, I will be looking at three different examples of
trade dress. The first one will be the configuration of a product, the second one will
be the shape of the product and the third one will be the design of the product.
So, moving on to my first example: the configuration of a product. Here,
we’ve got two different products, right, two tins of Coke. So, this is, as you all know,
this is a tin of Coke, right, and next to it we’ve got its twin, right, and what I mean by
“trade dress” is basically the copying or imitation of certain characteristics of an
original product and used on a different product, to actually make it look like the
same product. In this case, for example, we’ve got the colour, right, which is red, the
graphics, the script is very similar – Coke to Cola – and also the use of commonplace
words, in this case Cola, Coke, Coca Cola and Cola or Classic Cola. Cola is a generic
word which can be used by all traders.
Moving on to my second example, this concerns the shape of the product. In
this case we’ve got some Head and Shoulders shampoo. In this case, right, the shape
of the product, the general appearance of the product has been copied. There was no
reason for it, because they could have chosen a completely different shape of the
bottle. Nevertheless, the shape was copied, and also certain elements of the visual
appearance and the size of it were copied. As you can see for example, Head and
Shoulders is very similar to Headway, right and this combination of colours was also
sort of copied on the fake product.
Moving on to my third point: the design of a product. In this case, for
example, Corn Flakes made by Kellogg’s uses a very particular – well, it’s not very
particular because it’s mainly used by most cereals, right, nevertheless the sort of
graphic configuration, the arrangement of the colours, and certain patterns within the

64
design of Corn Flakes were copied and at the same time or by doing that, the new
product, the new entrant is actually transferring some of the imagery or some of the
commercial attractions, some of the commercial magnetism of the first product, the
famous product, the famous product onto the new product. So at this point I have
actually looked at three different ways or three different products that have been
copied and imitated in three different forms. The first one was the configuration, then
the shape and then the design of a product.
So enough about the subject matter, let’s move on to my next point which is
the infringement action. And so, in this regard let me just say that in order to tackle
these three problems, a trademark practitioner would normally use three different
sorts of action. The first one is the traditional likelihood of confusion. The second one
is a traditional, not traditional, sorry, the new form of dilution, and the third one is
unfair competition. The first one I’ve mentioned, confusion, is normally a bit, rather
limited, because it does not cover instances where … to prove confusion, consumer
confusion would be very difficult. As you can see the names are different, so a case
for confusion would be very difficult to prove because the name of the product, the
name of the brand is not actually used. It’s very intelligent; they actually used just the
configuration but not the name. And as you can see the name of the new product is
actually predominantly displayed. So instances of confusion will be dispelled. The
second action, which is dilution is a more complicated one, but suffice to say at this
point that it is normally used when there is some damage – not to the public … in the
form of confusion but it’s damage to the mark itself. When the general commercial
magnetism of the brand will be diminished or will be damaged by the use of a similar
or identical trade dress on a competitor’s product, on a similar product or an identical
product. And a third action which I believe is the best and most effective way to
tackle this problem is unfair competition and unfair competition will provide us with
a remedy if we can prove that the elements that are being copied – let me just go back
a bit – if the elements that are being copied are not functional or generic, then we
may have an action. In this case for example we could argue that this is functional
and it just makes it easier to handle the bottle of shampoo. And possibly, you may
also argue that the shape of a tin of Coke is actually functional and generic, because it
makes it easier to drink a tin of Coke like that as opposed to, you know, having a
different shape. So if we can prove that the elements we are actually claiming
protection on are not functional then we may have redress through an action of unfair
competition.
So, moving on to my last point, let me just say a few words about why we’re
interested in protecting trade dress and at this point there are three main interests. The
first one is the investment of the trader, in this case the owner of Coca Cola, the
Kellogg’s company and the owner of the Head and Shoulders Company. They invest
in not only advertising, but developing other products, and they are obviously
interested in preserving this commercial magnetism which they actually develop
through advertising. The second interest which I believe is the most important one,
the keystone, is the public interest, and this is concerned with the protection of
consumers – that the consumers should not be confused with buying a similar

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product. When you go to Sainsbury’s, for example, say, if you are in a rush, you
haven’t got time to actually check the product, you may actually grab Sainsbury’s
Coke as opposed to Coca Cola. So the interest there is to protect the consumer.
And the last interest is fair practices. That one trader should not actually free-
ride or gain an advantage over another without actually spending money, time and
effort.
So to summarise what we’ve looked at: we’ve looked at the definition of a trade
dress, and to illustrate my definition, I gave you three different examples. And the
second point we looked at was the three different actions we can actually invoke to
get protection, and the third one was the different interests at stake when protecting
trade dress. I trust that you have got a very clear insight into what I do regarding
trademark infringement actions, in particular trade dress. I am very happy to take any
questions, and to thank you very much for listening.

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List of References

1. Christine Johnson. Intelligent Business. Intermediate. Business English. –


Pearson Educational Limited, 2005.
2. Erica J. Williams. Presentations in English. – Macmillan, 2008.
3. Marion Grussendorf. English for Presentation. Oxford Business English. –
Oxford University Press, 2007.
4. Michael Duckworth & Rebecca Turner. Business Result. Upper –
intermediate. Student’s book. – Oxford University Press, 2008.

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