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ФЕДЕРАЛЬНОЕ АГЕНТСТВО СВЯЗИ

ФЕДЕРАЛЬНОЕ ГОСУДАРСТВЕННОЕ
БЮДЖЕТНОЕ ОБРАЗОВАТЕЛЬНОЕ УЧРЕЖДЕНИЕ ВЫСШЕГО ОБРАЗОВАНИЯ
«САНКТ-ПЕТЕРБУРГСКИЙ
ГОСУДАРСТВЕННЫЙ УНИВЕРСИТЕТ ТЕЛЕКОММУНИКАЦИЙ
им. проф. М. А. БОНЧ-БРУЕВИЧА»
(СПбГУТ)

A. П. Маринская
А. В. Кузьмина

АНГЛИЙСКИЙ ЯЗЫК
В СФЕРЕ ИНФОКОММУНИКАЦИОННЫХ ТЕХ-
НОЛОГИЙ И СИСТЕМ СПЕЦИАЛЬНОЙ СВЯЗИ

УЧЕБНОЕ ПОСОБИЕ

САНКТ-ПЕТЕРБУРГ
2020

1
УДК 811.111 (075.8)
ББК 81.2 Англ я 73
М 26
Рецензенты:
кандидат филологических наук, заведующий кафедры иностранных и русского языков
СПбГУТ,
Е. Ф. Сыроватская
кандидат педагогических наук, доцент кафедры «Русский и иностранные языки» ПГУПС
Императора Александра I
Е. А. Рипачева

Утверждено редакционно-издательским советом СПбГУТ


в качестве учебного пособия

Маринская, А. П.
М 26 Английский язык в сфере инфокоммуникационных техноло-
гий и систем специальной связи : учебное пособие /
А. П. Маринская, А. В. Кузьмина; СПбГУТ. ‒ Санкт-Петербург,
2020. – 68 с.

Данное пособие направлено на формирование и развитие


иноязычной профессиональной коммуникативной компетенции
студентов высших учебных заведений, обучающихся по направ-
лениям подготовки специалистов 11.05.04. «Инфокоммуникаци-
онные технологии и системы специальной связи». Пособие ориен-
тировано на учащихся с уровнем cфорсированности лингвистиче-
ской компетенции в пределах A2 - B1 по шкале Совета Европы.
Пособие поделено на 4 модуля: «Системы связи. История,
типы и назначение», «Системы радиосвязи», «Системы спутнико-
вой связи», «Оптические системы связи». Каждый модуль содер-
жит списки подлежащих к изучению лексических единиц, тек-
стовый и аудиовизуальный материал, задания, упражнения и
проектные виды деятельности, нацеленные на совершенство-
вание языковых навыков, рецептивных и продуктивных речевых
умений в области профессиональной и деловой коммуникации, а
также перевода. В пособии также представлено большое количе-
ство ссылок на задания интерактивного характера и дополнитель-
ные материалы по изучаемым темам, в том числе материалы по-
вышенной сложности.

УДК 811.111 (075.8)


ББК 81.2 Англ я 73

2
© Маринская А.П., Кузьмина А.В., 2020
© Федеральное государственное бюджетное
образовательное учреждение высшего образования
«Санкт-Петербургский государственный университет
телекоммуникаций им. проф. М. А. Бонч-Бруевича», 2020

3
Содержание

Module I. Communication Systems


Unit 1. Communication systems. Types and classifications…………………………5
Unit 2. Communication Systems in the Armed Forces…………………………..…10

Module II. Radio Communication


Unit 3. The History of radio…………………………………………………….…..16
Unit 4. Radio and Radar ………………………………………………….…….…..22

Module III. Military satellite communication system


Unit 5. Military Satellite Communication system…………………………………...28
Unit 6. Military Strategic and Tactical Relay………………………………………..34

Module IV. Fiber Optic Communication


Unit 7. Fiber Optic Communication. Main principles…………………………….....44
Unit 8. Fiber Optic Communication. Pros and Cons…………………………….......47

Extra materials
Appendix 1. Additional texts………..……………………………………….………55
Appendix 2. How to make a good presentation…………………………….………..59
Appendix 3. Summary……………………………………………………………….60
Appendix 4. Translation recommendations………………………….…………...….61
Appendix 5. Linking words and phrases…………………………………………….64
Appendix 6. List of the Armed Forces Ranks……………………………………….65
Appendix 7. CV Samples…………………………………………………………....66

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Module I. Communication Systems
Unit 1. Communication systems. Types and classifications.

Words to be learned:
Communication, communication chan-
nel/medium, modes of communication, dedicated
channel, electromagnetic waves, (in)efficiency,
attachment, amplitude, distortion, interference,
frequency, coaxial сable, twisted pair cable, op-
tical fiber, coherent system, digital signal, ana-
logue signal.
To deliver, to evolve, to contribute, succeed, to
to be defined, to be categorized, to be classified,
to require, to propagate, to relay.
Compatible, binary, simultaneously, prone to,
immune to, due to, by means of.

Warming-up

Ex. 1. Work in pairs/groups. Have a look at the words cloud. What words would you
add to the cloud?

Ex. 2. Try to define the word «communication». Which spheres of life do you associ-
ate with the term «communication»?
Ex. 3. The terms «communication system» and «communications system» are often
used interchangeably, however, there’re not identical. Try to guess what is the differ-
ence?

Ex. 4. What communication devices/technologies do you remember? Which of them


are described in the passages? Do you remember who invented them?

a) Lots of scientist experimented b) Many scientists were looking for a way to


with electromagnetic waves and transmit electromagnetic signals wirelessly
their potential in telecommunication over a long distance. When such a technolo-
devices. In 1876 Scottish-American gy was developed it was called «wireless te-
inventor did succeed in invention of legraphy and telephone» but later renamed
a new device that consisted of two into…
parts: earpiece and mouthpiece.
c) Once an American painter re- d) Even before the Internet was fully
ceived a letter that his wife was fa- evolved, electronic mail had been developed
tally ill. It took a while to deliver the in the 1970s as a way to send messages from
letter. By the time he returned home, one computer to another. It was a computer
she had already passed away. Driven network called ARPANET that largely con-
by the inefficiency of hand- tributed to the development of such kind of
delivered letters, he started develop- electronic letter. Instead of only being able
ing an electromagnetic machine. to send text messages, it allows to transfer
multimedia and other attachments as well.
5
Language work

Ex. 5. Read the first part of the text. Make sure you know the words in italics. Get
ready to answer the following questions:

1) What is the main idea and the purpose of the text?


2) What is communication system? Define the term.
3) What does the term «coherent system» mean?
4) What are the components of primary communication system?
5) What is the difference between analogue and digital signal?
6) What are advantages of digital transmission?

Сommunication systems. Part 1.

The term communication system can be defined as a collection of communica-


tion equipment that is integrated into a coherent (consistent) system. Primary com-
munication system consists of three parts: a transmitter, communication channel and
a receiver.
The communication system enables transmission of ideas or any other important
information among individuals or among the machines. Therefore, all the machines
must work on similar lines and patterns, must be technically compatible and has to
provide the same information, so that the individuals can decode the information
well.
There are various classifications of communication system. One can classify
communication system according to the signal nature. There are two basic types of
signals, the analog signal and the binary digital signal. The first is a continuous wave
that keeps on changing over a time period; the latter is a discrete wave that carries
information in binary form. It means that an analog signal transmits data in the form
of a wave while a digital signal carries data in the binary form i.e. 0 and 1. The
human voice is the best example of an analog signal. Signals used for transmission in
a computer are digital signals. An analog signal is described by the amplitude, period
or frequency, and phase while digital signal is described with bit rate and bit inter-
vals. Digital signal features better transmission quality as it is less prone to distortion
in comparison with analogue. Analogue transmission isn’t immune to interference.

Ex.6. Continue reading the text. Make sure you know the words in italics. Get ready
to answer the following questions using information from both texts:

1) How can we classify different communication systems? What are the bases of
these classifications?
2) Why is it difficult to classify communication systems?
3) Does the text describe all possible classifications of communication systems?
4) What are the differences between wired and wireless communications?
5) What is the difference between simplex and duplex communication systems?
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Сommunication systems. Part 2.

Communication systems can be classified according to the communication me-


dium (or channel) into wired and wireless communication systems. In wired commu-
nication, the medium is a physical path like coaxial cables, twisted pair cables and
optical fiber links etc. which guides the signal to propagate from one point to other.
Wireless communication doesn’t require any physical medium but propagates the
signal through space. In latter case, the signal is transmitted in form of electromagnet-
ic waves.
Electronic communication system can be classified on the way the message or
information flows on direction of communication.
1) The simplex system: where the message originates from one point called sender
and reaches to other point(s) called listener or receiver. This is one-way communica-
tion channel, radio broadcast, for instance.
2) Half duplex: In this type, both ends can send message from one end to the other or
vice a versa but only one user at a time. These systems may share the same channel
or medium but only one user has right at a given time. Walkie-talkie can be an exam-
ple.
3) The third is the Full-Duplex: you have dedicated channels or medium to both users
so that both ends can communicate or send messages simultaneously. Our phones are
classic examples of this type of system.
Other types of communication systems are optical, radio, and satellite systems.
The word «optical» stands for light, optical communication system depends on light
as the medium for communication. Radio communication system works with the aid
of a transmitter and a receiver both equipped with an antenna. No matter what classi-
fication we use, all the above modes of communication work for a common objective
to transfer the information from one party to the other party.

Ex. 7. Using the text compare analog and digital signal. Fill in the table using the in-
formation from the text.

Basis for Comparison Analog Signal Digital Signal


Basics
Description (in what terms)
Distortion\ interference
Transmission
Example

Ex. 8. Find the English equivalents to the words and phrases.

Средство связи, канал связи, выделенный канал связи, взаимосвязанная систе-


ма, передавать сигнал, передавать сигнал в одном направлении, передавать сиг-
нал в обоих направлениях, распространять сигнал, позволять посылать сигнал
одновременно, медный кабель, коаксиальный кабель, витая пара, электромаг-

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нитные волны, двоичная система, совместимые системы, частота, искажение,
быть подверженным чему-либо, помехи.

Ex. 9. Match the words with the definitions/synonyms.

1) dedicated channel a) well-connected or organized;


2) digital signal b) at the same time;
3) distortion c) vulnarable, not immune to sth;
4) simultaneous d) a line reserved exclusively for one type of com-
munication;
5) compatible e) can work well together;
6) prone to f) change of an original shape (waveform);
7) twisted pair g) wave that carries information in binary form;
8) coherent h) a type of wire in which two conductors of a single
circuit are connected to improve electromagnetic
compatibility.

Ex. 10. Make nouns out of the verbs. Make sentences using these verbs and nouns.

To transmit, to propagate, to classify, to define, to dedicate, coherent, to distort.

Ex. 11. Find out the synonyms to the words /phrases underlined. Translate the sen-
tences.

1) Communication systems can be classified according to the communication mode.


2) Analog communication is a communication method of conveying voice, data, im-
age, or video information using a continuous signal.
3) It could be the transfer of an analog source signal using an analog modulation
method such as FM or AM.
4) However, in long distance, analog is unattractive due to interference problems.
Analogue transmission isn’t immune to distortion. Furthermore, as digital tech-
niques continue to be refined, analog systems are increasingly becoming legacy
equipment.
5) Therefore, digital communication enables the data to be transmitted in an effec-
tive manner through the use of digitally encoded information sent through data
signals.
6) In Full-Duplex system you have dedicated channels or medium to both users so
that both ends can communicate or send messages at the same time.

Ex. 12. Speaking Skills. Complete the following sentences:

1) The term communication system can be defined as a collection of communica-


tions equipment that_____.
2) Communication systems can be classified according to _____into_____.
3) In wired communication the means of communications are_____.
4) In wireless communication the signal ______.
8
5) The example of one-way communication channel is______, as it_______.
6) In full duplex system there’re dedicated channels to both users so they can___.

Ex. 13. Translate the following sentences. Level A.

1) Термин «система связи» можно определить как совокупность коммуника-


ционного оборудования, которое интегрировано в единую систему.
2) Термин «система связи» можно определить как совокупность технических
средств для передачи сообщений от источника к потребителю.
3) По способу обработки информации системы связи делятся на аналоговые и
цифровые. Последние используют бинарный код для передачи информации.
4) Дуплексные системы связи позволяют одновременно передавать сигнал в
прямом и обратном направлениях.
5) Выделенные каналы связи позволяют быстро передавать большие объемы
информации любого типа (данные, голос, видео).
6) Каналы или средства связи делятся на проводные и
беспроводные. Первые осуществляют передачу данных
посредством проводов и кабелей, например, медных,
коаксиальных кабелей, витых пар. Во втором случае
сигнал распространяется посредством электромагнит- Learn the vocabulary
ных волн.

Ex. 14. Translate the following sentences. Level B.

1) Сигналы, как и данные, могут быть непрерывными


(аналоговыми)- в виде непрерывной функции времени
(изменение тока, напряжения, электромагнитного поля
излучения) и дискретными (цифровыми) – в виде им-
пульсов тока, напряжения, света. Extra reading
2) Любой сигнал, аналоговый или цифровой ‒ это
электромагнитные колебания, которые распространя-
ются с определенной частотой; в зависимости от того,
какой сигнал передается, устройство, принимающее
данный сигнал, переводит его в текстовую, графиче-
скую или звуковую информацию, удобную для воспри-
ятия пользователя или самого устройства.
3) Система связи состоит из передатчика данных и
приемника, между которыми расположены каналы пе- Links
https://quizlet.com/ru/502940135/
редачи электрического сигнала или модулированного communication-systems-flash-
светового луча. cards/?x=1qqU&i=2tezij
4) На определенном расстоянии в кабелях могут быть https://electronicspost.com/descri
расположены усилители сигнала, что помогает увели- be-the-classification-of-
чить скорость передачи данных и делает проводные electronic-communication-
system/
каналы связи менее уязвимыми перед негативным вли-
янием внешних факторов.

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5) Волоконно-оптическая связь – это связь, осуществляемая по волоконно-
оптическому кабелю и специальной аппаратуре преобразования электрических
сигналов в оптические.

Ex. 15. Speaking Skills. Work in pairs/ group. Try to classify communication sys-
tems using the information from the text and the Internet. Make a diagram/a chat,
present it to your group.

Ex. 16. Speaking Skills. Using the table from Ex. 5, tell about the differences be-
tween analogue and digital communication.

Ex. 17. Speaking Skills. Make a summary to the text above. To summarize it proper-
ly go to Appendix 3.

Unit 2. Communication Systems in the Armed Forces.

Words to be learned:
Armed Forces, Navy, Air Forces, subordi-
nate forces, combat readiness, reliability,
the threat of enemy attack, timeliness, se-
crecy, mission, deployment, establishment,
equipment, vulnerability.
To be responsible for, to be in charge of, to
evaluate, to rely on, to ensure, to set up, to
maintain, to relay information, to deploy,
to establish, to threaten, to disrupt.
Complex, reliable, secure, vulnerable.

Warming-up

Ex. 18. Have a look at the words cloud. Are all the words familiar to you? Using the
words cloud and the Internet, make a list of the Army ranks/Navy ranks. Compare
your list with the list offered in Appendix 6.

Ex. 19. Try to guess what responsibilities/functions these people (ranks) perform and
make the sentences. Compare your sentences with your groupmates’.
Example:
1) I suppose, Cadet Battalion Commander is responsible for all battalion activities.
2)As far as I know, Cadet Battalion Executive Officer is in charge of the safety and
risk assessment of all battalion events.

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Language work

Ex. 20. Read the following phrases. Which functions does a military communications
engineer have to perform? What would you add to the list?
1) To design and modify electrical communications systems for scientific or
commercial use;
2) To prepare and deliver technical reports and presentations to both technical and
non-technical audiences;
3) To evaluate equipment in lab environments and undertake acceptance and inte-
gration activities;
4) To set up, maintain and repair various types of high tech equipment;
5) To ensure crucial data relay among personnel;
6) To agree project budgets, timescales and specifications with clients;
7) To manage a number of radio and terrestrial networks;
8) To carry out planned maintenance work on transmitters, receivers and associat-
ed control equipment;
9) To communicate with customers and build strong business relationships;
10) To ensure combat readiness in case of an enemy attack.

Ex. 21. Work in pairs/groups. Based on the responsibilities you’ve read about make a
list of theoretical knowledge and practical skills a military communications engineer
shall have. Discuss your list with your groupmates.
.
Ex. 22. Business communication. Imagine you’re searching for a position of an assis-
tant communications engineer or an intern in a big international company. Think
what skills they might look for. Write a CV. Go to Appendix 7 to find CV samples.
Share your CVs, choose the best one in your group.

Ex. 23. Read the text. Make sure you know the words in italics. Be ready to answer
the following questions:

1) Why are communication systems important for the Armed Forces?


2) What functions do they perform?
3) What are the main requirements to communication systems?
4) What are possible consequences of communication systems inefficiency?

Communication systems have always played an important role in the Armed


Forces. Nowadays the Army, the Navy, and the Air Forces strongly rely on their
modes of communication. To function efficiently, military services use a complex
communication network of equipment, personnel, and communication protocols to
relay information among forces. The main mission of military communications is to
ensure that commanders and staffs at all levels are able to maintain continuous con-
trol of subordinate forces under any conditions. Military communication systems are
to relay signals to the forces at the proper time to get ready to the threat of enemy at-

11
tack and to ensure combat readiness. Vulnerabilities in communication systems can
be exploited to disrupt military operations, ships and aircrafts communications.
That’s why military communication systems have to be secure, reliable and efficient.
The chief demands made on military communications are timeliness of establishment
and deployment, reliability of operations, speed of action, and secrecy of transmitted
information.

Ex. 24. Find the English equivalents to the words.

Вооруженные силы, военно-воздушные силы, флот, нижестоящие подразделе-


ния, средства связи, боевая готовность, непрерывный контроль, надёжность,
уязвимость, полагаться на, передавать (ретранслировать) информацию, свое-
временность, секретность (скрытность), развертывание (систем связи), эксплуа-
тация (систем связи).

Ex. 25. Try to explain the meaning of the following words/phrases.

Combat readiness, threat, to relay information among forces, timeliness of establish-


ment, reliability of operations, speed of action, secrecy.

Ex. 26. Words formation. Fill in the gaps.


Verb Noun Adjective
To rely (on)
disruption
х secret
To maintain
threatening
To deploy

Ex. 27. Complete the sentences with the appropriate words (words forms).

Vulnerability, to ensure, to rely, efficiency, to relay, to deploy, to disrupt

1) The U.S. Navy ____upon satellite and other communications systems to


______ships, planes, and sailors can share information across the Seven Seas.
2) In times of conflict, military communication significantly depends on reliability
and ____ of its communications systems.
3) Deficiencies or _____ in any aspect of military communication can have dire con-
sequences. They can____ the entire military operation.
4) To ensure combat readiness, military communication systems are to_______ sig-
nals to the subordinate forces as fast as possible.
5) The government revealed the number of personnel and military equipment ____in
the US.

12
Ex. 28. Speaking skills. Explain the words from the list to your partner without nam-
ing them. Use QR code reader to see your words.
Student A list Student B list Student C list

Ex. 29. Work in groups. Read a part of the text. Headline your passage and retell it to
your groupmates. Make sure you know the words in italics.

The history of military communications


Student A
_______Initially, military communications were maintained through messengers and
signals (for example, fires, drums). Alexander, Hannibal, and Caesar each developed
an elaborate system of relays by which messages were carried from one messenger
post to another by mounted messengers traveling at top speed. Thus, they were able
to maintain contact with their homelands during their far-flung campaigns and to
transmit messages with surprising speed. Genghis Khan at the close of the 12th cen-
tury not only emulated his military predecessors by establishing an extensive system
of messenger posts from Europe to his Mongol capital but also utilized homing pi-
geons as messengers. As he advanced upon his conquests he established pigeon relay
posts across Asia and much of eastern Europe.
At the same time those elementary methods of signal communication were being
evolved on land; a comparable development was going on at sea. Early signaling be-
tween naval vessels was messages transmitted by flags, lights, or the movement of a
sail. Codes were developed in the 16th century. They were based upon the number
and position of signal flags or lights or on the number of cannon shots.
Student B
________Despite the early pioneering efforts on land and sea, the real development
of signal communication in war did not come until after invention of the electric tele-
graph by Samuel F.B. Morse. In his successful demonstration of electric communica-
tion between Washington, D.C., and Baltimore in 1844, he provided a completely
new means of rapid signal communication. The development of the Morse Code of
dots and dashes used with key and sounder was soon used to augment the various
means of visual signaling.
Near the close of the 19th century, a new means of military signal communica-
tion made its appearance—the wireless telegraph, or radio. The major powers
throughout the world were quick to see the wonderful possibilities for military and
naval signaling. Development was rapid and continuous, and, by 1914, it was adopted
by all the armies and navies of the world. It soon became apparent that wireless te-
legraphy has some disadvantages because it lacked secrecy and messages could be
13
heard by the enemy as well as by friendly forces. This led to the development of ex-
tensive and complicated codes and ciphers as necessary adjuncts to military signal-
ing. The struggle between the cryptographer and the cryptanalyst expanded greatly
with the adoption of radio and continued to be a major factor affecting its military
use.
Student C
______ The military services learned well from their wartime experiences the im-
portance of scientific research and development in all fields, including communica-
tions electronics. Advances were made in the communication capacity of wire and
radio relay systems and in improved electronic aids for navigation. Measures to pro-
vide more comprehensive and more reliable communication and electronic equip-
ment continued to be stressed in the armies, navies, and air forces of the major pow-
ers. Two major additions in the Army were television and “electronic brain” equip-
ment. The latter, in many forms of digital and analog computers and of such data-
processing devices as punch-card machines, were applied increasingly to personnel
record handling and to depot and supply operations interconnected over wide areas
by signal-communication networks.
Student D
______ In the present-day armed forces reliability in military communications is
achieved by the combined use of different types of communications, depending on
the battle situation. Signal communication, including the powers of photography, tel-
evision, radar, and other instruments using the electromagnetic radiation spectrum,
are moving into such new areas of military electronics as battle area surveillance and
electronic warfare devices to interfere or jam, enemy transmitters. Battle area surveil-
lance radically has augmented conventional reconnaissance methods. An electroni-
cally controlled target acquisition system, to discover enemy troops or transport on
the ground or in the air, are being developed using optical, sonic, photographic, infra-
red, and radar equipment. The aggregate of information gathered by these devices
over a wide enemy front can be assembled electronically and displayed at headquar-
ters where the combat commander can quickly estimate the situation and make tacti-
cal decisions.

Ex. 30. Translate the following words/phrases into Russian.

Elaborate system of relays, mounted messengers, far-flung campaigns naval vessels,


dots and dashes, wartime, communication capacity, to lack secrecy, electronic aids
for navigation, surveillance device, electronic warfare device, conventional recon-
naissance method, target acquisition system, enemy troops, to estimate the situation,
to assemble, to augment (methods), to interfere, to make tactical decisions, to gather
information.

Ex. 31. Translate the text using the online dictionary www.multitran.ru.

В мирное время и в период ведения военных действий вооруженные силы


не могут эффективно действовать без надежной системы управления. Именно
связь является основным средством управления вооруженными силами. Без
14
надежных средств связи в современных условиях управление военно-
воздушными силами и флотом невозможно.
Чем сложнее боевая техника и боевые действия, тем выше роль связи. Раз-
вертывание и эксплуатация систем военной связи осуществляют специалисты
связи, прежде всего офицеры войск связи. Связисты отвечают за передачу дан-
ных на любом уровне. Они обязаны контролировать работу средств связи и
предназначенных для этого устройств.
Cистема связи вооруженных сил должна строиться на основе последних
достижений науки и техники в области информационных и телекоммуникаци-
онных технологий. Системы связи должны отвечать ряду требований, среди
них; надежность и помехоустойчивость, своевременность и боевая готовность,
скрытность и развед защищенность (способность противостоять системам раз-
ведки противника).

Ex. 32. Soft skills and Project Making. Using the Internet or other resources, prepare
a presentation on one of the following topics. To make a proper presentation go to
Appendix 2.

1) Early means of communication (early system of messenger, pigeons);


2) Signaling devices and visual signaling (beacon fires, hydraulic telegraphs, ship
flags and semaphore lines, heliograph);
3) Communication systems at WWII;
4) Walkie-Talkie;
5) Military communication for intelligence-gathering;
6) Basics of Morse code;
7) What is cryptography?

Ex. 33. Self- studying. Use a mobile application like Quizlet, Memrise or similar plat-
form to make flashcards with Unit 2 vocabulary. Share you cards with your group-
mates for better vocabulary acquisition.

15
Module II. Radio Communication
Unit 3. The History of radio

Words to be learned:
Electromagnetic field, electrical discharges, veloci-
ty, measurement of frequency, long-distance radio
transmission, contributions to, a loose contact, cir-
cuit, electric oscillation, amplitude, radio waves
propagation, electrical current, spark.
To put forward a theory, to discover, to contribute,
to be credited as, to oscillate, to detect, to measure,
to make improvements.
Capable of, prone to, by means of, prior to, before
long.

Warming-up

Ex. 1. Work in pairs/groups. Have a look at the words cloud associated with radio.
What words can you add to the cloud?

Ex. 2. Read the following definitions of the term «radio». Which one seems the most
appropriate? In pairs/groups try to make your own definition.

1. Radio is a way to send electromagnetic signals over a long distance, to deliver in-
formation from one place to another.
2. Radio is the radiation (wireless transmission) of electromagnetic energy through
space.
3. Radio is the wireless transmission of signals, by modulation of electromagnetic
waves with frequencies below those of light.
4. Radio is a box filled with electronic components that catches radio waves sailing
through the air.

Ex. 3. Work in pairs/groups. What do you remember about the history of radio?
Make a list of people who are credited with the invention of radio, or are associated
with its development.

Ex. 4. Match the names of the scientists with their achievements. Fill in the table.
Compare your answers with the information from the text in Ex.5.

Heinrich A.S. Popov Joseph Nikola Tesla Guglielmo Maxwell


Hertz Henry Marconi

a) In March 1896 he transmitted the words "Heinrich Hertz" by wireless telegra-


phy in Morse code. He is sometimes credited as the inventor of radio.

16
b) In 1885 he proved that electricity can be transmitted in electromagnetic waves.
The measurement unit of frequency was named after him.
c) In 1842 he discovered that electrical discharges were oscillating.
d) This electrical engineer is known for his pioneering work on long-distance ra-
dio transmission. He is sometimes credited as the inventor of radio. He also got the
Nobel Prize in recognition of his contribution to the development of wireless telegra-
phy".
e) This Scottish physicist is credited as one of the great mathematical geniuses of
the 19-th century. He put forward his theory that the velocity of electric waves in air
should be equal to that of the velocity of light waves.
f) He is best known for his contributions to the design of the modern alternating
current electricity supply system. In the late 19th century he wirelessly transmitted
electromagnetic energy.

Language work

Ex. 5. Read the text. Make sure you know the words in italics. Be ready to answer the
following questions:
1) Who was involved in the invention of the first radio?
2) When was the radio invented?
3) Why is May, 7 celebrated as the radio day?
4) Where does the word «radio» come from?
5) What does the term «radio» mean now?

The history of radio

Several people were involved in the invention of radio. It begins perhaps with
Joseph Henry, an American physicist, who discovered in 1842 that electrical dis-
charges were oscillating. A great step forward was taken by James Maxwell, a Scot-
tish physicist and one of the great mathematical geniuses of the 19-th century. Max-
well put forward his theory that the velocity of electric waves in air should be equal
to that of the velocity of light waves, both being the same kind of waves, merely dif-
fering in wave length. In 1878, David Hughes, an American physicist, made another
important discovery in the pre-history of radio and its essential components. He
found that a loose contact in a circuit containing a battery and a telephone receiver
(invented by Bell in 1876) would give rise to sounds in the receiver, which corre-
sponded to those that had impinged upon the diaphragm of the mouthpiece. Next we
must turn to Heinrich Hertz, the famous German physicist, who proved experimental-
ly the existence of the electromagnetic waves proposed by James Clerk Maxwell. He
was the first to create, detect and measure electromagnetic waves. In his experiments
he showed that those waves were capable of reflection, refraction, polarization, dif-
fraction1 and interference.
A. S. Popov was a lecturer in physics. He set up a receiver in 1895, and read a
paper about it at the Meeting of the Russian Physico-Chemical Society on April, 25
1
Дифракция; рассеивание света.
17
(May 7, New Style) 1895. He demonstrated the world's first radio receiver, which he
called «an apparatus for the detection and registration of electric oscillations». By
means of this equipment, Popov could register electrical disturbances, including at-
mospheric ones. Thus, Popov was recognized as the inventor of the radio, May, 7 be-
ing celebrated each year as «Radio Day» in the Soviet Union.
Marconi invented a system of highly successful wireless telegraphy, inspired
and supervised its application. Such is the story of the many inventors of wireless te-
legraphy, working with each other's equipment, adding new ideas and new improve-
ments to them.
During the first years of its development, radio communication was called
«wireless telegraphy and telephone». That name was too long for convenience and
was later changed to «radio» which comes from the well-known Latin word «radi-
us» – a straight line drawn from the centre of a circle to a point on its circumference.
Wireless transmission was named radio transmission, or simply «radio». The term
«radio» now means the radiation of waves by transmitting stations, their propagation
through space, and reception by receiving stations. The radio technique has become
closely associated with many other branches of science and engineering and it is now
difficult to limit the word «radio» to any simple definition.

Ex. 6. Look through the text again. Find English equivalents to the following phrases:

Колебаться, электрические колебания, выдвинуть теорию, открыть (новый эле-


мент), сделать открытие, внести вклад в, скорость электромагнитных волн, спо-
собный, равный, предложить метод, электрический разряд, измерять, измере-
ние, слабый (незакрепленный) контакт, микрофон, с помощью (оборудования),
интерференция/помехи, атмосферные помехи, вносить исправления, окруж-
ность, радиоволновое излучение, распространение радиоволн.

Ex. 7. Match the words to their definitions.

1) electromagnetic radia- a) in general, is a periodic fluctuation between two


tion (EM) things;
2) loose contact b) not rigidly fastened or securely attached, not firmly
or tightly fixed in place;
3) current c) physical space produced by electrically charged ob-
jects;
4) interference d) phenomenon when a radio wave signal becomes dis-
torted;
5) oscillation e) waves of the electromagnetic field, propagating
through space, carrying electromagnetic radiant
energy;
6) electromagnetic field f) flow of electric charge in a circuit.

18
Ex. 8. Word formation. Make nouns out of verbs. Make a short sentence with each
word.
Verb Noun Sentence
To contribute
To detect
To discover
To interfere
To oscillate
To measure
To improve

Ex. 9. Find out synonyms to the words/phrases underlined. Translate the sentences.

1) Lots of outstanding people participated in the invention of radio.


2) This scientist is considered to be the great physicist and mathematician who put
forward a theory about the velocity of electric waves.
3) Joseph Henry discovered that electrical discharges were fluctuating.
4) Radio is a way to deliver information from one place to another.
5) This American physicist found out that a loose contact in a circuit containing a bat-
tery and a telephone receiver would give rise to sounds in the receiver.
6) Insulator is a material that can’t conduct electricity.
7) Wireless communication is usually more susceptible to interference.

Ex. 10. Read and translate the following sentences. Pre-listening exercise.

1) Spark- gap transmitter is an obsolete type of radio transmitter which generates ra-
dio waves by means of an electric spark. When it was firstly produced it considered
to be an evolution in radio communication. However, the first spark- gap radios were
plagued with problems such as electrical interference.
2) Crystal set is a simple radio receiver, popular in the early days of radio. It uses on-
ly the power of the received radio signal to produce sound. This radio receiver re-
quires no batteries, or household electric current to operate. It is less prone to inter-
ference in comparison with spark- gap transmitters.
3) Amplitude is the measurement of the energy carried by any wave. The greater the
amplitude of the wave, the higher the level of energy that is carried by the wave.
4) AM transmissions are much more susceptible to interference, and often have lower
audio fidelity. AM radio is a medium range that is prone to be blocked by urban
structures.
5) FM broadcasting is capable of better sound quality than AM broadcasting. This
type of broadcasting method uses wavelength which is less prone to static and block-
age.

19
Ex. 11. Watch the video and answer the following questions (read the questions first).

1)Who made an impact into the radio invention according to


the video?
2)What were the main achievements of the scientists men-
tioned?
3)What devices were mentioned in the video?
https://www.youtube.com/watch?time_continue=159&v=qgkepUUED7
k

Ex. 12. Watch the video again, complete the sentences and translate them.

1) J. Maxwell showed mathematically that _____.


2) Before long H. Herts demonstrated that someone _____ .
3) In 1892 N.Tesla used Maxwell findings to demonstrate ______.
4) G.M. built _______in 1896 which _______up to one and a half miles. He proceed-
ed to develop first transatlantic radio communication service between Clifton, Ireland
and Newfoundland.
5) The next evolution in radio technology _____. This device allowed the production
of the first commercially available radio sets. But the first spark- gap radios were
plagued with problems,___ ___.
6) Up to these time all radio was being____. AM stands for_____. But the problem
was that AM radio was a medium range and is prone to be blocked by urban struc-
tures.
7) But in 1933 E.H. Armstrong____. FM stands for_____. This type of broadcasting
method uses wavelength which is less prone to static and blockage. It also has a____.

Ex. 13. Translate the following sentences. Pay attention to the It..that/who structure.
Level A:
1) Многие ученые сделали великие открытия, которые помогли изобрести ра-
дио.
2) Итальянец Гульельмо Маркони, серб Никола Тесла, немец Генрих Герц и
британец Оливер Лодж внесли огромный вклад в развитие радио связи.
3) Понятие электромагнитного поля было введено в 1845г именно М. Фарадеем.
4) Именно Джеймс Максвелл создал теорию электромагнитного поля.
5) Именно в 1887 году немецкий ученый Генрих Герц создал генератор и резо-
натор электромагнитных колебаний.
6) Попов и Маркони использовали изобретения других ученых и добавили не-
которые улучшения.
7) Александр Степанович Попов сотрудничал с военно-морским флотом. Имен-
но для флота он создал радио.

Ex. 14. Translate the following sentences. Pay attention to the It..that/who structure
Level B:
1) Именно российский ученый Александр Попов 24 марта 1896 года, на за-
крытом заседании Русского физико-химического общества в Петербурге впер
20
вые в мире осуществил передачу радиотелеграммы. С
помощью передатчика и приемника собственной кон-
струкции он передал набранные азбукой Морзе слова
Heinrich Hertz. Learn the vocabulary

2) Во время создания радио Попов служил в воен-


но-морском ведомстве в качестве преподавателя физи-
ки Морского технического училища в Кронштадте и
ориентировался в своих разработках именно на нужды
флота.
3) Именно профессор физики Технического универ-
ситета в Карлсруэ Генрих Герц в 1887 году открыл Extra listening
электромагнитные волны, распространяющиеся со ско-
ростью света, провел и описал опыты по их передаче
на расстояние без проводов при помощи созданных им
генератора и резонатора. Об использовании открытия
Герц не думал, заявив: "Это абсолютно бесполезно. Мы
всего-навсего имеем таинственные электромагнитные
волны, которые не можем видеть глазом, но они есть".
Links
4) Никола Тесла, к тому времени работавший в https://learningapps.org/display?
США, в 1893 году в ходе исследований атмосферного v=pfq0ovudj19
электричества изобрел заземленную мачтовую антен- https://learningapps.org/display?
v=pk1cbarb519
ну, а впоследствии успешно экспериментировал с пе- https://learningapps.org/display?
редатчиками и приемниками собственной конструк- v=p0j4hk5st19
https://learningapps.org/
ции. display?v=pbqudybht17

5) Оливер Лодж 14 августа 1894 года в Оксфордском университете продемон-


стрировал передачу радиосигнала из одного здания в другое на расстояние 40
метров. Однако для практического применения аппаратуру следовало усовер-
шенствовать.

Ex. 17. Speaking Skills. Vocabulary game. Play cross and nulls game with your
partner. If you want to put your cross to a square make a sentence with the word writ-
ten there. Your partner has to do the same thing to put his/her null.

21
Game 1 Game 2

interference electrical frequency capable of To put for- measure


current ward a theo-
long invention contribution ry
distance discover to oscillate transmit
transmission
oscillation amplitude measurement contribute receive prone to

Unit 4. Radio and radar.

Words to be learned:

An amplifier, beam, reflection, detection, distor-


tion, object properties, transmitter, receiver,
transceiver, speaker, surveillance, antimissile
systems, remote object, guided missile, altitude
measurement, tool, vessel.
To aid, to convert, to radiate, to capture, to
strengthen, to switch, to distort, to measure, to
rely on, to record.
Reliable, susceptible to, by means of, prior to

Warming up

Ex. 18. Look at the words cloud. Which technology are all these words associated
with?
Ex. 19. Read and translate the following sentences. Try to explain what do radio and
radar have in common and what are the differences between them.

1) Radar is a detection system that uses radio waves to determine the range, angle,
or velocity of objects. It can be used to detect aircraft, ships, spacecraft, guided mis-
siles, motor vehicles, weather formations, and terrain.
2) Radio is the wireless transmission of signals, by modulation of electromagnetic
waves with frequencies below those of light.
3) A radar system consists of a transmitter producing electromagnetic waves in
the radio or microwaves domain, a transmitting antenna, a receiving antenna (often
the same antenna is used for transmitting and receiving) and
a receiver and processor to determine properties of the object(s).
4) Radio is the technology of signaling and communicating using radio waves.

22
Language work

Ex. 20. Make a list of devices and everyday appliances which use radio waves. Dis-
cuss your list with your groupmates.

Ex. 21. Read the text. Headline the passages. Make sure you know the words in ital-
ics. Get ready to answer the following questions:

1) What are the main components of a radio? What functions do they perform?
2) Is radio a complex or sophisticated technology? Prove your opinion.
3) What is the difference between a sound wave and a radio wave?
4) What is an amplifier?
5) How do radios work (in a car, for instance)?

Radio waves and radar. Part 1.

_____Radio waves transmit music, conversations, pictures and data - it happens eve-
ry day in thousands of different ways! Lots of everyday technologies: television, cell
phones, communication and navigation satellites, modern aviation would be impossi-
ble without radio waves. However, this bedrock technology of the modern world is
incredibly simple. With just a couple of electronic components, you can build simple
radio transmitters and receivers.
_____Any radio setup has two parts: the transmitter and the receiver. The transmitter
takes some sort of message (it could be the sound of someone's voice, pictures for
a TV set, data for a radio modem or whatever), encodes it onto a sine wave and
transmits it with radio waves. The receiver receives the radio waves and decodes the
message from the sine wave it receives. Both the transmitter and receiver
use antennas to radiate and capture the radio signal. For instance, a cell phone con-
tains both a transmitter and a receiver, can use both of them simultaneously, can un-
derstand hundreds of different frequencies, and can automatically switch between
frequencies.
_____The radio waves are best-known for their use in communication technologies,
such as television, mobile phones and radios. At the radio studio, the sound waves of
a program are recorded into a microphone that has electrical current running through
it. The technicians at the radio station run these sound waves through a transmitter
that converts these sound waves into radio waves and sends them out. It is important
to convert the sound waves into radio waves because the sound waves cannot travel
too far in the atmosphere. These waves are susceptible to outside influence. The sig-
nals would get lost after travelling only a few meters while the radio waves can travel
large distances without getting lost or being distorted by the weather phenomenon.
You cannot hear or see these radio waves moving in the air, but the external antennae
of your radios and music systems can efficiently catch these waves from a number of
radio stations at the same time. There is an amplifier fitted in your radio that

23
strengthens the radio waves again, and the speakers change the radio waves back into
the original sound waves that were recorded in the microphone at the radio station.
_____Radio technologies are now widely used by military services. The first use of
radio technology appeared aboard seagoing ships, helping them communicate with
nearby vessels and the shore. Prior to this, ships relied on semaphore flags to send
messages between ships and carrier pigeons for longer-range communication. The ra-
dio also found its use in aviation in 1910. The military adapted the technology to
guide troop movements during WWI. To this day, various radio technologies contin-
ue to aid the military in communicating and coordinating their efforts.

Ex. 22. Find the English equivalents to the words and phrases.
Приемник, передатчик, приемопередатчик, усилитель, динамик, электрический
ток, внешняя антенна, синусоидная волна, акустическая волна, судно (корабль),
преобразовывать звук, кодировать информацию, улавливать сигнал, определять
свойства объекта, искажать информацию, быть подверженным чему-либо, по-
могать, до этого момента, полагаться на.

Ex. 23. Continue reading the text. Make sure you know the words in italics. Get
ready to answer the following questions using information from both texts. Discuss
these questions in pairs:

Student A questions: Student B questions:

1) What is a radar? 1) How does a radar work?


2) What are the differences between ra- 2) What do radio and radar have in com-
dio and radar work principles? mon?
3) In what spheres are radars used? 3) Name 5 everyday technologies that
depend on radio waves.
4) Why radio technologies are important 4) How are radars used by the Armed
for the military? Forces?

Radio waves and radar. Part 2.

The radio waves are also used by radars. Radar is an acronym that stands for ra-
dio detection and ranging. It gives a clue as to what it does and how it works. Imagine
an airplane flying at night through thick fog. The pilots can't see where they're going,
so they use the radar to help them. An airplane's radar uses radio waves instead of
light. The plane has a transmitter that transmits an intermittent radar beam and a re-
ceiver that "listens" out for any reflections of that beam from nearby objects. If re-
flections are detected, the plane knows something is nearby—and it can use the time
taken for the reflections to figure out how far away it is. Thus, radar can detect the
position, movement, properties of a remote object by means of radio waves reflected
from its surface.

24
Radars are used for various applications, both military and civil, like surveil-
lance, imaging, remote sensing, altitude measurement, etc. Radar is also used to
measure distances and map geographical areas and to navigate and fix positions at
sea. Meteorologists use radar to monitor precipitation; it has become the primary tool
for short-term weather forecasting and is also used to watch for severe weather such
as thunderstorms and tornados. Radar can be used to study the planets and the solar
ionosphere and to trace solar flares and other moving particles in outer space (outer
space surveillance). Other modern uses of radar are highly diverse and include radar
astronomy, air defense systems, antimissile systems; ocean surveillance systems,
guided missile target locating systems; and ground-penetrating radar for geological
observations, etc.

Ex. 24. Find the English equivalents to the words and phrases.

Отраженный сигнал, отражение, свойства удаленного объекта, поверхность


объекта, слежение, следить, измерять расстояние, определять местоположение
судна, космическое пространство, система противовоздушной обороны, проти-
воракетный комплекс, мишень для управляемой ракеты, разведывательная си-
стема (система наблюдения).

Ex. 25. Match the synonyms.


1) encode; a) speed;
2) velocity; b) cipher;
3) distort; c) find out;
4) strengthen; d) prone to;
5) capture; e) disrupt;
6) determine; f) amplify;
7) susceptible; g) detect, catch;

Ex. 26. Make as much colocations as possible. Make sentences with these colloca-
tions.
Ex.: to radiate radio pulses- to radiate heat- to radiate light- to radiate confidence, etc.
1)To depend on circumstances, … 2) to distort…, 3) to strengthen…,
4) to determine…, 5) to measure…, 6) to convert… .

Ex. 27. Complete the sentences with the appropriate words (words forms).

To develop, to meet, to initiate, to equip, to measure, susceptible, antimissile, defense.

1) Radar _____ secretly for military purposes by several nations prior to World
War II.
2) During the 1930s, efforts to use radio echoes for aircraft detection _____ inde-
pendently and almost simultaneously in eight countries that were concerned
with the prevailing military situation.

25
3) Radar originally was created ____the needs of the military services, and it con-
tinues to have critical applications for national ____purposes.
4) The modern uses of radar are highly diverse, including air and terrestrial traffic
control, radar astronomy, air-defense systems,_____ systems.
5) Commercial airliners _____with radar devices that warn of obstacles in or ap-
proaching their path and give accurate altitude readings.
6) Police use radar and LIDAR _____ traffic speed.
7) AM transmissions are much more _____to interference, and often have lower
audio fidelity.

Ex. 28. Work in pair. Fill in the crossword explaining your partner the words from
your list. Ex: Student A: What’s 1 across?
Student B: This term refers to… What’s 3 down?
9
Student A list
1 4 6

3 5

2 7

11 Student B list

12

10

Ex. 29. Translate the following sentences:


1) Радар - это устройство для обнаружения удаленных объектов и определения
их местонахождения с помощью радио волн.
2) Радар использует радиоволны, для обнаружения воздушных, морских и
наземных объектов, а также для определения дальности, скорости и других
параметров (свойств) объекта.
3) Радар передает радиоволны, которые отражаются от окружающих предме-
тов и возвращаются к нему в виде отраженных сигналов.
4) Любой радар состоит из 3 компонентов: передатчика, антенны и приемника.
5) По сфере применения различают военные и гражданские радары.
26
6) Каждый самолет, вертолет, военный корабль имеет собственный радиоло-
кационный комплекс. Радары являются основой системы противовоздуш-
ной обороны.
7) Радары используются в авиации, в морских перевозках, в космической про-
мышленности и в системах навигации. С помощью радаров предсказывается
погода, производится сканирование земной поверхности.
8) Во время Второй Мировой Войны радиолокационные станции использовали
для разведки и обнаружения судов и самолетов противника.

Ex. 30. Speaking Skills. Discuss in pairs why radio is im-


portant for the Army and in what way it can be used by the
Armed Forces. Make a few sentences which are to be start-
ed as follows: Learn the vocabulary
Radio communication is used in the Army to…
Radio communication is significant for the Army because…
Follow the link to find some helpful information.
https://www.globalsecurity.org/ https://www.army-technology.com/

Ex. 31. Project making. Optional task. Prove that radio


technology is pretty simple. You can carry out a simple ex-
periment in a class or to make a video and share with your
Extra listening
groupmates. Follow the link to find more ideas
https://electronics.howstuffworks.com/radio.htm

Ex. 32. Soft Skills. Prepare a 3-5-minute presentation on


one the following topics. To make a proper presentation go
to Appendix 2.

1) The history of radio communication. Variety of devices.


2) The history of radar development. Radio location. Links
3) Software-defined radio. https://quizlet.com/ru/503209146
/radio-and-radar-flash-
4) Analogue radio vs digital radio. cards/?x=1qqU&i=2tezij
5) The latest achievements in radio communications.
https://www.explainthatstuff.co
m/radar.html
Ex. 33. Writing skills. Write an essay on one the following
topics (20-30 sentences).
1) The future of radio communication.
2) The role of radio communication in modern life.
Use Linkers (Appendix 5), follow the structure: the introduction, the body, the con-
clusion.

27
Module III. Military satellite communication system

Unit 5. Military Satellite Communication system.

Words to be learned:
Artificial satellite, intelligence gathering, recon-
naissance, satellite based weapons,
deployment of mass destruction weapons,
civilian (military) purpose, geostationary orbit,
observation, surveillance, satellite constellation,
payload, nuclear survivability, disruption.
the Ministry of Defense, latitude, longitude, alti-
tude
To determine, to deploy, to launch, to amplify, to
ratify.
Jam resistant,, antijam, wideband, narrowband,
(in)vulnerable, jam-proof, simultaneous

Warming-up

Ex. 1. Work in pairs\groups. Have a look at the words cloud. What words would you
add to the cloud?

Ex. 2. Read the definitions to the word «satellite». What’s the difference between
these definitions? Make your own definition.
A satellite can be defined as …
1) a human-built object orbiting the Earth and other planets;
2) an object in space that orbits or circles around a bigger object;
3) state-of-the art, artificial object used for navigation and intelligence gathering.

Ex. 3. What are satellites used for? How can we classify them? Make a table/diagram
and discuss it with your groupmates. Have a look at the text below to help you.

Satellites are launched into the space to perform lots of tasks: to monitor the cloud
patterns for the weather station, to send television signals for Sky TV, to provide in
the flight phone communications on the airplanes. They are the main conduit of voice
communication for the rural areas and the areas where the phone lines are damaged
after a disaster. The satellite-based navigation systems like Navstar Global Position-
ing Systems enable anyone with a handheld receiver to determine his location to
within a few meters. The reconnaissance satellites are used to spy on other countries,
They provide intelligence information on the military activities of foreign countries,
They can detect the missile launches or the nuclear explosions in space. Some sur-
veillance satellites are used to search for the ships or the submarines The satellites are
the best sources of data for the climate change research, they are able to monitor the
ocean temperatures and the prevailing currents. That’s just a short list of tasks satel-
lites can fulfill.
28
Language work

Ex. 4. Read the text. Make sure you know the words in italics. Get ready to answer
the following questions:
1) What is a military satellite? What tasks may it perform?
2) What is the average lifespan of a satellite?
3) What is satellite based weapon?
4) What negative consequences of using satellite based weapons might happen?
5) Why is it difficult to identify the exact number of the military satellites?
6) Which type of satellites can serve two purposes?
7) Which altitude do space crafts fly?

A military satellite
A military satellite is an artificial satellite used for a military purpose. The most
common missions are intelligence gathering, navigation and military communica-
tions. The first military satellites were photographic reconnaissance missions. Some
attempts were made to develop satellite based weapons but this work was halted in
1967 following the ratification of international treaties banning the deployment of
mass destruction weapons in orbit. As of 2013, there are 950 satellites of all types in
Earth orbit. It is not possible to identify the exact number of military satellites, partly
due to secrecy and partly due to dual purpose missions such as GPS satellites that
serve both civilian and military purposes.
The widespread example of a military satellite is the NAVSTAR GPS (Naviga-
tion Signal Timing and Ranging Global Positioning System). The NAVSTAR GPS
network is operated by the US Air Force. It contains an accurate and reliable satellite
navigation system that determines the position of military forces on the ground, air or
at sea. The network is also used for many commercial purposes. Its 25 space crafts
(of which 21 are operational) provide worldwide coverage, including the north and
south poles. The space crafts are semi-synchronous orbits inclined at 55 degrees to
the equator at 18700 km (11,600 miles) altitude. Russia operates the GLONASS nav-
igation system that is sometimes considered to be less reliable compared to the US
version.
Military satellites are also used for geodesy, the Earth’s shape and size studies.
Geodesic survey data are important to the military, as it is used for map making, posi-
tioning, navigation, and a variety of other missions. The Defense Meteorological Sat-
ellite Program is a US DoD (Department of Defense) group of satellites that provides
complete coverage of the Earth at various times. These satellites maintain an altitude
of 833 Km (517 miles).

Ex. 5. Answer the following questions. True (T), false (F), or not given(NG).

1) The primary goal of satellites was to predict the weather forecast.


2) There is only one type of satellites.
3) Nowadays there are over 950 satellites of all types in Earth orbit.
29
4) It is difficult to identify the exact number of the satellites which are used for mili-
tary purposes.
5) In the 1990s, several countries in addition to Russia and the United States began
developing reconnaissance satellites.
6) The first military satellites were photographic reconnaissance missions.
7) GPS satellites are used for civilian purposes.
8) A military satellite can be used for civilian purposes as well.
9) Satellite navigation system can find out the position of military forces only on the
ground.
10) The GLONASS navigation system is flawless and the most reliable system in the
world.

Ex. 6. Find the English equivalents to the words and phrases.

Искусственный спутник, запускать спутник, сбор разведывательных данных,


судоходство и военная связь, разрабатывать оружие на базе спутников, опреде-
лять (местоположение), определить положение вооруженных сил на земле, ра-
тификация, запрет, оружие массового поражения, военные и гражданские цели,
точная и надежная система спутниковой навигации, использовать в коммерче-
ских целях, по сравнению с, международный договор, глобальный охват (по-
крытие), высота.

Ex. 7. Translate these collocations into Russian. Read information from Appendix 4
to help you.
Mass destruction weapons, Navigation Signal Timing and Ranging Global Position-
ing System, unreliable satellite navigation system, Earth’s shape and size studies,
Geodesic survey data, Defense Meteorological Satellite Program.
Ex. 8. Form nouns out of verbs and adjectives. Make sentences with them.
To determine, to fail, to ratify, to gather, to navigate, to deploy, to destruct, reliable,
secret, defensive.

Ex. 9. Fill in the gap with the correct word form, translate the sentences.

1) Spy satellites, also referred to as military reconnaissance and surveillance satel-


lites, ______ in many parts of the electromagnetic spectrum (to operate).
2) The ______of reconnaissance satellites was officially demanded by the United
States Air Force in 1955 (to develop).
3) The most common missions of military satellites are intelligence_____, navi-
gation and military communications (to gather).
4) The main reason for the_____ of military reconnaissance satellites was to have
a continuous surveillance of some areas to _______ the weapons-making capabilities
of some potential enemies (to demand, to determine).
5) After the ________of international treaties banning the deployment of mass
destruction weapons in orbit, the ______satellite based weapons was halted (to ratify,
to develop).

30
6) It contains an accurate and _____satellite navigation system that determines the
position of military forces on the ground, air or at sea (to rely).
7) An Iranian rocket apparently exploded, marking the third launch ______of
2019 for the nation (to fail).

Ex. 10. Match the words to their definitions.

1) artificial satellite a) a mission to obtain information by visual observation or


other detection methods;
2) surveillance satellite b) an object that has been intentionally placed into orbit;
3) military satellite c) network of U.S. satellites that provide global positioning
system services;
4) reconnaissance d) a satellite deployed for intelligence applications;
5) NAVSTAR e) a division of the government responsible for ensuring
national security and supervising military forces;
6) DoD f) a satellite used for a military purpose.

Ex.11. Complete the sentences with the following words and phrases:

to determine the status, requirements, reconnaissance and surveillance, launch,


commercial purposes.

1) The United States Air Force officially ordered the development of an advanced
reconnaissance satellite to _____of a potential enemy’s war-making capability.
2) The Enhanced Polar System (EPS) represents an evolution of _____for pro-
tected extremely high frequency (EHF) satellite communications in the North
Polar Region.
3) Military space operations are divided into five main areas: _____, signals intel-
ligence, communications, navigation, and meteorology.
4) The Zenit program was a successive _____of military spy satellites between
1961 and 1994 by the Soviet Union.
5) The network is also used for many ______.

Ex. 12. Match the words to form a phrase/ collocation, make up sentences with them.

1) intelligence a) a mission;
2) to determine b) mass destruction weapon;
3) to carry out c) coverage;
4) commercial d) purpose;
5) launch e) gathering;
6) deployment of f) resistant;
7) worldwide g) position;
8) jam h) failure;

31
Ex. 13. Speaking Skills. Vocabulary game. Play cross and nulls game with your
partner. If you want to put your cross to a square make a sentence with the word writ-
ten there. Your partner has to do the same thing to put his/her null.

Game 1 Game 2

to launch to distort to amplify capable of due to longitude

to gather in- to meet to determine mass destruc- intelligence commercial


telligence require- tion weapon purpose
ments reconnais- worldwide jam resistant
to require to rely on To deploy sance coverage

Ex. 14. Watch the video.


Using the information from both the text and the video
make a list of functions military satellite perform. Com-
pare you list with your groupmates.
https://m.youtube.com/watch?feature=emb_title&v=OIqchgV7DMw

Ex. 15. Translate these sentences into English. Level A:

1) Военный спутник- это спутник, используемый для военных целей. Воен-


ные спутники могут выполнять множество функций. Они обеспечивают связь,
навигацию, собирают разведывательную информацию.
2) Круглосуточно ведут наблюдение за планетой тысячи космических аппа-
ратов.
3) Системы защищенной спутниковой связи обеспечивают засекреченную
помехоустойчивую связь в любых условиях.
4) Cпутниковая глобальная радионавигационная система "Навстар" позво-
ляет определить местоположение и скорость объектов в любом месте Земли и
при любой погоде.
5) Спутниковая глобальная радионавигационная система "Навстар" была
разработана и эксплуатируется министерством обороны США .
6) Первый искусственный спутник был запущен на орбиту в СССР 4 октяб-
ря 1957 года.
7) Американцы вывели на орбиту свой первый космический аппарат-
разведчик в 1959 году.
8) Первый спутник глобальной системы навигации и определения местопо-
ложения (GPS) был запущен 22 ноября 1978 г., и сегодня GPS является стан-
32
дартным инструментом навигации, который применяется в военном деле, в
науке и промышленности.
9) Принцип работы системы спутниковой навигации основан на измерении
расстояния от антенны на объекте до спутников.
10) Сегодня данные геодезической съемки можно получать со спутника.
11) Преимуществом получения геодезической съемки со спутника состоит в
том, что проведение измерений не зависит от погодных условий и времени су-
ток.
12) Оружие массового поражения универсально, поскольку его можно при-
менять на любой местности.
13) Применение оружия массового поражения негативно влияет на окружа-
ющую среду.
14) Договор о нераспространении ядерного оружия (Treaty on the Non-
Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons) был ратифицирован 5 марта 1970 г. Сегодня
свыше 190 государств являются участниками ДНЯО.

Ex. 16. Translate these sentences. Level B:

1) В сентябре 2019 года с космодрома Плесецк был


запущен новый спутник военного назначения. Аппарат Learn the vocabulary
находится на целевой орбите, куда его вывела ракета-
носитель «Союз». Как рассказали в Министерстве обо-
роны, все бортовое оборудование работает нормально.
Со спутником поддерживается устойчивая телеметри-
ческая связь.
2) Для повышения эффективности и надежности
управления в глобальном масштабе оперативно-
тактическими группировками ВС США создается Си- Extra listening
стема широкополосной спутниковой связи нового по-
коления WGS (Wideband Global Satcom).
3) В финансировании программы WGS принимают
участие также страны-партнеры (Австралия, Канада,
Дания, Нидерланды, Люксембург и Новая Зеландия),
которым будут выделены соответствующие ресурсы
создаваемой системы.
4) Для обеспечения высокоскоростной односторон-
ней трансляции данных предназначена спутниковая https://quizlet.com/ru/5032243
37/satellites-flash-
система глобального вещания GBS (Global Broadcasting cards/?x=1qqU&i=2tezij
System) в целях оперативного доведения разнородной
https://youtu.be/c49Mi-XFzl8
информации до органов управления оперативно-
тактического звена и отдельных абонентов.
5) В 1991 году во время конфликта в Персидском
заливе был осуществлен первый опыт использования
военных спутников США в милитаристических действиях.

33
6) Использование любой страной какого-либо из существующих видов ору-
жия массового поражения может обернуться труднопредсказуемыми послед-
ствиями для всей цивилизации в целом. Поэтому важно обеспечить соблюдение
Договора о нераспространении ядерного оружия.

Ex.17. Speaking Skills. Work in pairs. Look at the characteristics which military sat-
ellite communication system must have. Put them in order from the most to the least
important. Compare your list without partner’s, express agreement or disagreement
with him/her. Use phrases from Appendix 1 to express your opinion.
Security; jam resistance; low price, survivability in the event of nuclear war;
good design; wide spectrum of missions to be carried out; reliability with no
system failures.

Ex. 18. Speaking Skills. Make a summary to the text from ex.4. To summarize it
properly go to Appendix 2.

Unit 6. Military Strategic and Tactical Relay

Words to be learned:
Satellite constellation, high-bandwidth,
wideband, narrowband nuclear, surviva-
bility, strategic and tactical military forc-
es, jam-proof, payload, geographically
dispersed users, resources allocation, in-
theater communication, ally.
To allocate, ensure, to deploy, to survive,
to require.
Sophisticated, hostile, accurate, seamless,
autonomous, regardless of, unlike.

Warming up

Ex.19. Have a look at the picture. What does it depict. Discuss it with your group-
mates.
Ex. 20. Do a quiz. Compare your answers with your groupmates.

1)The velocity of a geostationary satellite is nearly


a) 1255 km/h b) 6757 km/h c) 9422 km/h d) 12644 km/h
2)A synchronous satellite orbits the Earth once in
a) 24 hours b) 12 hours c) 6 hours d) 1 hour
3)Geostationary satellites are located at a height of
a) 360 km f b) 3600 km c) 36 0000 km d) 360 000 km
4)In satellite communication modulation is used
34
a) AM b) FM c) PWM d) PAM
5)For globe communication, the minimum number of satellites needed is
a) 1 b) 3 c) 7 d) 11
6)The main advantage of satellite communication is
a) low cost b) low distor- c) high reliabil- d) high band-
tion ity width

Language work

Ex. 21. Read the text. Make sure you know the words in italics. Get ready to answer
the following questions:

1) What is the Milstar program? What is its main idea?


2) What does narrowband communication system depend on?
3) What is a vital difference between wideband and narrowband communication
systems?
4) What is the main idea of the protected military communication system?
5) What is «satellite payload » in your understanding?
6) What jobs can conventional communications satellite payloads do?
7) What is the advantage of the Milstar program over similar communication sys-
tems in other countries?

Military Strategic and Tactical Relay

Military Strategic and Tactical Relay, or Milstar, is a military satellite constella-


tion managed by the United States Air Force. Six spacecraft were launched between
1994 and 2003, of which five are operational, with the sixth lost in a launch failure.
They are deployed in geostationary orbit and provide wideband, narrowband and pro-
tected military communication systems. Wideband systems support high-bandwidth
transfers. Protected systems offer more sophisticated security protection like antijam
features and nuclear survivability, while narrowband systems are intended for basic
communications services that do not require high bandwidth.

The original Milstar program, initiated in the early 1980s, was designed to provide
low-data-rate (LDR) communications for strategic and tactical military forces, pri-
marily during a nuclear conflict. The highest-priority users were expected to be stra-
tegic and nonstrategic nuclear forces, with tactical naval, ground, and air forces hav-
ing a lower priority. The original design included many special features intended to
allow the system to survive and operate during a nuclear conflict.
It was the first satellite payload to allow members of all the armed services to com-
municate with each other on the same network. It uses a single, uniform communica-
tions format for its message traffic, which enables geographically dispersed users on
board ships, submarines, and aircraft on the ground to carry out well-coordinated,
multi-service operations. It was the first satellite payload to offer its users secure,
jam-proof communications, even under the most rigorous jamming scenarios. It oper-

35
ates at extremely high frequencies (EHF) using unique, frequency-hopped communi-
cations and narrow beam antennas.
It was the first satellite payload to provide instant, in-theater communications in-
frastructure for mobile users. Unlike Desert Storm Operation, which required months
to set up communications and logistics infrastructure, Milstar's communications re-
sources are always available to provide communications support among any in-
theater or out-of-theater military users. Its geostationary orbit made the Milstar net-
work virtually invulnerable to disruption by hostile ground-based forces. It was the
first payload to support direct communication satellite-to-satellite crosslinks. It al-
lows users within view of any Milstar satellite to talk to each other with the ease of
making a phone call, without the assistance of costly or potentially vulnerable ground
stations. Users needed only to know each others' Milstar "phone numbers" in order to
communicate.
Conventional communications satellite payloads operate strictly as relay stations
in space: incoming signals are received, amplified, and then retransmitted. Any noise
or distortions that exist in the incoming signal due to jamming or poor transmission
remain in the outgoing signal. These "bent-pipe" payloads also rely on ground station
operators to allocate satellite resources among users, often on a dedicated basis. The
Milstar LDR payload, by contrast, manages all satellite communication resources and
message traffic autonomously from on board the satellite. It is responsible for setting
up, maintaining and reconfiguring communication networks in real time and adding
and removing channels in response to user-transmitted requests. Resources are made
available to the users in seconds. Milstar users can make a point-to-point call; set up
or join a conference call; request a new satellite resources allocation; broadcast data
to many users simultaneously; or request information about networks, satellites or
other users. The payload can use its 192 channels to connect up to 212 independent
circuits to satellite managed networks simultaneously.

Ex.22. Answer the questions. True (T), false (F), or not given(NG).

1) Milstar, originally meaning Military Strategic and Tactical Relay, is a constella-


tion of military communications satellites which are operated by the Russian Air
Force.
2) Milstar cannot provide secure and jam-resistant worldwide communications.
3) More than ten spacecraft were launched successfully by the States Air Force.
4) Milstar is designed to provide global jam-resistant communications for civilian
purposes.
5) Narrowband systems are made to provide enduring and survivable communica-
tions.
6) Strategic and nonstrategic nuclear forces have the priority of using the Milstar
program.
7) The satellite payload allows the members of all the armed services to communi-
cate with each other on the same network.
8) The Milstar network is robust and it cannot be damaged by hostile ground-based
forces.

36
9) The payload can use its 192 channels to connect up to 212 independent circuits to
satellite managed networks simultaneously.

Ex. 23. Read the text again. Find English equivalents.

Группировка военных спутников, запускать спутник, неудачный запуска, гео-


стационарная орбита, обеспечивать широкополосные, узкополосные и защи-
щенные системы военной связи, функция защиты от вторжения, ядерная выжи-
ваемость, высокая пропускная способность, распределять ресурсы, стратегиче-
ские и тактические вооруженные силы, ядерный конфликт, полезная нагрузка
спутника, выполнять хорошо скоординированные общевойсковые операции
(задачи), работать на чрезвычайно высокой частоте, связь со скачкообразной
перестройкой частоты.

Ex. 24. Translate these expressions into Russian.

Security protection, high-bandwidth transfers, Milstar space segment, low- and high-
inclination orbits, ultra-high frequency (UHF) transmissions, survivability concepts,
low-data-rate (LDR) communications, on the dedicated basis, jam-proof communica-
tions, narrow beam antennas, in-theater communications, Desert Storm Operation,
communication satellite-to-satellite crosslinks, ground station operators, Milstar
LDR payload, satellite communication resources, user-transmitted requests, satellite
resources allocation, satellite managed networks.

Ex. 25. Match the words to form a phrase\ collocation, make up sentences with them

1) sophisticated a) during a nuclear conflict


2) to allocate b) security protection
3) be invulnerable c) military forces
4) to survive and operate d) satellite resources
5) to require e) information
6) strategic and tactical f) to disruption by hostile ground-based
forces
7) nuclear g) communication networks
8) to have h) high bandwidth
9) to set up i) survivability
10) to request j) a lower priority

Ex. 26. Complete the sentences with the following words:

the satellite's low data rate (LDR) communications payload, narrowband, survivabil-
ity concepts, invulnerable, wideband, sophisticated, satellite communications sys-
tems, deployed, jam resistant, nuclear warfare, launched.

1) The Milstar network is ________ to disruption by hostile ground-based forces.

37
2) Milstar has been specifically designed to overcome shortfall characteristics of
existing _______ .
3) _______ in a hostile space environment have shaped this military communica-
tion system design.
4) The Milstar program is designed to be rugged, reliable and to survive extreme
environments, including modern conventional and ________.
5) It provides secure, _______, voice, data and teletype communications to both
tactical and strategic commanders.
6) The first Milstar satellite was _________ on Feb. 7, 1994.
7) _______guaranteed that any Milstar user would be able to communicate se-
curely, accurately and seamlessly with any other Milstar user worldwide.
8) It made Milstar not only the most secure, most ________satellite communica-
tion system ever ________, but also the satellite system most technologically
adaptable to the needs of its users.
9) ______ systems emphasize support to users who need voice or low-data-rate
communications.
10) Milsatcom (military satellite communication system) is a system of sys-
tems that provides balanced _______, narrowband, and protected communica-
tions with the broad range of users across diverse mission areas.

Ex. 27. Speaking Skills. Explain the words from the list to your partner without nam-
ing them. Use QR code reader to see your words.

Student A Student B Student C

Ex. 28. Fill the sentences with the gaps. Pre- listening exercise.

To assign the responsibility; for the MUOS constellation; to accomplish their mis-
sion; to boost; launch; a geosynchronous orbit; critical; allies’ forces; providing that
capability; regardless of; contractor; to support a warfighter.

1) The stable 24-7 ship-to-shore communication could be successful


___environmental and geographical conditions.
2) The Navy is _____ to provide this vast capability known today as narrowband
satellite communication.

38
3) It is _____ as a communications officer but for the warfighter it is even more
critical because it gives a safe lifeline.
4) Eight satellites are on orbit servicing the global needs of US and ____.
5) This third MUOS ______ is another major step toward achieving a fully opera-
tional MUOS end-to-end capability by 2016.
6) Over the years Navy satellites have been _____ by several launchers in the US
fleet including the space shuttle.
7) The basic concept of new MUOS is to take the cell tower which in a cell sys-
tem and take those cell towers and move them to ____ so our satellite is really the
cell power.
8) Martin Lockheed is the prime ______ from us to deliver the system.
9) It is a transformation in thinking about how to _____.
10) Today the Navy works with the air force to secure the launchers ____.
11) We take a lot of pride in _____ and designing and building it.
12) They have reliable communications whenever they need it where they need it_.

Ex. 29. Translate the following words. Pre-listening exercise.

Reliable communication, critical, for effective war, backbone, regardless of environ-


mental and geographical conditions narrowband satellite communication, to assign
the responsibilities, safe lifeline, UHF (ultra high frequency), ally, global information
grid , prime contractor, launcher, border patrol, Communication satellite programs
office, UFO – UHF Follow-on, to bring something new to the table, to be poised to
wingspan, DoD (Department of Defense)

Ex. 30. Watch the video. Get ready to answer the questions bellow (read the ques-
tions before listening):
The video is about Lockheed Martin, an American
global aerospace, defense, security and advanced tech-
nologies company with worldwide interests.
It was formed by the merger of Lockheed Corporation
with Martin Marietta in March 1995. It is headquar-
tered in Bethesda, Maryland, in the Washington, DC,
area. It employs approximately 100,000 people world-
wide.
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WCf3QzNb2Zw

1) What did you learn about The Lockheed Corporation?


2) Do you know where The Lockheed Corporation is located?
3) Do you think that working for The Lockheed Corporation is prestigious for a
recent graduate?
4) Which companies does the PMW146 team cooperate with?
5) Which company is responsible for providing a user the connectivity to the ex-
isting satellites as the transition onto the MUOS?
6) Do you agree that reliable communications are the backbone of the armed
forces?
39
7) What negative consequences might happen if military communications are
unreliable?
8) Where is the Mobile User Objective System used for?
9) What functions do the ground stations perform?
10) What advantages can military men take of using the Mobile User Objective
System?
11) How does the Mobile User Objective System work?
12) Why do satellites depend on launchers?
13) Why does a launcher play a big role when a satellite is launched into space?
14) Do you believe that the Mobile User Objective System has made a break-
through in current military satellite communications?

Ex. 31. Translate these sentences into Russian.

1) The main function of the AEHF spacecraft in geostationary orbits will be to


provide secure, survivable and near-worldwide satellite communications.
2) Milstar satellites provide secure, jam resistant, worldwide communications to
meet the requirements of the United States military.
3) The AEHF system consists of satellites in space, user terminals and ground
mission control and associated communication network systems.
4) EPS is the next-generation SATCOM system that will replace the current Inter-
im Polar System (IPS) временная полярная система and serve as a polar ad-
junct to еhe Advanced Extremely High-Frequency (AEHF) system.
5) The Advanced Extremely High-Frequency (AEHF) system is a series of four
military communication satellites planned to replace the currently in-orbit
Milstar system.
6) DSCS provides secure voice and data transmission for the United States
Armed Forces.
7) The DSCS is a general-purpose satellite communications system operating in
the Super-high Frequency (SHF) spectrum. (сверхвысокая частота)
8) The primary user of the DSCS is Defense Information Systems Network
(DISN). (сеть оборонной информационной системы)
9) The DSCS control segment allocates satellite capacity to best serve user re-
quirements.
10) The Wideband Global SATCOM system (WGS) is a high capacity satellite
communications system planned for use in partnership by the United States
Department of Defense (DoD) and the Australian Department of Defense.
11) The Wideband Global SATCOM system is composed of the Space Segment
satellites, the Terminal Segment users and the Control Segment operators

Ex. 32. Translate these sentences into English.

1) Распределение ресурсов спутника является важной задачей для инжене-


ров.

40
2) Полезная нагрузка космического аппарата - это количество, тип или мас-
са полезного оборудования, ради которого создается или запускается
данный космический аппарат.
3) В современных спутниках связи, полезной нагрузкой спутника обычно
являются ретрансляторы прозрачного типа (transparent или bent-pipe), то
есть на борту осуществляется простое изменение частоты.
4) Сейчас система военной связи играет большую роль, поскольку она ста-
новится основным, иногда единственным средством управления войска-
ми.
5) Первоначально эту программу разработали, чтобы обеспечить низкая
скорость передачи данных для стратегических и тактических вооружен-
ных сил на случай ядерного взрыва.
6) Стратегические и тактические вооруженные силы оказались первооче-
редными пользователями этой программы.
7) Наиболее важные пользователи попросили инженеров сделать помехоза-
щищенную сеть от врагов.
8) Связи со скачкообразной перестройкой частоты возникает, потому что
перестройка частоты сигнала происходит через определенные интервалы
времени.
9) Чтобы стать оператором наземной станции нужно иметь хорошие анали-
тические способности, быть ответственным и уметь быстро принимать
решения в чрезвычайных обстоятельствах.
10) Официальный представитель ВВС США заявил, что в результате не-
удачного запуска пятый спутник не смог выйти на геостационарную ор-
биту.
11) Широкополосные системы военной связи обеспечивают связь с высокой
пропускной способностью.

Ex. 33. Translate these sentences into English.

1) Военная спутниковая ретрансляционная система связи стратегического и


тактического назначения обеспечивает связью армию, флот и ВВС США.
2) Система МИЛСТАР поддерживает шифрование голоса и данных.
3) Созвездие спутников WGS увеличивает коммуникационные возможности
вооруженных сил США, Канады и Австралии, предоставляя дополни-
тельную пропускную способность.
4) Пентагон планирует вывести на геостационарную орбиту (a geostationary
Earth orbit) как минимум десять аппаратов WGS.
5) Глобальная система широкополосной спутниковой связи обеспечивает
круглосуточный широкополосный сервис для оперативного личного со-
става и некоторых стационарных абонентских пунктов.
6) Глобальная система широкополосной спутниковой связи играет важную
роль в обеспечении надёжного управления вооружёнными силами.
7) Новая военно-космическая стратегия (policy) США характеризует совре-
менный космос как всё более и более переполненный, конкурентный

41
(competitive) и сложный поэтому в ближайшие время больше денег будет
выделяться на развитие оборонной системы спутниковой связи.
8) Cпутниковая глобальная радионавигационная система "Навстар" позво-
ляет определить не только широту, долготу, высоту(latitude, longitude, al-
titude), но и скорость движения объекта.
9) В России успешно разрабатывается Глобальная навигационная спутнико-
вая система (Глонасс), которая по техническим характеристикам не будет
уступать системе "Навстар".
10) Американская система позиционирования GPS и российская система
ГЛОНАСС принципиально ничем друг от друга не отличаются. Они по-
строены на одних и тех же физических и математических законах и ис-
пользуют похожее оборудование.

Ex. 34. Speaking skills. Work in pairs and make up a dialogue between a specialist
and a supervisor. You know that the current military satellite system needs to be re-
placed because it is out-of-date. MUOS meets the most stringent Department of De-
fense (DoD) standards for information assurance and security. You need to persuade
your boss that he should invest the large amount of money into the implementation of
the Mobile User Objective System.

Ex. 35. Speaking skills. Work in pairs and discuss the following quotations about
space exploration.

1) I think space exploration is very important. I think there is very intelligent life
on Mars. I believe that Martians are spying on us from the bottom of the ocean.
- Annabella Sciorra (an American actress).
2) Geez, all that money we waste on space exploration; just think how many
bombs that would buy! Graig Reucassel (An Australian television and radio
comedian).
3) I think we are at the dawn of a new era in commercial space exploration. - Elon
Musk (an American entrepreneur, engineer and investor).
4) Looking down the road, space exploration and the benefits it yields - in medi-
cine and information technology - should not be overlooked. - Bob Barr (an
American attorney and politician).
5) Due to space exploration technologies, we can begin to understand our world's
origins, and our lives are improving. These are the reasons why dedicating a
life to the sciences and space exploration is so meaningful and rewarding. Emi-
ly Calandrelli (the host and producer of Xploration Outer Space.)

Ex. 36. Soft skills. Make the presentation to your group. You should choose one of
the topics to talk about different types of satellite communications. Use Appendix 1
to make good presentation.
a) The first Russian satellite launch
b) The first American satellite
c) Satellite system in Asian countries
d) EPS, WGS, AEHF, GBS, Skynet.
42
Module IV. Fiber Optic Communication

Unit 7. Fiber Optic Communication. Main principles.

Words to be learned:
Cable\wire\cord, rod, strand, medium, fiber optics,
coaxial cable, copper cable, twisted pair, a beam of
light, circuitry, shortage, electromagnetic interfer-
ence, intervention,
security surveillance, circumstance, attenuation,
redundancy, backup, combat readiness.
To leak information, to interfere, to interfere,
to reflect, eliminate, to illuminate, to intervene, to
compare, to detect, to withstand.
Reluctant, flexible, microscopic, attractive, conven-
tional, ubiquitous

Warming up

Ex 1. Work in pairs\groups. Have a look at the words cloud. What words would you
add to the cloud?
Ex. 2. What do you know about fiber optic communication? Discuss the following
questions with your partner:
1) How does fiber optic communication work?
2) Is fiber optic communication up-to-date or obsolete? When did it appear?
3) Is it more reliable in comparison with other method of transmitting infor-
mation?
4) Is it more affordable in comparison with other types of communications?

Language work

Ex. 3. Read the text, entitle the passages. Make sure you know the words in italics.
Get ready to answer the following questions:
1) When did people start using light to transmit signals?
2) When was the fiber optic wire invented?
3) How did Bells photo phone work?
4) When were fiber optics commercialized?
5) How does fiber optic communication work?

Fiber Optic Communication


1. ___________
Cable is the medium through which information usually moves from one network de-
vice to another. There are several types of cable which are commonly used, for ex-
ample twisted pair (UTP) cable and coaxial cable both made out of copper, and fiber
optic cable that consists of a center glass core surrounded by several layers of protec-
tive materials. A fiber-optic system can generally be seen as a system with three main
43
components: a transmitter, a transmission medium and a receiver (detector). As a
model it is similar to the copper wire system that fiber optics is replacing. The differ-
ence is that fiber optics use light pulses to transmit information down fiber lines in-
stead of using electronic pulses to transmit information down copper lines.
2. __________
Thus, fiber optics is a way of sending information through thin fibers, made of glass
or plastic. This information travels through the fibers in the form of light. In other
words, fiber optics is the transmission of light through long fiber rods of either glass
or plastics. The light travels by process of internal reflection. The core medium of the
rod or cable is more reflective than the material surrounding the core. That causes the
light to keep being reflected back into the core where it can continue to travel down
the fiber. Fiber optic cables are used for transmitting voice, images, and other data at
close to the speed of light.
3._________
As far back as Roman times, glass has been drawn into fibers. Yet, it was not until
the 1790s that the French Chappe brothers invented the first "optical telegraph." Al-
exander Graham Bell patented an optical telephone system called the photophone in
1880 which transmitted a voice signal on a beam of light. Bell focused sunlight with
a mirror and then talked into a mechanism that vibrated the mirror. At the receiving
end, a detector picked up the vibrating beam and decoded it back into a voice the
same way a phone did with electrical signals. However, many things (a cloudy day,
for instance) could interfere with the Photophone, causing Bell to stop any further re-
search with this invention.
In 1970s researchers Robert Maurer, Donald Keck and Peter Schultz invented
fiber optic wire capable of carrying 65,000 times more information than copper wire.
This wire allowed for information carried by a pattern of light waves to be decoded at
a destination even a thousand miles away. Fiber optic communication methods and
materials invented by them opened the door to the commercialization of fiber optics.
However, back then fiber-optic systems were complex and expensive to install and
operate. Due to these difficulties, fiber-optic communication systems were primarily
installed in long-distance applications, where they can be used to their full transmis-
sion capacity, offsetting the increased cost. Since 2000, the prices for fiber-optic
communications have dropped considerably and the telecommunications industry has
laid a vast network of intercity and transoceanic fiber communication lines. By 2002,
an intercontinental network of 250,000 km of submarine communication cable with a
capacity of 2.56 Tb/s was completed. From long-distance telephone service to the In-
ternet and medical devices, fiber optics are now a major part of modern life.

Ex 4. Find out English equivalents:

Медный провод, оптоволокно, оптический кабель, витая пара, световой им-


пульс, световой пучок, средства связи, электромагнитные помехи, внутреннее
отражение, компенсировать, пропускная способность, вибрировать, междуго-
родный, межконтинентальный, трансатлантические коммуникации.

44
Ex.5. Pre-listening exercise. Match the synonyms:

1) cord a) oscillate
2) sophisticated b) disrupt
3) vibrate c) elaborate
4) beam d) ray
5) reduce e) wire
6) core f) diminish
7) interfere g) centre
8) degrade h) get worth

Ex.6. Watch the video about fiber optics. Get ready to answer the following questions
(read the questions first).
1) What is fiber optic?
2) Does fiber optic technology provide fast data transfer?
3) What parts fiber optic cable is made of?
4) What is the core. How does it diameter influence data
transfer?
5) What function does the cladding perform?
6) How does fiber optics work?
7) In what spheres can fiber optics be used?
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=o5t6evogJbg

Ex. 7. Translate the sentences into English. Level A.

1) С древнейших времен в качестве средства связи человек использует в ос-


новном акустические волны - звук и электромагнитные волны - свет.
2) В 90-е XVIII века изобретатель Клод Шапп разработали оптический теле-
граф, предназначенный главным образом для передачи военных и правитель-
ственных сообщений.
3) В 1973 году Военно-морские силы США внедрили волоконно-
оптическую линию на борту корабля Little Rock.
4) В отличие от медного провода по волокну переносится свет, а не элек-
трический сигнал.
5) Оптические волокна помещают в оптические кабели, которые надежно
защищают волокна от механических повреждений.
6) Информация по оптическим волокнам передается в виде световых им-
пульсов.
7) Световой сигнал не подвержен действию внешних электромагнитных по-
мех.

Ex. 8. Speaking Skills. Make a summary to the video. To summarize it properly go


to Appendix 2

45
Unit 8. Fiber Optic Communication. Pros and Cons.

Ex. 9. Read the text. Make sure you know the words in italics. Underline all the link-
ing words that make the text coherent.

Nowadays optical fiber is used by many telecommunications companies to


transmit telephone signals, Internet communication, and cable television signals. Due
to much lower attenuation and interference, optical fiber has large advantages over
existing copper wire in long-distance and high-demand applications.
Unlike copper wire based transmission where the transmission entirely depends
on electrical signals passing through the cable, the fiber optics transmission involves
transmission of signals in the form of light from one point to the other. Furthermore,
a fiber optic communication network consists of transmitting and receiving circuitry.
Besides being a flexible conduit that is used to illuminate microscopic objects,
fiber optics can also transmit information similarly to the way a copper wire can
transmit electricity. However, copper transmits only a few million electrical pulses
per second, compared to an optical fiber that carries up to a 20 billion light pulses per
second. This means telephone, cable and computer companies can handle huge
amounts of data transfers at once, much more than conventional wires can carry.
Fiber optic cable was developed because of the incredible increase in the quanti-
ty of data over the past 20 years. Without fiber optic cable, the modern Internet and
World Wide Web would not be possible.
One of the greatest benefits to using fiber optic systems is the capacity and
speed of such a system. Light travels faster than an electrical system which allows
faster delivery and reception of information. Fiber optic cables also have a much
higher capacity for bandwidth than the more traditional copper cables. Coaxial cables
have a tendency for electromagnetic interference, which renders them less effective.
Fiber optics is not affected by external electrical signals, because the data is transmit-
ted with light.
Optical systems are more secure than traditional mediums. Electromagnetic in-
terference causes coaxial cables to leak information. Optical fiber makes it impossi-
ble to remotely detect the signal being transmitted within the cable. The only way to
do so is by actually accessing the optical fiber itself. Accessing the fiber requires in-
tervention that is easily detectable by security surveillance. These circumstances
make fiber extremely attractive to governments, banks and companies requiring in-
creased security of data.
Copper wire transmission can generate sparks, causing shortages and even fire.
Because fiber optical strands use light instead of electricity to carry signals, the
chance of an electrical fire is eliminated. This makes fiber optics an exceptionally
safe form of wiring and one of the safest forms of data transmission.
Despite the many advantages of fiber optic systems, there are some disad-
vantages.

46
The relative new technology of fiber optic makes the components expensive. Fi-
ber optic transmitters and receivers are still somewhat expensive compared to electri-
cal components. The absence of standardization in the industry has also limited the
acceptance of fiber optics. Many industries are more comfortable with the use of
electrical systems and are reluctant to switch to fiber optics.
The cost to install fiber optic systems is falling because of an increase in the use of
fiber optic technology. As more information about fiber optics is made available to
educate managers and technicians, the use of fiber optics in the industry will increase
over time.

Ex. 10. Find English equivalents.

В отличие от, зависеть от, состоять из схем передачи и приема, по сравнению с,


обрабатывать огромные объемы передачи данных, передача по медному прово-
ду, высокая пропускная способность, избыточность, устойчивость, коаксиаль-
ные кабели, электромагнитные помехи, эффективный, обстоятельства, утечка
информации, влиять, замыкание, устранить (вероятность пожара), неохотно.

Ex.11.Using the information from the text, make a list of advantages and disad-
vantages of fiber optics. Discuss your list with the groupmates.

Ex. 12. Answer the questions using information you’ve learnt both from the texts and
the video.

1) What is fiber optics? How does fiber optic communication work?


2) What is the difference between a copper wire based transmission differ and a fi-
ber optic communication?
3) How could you characterize coaxial cables? What are disadvantages of coaxial
cables?
4) What are advantages of fiber optics over copper wires?
5) Under what circumstances do governments and banks prefer to use fiber optics?
6) What problems may companies face with if they decide to switch to fiber optics?
7) What should device manufactures do to solve these problems?
8) What are the drawbacks of fiber optics?
9) What is the future of fiber optics?

Ex. 13. Fill in the table. Make the sentences with the words
noun verb sentence
1) leakage a)
2) b) to interfere
3) commercialization c)
4) d) to survey
5) e) to attenuate
6) illumination f)
7) g) to receive
8) intervention h)
47
Ex. 14. Match the words with their definitions.

1) electromagnetic a) type of cable that can handle a maximum of 32 EU/t. Any


higher rate will destroy the cable.
2) interference b) cable that has moderate distance-related energy loss, but
because it can conduct only little power energy dissipates
quickly.
3)to eliminate c) monitoring of behavior, activities, or other changing in-
formation for the purpose of influencing, managing, direct-
ing, or protecting people
4)transmission d) a fact, condition or event concerned with and influencing
another event, person or course of action
5)copper cable e) making of standard parts which can be used in many dif-
ferent machines, operations.
6)bandwidth f) an accidental or intentional spreading news, facts that
ought to be a secret
7)leak g) speed at which information can be sent from one computer
information to another for example along a telephone wire. It is synon-
ymous with capacity
8)standardization h) to remove or get rid of something completely
9)to be reluctant i) this is a common problem which occurs with electronic de-
vices when the performance of a device is disturbed or in-
terrupted by electromagnetic radiation or conduction.
10)security j) unwilling, and therefore slow to act
surveillance
11)circumstance k) the process of sending out electrical signals using a radio,
television, or computer network:

Ex. 15. Put the words in the brackets into the correct form Application of fiber optics

1) Since fiber optics are ____ to electronic noise, fiber optics has made _____ ad-
vances in the field of communications (resistance, significance).
2) The use of light as its source of data transmission has ___ the sound quality in
voice communications (improvement).
3) It is also being used for _____ and receiving purposes (transmission).
4) Optical systems offer more ____ than traditional metal-based systems (insecure).
5) The magnetic interference allows the _____ of information in the coaxial cables
(to leak).
6) Fiber optics is not sensitive to electrical _____; therefore, fiber optics is suitable
for military application and communications, where signal quality and security of da-
ta transmission are _____ (to interfere, importance).
7) The ____ interest of the military in this technology caused the _____of stronger
fibers, tactical cables and high quality components (increasingly, to develop).

48
8) It was also applied in more ______areas such as hydrophones for seismic and
SONAR, aircrafts, submarines and other underwater applications(variety).
Ex.16. Complete the sentences with the following words:

To eliminate fire, the leak of information, to provide complete redundancy,


bandwidth, electromagnetic interference, to withstand heat, to cause shortages,
to run multiple backup cables, to make important contributions, copper conductors.

1) Copper wire transmission can generate sparks, ____ and even fire.
2) Because fiber optical strands use light instead of electricity to carry signals, the
chance of an electrical _____.
3) ________ is a measure of the data-carrying capacity of an optical fiber.
4) Fiber optics has _______ to the medical field, especially with regards to surgery.
5) Fiber optic cables are immune to _____ and emit no radiation.
6) Compared to ________of equivalent signal carrying capacity, fiber optic cables
are easier to install, require less duct space, weigh 10 to 15 times less and cost less
than copper.
7) Fiber optic communications technology needs to be able to ____, cold, rain and
other environmental abuse.
8) The reduction in size makes it possible to _____ for each electronic system or de-
vice.
9) The ability to______ for all critical cabling is a major motivating factor driving
the use of fiber optics in mission-critical systems.
10) The magnetic interference allows _______ in the coaxial cables interference is a
problem.
Ex. 17. Speaking Skills. Explain the words from the list to your partner without nam-
ing them. Use QR code reader to see your words.

Student A Student B Student C

Ex. 18. Have a look at the Appendix 4. Choose the appropriate linking word (in
bold) and translate the sentences.
1) It was also applied in more varied areas on the whole\ for instance hydrophones
for seismic and SONAR, aircrafts, submarines and other underwater applications.

49
2) Service, such as \ eventually the internet is often cheaper because fiber optic sig-
nals stay strong longer, requiring less power over time to transmit signals than
copper-wire systems, which need high-voltage transmitters.
3) Since\ whereas fiber optical strands use light instead of electricity to carry sig-
nals, the chance of an electrical fire is eliminated.
4) Fiber optics is not sensitive to electrical interference; on the other hand \ there-
fore fiber optics is suitable for military application and communications, where
signal quality and security of data transmission are important.
5) Furthermore\ immediately, a fiber optic communication network consists of
transmitting and receiving circuitry.
6) Cable and computer companies can handle huge amounts of data transfers on the
whole \ at once.
7) As\ similarly the popularity of optical fibers continues to grow, the price begins to
reduce slowly.
8) Fiber optic systems are much more effective than coaxial or copper systems, be-
cause\ in the end there is minimal loss of data.
9) In comparison with\ moreover copper cables fiber optic systems are much more
effective because when you use fiber optic cables you have a direct connection
with no echoes.
10) There is no crosstalk between cables, consequently \ for example telephone sig-
nals from overseas using a signal bounced off a communications satellite, will re-
sult in an echo being heard.

Ex. 19. Fill the gaps with the appropriate linking word:
On the whole, once, unlike, as, since, eventually, in contrast to, furthermore,
moreover, because.

1) Fiber optic cables have a high bandwidth. ______, they are secure.
2) _____ electrical signals in copper wires the light signals from one fiber do not
interfere with those of other fibers in the same cable. This means clearer phone con-
versations or TV reception.
3) _____ a fiber optic cable is resistant to electronic noise, fiber optics has made
significant advances in the field of communications.
4) Space constraints of many end-users are easily overcome ______new cabling
can be installed within existing duct systems.
5) Inside the core of the fiber light bounces back and forth at angles to the side
walls, making its way to the end of the fiber where it _____ escapes.
6) ______copper wire, fiber optics does not use electricity during transmission.
7) _____fiber optic cables have passed the quality control process, they are sold
to telephone companies, cable companies and network providers.
8) ______ , using fiber optics in data systems has proven to be a far better alterna-
tive to copper wire and coaxial cables.
9) _____new technologies are developed, transmission will become even more
efficient, assuring the expansion of telecommunication, television and data network
industries.
50
10) Fiber optics is used for imaging in areas which are difficult to reach.
_________, It is also used in wiring where electromagnetic interference is a problem.

Ex. 20. Speaking Skills. Work in pairs. Use the information from the text above.
Student A says a sentence to student B, after that student B continues the sentence us-
ing the linkers.

Student A Fiber optics is used for imaging in areas which are


difficult to reach.
Student B Furthermore, It is also used in wiring where elec-
tromagnetic interference is a problem.
Student A Even though fiber optics is also used in wiring
where electromagnetic interference is a problem
However, it is very difficult to lay fiber optic ca-
bles.

Ex.21. Translate the sentences into English. Level B.


1) Министерство обороны не в состоянии профинансировать такие затратные
проекты, как единовременная замена медно-кабельных магистралей на воло-
конно-оптические линии связи.
2) Если телекоммуникационное оборудование не будет удовлетворять требо-
ваниям военных связистов, то с этими компаниями не будет за-ключен кон-
тракт на поставку оборудования.
3) Новое поколение цифровой системы передачи не прошли испытания про-
водившимися с участием военных специалистов на реальной кабельной маги-
страли Минобороны.
4) В России волоконно-оптические сети передачи данных используются в
конструкции боевых самолетов «продвинутого» четвертого поколения, которые
идут на экспорт.
5) Без заинтересованности руководства профильных предприятий промыш-
ленные системы связи невозможно повсеместно перевести с медного кабеля на
оптоволокнонный.
6) Если любая информация, передаваемая по волоконно - оптическому кабе-
лю, не подвержена электромагнитному воздействию, будь то информация о
температуре за бортом или сигнал на запуск ракет, то такой кабель безопасен.
7) В рамках проекта FONDA (Future Optical Network Distribution for
Aerospace) компания Airbus UK только в 2004-2007 гг. занялась разработкой
волоконно-оптических сетей с возможностью передачи в цифровом виде ин-
формации с большой шириной полосы частот, с быстродействием более 1
Гбит/с.
8) Оснащение вторичных сетей связи новыми комплексами (средствами) свя-
зи и автоматизации планируется проводить поэтапно.
9) Если вся сеть не будет построена на принципах единой унифицированной
транспортной магистрали, то часть передаваемой информации может быть по-
теряна.
51
10) Некоторые версии оптоволоконных соединителей не требуют каких-либо
специальных инструментов для установки или обслуживания, что является
ценным преимуществом при сборке, поскольку в некоторых случаях рабочие не
всегда имеют доступ к специализированным инструментам.
11) Если инженеры-конструкторы не работают в тесном сотрудничестве с
производителями, которые помогают им выбрать волоконно-оптические соеди-
нители для своих проектов, то целый ряд моментов не учитывается, например,
производительность в жестких условиях эксплуатации, массогабаритные пока-
затели и эффективность в части пропускной способности, стоимость установки.

Ex. 22. Pre-listening exercise. Translate the following words.


To measure angular rotation, fiber optic gyroscope, precise, to fit the bill, long life
equipment, affordability, instantaneous, surveillance camera, turret, rocksteady view,
dimension.

Ex.23. Watch the video. Answer the following questions:

1) What is a fiber optic gyroscope?


2) What applications for fiber optic gyro technology are
mentioned in the video?
3) What factor is the most important when buying this
device?
4) How accurate is this device?
5) What are the main components of an inertial measure-
ment unit?
6) Why is this device essential for inventory management
system in warehouses?
7) What is the purpose of an inertial navigation system?
8) What problems of fiber optic gyro technology has the
speaker mentioned?
9) How fiber optic gyroscopes will change the way we
work in the future?
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SFI1wJwnGt8

Ex. 24. Watch the video again. Fill the gaps with the following words:

To provide guidance, to counteract as stabilization, a surveillance camera on a heli-


copter, warehouse, corresponds exactly to a user′s hand movement, to guide motors,
to look for the best combination, to determine the relative position of an object, unin-
terrupted two-way communications, provide ultimate measurement, warehouse, to
guide motors.

1) A ring gyro might be the best option but if you are _____of small size accuracy
and affordability.

52
2) The measurements are very useful for applications where relevant movement
needs to be ______ on a moving platform or movements needed to be synchro-
nized with electronic image such as a virtual reality game or handheld simulator.
3) In addition to weapon′s stabilization fogs are used to stabilize optics as well
whether it is ________, a TV camera in a sports stadium or a night vision camera
on a ship.
4) Kbh gyros are used to measure instantaneous movement which _____ that stabi-
lize the gun on this turret.
5) The fog device tracks even the slightest movement so the simulators virtual image
____.
6) Kbh fogs are used on board U.S.Navy ships to stabilize shipboard antennas so
they stay locked on the satellite at all times and in all sea conditions
for_________.
7) In addition to stabilization a fog device can also be used to ____ for vehicles and
weapons.
8) An inertial measurement unit can be used to ________ in relation to its origin.
9) GPS can be used in combination with the IMU to ____ of earth reference loca-
tion and movement of the host platform.
10) Applications for ANS are also used for inventory management system in ______
and marine terminals.

Ex. 25. Soft Skills. Make the presentation to your group. Choose one of the topics to
talk about. To make a proper presentation go to Appendix 2.

1) The earliest basic forms of optical communication;


2) Aldis lamps;
3) Free-space optics (FSO) systems;
4) The role of gyroscope in missiles;
5) Gyroscope and navigation.

Ex. 26. Self-studing. Use a mobile application like Quizlet, Memrise or similar plat-
form to make flashcards with fiber-optic communication vocabulary. Share you cards
with your groupmates for better vocabulary acquisition.

53
Appendix 1. Additional texts.

Fiber optics technologies in Military forces

The requirement for compact, lightweight, low-power electronics has pro-


voked the use of optical technologies in different spheres, including military field.
For the past two decades, fiber optics technology has been under development in the
Army, Navy, and Air Force.
Photonics, with its virtually infinite bandwidth, electromagnetic interference
(EMI) immunity, reduction of size, weight, and power (SWaP), ease of installation;
and data rate over distance are inserted into a number of military platforms to handle
higher data rates and larger traffic volumes.
Fiber optic networks are the main data communications medium on the U.S.
navy’s surface ships and submarines. They provide the high bandwidth that today’s
data-intensive systems require, as well as immunity to electromagnetic interference
(EMI) and significant weight and space advantages over copper cable. Virtually eve-
ry mission critical system on modern ships now uses fiber optic networks, from
weapons systems to communication, navigation, radar and sonar systems, infrastruc-
ture management, and real time monitoring and control to enable a state-of-the-art
navy ship to fulfill its mission.
The demand for bandwidth continues to grow as shipboard operations be-
come increasingly automated. For example, the new Gerald R. Ford class of supercar-
riers contain more than four million feet of fiber optic cable, supporting numerous
advanced technologies that to improve combat readiness, ship performance and crew
efficiency.
Optical components and systems are attractive for airborne applications, ranging
from a flight-critical databus to a video or sensor link. «Fiber-optic networks will
soon become ubiquitous in U.S. military aircraft. The big thing we're seeing is in a
lot of aircraft, they want to reduce weight», observes Kirk Lussier, «Fiber weighs a
lot less [than copper]-that's a big advantage of moving to fiber-optic systems».

In ground-based applications, for instance secure bunker-to-bunker communi-


cations, the advantages of optics are pretty obvious. Fiber optic components help the
Armed Forces to advance missions using night vision systems, cockpit displays2, and
missile navigation. Unlike radio waves and microwaves, light is ideal for beam
weapons, targeting (designating), and passive surveillance applications. Also, totally
new applications have emerged that have no direct electronic analogue, such as laser
gyros for navigation.
Thus, the role of optics in military sphere is getting ubiquitous. Optical technol-
ogies and components are likely to enjoy a bright future in military applications.

54
Software-Defined Radio

Military radio needs have evolved past basic voice and data communication; the
warfighter now requires communication that uses several different frequencies and
implements several different protocols. Software-defined radio (SDR) is able to cater
to these specific needs.SDR can be defined as a wireless communication device
where the receiver and transmitter functionality is changed or modified by software
without making any physical changes to the hardware. It was essentially developed
with the idea of software replacing radio tuners and filters. This structure in turn
eliminates the need for using resistors and capacitors, as software-based filtering al-
gorithms can be used to select specific frequencies. Such a setup still requires a flexi-
ble enough hardware platform; today’s designs are ensuring that devices all incorpo-
rate this feature.

In times of conflict, military communications significantly depends on adapta-


bility, clarity, interoperability, precision, and speed. Deficiencies in any aspect of
military communication can have dire consequences. As a result, SDRs have grown
to have a significant influence on defense mechanisms as the device provides for not
only standard two-way communication, but also offers secure wireless nodes, engag-
es with a number of different devices concurrently, and provides very low latency
point-to-point wireless links. Further, SDR can also act as a communication repeater.
Traditional equipment offers military personnel the ability to tune into only one of the
preferred frequencies and support only one protocol. With SDR, however, those on
the battlefield are able to monitor and communicate over a large portion of the spec-
trum while supporting multiple protocols.

The weight carried by soldiers has always been an issue, as it can affect how
quickly military personnel can move on the ground. As a result, the military has al-
ways searched for ways to make equipment lighter and more portable. In the past,
soldiers would have had to carry multiple radios on the front lines, which could es-
sentially hinder their movements and capabilities. SDR has been able to reduce size,
weight, and power (SwaP) for those in battle, as it is one device replacing multiple
radios. This portability is one of the reasons why the defense-industrial complex has
increased its spending to obtain new radios developed for the military that are based
on SDR. In the future, SDR is expected to be augmented into cognitive radios that
can survey the area, choose the best frequencies, determine and engage in electronic
warfare, and set up an ad hoc network on the fly for clear communication.

55
How does radar use radio?

Whether it's mounted on a plane, a ship, or anything else, a radar set needs the same
basic set of components: something to generate radio waves, something to send them
out into space, something to receive them, and some means of displaying information
so the radar operator can quickly understand it.
The radio waves used by radar are produced by a piece of equipment called a magne-
tron. Radio waves are similar to light waves: they travel at the same speed—but their
waves are much longer and have much lower frequencies. Light waves have wave-
lengths of about 500 nanometers (500 billionths of a meter, which is about 100–200
times thinner than a human hair), whereas the radio waves used by radar typically
range from about a few centimeters to a meter—the length of a finger to the length of
your arm—or roughly a million times longer than light waves.
Both light and radio waves are part of the electromagnetic spectrum, which means
they're made up of fluctuating patterns of electrical and magnetic energy zapping
through the air. The waves a magnetron produces are actually microwaves, similar to
the ones generated by a microwave oven. The difference is that the magnetron in a
radar has to send the waves many miles, instead of just a few inches, so it is much
larger and more powerful.
Once the radio waves have been generated, an antenna, working as a transmitter,
hurls them into the air in front of it. The antenna is usually curved so it focuses the
waves into a precise, narrow beam, but radar antennas also typically rotate so they
can detect movements over a large area. The radio waves travel outward from the an-
tenna at the speed of light (186,000 miles or 300,000 km per second) and keep going
until they hit something. Then some of them bounce back toward the antenna in a
beam of reflected radio waves also traveling at the speed of light. The speed of the
waves is crucially important. If an enemy jet plane is approaching at over 3,000 km/h
(2,000 mph), the radar beam needs to travel much faster than this to reach the plane,
return to the transmitter, and trigger the alarm in time. That's no problem, because ra-
dio waves (and light) travel fast enough to go seven times around the world in a sec-
ond! If an enemy plane is 160 km (100 miles) away, a radar beam can travel that dis-
tance and back in less than a thousandth of a second.
The antenna doubles up as a radar receiver as well as a transmitter. In fact, it alter-
nates between the two jobs. Typically it transmits radio waves for a few thousandths
of a second, then it listens for the reflections for anything up to several seconds be-
fore transmitting again. Any reflected radio waves picked up by the antenna are di-
rected into a piece of electronic equipment that processes and displays them in a
meaningful form on a television-like screen, watched all the time by a human opera-
tor. The receiving equipment filters out useless reflections from the ground, build-
ings, and so on, displaying only significant reflections on the screen itself. Using ra-
dar, an operator can see any nearby ships or planes, where they are, how quickly
they're traveling, and where they're heading. Watching a radar screen is a bit like
playing a video game—except that the spots on the screen represent real airplanes
and ships and the slightest mistake could cost many people's lives.

56
There's one more important piece of equipment in the radar apparatus. It's called a
duplexer and it makes the antenna swap back and forth between being a transmitter
and a receiver. While the antenna is transmitting, it cannot receive—and vice-versa.
Take a look at the diagram in the box below to see how all these parts of the radar
system fit together.

57
Appendix 2. How to make a good presentation.
Useful language
At the beginning:

My presentation is in three parts. My presentation is divided into …


Firstly, secondly, thirdly, finally…
I’m going to…..take a look at…talk about … tell you something about the back-
ground…
give you some facts and figures…fill you in on the history of…concentrate on…
The main body:

As I said at the beginning…As you remember, we are concerned with…


This relates directly to the question I put to you before… I’d now like to move on
to…I’d like to turn to…Now I’d like to look at…This leads me to my next point…
Dealing with visuals:

This graph shows you…Take a look at this…


This chart illustrates the figures…This graph gives you a break down of…

Summarizing:

That brings me to the end of my presentation. I’ve talked about…


Well, that’s about it for now. We’ve covered…”
To summarise, I…To conclude…
Look through following resources to make even better presentation:
https://www.english-at-home.com/business/vocabulary-and-phrases-for-making-
presentations/
https://biteable.com/blog/tips/how-to-make-good-presentation/
https://www.customshow.com/best-powerpoint-alternatives-presentation-programs/
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6bSOAl1i8bw

Phrases for expressing your opinion

I think…. I believe….I feel…. I suppose….I guess….


To my mind…. In my opinion….It seems to me that….
From my perspective…. From my point of view…. I hold the view that….
As far as I’m concerned….As far as I know…
Personally, I think…. I’d like to point out that….What I mean is….
Some people say that…. Well, it is considered that….It is generally accepted that….
It goes without saying that….
I’m of the opinion that….

58
Appendix 3. Summary

The text\ article is called


is entitled
The text is about\is devoted to\ refers to...
concerns \ focuses on\deals with …
gives a detailed description of …
provides a reader with data on …
offers a new insight into…
points out that...
is a new conceptual framework for understanding…
The purpose/ is to inform
aim/intention of the text/ to examine
the author to assess/evaluate...
to compare
The text is divided into 3 logical parts
consists of
First the author starts by telling the readers
At the beginning the reporter argues\ states
In the first part writes about
In the introduction explains
mentions
Secondly the article describes
Further tells about
Next/subsequently it is said about
The article goes on to say
that…
In the end the author emphasizes
Finally the writer concludes
At last the journalist finds the solution
The final part/ section the reporter adds/stresses/emphasizes
As a conclusion the scientist hints
Summing up his / her demonstrates
thoughts
In conclusion
In my opinion/to my the article is/ seems to be informative
mind the author is convincing
It seems to me that controversial/disputable
I suppose boring

59
Appendix 4. Translation recommendations.

Перевод цепочек существительных

Цепочка существительных – это вид словосочетания, представляющий собой


ряд трех или более существительных, определяющих одно понятие. В таких
словосочетаниях главное существительное, выполняющее непосредственно
функцию существительного, стоит всегда в конце цепочки, а все предшеству-
ющие слова, связанные с ним, являются определениями. Перевод цепочек су-
ществительных на русский язык следует начинать с последнего определяемого
существительного, а остальные компоненты переводятся существительными в
родительном падеже, прилагательными или существительными с предлогами.

№ Of-phrase Noun chains Translation


1. the system of satellite satellite navigation система спутниковой
navigation system навигации
2. the operation of Desert Desert Storm Op- операция буря в пустыни
Storm eration
3. the payload of satellite satellite payload полезная нагрузка спут-
ника

Антонимический перевод

Антонимический перевод - это «замена отрицательной формы предложения на


утвердительную или наоборот». Типичное применение антонимического пере-
вода при передаче на русский язык английской конструкции с not…(un)til…
или unless. Например:

Unless engineers overcome the difficulties with pulse-spreading at that wavelength


this equipment will not be put into the operation. Если инженеры не решат про-
блемы с распространением импульсов на этой длине волны, это оборудование
не будет введено в эксплуатацию.

Трансформация утвердительной конструкции в отрицательную, сопровожда-


емая не антонимической заменой, а заменой сложного предложения простым и
изменение синтаксической функции before - раньше. Например:
It will be February 8 before they return to earth - Они (астронавты) вернуться на
Землю не раньше, чем 8 февраля.
Негативный компонент может быть выражен семантически. Например, глагол
fail не содержит формального выражения негативности, однако переводится на
русский как не удаваться, не получаться. Например:
He failed to answer this question - Он не смог ответить на этот вопрос.

60
The turbine has failed the acceptance test. Турбина не прошла приемочное испы-
тание.
Существует ряд устойчивых русских глагольных отрицательных словосочета-
ний, которые на английский язык переводятся утвердительными словосочета-
ниями т.е. по форме антонимические:

Не быть обнаруженным - to escape detection Не внушать доверия - to be suspect


Не выходить за пределы - to stay within; to be Не допускать загрязнения - to keep dirt out; to
contained within the confines of keep smth free of dirt
Не иметь себе равных - to be second to none Не находиться в эксплуатации - to be out of
commission
Не отставать от - to keep pace with Не превышать - to be less than
Не придавать значения - to overlook Не представлять труда - to be straightforward
Не требовать пояснения - to be self-explanatory Не являться - to be other than
Не содержать - to be free of Не соглашаться с - to take issue with

Условные антонимические соответствия существуют не только для русских


глаголов, но для других частей речи - прилагательных, причастий, местоиме-
ний, наречий:
Недопустимый - prohibitive Нерасчетный - off-design
Не лежащий на диагонали - off-diagonal Не требующий большого обслуживания - low
maintenance

Отрицание в английском может также выражается при помощи предлога


without. Например:
Without reducing costs it is unprofitable to roll out a fiber optic communication sys-
tem in all places. Без снижения затрат нерентабельно вводить в эксплуатацию
систему оптоволоконной связи повсеместно.

Ложные друзья переводчика


Ложные друзья переводчика – это слова в изучаемом языке (любом иностран-
ном для вас), которые по своему звучанию или написанию похожи на слова в
родном языке, но имеют совершенно другое или более широкое\узкое значе-
ние. Ознакомьтесь с некоторыми примерами:
-actual — действительный, реальный, фактически существующий; редко: акту-
альный (topical, relevant, of current interest; спец. up-to-date);
-actually — в действительности, на самом деле; никогда: актуально. Напр.:
Actually, that’s a good idea. = На самом деле, это хорошая идея.
-adequate — достаточный, соответствующий; редко: адекватный;
-aggregate — совокупность; совокупный; собрать(ся) воедино; никогда: агрегат
(unit, assembly);
-ammunition — боепpипасы; никогда: амуниция (gear; equipment; accoutrements);
-authoritative — авторитетный; никогда: авторитарный (authoritarian);
-barrack — казарма; помимо: барак, лачуга (hut);
-beacon — маяк; никогда: бекон (bacon);
-cabin — каюта, салон; хижина, домик; редко: авиац. кабина (cockpit);
-company — воен. рота; помимо: компания;
61
-concurrent — одновременный; никогда: конкурент (competitor);
-conductor — канал, физ. проводник, эл. провод, жила; помимо: кондуктор
(чаще controller);
-data — данные; никогда: дата (date);
-dramatic — разительный; впечатляющий, эффектный; резкий, значительный;
(об изменениях); помимо: драматический, драматичный
-effective — действенный, полезный; юр. имеющий силу; эффектный; никогда:
эффективный, с высоким КПД, (efficient);
-figure — чеpтёж, иллюстрация; цифpа; число; помимо: фигуpа;
-general — основной, общий, обычный; обобщающее понятие; помимо: гене-
ральный, генерал;
-inadequate — недостаточный; редко: неадекватный;
-intelligence — интеллект, ум, разум; информация, сведения; pазведка; никогда:
интеллигенция (intelligentsia). Напр.: signs of intelligence = признаки разума;
Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) = Центральное Разведывательное Управление
(ЦРУ);
-objective — цель, задача; помимо: опт. объектив (lens);
-occupy — занимать; помимо: оккупировать;
-pilot — пробный, экспериментальный; мор. рулевой, лоцман; тех. направляю-
щая; помимо: пилот, летчик. Напр.: pilot project = пилотный проект; pilot-house
= рулевая рубка;
-polygon — многоугольник; никогда: полигон (testing ground, proving ground);
-radiation — излучение (в т.ч. электромагнитное, световое); помимо: pадиация;
-silicon — кремний; кремниевый; никогда: силикон; силиконовый (silicone);
-static — помехи в сигнале, радиошум; помимо: статичный в смысле «непо-
движный, неизменный», статический в контексте физики (электричество, заряд
и проч. — также frictional);
-substance — вещество; суть; весомость; помимо: фил. субстанция;
-technique — технология, набоp пpиёмов; никогда: техника, в смысле «железо»
(equipment, machinery, appliances); -troops pl — войска; крайне редко: отряды.
Напр.: withdraw our troops = вывести наши войска

62
Appendix 5. Linkers

Type Linkers Meaning Example


cause and because, so, accordingly, introduces a reason Since fiber optics are resistant
effect thus, consequently, hence, and shows result to electronic noise, fiber optics
therefore, as, since. has made significant advances in
the field of communications.
comparison similarly, likewise, identifies similarities Fiber optics can also transmit
whereas, but, on the other between two ideas information similarly to the way
hand, except, by compari- a copper wire can transmit elec-
son, when compared to, tricity.
equally, in the same way
contrast but, however, yet, still, identifies differences Unlike traditional copper cables,
even though, nevertheless, between two ideas fiber optic cables have a much
on the other hand, other- higher capacity for bandwidth.
wise, after all, on the
contrary, in contrast, un-
like, whereas, instead of,
alternatively, although
time at once, immediately, indicates time and fre- Cable and computer companies
meanwhile, at length, in quency of events can handle huge amounts of data
the meantime, at the same transfers at once.
time, in the end, when,
then, as, before that, after
that
addition and, also, even, again, adds ideas in support It is very hot today; moreover,
moreover, further, fur- of the main idea there is a power outage.
thermore, similarly, in
addition, as well as
example for example, such as, for introduces illustra- Fiber optics was also applied in
instance, in this case, in tions in support of the more varied areas such as hy-
another case, on this oc- main idea drophones for seismic and SO-
casion, in this situation, NAR, aircrafts, submarines and
in this manner, to illus- other underwater applications.
trate
sequence first, second, third, next, shows the importance Fiber optics is not sensitive to
then, following, now, at of the ideas by listing electrical interference; therefore
this point, after, after this, according to the priori- fiber optics is suitable for mili-
subsequently, eventually, ty tary application and communica-
finally, previously tions.
summary in brief, on the whole, in draws conclusion by On the whole fiber optic cables
sum, to sum up, thus summarizing the ideas are more preferable for compa-
nies because of high bandwidth.

Writing vocabulary: https://www.ielts-gt.com/vocabulary/gt-essay-writing-


vocabulary/essay-vocabulary-part-1

63
Appendix 6. List of the Armed Forces Ranks

Admiral of Field marshal or Marshal of


the fleet General of the army the air force
Admiral General Air chief marshal
Vice admiral Lieutenant general Air marshal
Rear admiral Major general Air vice-marshal
Brigadier or
Commodore Air commodore
brigadier general
Captain Colonel Group captain
Commander Lieutenant colonel Wing commander
Lieutenant Major or
Squadron leader
commander commandant
Lieutenant Captain Flight lieutenant
Lieutenant Lieutenant or
junior grade or first lieutenant Flying officer
sub-lieutenant
Ensign or Second lieutenant
Pilot officer
midshipman
Officer cadet Officer cadet Flight cadet

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Appendix 7
CV Samples
CV Sample 1
Reagan Bernhard
5212 Cordia Square San Francisco CA
Phone+1 (555) 360 6135
EXPERIENCE COMMUNICATIONS ENGINEER
04/2015 – 04/2019

 Assist with the implementation, modification, and improvement of the sponsor’s


Risk Management Framework (RMF) workflow and its component parts
 Propose and create network and communications system design models, specifi-
cations, diagrams, and charts to provide direction to application teams
 Manages small scale projects and assignments. Assist to develop and maintain
system documentation, inventory, or equipment service records
 Develop Statement of Work and Performance Specifications for Suppliers
 Assist in defining and documenting new workflows in support of the sponsor’s
fast paced environment

EDUCATION Bachelor’s Degree in Electrical Engineering


IOWA STATE UNIVERSITY
SKILLS  Ability to rigorously research problem and solution spaces and summarize find-
ings both written and orally
 Ability to collaborate with other engineers and non-technical lead-
ers/stakeholders to rapidly develop secure and sustainable solutions to JCSE’s
tactical communications challenges
 Demonstrated knowledge of the Joint Information Environment (JIE) and Mis-
sion Partner Environment-Information Systems (MPE-IS)
 Experience in communications networking and/or cybersecurity to include
knowledge of enterprise IT planning, operation, sustainment, management, and
security
 Strong understanding of radio communications theory and experience in analy-
sis, design, or development of wireless communications systems
 Able to provide innovative solutions to complex communications problems for
wireless communications applications
 Strong technical background in systems engineering and system analysis.
Demonstrated performance record of delivering innovative and sustainable solu-
tions based on rigorous analysis and application of science, engineering, acquisi-
tion, and tactical communications experience and knowledge
 Able to provide systems engineering guidance and oversight for wireless com-
munications applications
 Proficiency in computer analysis and simulation tools (e.g., MATLAB, STK,
Labview, OPNET, etc.)

65
CV Sample 2
Stephen K. Broderick Phone: 229-861-1397
1856 Locust Street Email: skbroderick@example.com
Reynoldsville, GA 31745
CAREER OB- Dynamic, efficient and accomplished communication engineer with extensive
JECTIVE knowledge of installing, designing, maintaining and troubleshooting communication
and electronic devices. Seeking a position as a Senior Communication Engineer
where my skills and proficiency will be utilized for smooth connectivity among us-
ers.
EXPERIENCE Communication Engineer
VTNL, Reynoldsville, GA
October 2014 - Present

 Handling various design development projects and solving complex tech-


nical issues
 Coordinating with other engineers and defining system specifications and
requirements
 Maintaining a filing system for tracking project status
 Visiting sites, analyzing communication network requirements, and provid-
ing recommendations
 Assisting in preparing project budgets and undertaking site surveys

Communication Engineer
Global Network and Communications, Reynoldsville, GA
February 2013 - September 2014

 Analyzed and interpreted communication data and provided technical sup-


port
 Provided design works for installing transponder tower
 Planned and executed test procedures and detected break or fault in com-
munication
 Prepared and presented technical proposals to clients
 Liaised with vendors and inspected quality of materials supplied for com-
munication network

EDUCATION Bachelor's Degree in Electrical Engineering


ABC University, Reynoldsville, GA, 2012
SKILLS  Extensive knowledge of evaluating and analyzing technical information
 Ability to think pragmatically, creatively, and logically
 Attention to detail and ability to overcome setbacks
 Extensive knowledge of LAN and WAN Communication systems
 Possess excellent time and project management skills
 Quick learner and ability to perform tasks within deadlines
 Technical Skills:
 Knowledge of MS Office, ISDN, Nortel SN 1, Sonet, Firewalls, DAS and
SAN
 Proficient in VPM, MPLS, ATM, WAN and Satcom technologies
 In-depth knowledge of Network appliance and Internet Information Service

66
Маринская Александра Павловна
Кузьмина Анна Владиславовна

АНГЛИЙСКИЙ ЯЗЫК
В СФЕРЕ ИНФОКОММУНИКАЦИОННЫХ ТЕХНОЛОГИЙ И СИСТЕМ
СПЕЦИАЛЬНОЙ СВЯЗИ

Учебное пособие

Ответственный редактор

Редактор С. В. Бардина

Компьютерная верстка Н. А. Ефремовой

План издания 2020 г., доп. п. 129

Подписано к печати
Объем 4 усл.-печ. л. Тираж 28 экз. Заказ
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Отпечатано в СПбГУТ
67
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