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Н. В.

Подгорная

Практическая грамматика:
МОДАЛЬНЫЕ ГЛАГОЛЫ

English Grammar Practice:


MODAL VERBS
Учебное пособие для студентов специальности
«Современные иностранные языки»
учреждений, обеспечивающих получение высшего образования

4-е издание, стереотипное

Минск
Лексис
2015
УДК 811.111'367(075.8)
ББК 81.2Англ-923
П44

П одгорная, Н. В.
П44 Практическая грамматика: Модальные глаголы = English Grammar Practice: Modal Verbs :
Уч. пособие / H. В. Подгорная. — 4-е изд. — М инск: Лексис, 2015. — 168 с.
ISBN 978-985-6932-55-0.

Данное пособие состоит из 10 разделов. Каждый раздел включает вводную часть - объяснение формы, значения
и употребления одного из модальных глаголов, и практическую часть, представляющую собой систему первичных и
вторичных упражнений. Предлагаемая система упражнений направлена на развитие и закрепление грамматических
знаний, умений и навыков.
Пособие предназначено для студентов второго курса лингвистических университетов и факультетов иностранных
языков.
УДК 811.111'367(075.8)
ББК 81.2Англ-923

ISBN 978-985-6932-55-0 © П одгорная Н. В., 2012


© О ф орм ление. О О О «Л ексис», 2012
3
ВВЕДЕНИЕ
Данное учебное пособие подготовлено в соответствии с программными требованиями по дис­
циплине "Практическая грамматика английского языка" и предназначено для студентов второго
курса лингвистических университетов и факультетов иностранных языков других учебных заве­
дений, в которых английский язык изучается как основная специальность.
В лингвистической науке, пожалуй, нет другой категории, о языковой природе и составе частных
значений которой высказывалось бы столько противоречивых точек зрения, как о категории
модальности. Большинством авторов в ее состав включаются значения, самые разнородные
по своей сущности, функциональному назначению и принадлежности к уровням языковой
структуры, так что при этом категория модальности лишается какой-либо определенности,
а толкование значений отдельных модальных глаголов приобретает многоплановость.
Цель пособия - помочь студентам эффективно усвоить не только правила, основанные на
функциональных особенностях различных модальных глаголов, но и сформировать устойчивые
практические навыки их употребления.
Пособие состоит из 10 разделов: The Modal Verb Can / Could; The Modal Verb May / Might;
The Modal Verb Must; The Modal Verb Have to / Have Got to; The Modal Verb Need; The Modal
Verb Be to; The Modal Verb Should / Ought to; The Modal Verb Shall; The Modal Verb Will / Would;
The Modal Verb Dare.
Каждый раздел пособия включает вводную часть (For Study) - объяснение формы,
значения и употребления одного из модальных глаголов и практическую часть, пред­
ставляющую собой комплекс упражнений, которые делятся на первичные (PRACTICE
ACTIVITIES) и вторичные (COMPARED ТО...), тем самым, обеспечивая повторение преды­
дущего раздела.
Упражнения разделов MISCELLANEOUS PRACTICE предназначены, главным образом,
для аудиторного повторения предыдущего блока материала или контролируемой ра­
боты студентов.
К пособию прилагаются таблицы, в которых систематизируются все значения опре­
деленного модального глагола по его основным признакам, а также комментарий,
который поможет студенту правильно выбрать его форму и определить значение.
Языковой материал упражнений отобран из современных аутентичных источников,
приведенных в списке использованной литературы. Предлагаемая система упражнений
направлена на развитие и закрепление грамматических знаний, умений и навыков
студентов, а именно: дифференциацию значений модальных глаголов и овладение
особенностями их употребления в различных речевых ситуациях, а также на соотнесение
их лексических эквивалентов в английском и русском языках. Предпочтение отдавалось
упражнениям с ситуативной направленностью, позволяющим студенту активно исполь­
зовать изучаемые грамматические структуры в речи.
Автор будет признателен всем, кто сочтет возможным высказать свои предложения по
улучшению содержания и структуры данного пособия.
4 English Grammar Practice

M O D A L V ER B S
Modal verbs, unlike other verbs, do not denote actions or states, but only show the attitude of
the speaker towards the action expressed by the infinitive in combination with which they form
compound verbal modal predicates.

Compound verbal modal predicate = modal verb + infinitive


Thus they may show that the action (or state, or process) is viewed by the speaker as possible,
obligatory, doubtful, certain, advisable, etc. Modal verbs occur with the infinitive.

There are 12 modal verbs in English. They are:

can may must have (got) to be to shall dare


could might need should/ought to will
Ten of them (except for be to and have (got) to) lack some features characteristic of other verbs,
that is:
1. most modal verbs have only one form, they have no aspect, voice and mood with the exception
of can, may, will;
2. they do not take - s in the third person singular;
3. they have no non-finite forms: no infinitives and participles;
4. they are followed (except for ought to, have to) by a bare infinitive (the infinitive without the
markerto);
5. they need no auxiliary to build the interrogative and negative forms.

Forms of the Infinitive

Active Passive
as part of a compound verbal modal predicate
NON-PERFECT to refer the action to the present or future (to) do (to) be done
COMMON
NON-PERFECT to refer the action in progress to the present (to) be doing -
CONTINUOUS
PERFECT to refer the action to the past (to) have done (to) have
COMMON Note: been done
1. The action was not carried out:
- with the modal verbs: ought to. should,
might. could.
2. The planned action was not carried out:
- with the modal verb: to be to.
PERFECT to denote an action that started in the past and (to) have been -
CONTINUOUS continued over a period of time doing
Teaching Unit 1. THE MODAL VERB CAN/COULD 5

Teaching Unit 1 THE M ODAL VERB CAN/COULD

For Study
The modal verb can is used both in the Indicative Mood and in the Subjunctive Mood. It has two forms
in the Indicative Mood: can- Present Indefinite and could- Past Indefinite. In the Subjunctive Mood
this modal verb has the form could. The Indicative Mood presupposes the speaker's attitude towards
the action as true to fact, as real. In the Subjunctive Mood the modal meaning may be considered as
contrary to reality.
When used in the Indicative Mood the modal verb can is followed by the non-perfect infinitive and
expresses time reference by itself.
Compare: She can play the piano (present time reference). / Она умеет играть на пианино.
She could play the piano (past time reference). / Она умела играть на пианино.
In the Indicative Mood the modal verb can performs two functions:
a) it expresses the attitude of the speaker towards the action or state, denoted by the infinitive,
which follows it;
b) it expresses time reference.
In the Subjunctive Mood the modal verb can expresses only the attitude of the speaker. Time reference
is denoted by the form of the infinitive which follows it:
Compare: Could you open the door for me, please? (present time reference)./В ы бы не могли
открыть мне дверь?
We could go to a concert tonight (present or future time reference). /М ы бы могли
сходить на концерт сегодня вечером.
Не could have been fired (past time reference). / Возможно, его уволили.
Can has the following meanings:
1. Ability (physical, mental), capability.
Can is used to describe an ability (a lack of ability) or capability and occurs in all kinds of sentences. It
is the Indicative Mood form which is followed by the non-perfect infinitive. However, if it is necessary
to stress that the action refers to the future, will be able to is used.
1. Present time reference:
She can speak two foreign languages. /Она говорит на двух иностранных языках.
Can you write with your left hand?/ Вы можете писать левой рукой?
I can't promise you anything. / Я ничего не могу вам обещать.
2. Past time reference:
Mozart could play the piano at the age of five. / Моцарт умел играть на пианино
в пять лет.
Could the boy read before he went to school?/ Мальчик умел читать, перед
тем, как идти в школу?
After what had happened I couldn't trust him. /После того, что случилось, я не
могла доверять ему.
6 English Grammar Practice

3. Future time reference:


He will be able to write to us from Portugal. / Он сможет написать нам
из Португалии.
I will be able to earn my own living soon. / Скоро я смогу себе сам
зарабатывать на жизнь.

NOTE 1: To describe the successful completion of a specific action or to talk about a specific
achievement (particularly if it is difficult, requiring some effort or involves overcoming
some difficulty) was (were) able to, managed or succeeded (in...ing) are used:
He has now recovered from his injury and is able to drive again.
Jenny was able to leave the hospital only six hours after the baby was born.
How many documents were you able to sign?
I managed to find a really nice dress in the sale.
Do you think she'll manage to get a visa?
After six months climbing, we succeeded in getting to the top of the mountain.
However, to describe general ability in the past or a specific action not successfully
completed, both could and was/were able are used:
She could / was able to read when she was four.
We couldn't / weren't able to get tickets for the match yesterday.
Can or could are commonly used when we are talking about specific occasions with
verbs of sense perception (feel, hear, see, smell, taste) and verbs of mental activity
(believe, decide, remember, understand):
She could hear a noise coming from the dining-room.
I can't decide where to go for my holidays.

2. Possibility due to circumstances.


In this meaning can is found in all kinds of sentences. It is used in its Indicative Mood form and is
followed by the non-perfect infinitive.
Anybody can make a mistake. / Любой человек может ошибаться.
I couldn't go to the theatre yesterday because I was busy. / Я не мог пойти вчера
в театр, так как я был занят.
Can I buy this book at any book store?/ Эту книгу можно купить в любом
магазине?
3. Permission.
Can is used in its Indicative Mood form to give permission only in affirmative sentences or in reported
speech (in accordance with the rules of the sequence of tenses):
You can go now if you want to. /В ы можете идти, если хотите.
Не said that I could use his car. / Он сказал что я могу взять его машину.
Could in the Subjunctive Mood is not used to give permission as it suggests respect, so it is more
natural in asking for permission than in giving it.
Teaching Unit 1. THE MODAL VERB CAN/COULD 7
4. Request.
Can is used in its Indicative Mood form to ask for permission or to request people to do things
in interrogative sentences and reported questions (in accordance with the rules of the sequence of
tenses):
Can I have some more cake?/ Можно мне взять еще кусочек пирога?
Can you put the children to bed?/Ты бы не могла уложить детей спать?
Do you think I can go now? Можно мне уже идти?
Не asked те if he could use my car. /О н спросил меня, может ли он взять мою
машину.
It is also possible to use could in the Subjunctive Mood combined with the non-perfect infinitive
to sound more polite, more formal or less definite:
Could I ask you something if you are not too busy? / Можно мне у тебя что-то
спросить, если ты не занята?
Could you lend те your dictionary until tomorrow?/ Ты бы не могла одолжить
мне свой словарь до завтра?
Do you think you could help me for a few minutes? /Ты бы не могла мне помочь
несколько минут?

N0TE2: Very polite ways of asking permission and requesting:


Could you possibly do me a favour?
Do you think you could help me with a problem I've got?
I was wondering if you could lend me some money for a few days.
You couldn't possibly lend me 20 pounds, could you?
Could I possibly interrupt you?
Do you think I could speak to you f o r a few minutes?
I was wondering if I could ask you for a favour.
I couldn't possibly have another day to finish that work, could I?
Can't or couldn't can be used where the answer is expected to be 'no', or where permission has been
refused before:
Can't/Couldn't we stay just a little bit longer? Please?

5. Prohibition
In this meaning can is found only with the negative form of the modal verb can, as it may be understood
as the negation of permission (not to be allowed to...). It is used in its Indicative Mood form and
corresponds to the Russian нельзя; не надо:
You can't cross the street here. / Здесь нельзя переходить улицу.
You can't touch the exhibits in a museum. /Нельзя трогать экспонаты в музее.
She said that we couldn't stay there. /О на сказала, что нам здесь нельзя
оставаться.
8 English Grammar Practice

6. Unreality.
This meaning is found with the Subjunctive Mood form of can in clauses of unreal condition in which
the time reference is expressed by the infinitive:
It could be quite frightening if you were alone in our big old house. / Вам было бы
страшно, если бы Вы остались одни в нашем большом старом доме.
You could have seen his face if it had not been so dark. / Ты бы смогла увидеть
его лицо, если бы не было так темно.
7. Surprise, astonishment.
In this meaning can is found only in interrogative sentences (in general questions). Could in its
Subjunctive Mood form is also used in this way implying more uncertainty. Besides, sentences of
this kind are often emotionally coloured and so their application is rather restricted. In Russian both
variants, with can and could, are rendered in the same way: неужели; может ли быть, чтобы;
возможно ли, чтобы.
Depending on the time reference, can /could in this meaning are used in combination with different
forms of the infinitive:
Can / Could he really be at work?/Неужели он все еще на работе?
Can /Could she be telling lies?/ Может ли быть, что она говорит неправду?
Can/Could he have said it?/Неужели он это сказал?
Can /Could she have been waiting for us so long?/Может ли быть, что она нас
так долго ждет ?
The Russian negative questions of the type — неужели он(а) не...are expressed in English in different
ways:
a) by complex sentences:
Can / Could it be that she hasn't read this bоок?/Неужели она не прочитала эту
книгу?
Is it possible that she hasn't read this book?/ Неужели она не прочитала эту
книгу?

b) by different lexical means:


Can / Could you have misunderstood what I said? (negative prefixes)/Неужели
ты не понял, что я сказала?
Can / Could nobody have stopped him? (negative pronouns) / Неужели никто не
остановил его?
Саn / Could she have never come to see you ? (negative adverb) / Неужели она
никогда не приезжала к тебе?

8. Incredulity, improbability.
In this meaning can is found only in negative sentences, which are often emotionally coloured. Could
in its Subjunctive Mood form is also used in this way making the statement less categorical. Depending
on the time reference, in this meaning can/could are also used with different forms of the infinitive. In
Teaching Unit 1. THE MODAL VERB CAN/COULD 9
Russian both variants, with can and could, are rendered in the same way: не может быть, чтобы;
невероятно, чтобы.
They can't/couldn't be married. (= I am sure they are not married) / He может
быть, чтобы они были женаты.
She can't/couldn't be sleeping now. (= I am certain she isn't sleeping now) / Вряд
ли она сейчас спит.
Не can't/couldn't have got into an accident. (= I am sure he didn't get into an
accident)/Н е может быть, чтобы он попал в аварию.
She can't/couldn't have been travelling for so long. (= I am sure she hasn't been
travelling for so long)/Невероятно, чтобы она так долго путешествовала.
The Russian negative sentences of the type не может быть, чтобы он(а) не... are expressed in
English in different ways:
a) by complex sentences:
It can't/couldn't be that she hasn't read this book./Н е может быть, чтобы она
не прочитала эту книгу.
It isn't possible that she hasn't read this book. / He может быть, чтобы она не
прочитала эту книгу.

b) by negative prefixes:
She can't/couldn't be unaware of the circumstances. / He может быть, чтобы
она не осознавала обстоятельства.
You can't/couldn't have misunderstood what I said. /Н е может быть, чтобы
ты не понял, что я сказала.
They can't/couldn't have been inattentive. /Н е может быть, чтобы они были
не внимательны.

9. Supposition implying uncertainty, doubt.


The use of could in affirmative sentences may also acquire the meaning of supposition implying
uncertainty, doubt. It is the form of the Subjunctive Mood. In Russian this meaning is generally
rendered by means of the modal words возможно and может быть. In English it may also be
rendered by means of the modal words maybe, perhaps, possibly, it's possible. The time reference is
indicated by the form of the infinitive:
'Where is Sarah?' 'She could be at Joe's place'. /Возможно, она гостит у Джо.
I don't know where she works. She could do odd jobs. /Может быть, она
подрабатывает.
I don't know where Tim is. He could be working. / Возможно, он работает.
Jim was the last who came home, so he could have left the door open, /...может
быть, он оставил дверь открытой.
Не could have been studying for two hours already. / Возможно, он занимается
уже два часа.
10 English Grammar Practice

10. Criticism (reproach)


Only could in its Subjunctive Mood form can be used to criticise people for not doing things. The time
reference is shown by the form of the infinitive:
You could ask me before you borrow ту car. / Ты мог бы спрашивать моего
разрешения каждый раз, когда берешь мою машину. (present time reference)
You could have told me you were getting married. / Ты могла бы сказать мне,
что выходишь замуж. (past time reference)

11. Emotional colouring.


Сап/could followed by different forms of the infinitive are found in special questions where they are
used to express puzzlement, impatience etc.
What can/could he m ean?/И что, собственно, он имеет ввиду?
What can /could he be doing?/ И что это он может делать?
Where can/could he have gone to?/ И куда бы это он мог уйти?
How can /could you have been away for such a long time? / И как это ты могла
отсутствовать так долго все это время?

Note the following set phrases with can:


a) Cannot (can't) help doing smth. — He могу не делать что-либо.
She's a selfish woman but somehow you can't help liking her. / Она эгоистичная
женщина, но, так или иначе, ее нельзя не любить.
Excuse те- I couldn't help overhearing what you said. /Извините, я не мог не
подслушать ваш разговор.

b) Cannot (can't) but do smth. — Мне ничего другого не остается, как...


I can't but wonder what I should do next. /М не ничего другого не остается, как
гадать, что делать дальше.
They couldn't but refuse him. /И м ничего другого не оставалось, как отказать
ему.
Teaching Unit 1. THE MODAL VERB CAN/COULD____________________ 11

PRACTICE ACTIVITIES

Ex. 1 Complete the following chart containing the sentences with the modal verb can/
could. Identify its meaning and the synonymous expression as in the model. Then
translate the sentences into Russian.

Modal Verb Can / Could Use (Meaning) Synonymous


Expression
1. 1speak three languages but can't spell in any of Inability (lack of I am unable to spell
them. ability) in any of them.
2. Drinks in restaurants can be very expensive.

3. Could you stop the car, please, for a moment?

4. What is not done today, can be done tomorrow.

5. You can't live other people's lives for them.

6. A policeman arrived and told him he couldn't park


there.
7. You and I are in charge of a great business; we
cannot leave our great responsibilities to others.
8. Helen can read well, even though she's only three.
9. Can I help you with your luggage?

10. There was nothing he could do about it at the


moment.
11. Jim says that we can borrow his house as long as
we leave it clean and tidy.
12. No, you can't have another chocolate.

13. That's a question nobody can answer.

14. You can find everything necessary in this store.

Ex. 2 Choose a suitable form of can, could, be able to or managed to (or negative forms) to
complete these sentences. If two answers are possible write them both and underline
the more likely one. (see Note 1)
Model: A good 1500-metre runner can run the race in under four minutes.
The fire spread quickly but every one was able to escape.

1. Peter has a computer that__________ fit into his jacket pocket.


2. Did you buy any fresh fish in the market? - No, I __________ get any.
12 English Grammar Practice

3. It took a long time, but in the end Tony save enough to buy his own hi-fi.
4. When she screams, yo u __________ hear her all over the house.
5. Until y o u ________ repay some of your present debt, we cannot lend you any more
money.
6. When I was younger, I ______ speak Italian much better than I_ now.
7. He _______ draw or paint at all when he was a boy, but now he's a famous artist.
8. After weeks of training, I __________ swim a length of the baths underwater.
9. I'm sorry, you're in my light. I __________ see what I'm doing.
10. It was a huge hall and we were at the back, so we __________hear very well.
11. He had hurt his leg, so h e __________ walk very well.
12. She wasn't at home when I phoned but I __________ contact her at her office.
13. I looked very carefully and I __________ see a figure in the distance.
14. The boy fell into the river but fortunately w e__________ rescue him.
15. She tried to think of other things but sh e __________ put that awful memory out of
her mind.
16. The manager of the shop was a bit reluctant but in the end I __________ get a refund.
17. It was really annoying; I_ get on to any of the websites you recommended.
18. Although Stephanie is deaf and mute sh e __________ communicate with the aid of a
special computer.
19. They finish the new motorway next month so we _________ get to the coast much
more quickly.
20. Most of the big hotels were full, but we _ _____ find a room in one of those small
guesthouses near the station.
21. When I was younger I was hopeless at sports. I __________ throw or kick a ball properly.
22. Would you speak more slowly? I __________ follow what you are saying.

Ex. 3 Respond to the following statements using the prompts in the brackets and the modal
verb can/could to express possibility.

1. This hotel has a number of facilities, (play billiards in the evenings)


You can play billiards in the evenings.
2. It's not far from here. ( get there in a few minutes)
3. He was always at home at 8 o'clock. (visit him in the evenings after 8 o'clock)
4. Few people want to live in that place. (buy a house very cheaply there)
5. That store used to have all sorts of things on sale. (find everything necessary there)
6. He will gladly answer your questions. (phone him at home any time)
7. They accept all kinds of payment. (pay by credit card here)
8. That travel agency offered you a number of places to go. (even visit Africa)
9. I choose this restaurant to have my birthday party. (even taste a lobster here)
10. I recommend you this service station. (have your car serviced cheaply here)
Teaching Unit 1. THE MODAL VERB CAN/COULD 13

Ex. 4 Ask permission in these situations. Then answer according to the model. Be careful
how you use the pronouns my, you, your and we in your answers. (see Note 2)

You want...
1. ...another drink.
Can I have another drink?
Yes, you can have another drink.
Sorry. but you can't have another drink as we are closing.
2. ...to leave your books with me. (be particularly polite)
3. ...to call your brother from my phone.
4. ...to talk to me about your job application. (be particularly polite)
5. ...to park your car on my drive. (I've already refused once)
6. ...to ask me exactly what my job is.
7. ...to pick some of the apples off the tree in my garden. (I've already refused once)
8. ...to come with me to my summer house. (I've already refused once)
9. ...to have the last piece of my birthday cake. (be particularly polite)

Ex. 5 Ask permission in these situations, using polite and tentative ways (see Note 2). Then
answer according to the model.

1. Mr. Wilson asks his boss if he can leave the office an hour earlier than usual.
Could I possibly leave the office an hour earlier than usual?
Yes, you can leave the office an hour earlier as there isn't much work to do today.
No, you can't leave the office earlier as I need your help.
2. Stephen asks his guitar teacher to lend him his guitar for the evening.
3. Mr Wilson wants his neighbour to help him carry a cupboard upstairs.
4. You ask someone to move his car, as it's blocking the entrance to your garage.
5. Julie and two of her friends ask their teacher for permission to leave early.
6. Mrs Wilson would like Julie to do some shopping for her, if she has time.
7. You ask a stranger next to you in a train if you can look at his newspaper.
8. You ask your host for permission to use his phone.
9. You ask someone you hardly know for a lift into town.
10. You are checking out of a hotel, and want to pay your bill.

Ex. 6 Make up sentences with the modal verb can to denote rules and regulations which
forbid things.

1. park here (The sign forbids it). You can't park here.
2. buy drinks after closing time (The law forbids it).
3. come late to work (The regulations forbid it).
4. sit on the grass there (The regulations forbid it).
5. vote for more than one candidate (The law forbids it).
14 English Grammar Practice

6. turn right here (The sign forbids it).


7. smoke on the airplane (The regulations forbid it).
8. enter this door if you are not a member of the staff (The regulations forbid it).

Ex. 7 Translate into English.

1. У детей богатое воображение. Они могут легко придумывать разные истории.


2. Ты можешь взять словарь. Мне он больше не нужен.
3. Нет, малыш, зимой мороженое на улице кушать нельзя.
4. Вы не могли бы продиктовать мне эту стр а н и ц у?
5. Этот диск можно купить в любом магазине.
6. Он не мог показать нам проект, так как он еще не был готов.
7. В комнате темно, я не могу найти свои вещи.
8. Он сказал, что мы можем идти.
9. Я могу вернуться автобусом.
10. Я умел плавать, когда мне было пять лет. Папа научил меня.
11. Если ты не скажешь мне, в чем проблема, я не смогу тебе помочь.
12. Мы не смогли ей дозвониться, так как у нее был отключен телефон но к счастью,
мы смогли послать ей сообщение.
13. Он все время кушает в ресторанах, потому что не умеет готовить.
14. Не могли бы вы выслать мне каталог с вашей продукцией?
15. Джейн смогла выписаться из больницы только через шесть дней после того, как
родился ребенок.
16. Вы не могли бы привести свой пример? Нельзя давать примеры только из учебника.

Ех. 8 Read the following sentences, then identify the use (meaning) of the modal verb can/
could.

1. You could have told me about the sale of those shoes!


2. She could have paid by credit card but she preferred to use cash.
3. Where can/could that noise be coming from?
4. He always wears smart suits. He could be a businessman.
5. She could learn much more quickly if she paid attention.
6. Lora can't have fixed the computer; it's still not working properly.
7. The rash could be a symptom of something more serious.
8. Can /could he have told nobody about his promotion?
9. The contract could have reached the office yesterday.
10. Who can/could have broken my camera?
Teaching Unit 1. THE MODAL VERB CAN/COULD 15

Ex. 9 Which of these things could you have done if you had lived a hundred years ago?
Which things couldn't you have done? Make up six sentences like this one.

Model: A hundred years ago I could have ridden a horse, but I couldn't have flown
in an aeroplane.
flown in an aeroplane gone to the cinema learnt English
listened to Beethoven listened to The Beatles played chess
played computer games read Ernest Hemingway read Shakespeare
ridden a horse traveled by train watched television

Ex. 10 You have a friend who is very careless, but lucky. Nothing serious happened in the
following situations, but what could have happened? Make up sentences as shown
in the model.

Model She left her luggage unattended on a platform.


Someone could have stolen it if she hadn't picked it up in time.

1. She left the house and forgot to close the kitchen window.
2. She left her purse in a shop.
3. She left the house and forgot to turn off the iron.
4. She drove the car after taking four sleeping pills.
5. She left her umbrella in a restaurant.
6. She wore high heeled shoes on the icy pavement.
7. She ran outside without a coat on a very cold day.
8. She jumped into a lake although she couldn't swim.
9. She climbed up a high tree to rescue a cat.
10. She parked her car in a no-parking zone.

Ex. 11 Rephrase the sections in bold using the modal verb can/could in the meaning of
surprise (astonishment) or incredulity (improbability).

Model: She looks so young. I don't believe she's already thirty.


She can't/ couldn't be thirty yet.

1. It's still quite early. It's hardly possible that it is ten o'clock.
2. She doesn't look at all like Liz. Is it possible that she is her sister?
3. He's been very ill lately. I doubt that he has already recovered.
4. This house has been on sale recently. Do you believe that it has been sold out so soon?
5. If you live near Coventry, I don't believe you are very far from Birmingham.
6. He looks very pleased. Is it possible that he is getting married?
7. She moved away from this place 2 years ago. I refuse to believe that she disliked her
house.
16 English Grammar Practice

8. My friend's house has been burgled recently. Is it possible that nobody saw a burglar?
9. She comes home pretty late every evening. Do you believe that she is working
somewhere else?
10. Kate has recently been fired. I don't believe that she has been coming late to work all
this time.

Ex. 12 Change the following sentences, making them negative in meaning. Use different
means of expressing negation with the infinitive.

Model: He can't/couldn't have understood everything you said.


He can't/couldn't have misunderstood everything you said.

1. Can/could you have heard about her promotion?


2. They can't/couldn't be aware of his presence here.
3. Can/could the manager have given the instructions to his subordinate?
4. She can't/couldn't be experienced in dealing with children.
5. Can/could he have told them the truth?
6. She can't/couldn't have dominated the interview.
7. Can/could there be such a high rate of employment?
8. Can/could he have achieved a lot in his career?
9. The boss can't/couldn't have dismissed him for coming late.
10. Can/could he be capable of stealing a big sum of money?
11. She can't/couldn't have encouraged her children to go swimming.
12. Can/could you have applied for the job in this company?

Ex. 13 Rephrase the sentences using the modal verb could in the meaning of supposition
implying uncertainty, doubt.

1. Do you know the person talking to Susan? - Perhaps, it is her manager.


2. I wonder where Andrew is. It is possible that he is working in the garage.
3. Perhaps, you left your wallet on the bus I suppose.
4. Maybe, the flight has been delayed.
5. Possibly, he has been doing research on his own.
6. Perhaps, he is taking a shower now.
7. It is possible that the explosion has been caused by a gas leak.
8. Why did nobody answer the letter? - Maybe, you have forgotten to post it.
9. It is possible that they have been arguing for years.
10. Possibly, she goes to Mexico every summer, but am not sure.
Teaching Unit 1. THE MODAL VERB CAN/COULD 17

Ex. 14 Respond to the following sentences expressing criticism as shown in the model. Use
the correct form of the infinitive.

Model: Tom got into an accident two days ago and you knew about it
You could have told me about the accident.

1. Liz did all the preparations for the party by herself and you didn't help her.
2. Samantha goes out to her dancing class late in the evening and you don't accompany
her.
3. Adam drives very fast and you don't warn him.
4. Lucy misses her classes at University regularly and you don't want to talk to her about it.
5. John took his father's money without asking for permission and you didn't tell him
anything when you discovered that.
6. Bill broke his leg when climbing and you didn't even call him.
7. Mary stayed away from home for two days and you didn't pay any attention to it.
8. Bob broke your window when playing football and you didn't let his parents know
about it.
9. Ann failed her exams three times and you didn't talk to her teachers.
10. Daniel receives anonymous phone calls every day and you are not doing anything
about it.

Ex. 15 Respond to the following sentences expressing emotional colouring as shown in the
model. Use the correct form of the infinitive.

Model: My sister isn't at home at such a late hour.


Where can / could she have gone to?

1. That woman is looking for something in the park.


2. The baby has been crying for half an hour.
3. My brother is at home but doesn't answer the phone.
4. My friends went skiing without telling me about it.
5. My dog has been barking all night.
6. My neighbours packed their things and left their house unattended.
7. My father came home dirty and tired last night.
8. The cat is walking with a broken leg.
9. The kids are not playing in the yard.
10. The ambulance has just parked in front of our house.
18 English Grammar Practice

Ex. 16 Some of these sentences contain errors. Find and correct them.

1. Why did you walk all the way from the station? You could phone for a lift.
2. I loved staying with my grandparents when I was a child. They let me read all the books
in the house and told me I was able to go to bed as late as I wanted.
3. This carpet was priced at 500$, but I was able to get a discount because of this little
mark in the corner.
4. I wasn't able to buy apricots, but I bought peaches instead.
5. As soon as she opened the door I was able to see from her face that something terrible
had happened.
6. I've no idea where my brother is living now. He could have been at the North Pole for
all I know.
7. Could she take the bag full of money? By all means it's a good idea she told the police
about its loss.
8. Why did I listen to you? I could go there by air instead of having this long journey by
train.
9. Agnes left a couple of minutes ago and if you had come earlier you could have caught her.
10. How could you trusted this man who has already caused so much trouble to your family
by just his presence here?

Ex. 17 Use the modal verb can in the correct form followed by the appropriate infinitive and
identify its meaning.

1. He__________ (recite) long poems when he was six.


2. You__________ (not/take) the books out of the reading hall.
3. If you had met him in the street you__________(pass) him without taking notice.
4. He hated himself for his behaviour, but__________ (do) nothing to alter it.
5. __________ I (come) in for a moment?
6. You__________ (not/do it). I don't believe it.
7. I wonder where she is. She__________ (not/stay) at her friend's all this time.
8. I __________ (help) him but I didn't know he needed help.
9. Such problems__________ (solve) easily.
10. He__________ (see) that everything in the house was in full order.
11. How__________ she (work) in the garden now? It is already dark.
12. Of course, there were many things I __________(answer) to this. But I kept silent.
13. I simply__________ (not/refuse). They would have been hurt.
14. He wasn't old. He__________ (not/be) more than forty.
15. __________you (work) all this time without any break?
16. She__________ (not/forget) what had happened the day before. It's hardly possible.
17. The man was very impolite. How__________you (talk) to him for so long?
18. I am not sure but h e__________(join) his friends and__________ (go) to the country
with them.
Teaching Unit 1. THE MODAL VERB CAN/COULD 19
19. I __________ (not/bear) the heat here.
20. Now that the exams are over we__________ (have) a good rest.
21. She is tall for her age already. And she_______ __ (grow) even taller.
22. Is there anything the matter with him? He looks so upset! H e __________ (fail) the
exam.
23. There__________ (not/be) anything wrong with the tea. I refuse to believe that.
24. What__________ he (do) all this time? He has been gone for twenty minutes.
25. He__________ (not/see) me. I came when he had gone.
26. How __________you (make) such a mistake as to suppose that I was younger than
you?
27. Surely you__________ (do) it before. What have you been doing all the morning?
28. Say what you like, but you__________ (not/do) all this work by yourself. I don't believe
you.
29. __________ he still (sleep)? It seems to me they simply don't want us to see him.
30. She has a university education and__________ (make) a career for herself if she hadn't
married.
31. You__________ (not/forget). I don't believe you.
32. I would be very much obliged to you if you__________ (lend) me your dictionary for a
couple of days.
33. I don't believe him, he__________ (not/drive) her to the airport, as his car had broken
down the day before.

Ex. 18 Rephrase each of the sentences in such a way that it is as similar in meaning as
possible to the sentence printed before it.

1. It's hardly likely that this is the place we are supposed to meet.
This__________________________ __________ we are supposed to meet.
2. You are not allowed to change your money here; you'll have to go to a bank.
You__________________________ your money here; you'll have to go to a bank.
3. She was able to recognise the voices with a reasonable amount of accuracy.
She________________________ the voices with a reasonable amount of accuracy.
4. If she had shown her ID, she would have been able to get in.
She____________________________________________ ,if she had shown her ID.
5. The guide was unable to give us an answer.
The guide_______________________________________________ us an answer.
6. It was possible to get flights much cheaper last year.
You ___________________________________________ much cheaper last year.
7. Will you be so kind as to give me the key to my room, please?
_______________________ I have the key to my room, please?
8. Is it possible that the flight to Milan has been delayed?
________________ the flight to Milan______________ delayed?
20 English Grammar Practice

9. It can happen that they will make you pay if your luggage is overweight.
They________________________ pay if your luggage is overweight.
10. I wonder how she managed to learn so many foreign languages.
How___________________ so many foreign languages?
11. It's unbelievable that he has been refused a visa to the USA.
He__________________________________ a visa to the USA.
12. I am so curious where she has taken the money to go on such an expensive cruise.
_________ she______________ the money to go on such an expensive cruise?

Ex. 19 Make up situations of your own using the following patterns:

1. не может быть, чтобы он...


Hе can't/couldn't be that foolish.
He can't/couldn't be moving into a new house.
He can't/couldn't have given up his job.
He can't/couldn't have been working abroad.

2. неужели он...
Can/Could he be your brother?
Can/Could he be working so late?
Can/Could he have proposed to her?
Can/Could he have been looking for us?

3. и что (где, как, почему...) это он...


What can/could he mean?
Where can/could he be working?
How can/could he have done it?
What can/could he have been doing there?

4. не могу не...
I can't help thinking she has made such a mistake.
I couldn't help seeing that she was unhappy.

5. мне ничего не остается как...


I cannot but ask him for help.
I could not but put him up for the night.
Teaching Unit 1. THE MODAL VERB CAN/COULD 21

Ex. 20 Translate the following sentences into English using can in all of its possible meanings.

1. Он сильный человек и сможет преодолеть все трудности.


2. Она может говорить о театре часами. Она очень любит театр.
3. Она может петь прекрасно, но сегодня она не в состоянии, так как у нее болит
горло.
4. Доктор, вы можете прописать мне что-нибудь от головной боли?
5. Весь день была оттепель, но вечером подморозило, и мы могли пойти на каток.
6. По дороге домой молодой человек не смог разглядеть города, в котором ему
предстояло работать, так как уже наступили сумерки и к, тому же, лил сильный
дождь.
7. Не может быть, чтобы она повесила трубку. Нас кто-то разъединил.
8. Спросите его, нельзя ли мне поговорить с ним.
9. Не может быть, чтобы он не согласился с ними.
10. Неужели она расстроилась из-за такого пустяка?
11. Не может быть, чтобы она отказалась помочь вам. Это на нее не похоже.
12. Если бы не ваш зонтик, я могла бы вся промокнуть. Дождь лил как из ведра.
13. Неужели они ждут нас у другого выхода?
14. Не может быть, чтобы я неправильно вас понял.
15. И кто бы мог подумать, что эта команда займет первое место?
16. Ты мог бы перевести этот текст?
17. Уже темнеет. И где бы это она могла быть?
18. А как щенки? Можно мне посмотреть на них?
19. Ты могла бы, по крайней мере, сказать, что не согласна с ними. Теперь мне придется
все им объяснять самому.
20. Льюис пристально смотрел на письмо. «И откуда оно могло придти?»
21. Когда я увидел его, я не мог не засмеяться.
22. Нам остается только надеяться, что он выполнит свое обещание.
23. Ты мог бы и присмотреть за бабушкой в мое отсутствие. Ты же знаешь, что она не
может обходиться без помощи.
22 English Grammar Practice

Teaching Unit 2 THE M ODAL VERB MAY/MIGHT

For Study
The modal verb may has the following forms in the Indicative Mood: may - for the Present and might
for the Past. The form might is used in two ways:
a) in its Past Indefinite tense form, mainly in reported speech in accordance with the rules of the
sequence of tenses:
He told me that I might take his car.
b) in the Subjunctive Mood:
It might be true.
He might have fallen ill if he hadn't taken the pills.

May has the following meanings:


1. Permission.
May is used in its Indicative Mood form to give permission in affirmative sentences where it is rather
formal. In an informal style can is more common. In this meaning may is combined only with the
non-perfect infinitive.
The manager is in his office now. So you may see him. /...Вы можете его увидеть.
May I borrow your car?-Yes, of course, you may. /Можно мне одолжить у тебя
машину? — Конечно, можно.

2. Request.
May (Indicative Mood form) and Might (Subjunctive Mood form) in this meaning are found in
interrogative sentences. They are more formal than can and could. Might is very polite and formal;
it is not common, and is mostly used in indirect question structures. In this meaning may/might is
combined only with the non-perfect infinitive.
May I turn the TV on? (I ask my father)./Можно мне включить телевизор?
I wonder if I might have a little more cheese? (More natural than Might I have... ?)/
Можно мне немного сыра?
May I is used when the speaker is fairly confident that permission will be given. I wonder / I was
wondering if I might is used when the speaker is less confident or wants to sound particularly polite:
I was wondering if I might take a day off work. / Могу ли я обратиться к Вам
с просьбой взять выходной?
Teaching Unit 2. THE MODAL VERB MAY/MIGHT 23
3. Prohibition.
May in its Indicative Mood form is used in negative sentences to forbid things. In this meaning it is
combined only with the non-perfect infinitive.
Students may not use the staff car park. / Студентам нельзя пользоваться
парковкой для персонала.
Не said I might not enter the room until he says so. /О н сказал, что мне нельзя
входить в комнату, пока он не разрешит.

4. Possibility of the fact (factual possibility):


May (Indicative Mood form) in this meaning occurs only in affirmative sentences and is followed only
by the non-perfect infinitive.
You may order a taxi by telephone. /М ож но заказать такси по телефону.
The form might is used in its Past Indefinite tense form in accordance with the rules of the sequence
of tenses.
They said you might order a taxi by telephone. / Они сказали, что такси можно
заказать по телефону.
May can be used to talk about typical occurrences - things that can happen in certain situations. This
is common in scientific and academic language. Might in its Past Indefinite tense form is only used in
this way to talk about the past.
Children of divorced parents may have difficulty in forming stable relationships
themselves./Дет и родителей в разводе могут иметь проблему
формирования устойчивых взаимоотношений.
In those days, a man might be hanged for stealing a sheep. / В прежние времена
человека могли казнить за кражу овцы.

N O T E 1 : May is used to talk about the chances that something will happen or is happening
(=lt's possible that...) while can is used to talk about a more general or theoretical kind
of possibility (=It's possible to...).
Compare: The roads may be improved. (It's possible that the roads will be improved) /
Возможно, дороги усовершенствуют.
The roads can be improved. (It is possible for the roads to be improved)/Дороги
можно усовершенствовать.
24 English Grammar Practice

5. Unreality.
Might in its Subjunctive Mood form can have a conditional meaning (= would perhaps). The time
reference is indicated by the form of the infinitive:
If you went to bed for an hour, you might feel better. / ...тебе бы стало лучше.
If she hadn't been so bad-tempered, I might have married her. /...я бы женился
на ней.
You are so careless. You might have broken the vase. / Ты чуть было не разбил
вазу.

6. Criticism (reproach).
In this meaning might is used in its Subjunctive Mood form followed by the non-perfect or perfect
infinitive. The structure is used only in affirmative sentences:
You might ask me every time before you borrow my car. / Ты мог бы спрашивать
моего разрешения каждый раз, когда берешь мою машину. (But every time
you borrow my car you don't ask me).
She might have told me she was going to stay out all night. / Она могла бы
сказать мне, что будет отсутствовать всю ночь. (But she didn't tell me
about her intention to stay out all night).

7. Supposition implying uncertainty, doubt:


In Russian this meaning is generally rendered by means of the modal words возможно and может
быть.
In English this meaning may also be rendered by means of the modal words maybe, perhaps, possibly
and it's possible.
In the meaning of supposition implying uncertainty, doubt the verb may occurs in affirmative and
negative sentences.
She may phone us sometime today. /М ож ет быть, она нам сегодня еще
позвонит.
Не may not want to stay at home tonight. /О н, возможно, не захочет сегодня
вечером оставаться дома.
In this meaning may can be followed by different forms of the infinitive depending on the time
reference:
She may be at the supermarket. / Может быть, она в супермаркете.
Tim may come over today. / Возможно, Тим сегодня к нам зайдет.
I never see him about now. For all I know, he may be writing a book. / Все, что я
знаю, он, возможно, пишет книгу.
Polly is very late. She may have missed her train. /Возможно, она опоздала на поезд.
Не may have been waiting for us for an hour. / Возможно, он ждет нас уже
целый час.
Teaching Unit 2. THE MODAL VERB MAY/MIGHT 25
In the meaning of supposition implying uncertainty, doubt the form might in its Subjunctive Mood
form is also found. It is mostly used as a less definite or more hesitant form of may, suggesting a
smaller chance:
He may go to London. (perhaps a 50% chance)
Joe might come with me. (perhaps a 30% chance)
She might be reading a magazine now.
He might have spoken to her yesterday. (But I don't remember that he did.)

N O T E 2 : The difference between the meanings of the negative forms of can/could and may/
might:
a) He may/might not be at home. (= It is possible that he isn't at home.)
He can't/couldn't be at home. (= It is not possible that he is at home.)
b) He may/might not be working. (= It is possible that he isn't working.)
He can't/couldn't be working. (= It is impossible that he is working.)
Can/could followed by negation in these sentences denotes incredulity, improbability on the part
of the speaker, whereas may/might expresses supposition implying uncertainty, doubt.

Notice the following set phrases with may and might:


a) If I may say so... — Если можно так сказать...
If I may say so, I think you have treated him very badly. / Если можно так
сказать, вы отнеслись к нему очень плохо, по-моему.

b) Strange as it may seem... — Как бы странно ни казалось...


Strange as it may seem, I always felt I belonged here. /К а к бы странно ни
казалось, я всегда чувствовал, что это мое место.
26 English Grammar Practice

PRACTICE ACTIVITIES

Ex. 1 Go through the following sentences with the modal verb may/might and complete
the chart. Identify the use of it, the synonymous expression as in the example and
translate the sentences into Russian.

Modal Verb May Use (Meaning) Synonymous


Expression (or
Paraphrasing)
1. May I borrow your calculator for a moment? Asking for Am I allowed to
permission have a taxi called?
2. You are welcome to come with me; you may
notice things that I miss.
3. I might have gone to university after leaving
school but I chose to get a job instead.
4. The flowers may have five to six petals; colour
may range from light pink to dark red.
5. Visitors may not use the car park.

6. You may stay in this room till the end of the


business meeting.
7. I might conceivably have been tempted to take
the job if it had been nearer home.
8. She asked him if she might come the next day.

9. I think you might work harder!

10. You certainly may not watch TV till midnight, my


boy.
11. I might have gone to drama school, but my
parents wouldn't let me.
12. I wonder if I might have the pleasure of your
company?
13. You may register for the exam until the end of
March. (=formal)
14. He said that I might take his car to go to the
seaside.
15. You might have answered the telephone call It
was an important one.
Ex. 2 Find the right question and ask for what you want. Use different forms of may to be
particularly polite.

May I The speaker is fairly confident that permission will be given.


I was wondering if I might... The speaker is less confident or else being very polite.
Do you think I might...

1. You're in your English class, and you've found a word you don't understand. You want to
look it up in a dictionary.
May I borrow your dictionary please?
2. You're at a friend's house, and you want to phone your parents to tell them where you
are.
3. Someone is explaining something to you, but you don't understand very well, and you
want to ask something.
4. You're in your classroom with an open window, and you're rather cold.
5. You have to go to the hospital at twelve o'clock, so you want to ask your boss for
permission to leave early.
6. You've just arrived at a friend's house. You had to change a tyre on your car, and your
hands are very dirty.
7. You would like to watch the news on TV, so you want to ask for permission to turn on the
TV set.
8. You want to write a letter, so you need some writing paper and an envelope.
9. It's rather stuffy in your room and you'd like to open the window.
10. You have just arrived at a friend's house. You have been driving your car thewhole day
and would like to take a shower.

Ex. 3 Use the examples to help you change the sentences. Then rephrase them so as to use
may with the same idea.

Model: The notice says you are allowed to fish there without a permit.
(The notice says) you can fish there without a permit.
(Your local council says) you may fish there without a permit.

1. The notice says people are allowed to bathe here.


2. You are allowed to play the game with four to six players, according to the book of
rules.
3. There is a sign saying that people are permitted to sit on the grass here.
4. The rules say that either team is permitted to ask for one minute's break.
5. It is permitted for people to help themselves to the food.
28 English Grammar Practice

Ex. 4 Rephrase these notices to express permission or prohibition according to the model.

Model: Thank you for not smoking.


You may not (cannot, are not allowed, are not permitted to) smoke.

1. No camping or picnicking.
2. Fishing strictly forbidden.
3. Campers welcome.
4. Private - Keep out.
5. Do not lean out of the window.
6. Leave your litter here.
7. No stopping.

Ex. 5 Here is some advice that the travel agent gave Mr. Wilson to show him the factual
possibility before he went to a foreign country. Complete it with may and phrases
from the list.

Try the best meal Get ill


Be a lot of traffic See brilliant pieces of art
Get into the rush hour Experience really nasty weather
Ask to see it Have to pay a lot

1. You'd better leave for the airport early - yo u __________________________


2. Don't drink water from the taps - yo u _______________________________
3. You'd better take out medical insurance - you_________________ otherwise.
4. Take your passport everywhere with you - the police______________________
5. Some restaurants are really worth going to - yo u __________ you've ever had.
6. Mind how you cross the road when you're there - there___________________
7. Take some warm clothes and an umbrella with you - you____________ there.
8. There are some really good museums there - yo u ___________________there.

Ex. 6 Rephrase the following sentences so as to express unreality with might:

A. with the present /future time reference:


Model 1 (Present and Future): Perhaps he would help you, (if you asked him).
He might help you, if you asked him.
1. Perhaps she would be angry, (if you told her about it).
2. Maybe it would break, (if you dropped it).
3. Perhaps I would pay the man, (if he asked me).
4. Possibly the baby would cry, (if the mother smacked him).
5. It's possible things would change, (if the Government helped us).
6. Perhaps you would cut yourself, (if you played with that knife).
Tea c h in g Unit 2. THE M ODAL VERB MAY/MIGHT_______________________________________________ 29

B. with the past time reference


Model 2 (Past): Perhaps he would have done it, (if I hadn't stopped him).
He m ight have done it. (But he didn't)
1. Perhaps your wife would have told you everything, (if you had asked her).
2. Maybe the thieves would have stolen it, (if the Police hadn't arrived in time).
3. Perhaps that boy would have married her, (if she hadn't left the country).
4. It's possible my grandmother would have hurt herself, (if she had fallen).
5. Perhaps the war would have ended, (if they had won that battle).

Ex. 7 Rephrase the following sentences so as to express criticism using m ight and the
correct form of the infinitive.

1. You don't behave politely enough. You m ight behave m ore politely!
2. The clerk isn't tidy enough.
3. I wanted you to write more often but you didn't.
4. I told your friend to leave me in peace but he didn't.
5. You don't work quickly enough.
6. Your report is not detailed enough.
7. You had an exam but you didn't even go to it!
8. You saw that the old man needed help but you didn't help him.
9. I expected my sister to call me as soon as she came back but she forgot.
10. I wanted my friends to pay me a visit but they never came.

Ex. 8 Translate the following sentences into English using the modal verb m ay / might.

1. Спроси его, можно ли нам начинать интервью.


2. К вечеру может пойти дождь.
3. Мне казалось, что гроза может разразиться в любой момент.
4. Можете зайти к нам после семи, если хотите.
5. Тебе можно быть и посерьезнее. Ты уже почти взрослый.
6. Больному стало лучше. Вы можете навестить его завтра.
7. Многое может показаться нам необычным в чужой стране.
8. Ты мог бы купить мне эту книгу! Ты знал, что она мне очень нужна.
9. Можно мне пойти с тобой в театр?
10. Вы могли бы быть с ним повежливее! Ведь он намного старше вас!
11. Боюсь, мы можем опоздать.
12. Он мог бы отвезти меня на работу вчера! Ведь ему было по пути со мной!
13. Врач говорит, что тебе еще нельзя выходить на улицу.
14. Ты могла бы, по крайней мере, посоветоваться с сестрой!
15. Я чуть не опоздал на последний автобус.
30 English Grammar Practice

Ex. 9 Read the following sentences and identify the use (meaning) of the modal verb may/
might.

1. I'm not sure if I'm available; I may/might be working that weekend.


2. She might have answered the phone if you hadn't been rude to her the previous night.
3. The shops may not/might not be open today; it's a bank holiday.
4. She may/might have done it; she had the opportunity and the motive.
5. I wonder if I might ask your advice.
6. You might have waited for me at the station! I wouldn't be so angry now.
7. The dentist may/might be free to see you immediately after lunch; I'll have to check the
diary.
8. Hurry up! You may get into the rush hour.
9. You may not go to the beach alone. The sea is rough today.
10. They may/might have been working abroad all this time, I guess.
11. You might help me with the preparations! I don't want to do everything alone.
12. You might have got us into trouble if you had mentioned his name.

Ex. 10 Rephrase the following sentences so as to express supposition implying uncertainty,


doubt using may/might and the correct form of the infinitive.

A. Present and Future time reference.


1. It is possible that she likes poetry. She may/ might like poetry.
2. It is possible that he is coming. He may/might be coming.
3. Perhaps our daughter will buy a car.
4. Possibly the Queen is arriving soon.
5. It is possible that the policeman knows something about it.
6. Maybe my parents are getting a new car in the next few days.
7. Perhaps those people spend a lot.
8. Maybe the judge will believe your story.
9. Perhaps that woman is telling a lie.
10. Possibly your neighbours are building a larger house.
11. Maybe my brother will tell you the details.
12. Possibly she is meeting her brother for lunch.
B. Past time reference.
1. It is possible that she left yesterday. She may/might have left yesterday.
2. Maybe your wife has been buying some new clothes.
3. Possibly the man you were looking for had bought his ticket earlier.
4. Maybe people did that a century ago.
5. Possibly your aunt had written the letter before that.
6. Perhaps my father has been working very hard.
7. Perhaps I have made a mistake.
Teaching Unit 2. THE MODAL VERB MAY/MIGHT 31
8. It is possible that your friend has already left his job.
9. Perhaps our neighbours have been gardening.
10. Possibly it has been snowing.

Ex. 11 Della has invited some people to dinner at her home. As she waits for them to arrive
she feels rather excited and anxious.
Read what she thinks below. Then complete the sentences, using the words in the
brackets together with may/might and the correct form of the infinitive.

1. Linda should be here by now. But she may/might have got stuck (get stuck) in a traffic
jam.
2. I forgot how careful Aunt Sally is about what she eats. She__________(not eat) spicy food.
3. I wonder what time Carol will arrive. She said she__________ (be late).
4. Daniel should be coming, but I haven't heard anything from him. H e ____________
(not receive) my invitation.
5. I wrote a letter to Frank, but perhaps he didn't get it. One of his friends thought he_
_ (move) to a new house.
6. Betty said she'd be early, but she isn't here yet. She__________ (lose) the directions I
gave her.
7. I left a message for Diana. I wonder why she didn't phone back? S h e ____________
(not want) to speak to me after our quarrel last year.
8. It's quite possible Denis will be late. H e__________ (not be able) to get away from the
office in time.
9. I'd better go and check the soup. It __________ (boil over) by now.
10. Perhaps Guy won't be able to go back to London tonight. H e __________ (spend) the
night at a hotel.

Ex. 12 Answer the following questions, using may/ might and the words in brackets. Pay
attention to the form of the infinitive.

1. Why is John wearing sunglasses? It's not sunny.


(have some problems with his eyes) He mav/miaht have some problems with his eves.
2. Why didn't Jane come to the party last night?
(have a row with her boyfriend) She may/m ight have had a row with her boyfriend.
3. Why is Alan in such a bad mood today?
(sleep badly last night) ____________________________________________________
4. Why is Shelley looking under the desk?
(drop something)_________________________________________________________
5. Where can I have put my bag?
(be under the bed)________________________________________________________
6. Why hasn't anybody said 'Happy Birthday' to me?
(plan a surprise)__________________________________________________________
32 English Grammar Practice

7. W hy does Henry look so miserable?


(hear som e bad n e w s )____________________________
8. W hy isn't Sophie in the office today?
(work at h o m e )___________________________________
9. W hy didn't Rosemary com e to the cinema last night?
(feel tire d )_______________________________________

Ex. 13 M ake up situations o f yo u r ow n using the fo llo w in g patterns:

1. может быть (возможно), он....


Не may/might come soon.
He may/might have forgotten about it.
He may/might have been enjoying him self in the football club.

2. может быть (возможно), он не...


Не may/might not be in now.
He may/might not have recovered from his illness yet.

3. он чуть не...
He might have fallen down.

4. могло бы быть и ...


Richard came out of the exam ination room. "How did you get on?" I asked. "It might
have been worse, I suppose", he said.

Ex. 14 Translate the follow ing sentences into English.

1. М ожет быть, на вас никто и внимания не обратит.


2. Где же мой паспорт? - Возможно, ты забыл его дома.
3. Ты мог бы поддержать меня! У меня завтра очень трудный экзамен.
4. Он стоял довольно далеко от них и, возможно, не слышал их слов.
5. Вы, возможно, заметили, что он дважды повторил эти слова.
6. Он чуть не разбил окно.
7. У него большая семья, и он, возможно, ищет себе работу получше.
8. Ты был не так уж сильно занят. Ты мог бы нам помочь!
9. На улице было так скользко, и она чуть не упала.
10. Никто не отвечает. М ожет быть, он еще не вернулся с работы.
11. Я думаю, он, возможно, не знает всех деталей, но основная идея ему ясна.
12. Если бы он не столкнулся с нами случайно в метро, мы бы, возможно, никогда его
больше не встретили.
13. М ожет быть, она не хотела Вас расстраивать и поэтому не рассказала всю правду.
14. Вы могли бы предупредить меня, что этот фильм не стоит смотреть. Я бы осталась
дома и почитала интересную книгу.
Teaching Unit 2. THE MODAL VERB MAY/MIGHT 33

CAN AND MAY COMPARED

Ex. 15 Underline the word or words that are possible in each sentence.

1. 'Do you know where Mark left the car keys?' 'He might/can have left them on the table.'
2. If Jerry hadn't grabbed my arm, I can/might have fallen off the bridge.
3. They might/could have chosen anyone for the job, but they picked me.
4. I could/may have stayed overnight with Don and Mary, but I thought I should get home
as soon as possible.
5. In factories in the 19thcentury, a worker could/may be dismissed for being ill.
6. You can/might have cleaned the house by the time we came home.
7. He couldn't/might have sold his house as he was having a party in it the other day.
8. it can/could be possible one day to detect disease simply by looking at people's eyes.

Ex. 16 Study the examples carefully, and then use them to help you change the sentences.
Pay attention to the difference between the meanings of the negative forms of can/
could and may/might.

Model 1: It is possible that he doesn't like cheese.


He may/might not like cheese.
Model 2: It is not (even) possible that he likes cheese.
He can't/couldn't possibly like cheese.
1. It is just possible that the secretary does not come by bus.
2. It is not (even) possible that he likes his sister.
3. It is just conceivable that those people do not go on holiday.
4. It is not (even) conceivable that the girl has a boy-friend.
5. It is possible that your friends do not know him.
6. It is not thinkable that she hates her job.
7. It is just possible to believe that the old man doesn't walk very far.
8. It is not conceivable that he is seventy-five.

Ex. 17 Finish each of the following sentences in such a way that it is as similar as possible in
the meaning to the sentence printed before it. You must use a suitable form of can,
could, may or might in each sentence.

Model: It is hardly possible that my sister's wedding took place when I was in Italy.
Mv sister's wedding can't/couldn't have taken place when I was in Italy.

1. I'm very angry with you - you knew I was having problems with the car and you didn't
bother to help me!
You____________________________________________________________________
2. Twenty years ago my neighbour offered me his apartment for $30,000 but I didn't buy it.
Twenty years ago I ________________________________________________________
34 English Grammar Practice

3. It would be possible for us to issue the tickets today if you gave us your credit card number.
We ______________________________________________________________________
4. The service in British restaurants is sometimes quite surly.
The service________________________________________________________________
5. Is it possible that the disparity in the figures is due to a computer error?

6. Don't worry, they'll possibly be on the next train.


They_____________________________________________________________________
7. I'm certain he isn't responsible for the error; he looks too experienced.
He_______________________________________________________________________
8. Perhaps the shuttle bus isn't working at the moment - it is the low season.
The shuttle bus_____________________________________________________________
9. It's so annoying. You knew their phone number but you didn't give it to me!
You______________________________________________________________________
10. I'm afraid it isn't possible to grow bananas in the British climate.
Unfortunately, you__________________________________________________________
11. Given some luck, our team has a good chance of winning the championship next month.
With any luck______________________________________________________________
12. Perhaps Jim took it; he was in the office all day yesterday.
Jim ______________________________________________________________________
13. It's possible that the results will have arrived by tomorrow lunchtime.
The results_____________________________________________________________ _
14. Who do you think is making all that noise next door?
W ho_____________________________________________________________________
15. Perhaps there are other intelligent life-forms in the universe.
There________________________________________________________________ _
16. Thanks to satellite technology, it is now possible to predict hurricanes quite accurately.
W e____________________________________________________________________ _
17. The lights are off so maybe he isn't at home.
H e_______________________________________________________________________
18. With a little bit of luck my sister has the potential to be a huge star.
My sister____________________________________________________________ _
19. They offered Carrie a job in New York, but she didn't want to work there.
Carrie____________________________________________________________ _
20. I would never be able to live in a house without a garden.
I _______________ ____________________________________

Ex. 18 Find the errors in the following sentences and correct them where necessary.

1. I think I saw her go out, so she mightn't be at home.


2. It mightn't be true. There is definitely some mistake.
3. It's snowing heavily in Scotland so it can take Hugh a long time to get there.
TeachingUnit. 2. THE MODAL VERB MAY/M IGHT 35
4. If we don't get to the market soon they can't have any flowers left. They will all have
been sold.
5. You can't be bringing drinks into the auditorium during the performance.
6. May you be given the job permanently?
7. I thought they were on the holiday - but I can be wrong, of course.
8. From afar this building can have been taken for a lighthouse. It was so impressive.
9. Children may enter only when accompanied by an adult.
10. 'I've had this birthday card, but it doesn't say who sent it.' 'May it be from Ron?'

Ex. 19 Complete the following article by writing a suitable form of can, could, may, might,
be able to, manage to or succeed in and a form of the verbs in brackets. The exercise
begins with an example (0).

A LUCKY ESCAPE
It was the worst experience of my life which I (0) can remember as if it were yesterday. I was staying
a beautiful hotel on the coast. My room was on the second floor. It was about two o'clock on my
first night when I suddenly woke up. There was a very strong smell of burning but I (1)_____ (not to
say) where it was coming from. I jumped out of bed, ran to the door and opened it. I (2 )_____(to
■ee) smoke coming from the staircase. I suppose I (3 )_____(to try) to run down the stairs, but I knew
wouldn't have made it. It was impossible, the smoke was too dense, I (4)______ (not to get) further
than the first landing before choking.
went back into my room, slammed the door behind me and ran to the window. I had to escape. I (5)
____ (to jump) out of the window but I felt too scared. It was too high, I needed something to climb
down. Suddenly I had a brainwave and ran over to the bed. By tying the bedsheets together I (6)_____
to make) a kind of ladder. I tied one end of the sheets to the foot of the bed and I threw the other
end out of the opened window. Despite my fear of heights I (7 )_____(to climb) out onto the window
edge. A small group of people had gathered on the ground and were shouting encouragement to me.
Come on,' they said, 'you (8 )_____ (to do) it!' I was shaking with fear, but by refusing to look down
and concentrating on the rope in my hands I eventually (9 )_____ lowering myself from the ledge.
Very slowly, putting one hand below the other, I ( 10) _____ (to climb) down the bedsheet rope to
safety. It was a lucky escape, I should say.

Think of an accident that once happened to you or to som eone you know. If
you can't think of a true story, invent one. Use can, could, may, might, be able
to, manage to or succeed in.
36 English Grammar Practice

Teaching Unit 3 THE M O DAL VERB MUST

For Study

The modal verb must has only one form. The expressions to have to and to be obliged to with the
same meaning can be used to supply the missing tense forms of the verb must. In reported speech
the rules of the sequence of tenses are not observed with must.
Must has the following meanings:

1. Obligation with no freedom of choice or from the speaker's point of view.


In different contexts must may acquire additional shades of meaning, such as duty or necessity. In this
sense the verb must corresponds to the Russian надо, нужно, необходимо, должен.
This meaning occurs in affirmative and interrogative sentences in which must is followed only by the
non-perfect infinitive:
A man must stand up for his rights. / Человек должен отстаивать свои права.
I really must stop smoking. /М не необходимо бросить курить.
Must he do it himself?/О н должен это делать сам?
Не said he must talk to his daughter about her future. /О н сказал, что ему нужно
поговорить с дочерью о ее будущем.

2. Strict prohibition.
Such sentences are sometimes negative commands, corresponding to the Russian sentences with
нельзя, не разрешается. This meaning occurs in negative contexts, in which the non-perfect
infinitive is used.
The girl mustn't go home alone. It's very late./Девочке нельзя идти домой
одной.
Cars must not be parked in front of this gate. / He разрешается парковать
машины перед входом.

N0TE1: Absence of necessity (in Russian не нужно, нет необходимости) is expressed by


other verbs (See: to have to and need).
— Must I go now? - No, you needn't, if you don't want to.

3. Emphatic advice, request or invitation.

This use of must renders emphasis to the sentence, in which the verb must is stressed.
You must come and see us sometime. /Вы обязательно должны навестить нас
как-нибудь.
You must stop worrying about your son. /В ы должны перестать беспокоиться о
своем сыне.
Unit 3. THE MODAL VERB MUST
g
in
ch
Tea 37
You mustn't give another thought to what he said. / Вы не должны придавать
значения тому, что он сказал.
You mustn't miss the film. It is very good. / Вы не должны пропустить этот фильм.
This meaning is found in affirmative and negative sentences with the non-perfect infinitive and is
closelу connected with the two above mentioned meanings.

4. Supposition implying strong probability, assurance.


Ithas the same meaning as the modal words probably, surely, obviously, evidently, no doubt,
undoubtedly, in all probability. In this sense must occurs only in affirmative sentences and corresponds
tothe Russian modal words вероятно, очевидно, наверное, должно быть, по всей вероятности,
без сомнения, по-видимому. The opposite of must in this meaning is can't/couldn't.
Compare: They must like this place. They come here every summer. (Probably, they like this place.)
/Должно быть, им нравится это место. Они приезжают сюда каждое лето.
They can't dislike this place. They come here every summer. (Surely, they like this
place.)/Н е может быть, чтобы им не нравилось это место. Они приезжают
сюда каждое лето.
It must be late as the streets are deserted. (It seems certain that it is late.) / Должно
быть, уже поздно, так как на улицах никого нет.
It can't be early as the streets are deserted. (I am sure it isn't early). / He может
быть, чтобы уже было утро, так как на улицах никого нет.

In this meaning must may be followed by different forms of the infinitive depending on the time
reference:
She must know what the problem is. / Вероятно, она знает, в чем проблема.
The book is not on the shelf. Jane must be reading it. / Должно быть, Джейн ее
читает.
Do you see him smoking over there? He must have finished his work. / Наверное, он
закончил работу.
It must have been raining all the night. There are big puddles in the garden. /
Очевидно, всю ночь шел дождь.

Must expressing supposition is not used:


a) with reference to the future. Instead of must the modal words probably, surely, obviously, evidently,
no doubt, undoubtedly, in all probability and the expressions to be (un)likely, to be sure are used:
Probably, he will come tomorrow. /Очевидно, он придет завтра.
Evidently, she will know all about it./Должно быть, она все узнает.
They are likely to come next week./Вероятно, они приедут на следующей неделе.
We are unlikely to have a day off. /Вряд ли (маловероятно, что) у нас будет
выходной.

b ) innegative forms. There are several ways of expressing the negative meaning of supposition
in such sentences: with the help of negative prefixes, negative words or pronouns and
lexically:
38 English Grammar Practice

He must have misunderstood you. /Наверное, он тебя не понял.


They must have been inattentive. /Долж но быть, они были невнимательны.
The letter must have never reached them. / Очевидно, они не получили письмо.
No one must have told him about it. /Вероятно, ему никто ничего не сказал.
Не must have had no chance to warn you. / Очевидно, у него не было шанса
предупредить тебя.
Evidently, she didn't know my address. / Наверное, она не знала мой адрес.

N 0TE2: Both may and must serve to express supposition but their use is not parallel. May
denotes supposition implying uncertainty, doubt whereas the supposition expressed
by must implies strong probability, assurance.
a) For all I know, he may/might be an actor. His face seems so familiar.
He must be an actor. His voice carries so well.
b) I saw him an hour ago. He may/might still be in his office now.
He always comes at 10 sharp. So he must be in his office now.

Note the following set phrases with must:


a) I must be g o in g /I must be off — Мне пора уходить.
b) I must tell you th a t... / I must say... — Я должен (должна) сказат ь...
Teaching Unit 3. THE MODAL VERB MUST _______________________________________ 39

PRACTICE ACTIVITIES

Ex. 1 A. Read the following sentences containing the modal verb must and fill in the chart.
Identify the use of it and the synonymous expression as in the example.

Modal Verb Must Use Synonymous


(Meaning) Expression
1. You must leave the matter alone, if you don't want to be Emphatic I recommend
arrested. advice you to leave the
matter alone.
2. Let me order refreshment for you, Alex. You must be cold and
hungry after your travels.
3. If we want to get a good table at Willis's we really must go and
dress.
4. You must be holding something back. Don't be afraid of hurting
my feelings.
5. You must tell me all about yourself if you want my assistance.

6. I am afraid I must go now. The taxi must have come by this


time.
7. Writing is a whole time job. To write must be the main object
of the author's life.
3. I have written a line to your dear mother, Henry, to tell her your
good news, and to say she really must come to dinner.
9. After the quarrel with John he must have gone upstairs to talk
to his wife.
10. The information they gave us must have been incorrect.

11. Once a professional, one always must be a professional.

12. Passengers mustn't smoke in the non-smoking area of an


aircraft.
13. I must have been sleeping for a long time as when I woke the
mist was gone.
14. If you want to get any benefit from an experience you must
have an open mind.
15. You've said so much now that I must insist on your saying
everything.
40 English Grammar Practice

B. State the meaning of the modal verb must and translate the parts in bold into Russian.

1. You've made this statement about your movements on Tuesday night, I think. I must tell
you it doesn't agree with another statement that has been made.
2. You must let me know if anything further comes to light.
3. You mustn't worry too much about what I've just told you.
4. You must admit that it's rather a wild story.
5. I am not really wicked at all. You mustn't think that I am wicked.
6. You mustn't blame yourself, whatever happens.
7. I must be going. If you have nothing better to do - just come and see us.
8. Perhaps, thought Susan lazily, it must be boring for her to be with old people like us.
9. It must be wonderful to be able to get away just like that.
10. I must confess that at the first glance I was rather calm.

Ex. 2 Respond to the statements below expressing obligation.

Model: I have got an awful headache.


I must take an aspirin.
1. My watch is broken.
2. My car is very dirty.
3. I've got a terrible cold and cough.
4. I'm getting too fat.
5. I've got an awful toothache.
6. I smoke too many cigarettes.
7. I've got a pile of unpaid bills.
8. I've written three important letters.
9. My hair is too long.
10. The kitchen is in a mess.

Ex. 3 Work in groups and compare the results.

Group A:
List the things you have to do if you join the army, using must to express obligation with no
freedom of choice.

Group B:
List the things you have to do when you learn to drive a car, using must to express obligation
with no freedom of choice.
hing Unit 3. THE MODAL VERB MUST 41
Ex. 4 The Hotel Strict is a nasty hotel. It has a lot o f rules. Read the list o f rules and change
each one into a sentence using must or must not

Notice to guests
Leave your key at the reception when you go out.
Do not take food into your room.
Pay for your room when you arrive.
Vacate your room by 9 a.m. on the day you leave.
Do not smoke in the restaurant.
Return to the hotel before 10 o'clock every night.

Model: You must leave your key at the reception when you go out.

1. Y o u ______________ food into your room.


2. __________ for your room when you arrive.
3. ___________ your room by 9 a.m. on the day you leave.
4. ___________ in the restaurant.
5. _____________ to the hotel before 10 o'clock every night.

Ex. 5 Translate the follow ing sentences w ith the m odal verb must denoting emphatic
advice or prohibition.

1. It was im possible and I was going to forbid it absolutely. Debbie must not do such a
thing!
2. Now, my dear, you mustn't neglect your work the moment my back is turned.
3. Each person must behave in character; that means that he must do what from their
knowledge of him they expect him to do.
4. We mustn't be narrow-minded.
5. I suppose you've come to tell me that they have told you that you must never see me
again.
6. Oh, my dear, you mustn't feel offended.
7. I shall be cross with you, Julia, as you don't pay any attention to what I say. You must give
your mind to it.
8. In your own interest, Tony, to say nothing of mine, you must not do that.
9. I am talking very seriously. You mustn't laugh.
10. You must not do that on any account.
42 English Grammar Practice

Ex. 6 A. Complete the sentences with must or mustn't and the verb in brackets to express
emphatic advice

Model: You must hear (hear) this story; it's extremely funny!
1. You (forget) to buy some petrol. There isn't much left.
2. You (worry) so much; it's bad for you.
3. You (book) the tickets before it's too late.
4. You (lock) the door with this key every time you go out.
5. You (see) that new, French film. It's really good.
6. You (phone) Jane tonight. She asked you to call her.

B. Make these invitations very welcoming by starting with you must.

Model: Can you come to our party next week?


You must come to our party next week.

1. Would you like to come round for a game of chess some time?
2. Why don't you bring your wife with you next time?
3. I'd like you to meet my brother next time he's here.
4. Do have another cup of coffee.
5. Can't you stay a little longer?
6. Would you like to see my holiday photographs?
7. Why don't you come to the theatre with me some time next week?
8. Will you stay for lunch?
9. Would you like another piece of cake?
10. I'd like you to take my presents.

Ex. 7 In pairs make up a small dialogue between a boy who is going for a job interview and
his mother, giving him very strong advice. Make use of the following ideas:
get a hair-cut; put on a collar and a tie; arrive early for the interview; speak clearly and
distinctly; try and appear polite and intelligent; take a clean handkerchief.

Ex. 8 Translate the following sentences with the modal verb must and comment on them.
Pay special attention to the way time reference is expressed.

1. It was in that tone that he must have spoken to his children when they were tiresome.
2. She must have watched him hide the books in the garden and brought them back in.
3. I must be getting sentimental.
4. He looked sixty, but I knew he must be much less than that.
5. You must be telling another lie.
6. Fred must have rung up Howard and said they were coming, because their rooms were
all ready.
Teaching Unit 3. THE MODAL VERB MUST 43
7. This seems to be a valuable ring. Since you wear it always, it must be valuable to you.
8. I hear somebody's steps on the stairs. She must be coming!
9. Whenever people agree with me, I always feel I must be wrong.
10. She never mentioned being lonely, but she must have been.
11. My mother never talks to me about my father. I sometimes think she must have married
beneath her.
12. I suppose the girl must be in the habit of calling her by her full name.
13. My dear Cecily, I think there must be some slight error.
14. It is impossible. I must be going mad even to think of such a thing.
15. There were a lot of famous people at the celebration and he must have known them all
by their names.

Ex. 9 Open the brackets using the required form of the infinitive after must.

1. Both sisters m ust__________ (to be) ashamed of having spoken as they had in front of
a third person.
2. The night porter was very good-looking and it m u st__________ (to take) him a half
hour to comb his hair into such shining black perfection.
3. I m ust__________ (to sit) there for a quarter of an hour waiting and thinking about it
before I saw the letter.
4. My uncle took us round the yacht. There was no doubt that it m ust__________ (to cost)
him a lot of money.
5. At half past two I heard Robert put down his book and switch off the light. He must
(to read) since midnight.
6. "You m ust__________ (to be) right", I said.
7. There were a lot of mirrors that m u st__________ (to buy) at the sale of some old
restaurant.
8. The gardens here are delightful. The soil m ust__________ (to be) good.
9. You m ust__________ (to go) and___________ (to lie) down. It's no good making yourself

10. She said she simply m u st__________ (to run) in a n d __________ (to see) me before I
left.
11. She m ust__________ (to get) pretty uneasy about it now.
12. I felt that this sort of thing m ust__________ (to stop) at once.
13. Whoever was making the noise m u st__________ (to shout) very loudly because the
Major's office was supposed to be soundproof.
14. At that time there must __________ (to be) five hundred dining-rooms in London
decorated in exactly the same manner.
15. This box m ust__________ (to place) in his hands without a moment's delay.
16. The man m ust__________ (to stop) the car in a convenient place a n d __________ (to
run) up to the house just as the alarm was given and the attention was attracted.
17. But at last he rose realizing that he had work which he m ust__________ (to do).
44 English Grammar Practice

Make logical supposition using must or its lexical equivalents. Make use of the ideas
suggested in the brackets.

M odel 1: He wasn't there when I arrived.


(to leave) He must have left.
Model 2. I've knocked on Eric's apartment door several times but nobody has answered.
(to be at home). Evidently Eric isn't at home.

1. The visitor has gone but those are her gloves. (to forget)
2. They left three hours ago and the journey only takes two. (to arrive)
3. The painter said he would come but he hasn't. (to change his mind)
4. My neighbour is 65 and he has stopped going to work. (to retire)
5. My mother's hands are coved in flour. (to bake)
6. That man has a black eye. (to fight)
7. My sister has just come in, out of breath. (to run)
8. The woman's eyes are red and she looks sad. (to cry)
9. Tim has been working in the hot sun for the last hour. (to be thirsty)
10. Brian has a red nose and is coughing and sneezing. (to have a cold)
11. Sally looks tired. She's coughing and sneezing. (to feel unwell)
12. Adam has already eaten one sandwich. Now he is making another one. (to be hungry)
13. Kate has a full academic schedule, plays in the volleyball team, takes piano lessons and
has a part time job at the ice-cream store. (to have a lot of spare time; to be busy all the
time).
14. David goes to the video store and rents three movies every night. (to like movies a lot;
to spend much time with his friends and family in the evening)
15. Jennifer reads all the time. She sits in a corner and reads even when people come to visit
her. (to love books; to like books better than people)
16. Jake called Betsy and asked her to go to a movie, but she told him that she had to
study and just hang up. (to want to go to a movie; to be tired; to want to hurt Jake's
feelings)
17. The teacher just asked Jason a question. Jason is looking down at the floor and his ears
are getting red. (to know the answer; to be embarrassed)
18. Debbie just got home from school. She slammed the front door, threw her books on the
floor, ran to her room and turned on loud music. (to be upset; to want to be alone; to
want to talk to her parents right now; to like loud music)
19. The house wife is in the shop with her shopping-basket. (to do the shopping)
20. That girl is wearing an engagement ring. (to get married soon)
Teaching Unit 3. THE MODAL VERB M U ST 45

Ex. 11 For each of the sentences below write a new sentence as similar in meaning as
possible to the original one. Use the correct form of the infinitive.

1. I'm sure, from what I can see that the boss drinks a lot of tea.
The boss ____________________________________________________a lot of tea.
2. The boy was evidently reading something funny as he was smiling all the time.
The boy______________________________________________________ funny.
3. It's clear to me that our friends are reading a lot now as they are taking their final exams
soon.
Our friends_______________________________ as they are taking their exams
soon.
4. She was obviously upset by something as I never saw her so unbalanced.
She____________________________________________________ _by something.
5. It is quite definite that the witnesses have forgotten the details of the accident.
The w itnesses____________________________________________ the details of the
accident.
6. It seems fairly sure that the thief has been to prison once already.
The thief______________________________________________________once already.
7. The facts make it clear that her mother knows all about it.
Her mother_________________________________________________ _ all about it.
8. He pretended to be innocent, but I'm sure he did it.
H e_________________________________________________________________ it.
9. The evidence makes me certain that those people live quite close to us.
Those people_______________________________________________ quite close to us.
10. There is nobody in. Probably they've gone shopping.
They_______________________________________________________shopping.
11. His car is not in the garage. I suppose he has taken it to work.
H e________________________________________________________ his car to work.
12. From what I have discovered it's clear that our neighbours hate each other.
Our neighbours___________________________________________each other.
13. The roads are dreadfully busy. I suppose this is the rush hour.
It _____________________________________________________ the rush hour.
14. She probably has noticed the surprise with which you looked at the picture.
She _________________________________________with which you looked at the
picture.
15. An acquaintance that begins with a complement will probably develop into a real
friendship.
An acquaintance__________________________________________into a real friendship.
16. If he lets you wander from the main point, it is very likely that he will never recapture
your attention.
H e ________________________________________________________ your attention.
17. I am sure she will tell him good news.
She__________________________________________good news.
46 English Gram mar Practice

Ex. 12 Change the following sentences, making them negative in meaning. Use different
means of expressing negation with m u st

Model: He must have liked it here.


He must have disliked it here.

1. You must have heard about the accident in Regent Street.


2. They must be aware of it.
3. She must have been to Paris.
4. The doctor must have given the instructions to the patient.
5. It must be pleasant for her to see John.
6 . There must be somebody in the house.
7. It must be possible to find this book in our library.
8 . He must have understood everything you said.
9. She must be experienced in translating articles from Russian into English.
10. He must have seen us at the theatre.
11 . Everybody must have noticed that he was not used to speaking in public.
12. He must have a fair chance of winning, he is in good form.
13. She must have written to them about her arrival in due time.
14. You must have passed your exams with flying colours.
15. Somebody must have told her the truth.

Ex. 13 Find a suitable way of translating the following sentences into English. Pay special
attention to the use of m ust in the negative form or with reference to the future.

1. Вероятно, они встретятся через неделю.


2. Наверное, он не сдал экзамен по практике языка. Он очень расстроен.
3. Преподаватель, видимо, по ошибке не упомянул твоей фамилии.
4. Маловероятно, что он выздоровеет.
5. Должно быть, он неправильно произнес это слово.
6. Вероятно, у нее нет опыта работы с детьми.
7. Должно быть, никто не сказал ей, что расписание изменилось.
8. По-видимому, завтра будет дождь.
9. Вероятно, завтра дождя не будет.
10. По всей вероятности, он нас не понял.
11. Наверное, в его распоряжении никогда раньше не было столько денег.
12. У него, очевидно, пока не нашлось времени для вас.
13. Маловероятно, что он сделает эту работу к концу недели.
14. Очевидно, они больше не приедут навестить нас.
15. Наверное, ей здесь не нравится.
16. В комнате, должно быть, никого нет.
17. По всей вероятности, они не успели на поезд. Они ушли из дома очень поздно.
47
18. Она, долж но быть, не знает, что вы здесь.
19. Она, наверное, оставила дверь незапертой.
20. Вам, долж но быть, нелегко этом у поверить.
21. Он, наверняка, ничего об этом не знает.
22. Она, очевидно, не помнит, что обещ ала принести нам лекарство.
23. Видимо, ему не удалось найти работу в этом городе.
24. Д олж но быть, они скоро поженятся.
25. Он, долж но быть, ничего не понял и обиделся.

Еx. 14 D escribe p ossible situ atio n s in w hich you w o uld use the fo llo w in g statem ents.

1. It m ust be terribly annoying to miss such a film.


2. We m ust do w hat we can for Ann.
3. I m ust go as we are dining out today.
4. We m ust not let the quarrel break our friendship.
5. He m ust be tw enty now.
6. The sum m er cottage m ust be in good style.
7. I m ust have room to place my books.
8. I m ust have a taxi to take me to the station.
9. You m ust not do it on any account.
10. You m ustn't laugh. I am quite serious.
11. You m ust com e to us one of the com ing evenings.
12. Well, we m ust w ait until the m orning.
13. You m ust tell me all about yourself.
14. Oh, you m ustn't feel offended.
15. You m ust com e and see me.
16. We m ust not jum p at conclusions.

Ex. 15 Find the errors in the fo llo w in g sentences and correct th em w here necessary.

1. You m ust com e and see our picture gallery.


2. This type of com puter m ust be produced in many European countries soon.
3. I m ust be sleeping. I didn't hear the bell.
4. John isn't here. He m ust w ork in the garden.
5. She m ustn't have had a chance to w arn you.
6. Dogs m ust be kept on a lead.
7. It m ust be terrible to live during the w ar as you did.
8. Do you m ust go now?
9. You m ustn't park on double yellow lines in England.
10. They m ustn't have changed their traveller's cheques as the bank w as closed.
48 English Grammar Practice

Ex. 16 Translate into English.

1. Это соглашение должно быть подписано на днях.


2. Вероятно, мы повернули не в ту сторону.
3. У меня насморк. Я, должно быть, простудился.
4. Ты обязательно должна пойти на собеседование. Это очень престижная работа.
5. Не разрешается списывать на вступительном экзамене.
6. Подождите немного, дождь, наверное, скоро перестанет.
7. Ему пришло в голову, что он, вероятно, сказал не то, что нужно.
8. Он очень умный человек. С ним, должно быть, интересно беседовать.
9. Он, по всей вероятности, чувствовал себя неловко в этой суматохе. Он выглядел
робким и неуклюжим.
10. Вероятно, она зашла в аптеку заказать лекарство, которое ей выписал врач.
11. Вы, очевидно, не знали, что они переехали в один из новых районов Москвы.
12. По-видимому, это труднее, чем вы предполагали.
13. У вас очень много ошибок. Надо уделять больше внимания грамматике.
14. Детей надо учить плавать как можно раньше.
15. Она, наверное, все знала, но не хотела меня расстраивать.
16. Он, наверняка, не знает о Вашем отъезде, поэтому и не пришел Вас проводить.
17. Он, должно быть, ж ивет во Франции.
18. Он должен много читать вслух, чтобы исправить свое произношение.
19. Он, должно быть, много читает вслух; у него хорошее произношение.
20. Я должен навестить своих родителей.
21. Она, должно быть, гостит у своих друзей, так как она писала, что проведет свой
отпуск у них.
22. Они, очевидно, ждут меня, а я никак не могу дать им знать о себе.
23. Он, по всей вероятности, забыл, что обещал придти.
24. Они, наверное, пишут сочинение уже около двух часов и скоро должны закончить.
25. Я должен много работать на этой неделе.
26. Я не видел Анну, но знал, что она, вероятно, ждет меня где-то здесь.
27. Я должен для него что-нибудь сделать.
O US PRACTICE. THE MODAL VERBS CAN, MAY, M U ST__________________________
N
ELA
ISC
M 49

M ISCELLANEO U S PRACTICE
TH E M O DAL VERBS CAN, MAY, MUST

Ex. 1 1. Translate the sentences into Russian and comment on the use of the modal verbs
can, may, must.

1. Look at those clouds. I think it might rain.


2. I've no idea where Jane is. She could be anywhere!
3. I suppose it's possible. I might come to your party.
4. There's someone at the door. It could be the postman.
5. Sorry, I can't come out tonight. I have to do my homework.
6. You must be very proud of your son winning so many prizes.
7. We thought our cousins would visit us when they were in town last week, but they
didn't even phone. I suppose they must have been too busy.
8 . The film has been such a big success I guess it must be easy to get tickets to see it.
9. I've just rung the garage to check whether they've fixed my car, but I can't get an answer.
I suppose they may be having a tea-break out in the yard.
10. I don't know why you wanted to stay at the party. You can't have enjoyed talking to all
those boring people.
11. I can't go out this morning. We're getting a new sofa and the store might be delivering
it today.
12. You'll have to check these figures again. They're not accurate. You can't have been
concentrating when you added them up.
13. You must be thirsty after carrying those heavy boxes. Shall I make some tea?
14. He can't have signed the documents. I saw them untouched on the table a minute
ago.

Ex. 2 Fill in the blanks with the modal verbs can, may or must.

1. Perhaps he went to the beach by another way, I ________ have missed him.
2. Take some sun-block and wear a hat, as i t ________ get very hot in the middle of the
day.
3. "Impossible", I cried. "You________ be making a mistake".
4. Will you give him these cards and ask if w e _______ see him for a moment?
5. You_______ go upstairs and use our bathroom.
6. But surely he________ have taken the wrong luggage. That is the only possible solution.
7. Yes, you_______ leave the room now. But be careful.
8. Sh e ________ have been talking to your father, she _______not have been talking to
anyone else.
9. He's honest enough, whatever else h e _______ be.
10. He was a nice-looking young fellow with a touch of greying hair at the temples though
h e ______ not have been much over thirty.
50 English Grammar Practice

11. But it _______ not have been anything serious, or I should have remembered.
12. Some astonishment________ have shown itself on his face, for she looked at him and
paused.
13. Perhaps it ________ have been better if you hadn't written letters to us.
14. ________ I have some more of that delicious salad, do you think?
15. Kate, yo u ________ not leave him. He needs you, I know he needs you.
16. What you are telling m e________ be true, but it happened many years ago.
17. Her hair hung down so that Anne_______ not see her face.
18. It ________ have been twenty minutes past seven when he heard the call. That______
be a fact useful to the police if anything_______ be discovered.
19. How_______ you let things slide like that, Tommy?
20. You________ not go out so late at night.

Ex. 3 Paraphrase the sentences below using words and phrases from the list.

must may can't could


must have may have can't have could have

1. I'm certain he hasn't told us everything.


2. There's no doubt that something went wrong.
3. I just don't believe she's thirty years old.
4. Perhaps they don't know yet.
5. It's possible that the road was closed.
6. The police are bound to know that.
7. Perhaps there was a traffic jam.
8. There's some chance that the letter will arrive today.
9. The phone's ringing! I'm sure that's my mother wondering where I was yesterday.
10. There is probably time to do some shopping.
11. Bob says it's possible that he will be late because of a traffic jam.
12. I'm sure it was on that trip I had the sleeping car all to myself.
13. Perhaps his latest novel is as good as his others but I don't like it so much.
14. Maybe you have found the lecture difficult to understand so far.
15. Of course what he says is not true.
16. Let's bet a little money on that horse. I've been told there's some chance it will win the
race.
17. Why don't we try that hotel? Possibly it isn't as expensive as it looks.
18. I'm positive the meal you had wasn't very good. Otherwise you wouldn't feel sick
now.
19. I am almost sure that she didn't do anything of the kind.
20. The message was evidently delivered in time as we received an immediate answer.
MISCELLANEOUS PRACTICE M ODAL VERBS C A N , MAY, M UST 51

Ex. 4 Compare the given sentences and paraphrase them using the modal verbs can, may,
must.

1. a) It is quite possible that the performance is over as there are many people leaving
the theatre.
b) The performance was evidently over as many people were leaving the theatre.
2. a) I don't believe that he said it.
b) Is it possible that he said it?
3. a) I think they knew everything about it.
b) I am sure they knew everything about it.
4. a) Is it possible that they refused to help you?
b) It is possible that they refused to help him.
c) It is impossible that they refused to help you.
5. a) Perhaps it's all true, I am not sure.
b) Perhaps it was true, I am not sure.
6. a) There is probably some misunderstanding.
b) There was probably some misunderstanding.
7. a) I refuse to believe that you mean it.
b) I refuse to believe that you meant it.
c) Do you really mean it?
8. a) Is it possible that they have already left?
b) It is impossible that they have already left.
c) It is possible that they have already left.
9. a) I don't believe that they didn't recognize you.
b) I am certain that they recognized you.
10. a) It is likely that he has practised a lot; his English is quite decent now.
b) It is impossible that he has practised a lot; he can’t pronounce any words.

Ex. 5 Respond to the following situations using m ust/can’t/ m ay/ might (have).

1. Yesterday was payday. I don't believe you're short of money already.


You can’t have spent all your pay already.
2. It was Linda's suggestion to go for a meal. Surely she doesn't think I'm going to pay for it all ?
She ____________________________________________________
3. George has been engaged to Kay for three months. Today he received a box with the
engagement ring in it and all his letters to her.
Kay________ ____________________________ _ _ _ _ ____________
4. When Tina got back home, she couldn't find her purse. Perhaps a pickpocket stole it.
A pickpocket_____________________________________________ _
5. Isobel said she was short of money, but she's just moved into a new flat! Her uncle
owns property in this area.
She_______________________________________________________
52 __________________________________________________ _____________________ _____________________ English Gram m ar Practice

6. This parcel is making a ticking noise - throw it out of the window! I'm sure it's a bomb.
It__________________________________________________________
7. I don't know who would send me an alarm clock for a present. My brother sometimes
plays practical jokes on people, so perhaps it's from him.
It _______________________________________________________
8. Anna's always such a punctual person. The meeting started half an hour ago but she's
not here. I know the traffic's very bad this morning.
She__ _____________________________________________________

Ex. 6 Respond to the following statements using the words in brackets.

Model: John said he would lend me his dictionary, but he hasn't given me it yet. (He...)
He must have forgotten about it.

1. Where's Ted's old blue car? There's a lovely new red one parked in his garage! (He...)
2. I've rung Jill three times, but she didn't answer the phone. (She...)
3. Where has Joan put the box of chocolates? There must be some left.(She...)
4. Where are Bill's gloves? He can't find them anywhere. (He...)
5. I thought it was our secret, but Jane's mother knows all about it as well. (Jane...)
6. Terry's expecting me, but he hasn't answered the door. I'll ring again. (He...)
7. There's a young man lying at the side of the road and lots of people looking on.
(There...)
8. I'm looking for Mary's keys. She left them in the kitchen. (Where...)
9. Where is Jack's wallet? He never took it out of his pocket, but it isn't there now.
(Someone...)
10. Mark said he would ring as soon as he got home but he hasn't done it. (He...)

Ex. 7 Complete the answers to the following questions. Use must, can't or might with any
other words you need.

1. Can that be James phoning at this hour? It's gone midnight!


It might be him. He said he'd phone if he passed his exam.
2. Who's that going into the shop?
It______________________ . They always do the floors before we open.
3. Is that your sister's fur coat?
It _____________________. She never wears real fur.
4. I can't remember where I put my briefcase.
It _____________________. You often leave it there.
5. Where did Adam get that new guitar? He hasn't got any money.
It ______________________. After all, it was his birthday last week.
6. Why did Jess ignore me at the party last night?
She_____________________. She wasn't wearing her glasses.
miscella n e o u s p r a c t ic e . t h e m o d a l v er b s c a n , m a y , m u s t 53
7. Do you think Cindy told the boss I left work early yesterday?
S h e ______________________ . She left early yesterday too.
8. Who was that man leaving the library? It looked like Peter.
I t _________________________ . They are so alike that people sometimes mistake them
for one another.

Ex. 8 Correct the following sentences where necessary.

1. Janet tried to imagine what an unserious talk could have been like.
2. He mustn't have misspelled the President's name, it was a misprint.
3. Who could have made such a mess of his car?
4. Must I give you the answer now?
5. You must have let us know you had changed your phone number.
6. She must have been promoted, but I am not sure.
7. I could have looked at the exam paper on Mr. Grayson's desk, but I didn't want to risk it.
8. May you find a mistake in this sentence?
9. Excuse me - I couldn't help to overhear what you said.
10. He mightn't have bought a new car; I saw him driving an old one yesterday.

Ex. 9 Translate into English the following groups of sentences and comment on their
difference.

1. а) Он должен быть там завтра.


b) Он может быть там завтра.
c) Он, возможно, будет там завтра.

2. а) Он, по всей вероятности, был там вчера.


b ) Может быть, он был там вчера.
c) Не может быть, чтобы он был там вчера.
d) Не может быть, чтобы его не было там вчера.
е) Неужели он был там вчера?

3. а) Не может быть, чтобы это была правда.


b ) Неужели это правда?
c) Это, должно быть, правда.
d ) Возможно, это правда.
е) Кто знает? Может быть, это и правда.

4. а) Вы, вероятно, ошиблись.


b ) Вы, должно быть, ошибаетесь.
c) Не может быть, чтобы вы ошиблись.
d) Неужели вы ошиблись?
54 English Grammar Practice

5. - Я должен сделать это сегодня?


a) - Нет, вы можете сделать это завтра, если хотите.
b ) - Да, это нужно сделать сегодня.

6. - М ожно мне посмотреть вашу работу?


a) - Пожалуйста.
b ) - Нет, она ещё не готова.

7. - Доктор, можно мне купаться в море?


a) - Нет, нельзя. Вы можете опять заболеть.
b ) - Конечно, можно. Это принесёт вам только пользу.

8. а) Не можете ли вы зайти ко мне вечером?


b ) Не могли бы вы зайти ко мне вечером?
c) Нельзя ли мне попросить вас зайти ко мне вечером?
d ) Не мог бы я попросить вас зайти ко мне вечером?

Ех. 10 Translate the follow ing sentences into English paying attention to the use of the
modal verbs can, m ay, must.

1. Мне нужно переписывать всю работу или я могу только исправить ошибки?
2. Как удачно! Ещё пять минут - и мы могли бы не получить билетов.
3. Я не могу понять, почему он не пришёл на заседание. Не может быть, чтобы он
забыл о нем; он, вероятно, заболел.
4. Вы могли бы предупредить меня, что не придёте. Мне бы не пришлось так долго
вас ждать.
5. Неужели вы им поверили? Они, скорее всего, пошутили над вами.
6. После прохождения практики в школе каждый студент должен представить отчет.
7. Если вы не хотите заниматься этим сегодня, вы можете закончить работу в течение
завтрашнего дня.
8. Вам бы следовало разговаривать с ребёнком поласковее.
9. Очевидно, он ничего не знает о том, что его жена купила новую машину.
10. Вы можете найти его на стадионе, я полагаю. Он, по всей вероятности, играет там
в теннис.
11. Кто бы это мог забыть ключ у меня на письменном столе? Неужели Дженифер?
12. Должно быть, трудно овладеть иностранным языком.
13. Они должны действовать, как им сказали.
14. Она никогда не рассказывала о своём детстве, и на то, по-видимому, была какая-то
причина.
15. Никто не смог бы сделать больше, чем сделал ты.
16. В конце концов, нельзя не восхищаться человеком с такими высокими принципами.
17. Ты можешь делать всё, что хочешь.
18. Не может быть, чтобы она не знала, где он работает.
19. В понедельник я ещё не смогу дать вам определённый ответ.
miscellaneous p r a c t ic e . t h e m o d a l v e r b s c a n , m a y , m u s t 55

20. И кто это мог зажечь свет в моей комнате?


21. Он, вероятно, скоро позвонит нам.
22. Вам, очевидно, ничего об этом не сказали. Иначе бы Вы пришли раньше.
23. Возможно, они ещё ведут следствие по этому делу.
24. Неужели ты сам это написал?
25. По всей вероятности, они не получили деньги за продажу квартиры.

Еx. 11 Work with a partner to solve these riddles. Using past modals, suggest several possible
solutions to each puzzle - from most likely to least likely - and label them accordingly.

1. A young girl named Michelle decided to ride her bicycle from her own town to a
town 10 kilometers away. After a while she reached a crossroads where she had to
change directions. She discovered that the signpost with arrows pointing to different
towns in the area had been blown down. She didn't know which road was the right
one. Nevertheless, she was able to figure out which road to take. What do you think
she did?

2. Roy Sullivan, a forest ranger in Virginia, had seven experiences in his life in which he
was struck by powerful force. Two times his hair was set on fire. He had burns on his
eyebrows, shoulder, stomach, chest, and ankle. Once he was driving when he was hit
and was knocked 10 feet out of his car. What do you think happened to him?
56 English Grammar Practice

Teaching Unit 4 The M O DAL VERB HAVE TO /H A V E GOT TO

For Study

As a modal verb have to can have a category of person and number and all tense-aspect forms; as
well as non-finite forms. It is followed by the to-infinitive and combines only with the non-perfect
form of it.
As there is no through train to our town we have to change in Moscow.
We had to look all over town before we found what we wanted.
She won't have to walk the whole way, will she?
Having to go so soon we were afraid of missing the man.
Have to builds up its interrogative and negative forms with the help of the auxiliary verb to do.
Do you have to work hard?
He doesn't have to be here before Friday.
You don't have to do what your sister tells you.
Why does he have to go there?
The modal verb have to expresses:
1. Obligation or necessity arising out of circumstances. It is similar in its meaning to must. It
corresponds to the Russian приходится, вынужден.
She is usually short of time so she has to go by air. /...ей приходится лететь (она
вынуждена лететь).
Му sister has a lot of friends in different parts of the country, so she has to write lots
of letters. / ...ей приходится писать много писем.
In th e past ten se have to in d ica te s a fu lfille d ob liga tio n .
We had to sell our apartment and to buy a bigger one. (We were obliged and did it).
/ Нам пришлось продать квартиру и купить ту, которая побольше.

NOTE 1: have (got) to can be used if an o b liga tio n exists now :


То ta lk a b o u t th e fu tu re , |
I've (got) to get up early tomorrow - we are going to Devon.
Will have to is used:
1. for a purely future obligation:
One day everybody will have to get permission to buy a car.
2. to tell people what to do. It makes the instructions sound less direct:
You can borrow my car, but you’ll have to bring it back before ten.
TeachingUnit 4. THE MODAL VERB HAVE TO/HAVE GOT TO 57

N0TE2: Must is used when the speaker decides what it is necessary to do.
I must buy some new clothes. (I decide what to do).
• s stronger than have to and indicates urgency and importance.
I must meet Jane tonight. (It's very urgent that I meet her).
Must is used only in the present or future. It borrows the rest of its tenses from have to.
I must go to the meeting tomorrow.
She had to be present at the lecture last Monday.
Have to is used when the necessity comes from outside the speaker or when others decide for the
speaker what it is necessary to do.
He has to be at work at 9.00. (The boss says so).

2. Absence of necessity. It indicates that the action was (is) not performed as there was (is) no
obligation.
You don't have to take a jacket. It's rather warm. / Тебе не надо брать с собой жакет.
Не didn't have to buy any milk. There was a lot in the fridge. / Ему не пришлось
покупать молоко.
Sometimes the negative form of the modal verb have to shows that the action was performed or is
- g to be performed although it wasn't or it isn't necessary but the speaker did it or is going to do
dueto his/her personal desire and doesn't regret about it.
I bought some presents for my friend from Canada. I didn't have to, but I wanted to
please him. /... Это было необязательно, но я хотел его порадовать.
You can tell те if you want but you don't have to (you can if you want). / Ты
можешь рассказать мне, если хочешь, но это необязательно делать.
Have to replaces must where must cannot be used:
a. to express past necessity or obligation;
They had to do what they were told. /И м пришлось сделать так, как им сказали.
b. to express absence of necessity, since must not means prohibition;
You don't have to make another copy of the document, Miss Black. / Вам не нужно
делать еще одну копию документа.
to express a future obligation, since the future tense of the verb have to makes the obligation
more precise.
You'll have to take a taxi if you mean to catch the train. / Тебе придется взять
такси, если ты хочешь успеть на поезд.
Have got to has the same basic meaning as have to. It is more usual in spoken English especially in the
negative and interrogative forms. Besides, have to usually denotes a habitual action and have got to
denotes a particular action (mainly in colloquial style).
Do you have to get up early in the morning?/ Тебе нужно вставать рано утром?
Have you got to get up early in the morning?/ Тебе нужно вставать рано утром?
Note the following set phrase with have (got) to:
You have (got) to be kidding - Должно быть, ты шутишь.
58 English Gram mar Practice

PRACTICE ACTIVITIES

Ex. 1 Read the following sentences containing the modal verb have to/have got to and fill
in the chart. Identify the use of it and the synonymous expression as in the example.

Modal Verb Have to / Have got to Use (Meaning) Synonymous


Expression
1. You w ill have to start le a rn in g S p a n ish if yo u 're Obligation, You'll be obliged to start
g o in g to live in M ad rid . arising out o f learning Spanish if you're
circumstances. going to live in Madrid.
2. I've been having to give a lot o f th o u g h t
re ce n tly to m y fe e lin g s to w a rd yo u .

3. "W h a t do yo u have to do to e arn so m uch


m o n e y? " Lynn asked .

4. G lo ria didn't have to iron th e clo th e s b e cau se


Sue had a lre a d y d o n e it.

5. You can b uy her a new d ress, but you don't


have to. She has p len ty of th e m at hom e.
6. A lan had to get a visa to v isit C a n a d a.

7. You can give th e w a ite r a tip, but you don't have


to. It is a lre a d y in clu d e d into the price.
8. For th e next few w e e ks I had to stay in bed.
Eve ryo n e cam e to visit m e and b ro u g h t me
p re se n ts and I didn't have to do the cookin g.
9. W e 'v e got to be carefu l.

10. T h in g s th at w e re d a n g e ro u s had to be
d e stro ye d .

Ex. 2 Complete the sentences. Use have to, has to or had to in each of them.

1. I w e n t d o w n to w n ye ste rd a y b e cau se I had to go to City Hall


2. I can 't go to the m ovie to n igh t b e c a u s e _____________________
3. I c o u ld n 't go to Pete's p a rty last S a tu rd a y b e c a u s e __________
4. Josh c a n 't go d o w n to w n w ith us this a fte rn o o n b e c a u s e ____
5. W h e n I w as in high s c h o o l,_________________________________
6. If you w a n t to go a b r o a d ,___________________________________
Teaching Unit 4. THE MODAL VERBS HAVE TO/ HAVE GOT TO_________________________ 59
7.I'msorry I w a s a b se n t fro m cla ss ye ste rd ay, b u t ____________________.
8. Erica ca n 't co m e to her cla ss to m o rro w b e c a u s e _________________________ .
9. I need a car b e c a u s e _____________________ .
10. When I w o rke d in m y u n cle 's r e s ta u r a n t,_____________________________.
11. I f you w a n t to be a d m itte d to th e u n iv e rs ity ,_________________________________
12.W
e w a n ted to go on a p icn ic ye ste rd ay, b u t w e c o u ld n 't b e c a u s e ____________
13. I w an ted t o ___________________ye ste rd ay, b u t _______________________ in ste ad .

Ex.3 What have you got to do? Think about ten sentences about things that you've got to
do next week.

Model: On Monday, I've got to go to the dentist's.

Ex. 4 What do you think are the disadvantages of these jobs? Use you have to.

Model: j air h ostess


You h ave to trave l m ost o f th e tim e . You h ave to w o rk irre g u la r h ou rs. You have to deal
w ith d ifficu lt p a ssen gers.

1. b u sin e ssm a n 6. p h o to g ra p h ic m od el

2. coal m iner 7. o ffice w o rke r

3. fa cto ry w o rke r 8. p o stm a n

4. fo o tb a ll player 9. sh op a ssistan t

5. h a ird re sse r 10. w a itre ss

Ex. 5 Change the sentences so as to make them negative with have to.

Model: "Did they change trains?"


"No, it was a through train so they didn't have to change (trains)"

1. "D id you pay to get into th e c o n c e rt? ”


"N o, w e had free ticke ts so w e ________________________".
2. "D o e s Ja ck sh av e?"
"N o, he's go t a beard s o _______________________________
3. "D id you get up e arly th is m o rn in g?"
"N o, it's m y day o ff s o ________________________________ ".
4. "D o you w o rk?"
"No, I'm e xtre m e ly rich, s o ___________________________
5. "D id you pay fo r the car p ark?"
"No, th e car p a rk w as free s o __________________________
60 English G ram m a r Practice

6. "Did you wait in a queue in the bank this morning?"


"No, there was no queue, so I _______________________
7. "Are you very busy?"
"No, I've got a few things to do but I_________________ them now".
8. "Did the man go to the hospital?"
"No, he was slightly injured in the accident, but h e _____________ to hospital".
9. "Do we need to go yet?"
"No, we've got plenty of time so w e _________________ ".
10. "Did you wait too long for an answer?"
"No, she gave it immediately, so I ____________________".

Ex. 6 Complete the sentences using the correct forms of have to and the words in brackets.
Be careful to use the correct tense.

M odels: I have to leave (l/leave) now; I've got an appointment at the dentist's.
Did you have to study y ou/study) literature when you were at school?
You don't have to come (You/not/come) with me now if you don't want to.

1. __________________(l/not/work) hard because the job was very easy.


2. __________________(l/do) this work now, or can I do it tomorrow?
3. _________________ (I/run) to school because I was late.
4. __________________(l/go) to an important meeting yesterday.
5. _________________ (You/show) your passports when you reached the border?
6. _________________ (I/pa y) in cash next week or can I give you a cheque?
7. I want to be an airline pilot. What qualifications______________ (you/have) to be a pilot?
8. _________________ (You/not/decide) today. You can tell me tomorrow.
9. I arrived late yesterday because_______________ (l/wait) a long time for a bus.
10. A :_______________ (you/work) every weekend?
B: No, I don't; but _______________ (l/work) last weekend.

Ex. 7 Translate into English using the verb have to in its modal meaning.

1. Вам придется выслушать меня, хотя вам и неприятны мои слова.


2. Ей пришлось вчера остаться дома, так как у нее заболел ребенок.
3. Мне приходится сейчас поздно ложиться спать и рано вставать.
4. В котором часу Вам нужно выходить из дому?
5. Вам придется пойти туда немедленно.
6. Неужели она предприняла этот шаг? Ей придется винить только себя.
7. Было уже поздно, и нам пришлось ехать на такси.
8. Вам не придется его долго ждать, он сейчас вернется.
9. Ребенок болен. Ему придется полежать в постели.
10. Я очень сожалею, что именно мне пришлось сообщить вам эту неприятную
новость.
11. Мне пришлось принять это приглашение, хотя идти туда у меня не было желания,
но я не хотел обидеть своих друзей.
12. Ему пришлось вернуться в гостиницу, так как вылет его самолета задерживался.
13. Тебе надо будет еще раз позвонить им?
14. Я надеюсь твоей жене не нужно будет мыть машину.
15. Мне не нужно быть там раньше трех часов.
16. Один из гостей сел около меня. Мне не нужно было говорить, кто он.
17. «Я ведь никогда не говорил тебе, что учился в частной школе?» - спросил Алекс. -
«В этом не было необходимости. Я это знала».
18. «Поторопись! Нам надо еще зайти в м агазин» - «В этом нет необходимости, так как
мы обедаем сегодня в гостях».
19. Вам придётся поговорить с ним лично.
20. Я вынужден был извиниться, хотя мне это и было неприятно.
21. Он вынужден был сделать вам замечание, не правда ли?
22. Ему не пришлось сдавать вступительные экзамены.
23. У нас не было необходимости провожать их в аэропорт. Они сами хорошо знали
дорогу.
24. Работу придётся сделать сегодня.
25. Всю страницу пришлось переписать из-за одной опечатки.

MUST AND HAVE ТО COM PARED

Ex. 8 Fill in the blanks with one of the modal verbs from the box.

must mustn't have to don't have to

1. If you are using your own authority, you say "Yo u ___________________do it".
2. If you are reporting another person's authority, you say "You__________do it".
3. "Yo u ___________ do it" means "Don't do it".
4. "Yo u ___________ do it" means "You can do it if you want to".
5. means there is an obligation or need not to do it.
6. means there is no obligation or need to do it.
62 English Grammar Practice

Ex. 9 Match the sentence beginnings in column A with their ends in column B.

A B
1. You mustn't drink alcohol a. to enjoy it.
2. You mustn't keep medicines b. when you go into a pub.
3. You don't have to be a member c. if teachers object to the new curriculum.
4. You don't have to play golf well d. to run up and down the aisle of the aircraft.
5. Newspapers mustn't e. to use the tennis club.
6. You don't have to drink alcohol f. when you drive.
7. Newspapers don't have to say g. who provided their information.
8. Children mustn't be allowed h. where children can get them.
9. You mustn't be surprised i. mislead the public.

Ex. 10 Complete the sentences with don't/ doesn't have to or must not.

1. The soup is too hot. You must not eat it yet. Wait for it to cool.
2. You don't have to have soup for lunch. You can have a sandwich if you like.
3. Liz finally got a car, so now she usually drives to work. S h e _______________ take
the bus.
4. Tommy, you__________________________ say that word. That's not a nice word.
5. Mr. Moneybags is very rich. He work for a living.
6. If you are in canoe, yo u _____ stand up and walk around. If you
do, the canoe will probably tip over.
7. According to the rules of the game, one player______________________________ hit or tip
another player.
8. The review class before the final exam is optional. We go
unless we want to.
9. Most vegetables can be eaten raw. You______________ _cook them.
10. I can stay in bed tomorrow morning because I work.
11. Whatever you do, you __________________ touch that switch. It's very
dangerous.
12. You_________________ _ forget what I told you. It's very important.
13. S h e _________________________ get up so early. She gets up very early because she
prefers to.
14. W e_______ leave yet. We've got plenty of time.
15. I don't want anyone to know. You tell anyone what
I said.
16. wear a suit to work but I usually do.
TeachingUnit 4. THE MODAL VERB HAVE TO / HAVE GOT TO 63
17. There's a lift in the building, so we___ climb the stairs.
18. Don't make so much noise. W e_____ wake the baby.
19. I_ _ eat too much. I'm supposed to be on a diet.
20. You__ be a good player to enjoy a game of tennis.
21. You_ _ come with us if you don't want to.
22. The children can look at the stamp collection, but t h e y ________________ touch
anything.
23. You_________________________be surprised if she suddenly bursts out crying.
24. H e _________________________ go to school tomorrow: it is his half-term (a holiday).
25. You__________________________leave the building without asking permission first.
26. I know they are only dancing, but th e y __________________________make so much
noise, surely?
27. I'm sure I ________________________________ tell you what she is like. You know her
as well as I do.
28. You______________________________ use a pencil to write a check because someone
could change the amount you have written on it.
29. When the phone rings, y o u ___________________ __ answer it. It's up to you.
30. When you have a new job, you____ be late the first day. In fact, it is a
good idea to be a few minutes early.

Ex. 11 Complete these sentences with must or have to (in its correct form). Sometimes it is
possible to use either; sometimes only have to is possible.

Model: Well, it's 10 o'clock. I must (or have to) go now.


Ann was feeling ill last night. She had to leave the party early.

1. You really________________ work harder if you want to pass that examination.


2. Many children in Britain________________ wear uniform when they go to school.
3. Last night Don suddenly became ill. W e ______________________ call the doctor.
4. Ju lia______________wear glasses since she was eight years old.
5. I'm afraid I can't come tomorrow. I __ work late.
6. I'm sorry I couldn't come yesterday. I work late.
7. Tom m ay__________________ go away next week.
8. We couldn't repair the car ourselves. We take it to a garage.
9. When you come to London again, yo u __ come and see us.
10. Paul doesn't like his new job. Sometimes he _______ work at weekends.
64 English G ram m ar Practice

Ex. 12 A. Les is go ing to take a group o f young people on a h ill-w alkin g holiday. He is
telling them som e th in gs th ey must know before th ey set out.
Com plete the explanatio n s w ith a suitable form of must or have to. Som etim es
m ore than one an sw er is possible. (see Note 2)

"Well, before we set out, there are some things you (1)______________ remember. So will
everyone listen carefully, please?
The main thing is, we (2 )___________________ all stay together when we are on the hills. Last
year, we (3 )_________________ call out the mountain rescue team, when someone in the group got
lost. We found him, but (4)_______________________ apologize to a lot of people for the trouble we'd
caused. So on this trip we (5 )_____________________ show people that we know how to look after
ourselves. And of course, everybody (6)____________________ have the right clothes and equipment.
You've got a list of what to bring.
Now, about transport. The bus is going to pick us up from here tomorrow morning at 6:30, so we
(7 ) ____________ be here by then. It's a long trip to the hills, and so the driver won't be happy if he
(8) _____wait for anybody.
Now, Ruth and Jimmy, I know that you ( 9 ) _______________come home early, and that your
friends are going to collect you by car. That's OK. And Kenny, you (10)________________drop out
because you (11)______________go to an interview. Sorry you can't come, but I hope you get the job.
We (12)___________ arrange another trip sometime, and you can come on that".

B. Fill in: must or have to.

"Welcome on behalf of Newton Industries. I'd like to explain a few of the factory rules. Mr.
Newton has said we (1)__________ wear overalls at all times. He wants us to arrive at 8 a.m. and
we (2)_______ ___ clock in. There is a possibility of working overtime but you (3)__________
decide whether you want to work extra hours. Mr. Newton insists that we (4)___________
have fifteen-minute breaks every three or four hours but we (5)___________ choose when we
would like those breaks. There is a problem with parking. The city insists we (6)___________
use the public garage. They believe parking on the grass is too damaging to public property and I
(7)______ ___ say I agree. Finally, as far as health insurance is concerned you
(8 ) __________register as soon as possible. Are there any questions?"

Ex. 13 Com plete the sentences, using must, mustn't, have to or will have to

Model: Julie, trying to train her dog: You must sit when I tell you to!

1. The teacher who is invigilating Stephen's exam: Yo u __________________ try to talk to


each other during the exam.
2. The doctor to a nurse, about a patient with a bad heart: H e _________________ stay in
bed for several weeks an d _________________ talk too much.
3. Mr. Wilson phones his wife at 6 pm: I'm afraid I'm going to be late - I _________ finish
some letters.
Teaching Unit 4. THE MODAL VERB HAVE TO / HAVE GOT TO 65
4. The immigration officer notices that a traveller hasn't signed his new passport: You
sign it as soon as you get it.
5. Mr. Wilson explains why he is taking a pill: I ______________ take these pills for my
blood pressure.
6. Mr. Wilson is offering more cake to a guest at a tea party: Yo u _____________ have
some more cake.
7. Stephen has hurt his knee, playing football: The doctor says I _____________ play for
three weeks.

Ex. 14 Complete the sentences using must, mustn't, have to, don't have to, didn't have to.

1. You_________ drive fast. It's dangerous. The road is wet.


2. You_________drive fast. We've got plenty of time. I'm sure we'll be on time.
3. Nick________ save money to buy a car. His grandfather gave it to him for his birthday.
4. You_________ service your car regularly.
5. The exhibition is free. You_________ pay to get in.
6. On Saturday Tom__________ take out his dog Terry. His father had a long walk with her
in the park.
7. Hurry up! The wedding ceremony is beginning in half an hour. W e_________ be late.
8. You_____________ speak about our new project with them. It's commercial secret.
9. Now w e ___________ think of something that can help us.
10. Children__________ be left unattended at any time.
11. Don't worry about that. You_________ do as you think best.
12. Nowadays one___________ do nearly everything oneself.
13. Sooner or later we a ll__________ pay for what we do.
14. You__________ always come to me if anything goes wrong.

Ex. 15 For each of the sentences below write a new sentence as similar in meaning as
possible, to the original one. Use the modal verbs have to, must and the expression
to be likely to.

1. I always sleep through the alarm clock. My Dad is obliged to wake me up every
morning.
My Dad_________________________________________ every morning.
2. It is important that you be here at 9.00.
You ______________________________________here at 9.00.
3. It is rarely necessary to tell Ann anything twice.
Ann_________________________________________________ twice.
4. In all probability she has informed the bank of the change of her address.
S h e ___________________________ the bank of the change of her address.
5. Is there any chance that he'll get a pay rise?
____________________he_______________________ a pay rise?
66 English G ram m ar Practice

6. It wasn't necessary for her to take time off work when her son was ill, her mother
could stay with him.
S h e _________________________ _____ time off work when her son was ill.
7. It is necessary to build the road to take traffic away from the city centre.
The road________________________________ to take traffic away from the city centre.
8. I'm sure Joan borrowed some money from my sister to get to Peru.
Joan____________________________________ some money from my sister.
9. Why don't you come and visit us soon. It would be so nice to see you again.
You_________________________________________ us soon.
10. No doubt they will give exam advice at the end of the course.
They_______________________________ exam advice at the end of the course.
11. It looks certain that the orchestra's instruments are arriving on a later plane.
The orchestra's instruments_________________________ on a later plane.
12. There is no obligation to get an international driving licence for this country.
You___________________ an international driving licence for this country.
13. There can be no doubt that the solicitor has received the information by now.
The solicitor___________________________ the information by now.
14. It is essential that patients shouldn't eat or drink anything before the operation.
Patients_______________________________ before the operation.

Ex. 16 Decide if these sentences are correct or wrong. Correct the mistakes.
1. You mustn't tell me, I already know: John told me.
2. You don't have to take me to the airport; I'll call a taxi.
3. You don't have to walk in the middle of the road; it's dangerous.
4. If the danger flag is flying, you mustn't go swimming.
5. You know electricity's expensive; you don't have to leave lights on all over the house.
6. We mustn’t play this game; there are other games we can play. Do you like cards?
7. There was no one to help him so he must move the furniture himself.
8. He had to wait outside as the bank was closed, hadn't he?
9. This is getting too far, I feel I must do something before it is too late.
10. Do you realize that you don't have to mention it to anybody?

Ex. 17 Here are some replies which illustrate common uses of must, have to and have got to.
Can you suggest what might have been said in each case?

1. - .................................................... - You've got to be kidding.


2. - .................................................... - There must be some mistake.
3. - .................................................... - You must be mad.
4. - .................................................... - Oh, you didn't have to do that.
5. - .................................................... - It must have been Diana's husband.
Teaching Unit 5. The MODAL VERB NEED___________________________________________________________________ 67

Teaching Unit 5 TH E M ODAL VERB NEED

For Study

The verb need may be either a modal or an ordinary verb. As a modal verb need has only one form:
the third person singular has no -s, and questions and negatives are made without do. In this case,
need is normally followed by the infinitive without to.
We needn't reserve seats - there'll be plenty of room.
Need I fill in a form?
In reported speech it remains unchanged.
The teacher said that we needn't come.
As an ordinary verb it has the Past Indefinite tense form needed and regular negative and interrogative
forms: the third person singular has -s , and questions and negatives are made with do. Need is usually
followed by the infinitive with to.
Everybody needs to rest sometimes.
Do we need to reserve seats on the train?
There is a slight difference in the usage of an ordinary verb and a modal verb. An ordinary verb is used
mainly when the following infinitive denotes a habitual action.
Do I need to show my pass every time?
You don't need to say it every time you see him.
As a modal verb need is more common for one particular occasion.
Need I show you my pass now?
You needn't say it now.
Compare:
It's OK - You needn't pay for that phone call. (or: You don't need to pay for that
phone call.) / Тебе не нужно платить за этот звонок.
You don't need to pay for emergency calls in most countries. / В большинстве
стран не нужно платить за экстренный вызов.
The modal verb need is mainly restricted to negative and interrogative sentences whereas the ordinary
verb can be used in all types of sentences and is therefore more common.

Need expresses:
1. Personal necessity due to circumstances. It is mainly used in questions and affirmative statements,
where it is a replacement for must or have to. It corresponds to the Russian - нужно.
Need you work so hard? /Тебе нужно так много работать?
Need she come tomorrow?/ Ей нужно завтра приходить?
All you need is to take a taxi now. / Все, что тебе нужно сейчас сделать, это
вызвать такси.
68 English Grammar Practice

In questions need is used when there is a strong element of negation or doubt or when the speaker
expects a negative answer.
Need she go there? (hoping for a negative answer) / Ей туда нужно идти?
I wonder if I need go there. (statement of doubt) / Интересно, нужно ли мне
туда идти?

2. Lack of personal necessity. It is mainly used in negative statements and corresponds to the Russian
не нужно, нет необходимости.
I needn't cut the grass, I'll do it later. / Мне не нужно косить траву, я сделаю
это позже.
She needn't come with us if she doesn't want to. / Ей нет необходимости идти с
нами, если она не хочет.
You needn't speak so loudly. / Тебе не нужно так громко говорить.
The negation is not always combined with need, but may be expressed by other parts of the sentence:
I don't think we need mention him at all. / Я не думаю, что нам нужно
упоминать его имя.
I need hardly say that you are to blame. / Едва ли мне нужно говорить, что Вы
виноваты.
Need is used with scarcely and hardly particularly in formal contexts and corresponds to the Russian
едва ли нужно:
We need hardly point out that there is a water shortage at the moment. (It is almost
unnecessary for us to point out...) / Едва ли нужно говорить о том, ч т о в
данный момент там не хватает воды.
I need scarcely add that you will be missed. (It is almost unnecessary for me to add...)
/ Едва ли мне стоит отметить, что по тебе будут скучать.

3. Absence of necessity with an action, which was performed though it wasn't necessary.
In negative statements need followed by the perfect infinitive indicates that the action expressed
by the infinitive was performed but it was not necessary. It implies a waste of time or effort, and is
therefore translated by зря, незачем, не к чему было.
You needn't have spent all the money. Now we've got nothing left. / Зря ты
потратил все деньги / не к чему было тратить.
We needn't have waited for her because she didn't show up at all. / Нечего было ее
ждать, она все равно не пришла.
Teaching Unit 5. The MODAL VERB NEED 69

NOTE 1:
Needn't ◊ Didn't need to ◊ Needn't have
• don't have to/don't need to/needn't followed by the non-perfect infinitive (it is not necessary
in the present or future):
You don't have to/ don't need to/needn't worry about it any more. I'll take care of
that. (It is not necessary to worry...)

• didn't need to / didn't have to (it was not necessary in the past and we may not know if the
action happened or not):
She didn't need to / didn't have to buy a dress for the party. (It wasn't necessary
for her to buy a dress, and we don't know if she bought one.)

! • needn't followed by the perfect infinitive (we know that something happened in the past
although it was not necessary):
You needn't have said that. She was very upset by your remarks. (You said it,
although it was not necessary)

NOTE 2: i
Present tense forms of need are used when making decisions about the future:
Need I come in tomorrow?
Tell her she doesn't need to work tonight.
Will need to... can be used to talk about future obligation, and give advice for the future. It can i
make orders and instructions sound less direct:
We will need to repair the roof next year.
You will need to start work soon if you want to pass your exams.
You will need to fill in this form before you see the Inspector.

N O TE 3:
Needn't - Mustn't
Need not is used to say that there is no obligation:
You needn't tell Jennifer - she already knows.
Need not is also sometimes used to say that something is not necessarily true:
She looks quite ill. I'm sure it's flue.
It needn't be - maybe she's just overtired.
Mustn't is used to say that there is an obligation not to do something:
You mustn't tell Margaret - I don't want her to know.
70 English Grammar Practice

PRACTICE ACTIVITIES

Ex. 1 Read the following sentences containing the verb need and fill in the chart. Identify
the use of it and the synonymous expression as in the example. Then translate the
sentences into Russian.

Need Use (Meaning) Synonymous Expression


1. If you don't like the cocktail, you needn't drink Lack of personal If you don't like the cock­
it. necessity tail, there is no necessity
to drink it.
2. Need we insist upon the date?

3. Angela opened the door and walked in. Her


daughter was still up. "You needn't have stayed
up, waiting for me", said Angela.
4. Does he need to study more at home?

5. I don't think we need give her so much of our


attention.
6. He didn't need to take his passport, it wasn't
necessary.
7. I need scarcely point out that you are not
allowed to smoke cigars on an airplane.
8. You don't need to buy a ticket to go by bus if
you have a bus-pass.
9. He needn't have shown any identification,
because everybody knew him.
10. You need to type very fast if you want to get a
job as a secretary.
11. You needn't have anything to do with me, my
good boy.
12. Of course, she did seem very depressed. But
she needn't have been.

Ex. 2 Underline the more likely answer. If they are equally likely, underline them both.

1. You needn't/ don't need to close the door. I'm just going out.
2. In most developed countries people needn't/don't need to boil water before they drink it.
Teaching Unit 5. The MODAL VERB NEED 71
3. Lynn has agreed to organize the party, so she said that the rest of us needn't / don't
need to do anything.
4. I've brought the car, so you needn't / don't need to carry your bags to the station.
5. You needn't/ don't need to have any qualifications to be a politician.
6. Now that it has been eradicated, doctors needn't / don't need to vaccinate against
smallpox.
7. You needn't/ don't need to go to the supermarket. I went shopping earlier.
8. In many countries you needn't/ don't need to pay to use public libraries.

Ex. 3 Complete these sentences with the correct form of need.


1. The teacher says w e _______________ go to school tomorrow. (negative)
The teacher says we needn't / don't need to ao to school tomorrow.
2. ______ I ______ have a lice n ce to drive a car in this country? (question)
Do I need to have a licence to drive a car in this country?
3. I've told her that she___________ work harder. (positive)
4. You_________________ take any equipment - the school provides it. (negative)
5. _____ I ______ phone you before I come to see you? (question)
6. My mother says I _____________ do the washing up today.(negative)
7. You________ have more experience before you apply for this job. (positive)
8. You can go home now, yo u _______________ stay any longer.(negative)
9. You_______________ work here to be able to use the tennis court. (negative)
10. You_______________ say any more: I agree with you (negative)

Ex. 4 Answer the following questions using needn't.

Model: Do you want me to pay you now?


No, you needn't (pay me now). Pay me next week.

1. Shall I feed the dog?


2. Shall I wake you early tomorrow?
3. Do you want your sister to bathe the baby?
4. Do you want him to do the washing-up now?
5. Shall I leave you the newspaper to read?
6. Do you want the secretary to come and see you?
7. Do you want the children to finish writing their letters now?
8. Shall I clean the windows today?
9. Shall I type these letters now?
10. Shall I go to the bank this morning?
72 English Grammar Practice

Ex. 5 Bill has just left the army. List five things he doesn't need to do any more.

He doesn't need to wear a uniform.

Ex. 6 Read these situations and respond to them according to the model.

Model: Ann bought some eggs. When she got home, she found that she already had plenty
of eggs.
She needn't have bought any eggs.

1. You have just swept the floor but I had already swept it.
2. He bought an engagement ring but she refused to marry him.
3. She phoned her friend with the news. Her friend already knew.
4. I ran to catch the train. It arrived late anyway.
5. He brought his aunt flowers for her birthday. She was away.
6. I read a book for the exam. There were no questions on that book.
7. The people waited for the Queen to pass. She went another way.
8. I did not tell Mother to send me money but she did.
9. He did not tell the workmen to paint the fence but they did.
10. I did not tell our client to pay for the samples but he did.
11. The girl did not tell me to drive her home but of course I did.
12. Tom went out and took an umbrella with him because he thought it was going to rain.
But it didn't rain.
13. Jack got very angry with Jill and threw a book at her. Later Jill said: "I know you were
very angry but...
14. Brian had no money, so he sold his car. A few days later he won a lot of money in a lottery.
15. When we went on holiday we took the camera with us but we didn't use it in the end.
16. I thought I was going to miss my train so I rushed to the station. But the train was late
and in the end I had to wait 20 minutes.

Ex. 7 Write didn't need to or needn't have and the correct form of the verb to complete
these sentences.

1. I ____________ (catch) the bus this morning, because Vic gave me a lift.
/ didn't need to catch the bus this morning, because Vic gave me a lift.
2. I ____________ (lend) him that money. I found out later that he had already borrowed
all the money he wanted.
I needn't have lent him that money.
Teaching Unit 5. The MODAL VERB NEED 73
3. I ____________ (do) that homework the teacher didn't even look at it.
4. I ____________ (take) a tent, because I knew I could hire one at the campsite.
5. You__________ (buy) such an expensive present, but I'm very glad that you did.
6. I_____________ (take) any money: they told me later that it wasn't necessary.
7. I ____________________(count) the money as it was done automatically.
8. I ___________________(work) so hard for my exams: they were much easier than I
expected them to be.
9. I ________________ (get up) so early: I had forgotten it was a holiday.
10. I had some friends in the town, so I _____________________ (stay) in a hotel.

Ex. 8 Comment on each of these situations using didn't need to or needn't have and the
appropriate form of words in brackets.

1. Anna was just about to ask Chris for some money when she realised she had enough in
her purse already.
She had enough, so she____________ . (ask)
2. Anna borrowed some money from Chris. Later she realised that she had had enough in
her purse anyway.
She___________ after all. (borrow)
3. I told him the whole story. He wasn't the least bit interested.
I ________________ . (bother to tell).
4. I started to tell him the story, but he stopped me because he had already heard it.
I _________________ .(tell)
5. She mislaid the manuscript, which meant that she had to type it all out again. Later she
found the original manuscript in a drawer.
She_________________ after all. (retype)
6. She mislaid the manuscript but fortunately someone found it again before she had
actually started to retype it.
Fortunately, she_______________ . (retype)
7. Joe's wife asked him to do the washing-up while she was out. He not only did the
washing-up, but the rest of the housework as well.
When she returned, she said: "You_________ (do all the housework)".
8. I decided to take my car to France. I asked the Embassy if I should get an international
driving licence. They said it wasn't necessary.
I ___________ an international licence for France. (get)
9. I also took out an insurance, which cost me €75.00. A friend of mine got an identical
insurance for only €25.00.
I ______________ €75,00 on the insurance, (spend)
10. I bought a new car last year, and then a month later I won one in a competition.
I______________ all my money. (spend)
11. I went to an interview, but they accepted me without it.
I______________ an interview. (go to)
74 English Grammar Practice

12. Sue was feeling a lot better by the weekend, so we didn't go shopping for her.
Fortunately, w e __________ food for her. (buy)

Ex. 9 Find the errors and correct the following sentences where necessary.

1. It's sweet of you, but you really didn't need to buy me flowers.
2. It's a good job we didn't need to be here earlier.
3. It was strange that we didn't need to show our passports.
4. You didn't need to come and pick me up: I could have got a taxi.
5. There was a sofa in the other room: you didn't need to sleep on the floor.
6. I didn't need to use cash; I had my credit card with me after all.

Ex. 10 Put in need, needn't, don't need, didn't need, needn't have or do...need and the
correct form of the infinitive.

1. You_____________(to worry) about me. Everything is going to be fine.


2. Sh e ___________ (to type) this document. There turned out to be another copy of it on
the desk.
3. You______________(to water) these flowers. I did it before going to work.
4. _____________(we to book) a table at the restaurant, or are there usually enough places
free?
5. You_______________ (to bother) to see me to the door, thanks. I know the way.
6. I ______________(to buy) so much wine. Everybody drank beer.
7. You_______________ (to tell) me if it's a secret. I understand.
8. W e ______________(to check) the figures again. I don't think they're right.
9. W e _______________ (to set off) too early. The train doesn't leave until 9:30.
10. I met Mary by chance in town, so I ______________(to ring) her yesterday.
11. You_______________ (to repair) the toaster. I'll do it myself.
12. The babysitter came earlier than usual so I __________________ (to ask) my sister
to come.

Ex. 11 Translate into English, using the verb need in its modal meaning.

1. Я думаю, вам необязательно уходить так рано.


2. Вам не следовало беспокоиться. Он может все сделать сам.
3. Вам не нужно было приходить сюда.
4. Нам не нужно было так торопиться. У нас было много времени в запасе.
5. Тебе не нужно идти в магазин. Я уже купила все, что хотела.
6. Вам не нужно приходить сюда.
7. Тебе не нужно покупать билеты, я уже купила два.
8. Можно и не торопиться, до отправления поезда более двадцати минут.
Teaching Unit 5. The MODAL VERB NEED 75
9. Не стоит так расстраиваться. Все будет хорошо.
10. Вы напрасно его ждете, он сейчас занят.
11. Не нужно ничего мне рассказывать, я уже все знаю.
12. Нам не нужно было сообщать ему эту новость. Он очень сильно расстроился.
13. Не стоит плакать, она скоро поправится.
14. Вам едва ли надо напоминать мне об этом.
15. Вам не нужно было поднимать шум из-за такого пустяка.
16. Вам не нужно было ждать его. Он и сам нашел бы дорогу.
17. Ты зря заказал номер в гостинице. У нас есть свободная комната.
18. Тебе незачем тратить на них все деньги.
19. Нам нужно переодеться к обеду.
20. Он знал, что ему не надо никому ничего объяснять.
21. Нам не стоит варить всю картошку.
22. А нам обязательно туда идти?
23. Ты зря приехал на машине. Здесь нет моста через дорогу.
24. Ты знаешь детей. Они все ломают. Мне нет нужды говорить тебе об этом.
25. Мне едва ли надо говорить вам о том, что лечение будет платным.
26. Мы зря вышли из дому так рано; поезда не будет в течение часа.
27. Все слова в тексте были знакомы, и им незачем было пользоваться словарём. Это
только отняло у них больше времени.
28. Мне купили сотовый телефон, и теперь мне не нужно брать его у друга, чтобы
позвонить.
29. Вам не нужно было покупать этот словарь, у меня есть лишний экземпляр.
30. Не стоит посылать ему это сообщение. Всё равно он скоро обо всём узнает.

MUST, HAVE ТО AND NEED COM PARED

Ex. 12 Fill in: needn't, needn't have, don't need / have to, didn't need / have to and the
correct form of the verbs in brackets. (see Note 1)

"Have you seen 'Modern Families' yet?" Paul asked Mary as he was checking through the cinema
listings. "I saw it last night", she replied. " I (1) needn't have gone (go) though - I already knew what it
would be like." "Didn't you like it?" " Not really. The director (2 )_________________ (spend) so much
money presenting such a weak story. It's a good thing (3) I___________________(pay) to get in." "How
did you manage that?" asked Paul. "I went with Tom, " she answered. "Critics ( 4 ) ________________
(pay) to see films you know. "How was the acting?" " Well, the director ( 5 ) _________________ (hire)
such good actors for a film like that, "said Mary. "I mean you (6 )______________________(have) much
talent to sit around talking about nothing for hours." "Did Tom review it?" "He (7) _____________
(write) about it. Somebody else had already done it for his paper. We just went out of curiosity, but
really we (8 )_____________ (go)."
76 English Gram mar Practice

Ex. 13 Fill in: mustn't or needn't. (see Note 3)

Tom,
Thanks for offering to chair tomorrow's meeting for me. Apart from Sally and Dave, the sales
staff (1) ___________attend, but the personnel people (2) _______________miss it, as several matters
concern them. You (3 )___________________mention the new offices - we can deal with that later and
you (4 )____________ discuss the changes in the computer course timetables since they are not urgent.
Don't forget that you (5 )_________________ mention the visit by the inspectors - we don't want people
panicking. You (6)_____________________ forget to bring up the matter of the Smithson contract, and
you also (7 )________________ leave out the new manager's appointment. You (8 )_______________go
into details unless people have questions. But remember you (9 )_____________________give anyone
the idea that their job is at risk because of this. Make it clear that employees (10)_______________
speak unless they want to. Last but not least, you (11)__________________ mention the staff party -
Mr. Jones wants to announce that himself. By the way, you (12) _______________________ take notes,
as my secretary will be there to do that.

Ex. 14 Complete with must, m ustn't or needn't

Mr. Barnett Pam, here are some more letters to answer. You 1 ) ____________ answer them
today, they aren't important, but this report to Mr. Walters 2 ) ___________go out today. And Mr.
Mills 3 ) _____________ sign this contract today, so please make sure that he doesn't forget. Oh,
and please tell Miss Finch that she 4 ) ____________ leave her car in front of the main entrance. She
5) ______________ leave it in the car park - like everybody else! Then tell the new trainee that she
6) ____________ come so late every morning. It was 10 o'clock again this morning - I saw her in the
lift. And ring Mr. Bell, please. Tell him he 7 ) _____________ wait for me at lunch-time. I'll meet him
at the pub. Oh, and you 8 ) ____________ type this report too carefully, Pam, it's only a draft. Oh, and
don't forget Mr. Suzuki is coming some time next week. I 9 ) ______________________ see him before I
go to the States. Oh, and another thing, you 1 0 )________________ come in on Saturday. The figures
we needed won't be ready until next week.
Thanks,
Laura

Ex. 15 Complete the sentences:

A. using the modal verbs needn't, don't need to, didn't need to, mustn't, don't have to,
didn't have to and the correct form of the infinitive. Sometimes more than one answer
is possible.

1. I'll b e q u ite late g e ttin g to L o n d o n , b u t y o u __________________ (to change) y o u r p la n s fo r


m e.
2. I'm a fra id I o w e q u ite a lot o f m o n e y to th e b a n k - b u t y o u __________________ (to worry)
a b o u t it.
TeachingU
nit5. The MODAL VERB NEED 77
3. Next time read the small print in the document before you sign it. You____________ (to
make) the same mistake again.
4. H e ___________ (to show) any identification but he did.
5. You____________ (to talk) to the driver while he is driving.
6 . Citizens of EU countries_________ (to have) a visa to go to England.
7. These curtains___________ (to be ironed). I did it yesterday.
8. They____________ (to buy) such a big car as they did.
9. Fortunately, w e _____________ (to walk) the whole distance. Jeremy found us and gave
us a lift.
10. In the Middle East you_______________ never (to use) the left hand for greeting, eating
or drinking. It's offensive.
11. You______________ (to write) an article at the weekend. It's not very urgent. You can
write it during the week.
12. It turned out I _______________ (to tell) them about my departure. They were not
surprised at all at hearing the news.
13. The police___________ (to ring) the bell. The door turned out to be open.
14. Sandra____________ (to feed) the children. They are not hungry because they have just
had dinner at her cousin's.
15. Jenny left her job. Sh e ____________ (to work) at the office any more. She published a
collection of short stories which are quite popular.

B. using the modal verbs must/need//have to and the correct form of the infinitive:
1 . People with fair skin____________ (to be) particularly careful when they go out in the
sun.
2. The Browns__________ (to win) the lottery - they've bought another new car!
3. W e_________ (to give) at least six months' notice if we want to leave the house.
4. They__________ (to go out); the lights are off.
5. According to the rule, y o u __________ (to produce) a cheque guarantee card before
paying by cheque.
6. The doctor says I __________ (to lose) weight before my operation.
7. You____________ (to be) at the office very early?
8. You___________ (to confirm) your resignation in writing.
9. I ___________ (to see) a doctor. I'm feeling bad.
10. I often_________ (to go) on business to different places. I'm tired of traveling.
11. Ian_________ (to tell) her the truth; she doesn't speak to anyone.
12. When you go abroad yo u __________ (to get) a visa.
13. There's something wrong with my car. I ________ (to take) it to the service station.
14. I'll__________ (to look) after my little nephew at the weekend. My sister asked me to.
15. They_________ (to go) for their honeymoon. They've just married.
78 English Grammar Practice

Ex. 16 Complete the second sentence so that it is as similar in meaning as possible to the
first sentence. Use the modal verbs need/ m ust/have to and have got to.

1. It wasn't necessary for us to wait because there was no queue and we left.
We______________________ because there was no queue.
2. He is sleeping now, I'm sure.
He____________________________ now.
3. He has got a lung problem and he is obliged to go to hospital every two weeks.
He____________________________ to hospital every two weeks.
4. I heard about Jane's accident. No doubt, you have worried about her.
You______________________________ about her.
5. It wasn't necessary for me to take so much money; the hotel and the meal were free.
I____________________________________so much money.
6. With that pile of papers on his desk Tony is evidently wishing he'd never taken the job.
Tony_________________________________ he'd never taken the job.
7. I took a lot of suntan lotion with me but I didn't need it.
I__________________________ so much suntan lotion with me.
8. We were not obliged to attend all the classes because some of them were optional.
W e__________________________ all the classes because some of them were
optional.
9. It was essential for them to wear oxygen masks when they reached the top of the
mountain.
They_______________________ oxygen masks when they reached the top of the
mountain.
10. I think you can manage without a pullover in this weather.
You________________________ wear a pullover in this weather.
11. He decided not to take his passport because it wasn't necessary.
H e________________________ his passport with him.
12. If I don't find a job soon, I won't be able to pay the bills.
I need to pay the bills s o _________________ a job soon.
13. It is prohibited to take dogs into the restaurant.
You__________________________ into the restaurant.
14. 'All telephone calls made from the office must be paid for', said the manager.
The manager told_______________________ for all telephone calls made from the
office.
15. It isn't obligatory to wear your seatbelt during the whole of the flight.
You________________________ your seatbelt during the whole of the flight.
Teaching Unit 5 . The MODAL VERB NEED 79

Ex. 17 Which sentences in column A go with the question tags in column B?

A B
1. We don't have to fill in a form, a. haven't we?
2. We have to do every question, b. don't we?
3. We need to pass a test, c. must we?
4. We've got to pay it all back, d. don't we?
5. We must tell them everything, e. do we?
6. We mustn't say that, f. mustn't we?
7. They didn't need to be so rude, g. didn't she?
8. They had to leave early, h. won't they?
9. They won't have to wait very long, i. didn't they?
10. They have had to make a lot of changes, j. did they?
11. She had to sell the house, k. haven't they?
12. They will have to get rid of the stock, l. will they?

Ex. 18 Answer the following questions according to the model.


Note: in answer to questions with need (must) you (I, we, etc.), needn't is used with no,
but must is used with yes.

Model: 1) Need I drink all milk?


Yes, you must. Milk is very nourishing.
No, you needn't, if you don't want to.
2) Must we answer all these questions?
Yes, o f course, you must!
No, you needn't. You can do the second part of the exercise tomorrow.
1. Must we translate the whole article into Russian?
2. Need we have the window open in this cold weather?
3. Need we come early?
4. Must we book the tickets beforehand?
5. Need I comment on this article at all?
6. Must they work so late every evening?
7. Must we do all the exercises to this text?
8. Need we have a telephone in the hall?
9. Need I buy a present for him?
10. Must we fly there this weekend?
80 English Grammar Practice

Ex. 19 Some of these sentences contain errors. Find and correct them.

1. I need hardly to tell you how important it is that we win this order.
2. I don't have to remind you that we are competing with two other companies.
3. We don't need to allow our competitors to gain an advantage over us.
4. We were delighted that we needn't have sold off our subsidiary company last year.
5. We mustn't allow our production rates to drop.
6. You mustn't work at weekends for the moment.
7. You needn't to worry about redundancies.
8. You needn't come if you don't want to but I hope you will.
9. We have enough food at home so we mustn't go shopping today.
10. There's plenty of time for you to make up your mind. You mustn’t decide now.
11. Jim gave me a letter to post and I must remember to post it.
12. You didn't need to ask him about his work, as he seems to be having some problems
there.

Ex. 20 Make up short dialogues with the following statements. Use the modal verb must in
your questions.

1. You needn't sign this if you don't want to.


2. You needn't call on him. You may ring him up.
3. You needn't act upon his advice, if you don't like it.
4. You needn't go with me if you don't want to.
5. You needn't wait. Remember, that your friends are expecting you.
6. You needn't, of course.
7. You needn't bother.
8. No, we needn't. We have plenty of time.

Ex. 21 Work in pairs or small groups. You did or made something together. Now you are
both going to give a talk about how you did it. Plan the talk together using needn't
to, didn't need to, didn't have to and needn't have as often as you realistically
can. Use the ideas below.

Model: We needed to learn to edit film. We didn't have to buy the film ourselves.
Ideas: a) Making a video
b) Writing a biography
c) Writing a cookery book
d) your own ideas...
Teaching Unit 6. THE MODAL VERB BE TO 81

Teaching Unit 6 TH E M O DAL VERB BE TO

For Stud y

To be to as a modal verb is used to talk about formal or official arrangem ents, formal
instructions or to give orders. It is particularly common in news reports to talk about future
events. To be to is used in the Present and Past Indefinite tense form s and expresses:
1. An obligation arising out of an arrangement or plan.
This meaning is found in all types of sentences and corresponds to the Russian планирую, должен:
We are to get a 10 per cent wage rise in June. / Нам планируют поднять
зарплату на 10 процентов в июне.
When am I to come?/ Когда мне придти?
Who is to be the first? / Кто будет первым?
I felt nervous because I was soon to leave home for the first time. / ... так как мне
предстояло впервые покинуть дом.
I was to see ту dentist at 11(and I did). / Я должен был пойти на прием к
зубному врачу в 11.
She wasn't to be there at 5. / Ей не нужно было быть там в 5.

N0TE1: To be to is used to talk about things that can be controlled by people: j


We are to complete this work by tomorrow. j

But: We don't know where the meteorite is going to land (not: is to land). j
I suppose we will all die eventually (not: we are to die).

To emphasize that the action did not take place the perfect infinitive is used after the Past Indefinite
of the verb to be to.
I was to have started work last week, but I changed my mind. / Я планировал
начать работу на прошлой неделе, но передумал.
I was to have come (but I failed to do so). / Я должен был придти, но не смог.
She was to have graduated in June, but unfortunately fell ill. / Она должна была
получить диплом в июне, но, к сожалению, заболела.

2. A strict order, an instruction given either by the speaker or (more usually) by some official
authority.
You are to stay here until I return (I order you to...). / Оставайся здесь, пока я не
вернусь.
You are to do it exactly the way you are told. / Вы должны сделать так, как вам
сказали.
This cover is not to be removed. / Крышку нельзя снимать.
82 English Grammar Practice

3. A strict prohibition is used only in negative sentences.


She can go to the party, but she is not to be back late. / Она может пойти на
вечеринку, но ей нельзя поздно возвращаться.
You are not to tell anybody about it./Н и к о м у нельзя об этом говорить.
We are not to leave the place until we are told to. / Нам нельзя покидать это
место, пока нам не разрешат.
Children are not to be left unsupervised in the museum. /Д ет ям нельзя
оставаться в музее без присмотра.

4. Possibility. In this meaning to be to is used in all kinds of sentences in the present and past tenses
and is followed by the passive infinitive.
He was not to be seen anywhere. / Его нигде нельзя было увидеть.
Nothing was to be done under the circumstances. / Ничего невозможно было
сделать в сложившихся обстоятельствах.
Where is this book to be fo u n d ? / Где можно найти эт у книгу?
Her father was often to be seen in the bar of the Hotel Metropole. / Его отца
часто можно было видеть в баре гостиницы Метрополь.

5. Something that is destined to happen or is unavoidable.


It corresponds to the Russian суждено, предстоит.
I didn't know at that time that she was to be my wife. / ...что ей суждено было
стать моей женой.
As a young man he didn't know that he was to become a famous scientist. / ...ему
предстояло стать знаменитым ученым.
Не was never to see her again. / Ему больше никогда не суждено было ее
увидеть.
It was not to be. /Э т о м у не суждено было случиться.
This structure is also common in if-clauses, when the main clause expresses a precondition- something
that must happen first (in the main clause) before something else can take place (in the if-clause).
Such sentences are often translated by the Russian verb хотеть.
If we are to get there by lunchtime we had better hurry up. / Если мы хотим
успеть к обеду....
Не knew he would have to work hard if he was to pass his exam. / ...если он хотел
сдать экзамен.
Teaching Unit 6. THE MODAL VERB BE TO 83

N0TE2: Compare the use of to be to + infinitive and the Present Indefinite for the future in
if-clause:
Jones needs to improve his technique if he is to win gold at the next Olympics.
and: Jones has said that he will retire from athletics if he wins gold at the next Olympics.

NOTE3: Note the difference between to be to and to have to:


Soldiers have to salute their officers (such is customary obligation, the general
rule).
All junior officers are to report to the colonel at once (an order). i

Remember the follow ing set phrases with the verb to be to:
1. Where am I to go? Куда же мне деваться? Куда же мне идти?
2. What am I to do? Что мне делать? Как мне быть?
3. What is to become of me? Что со мной будет ?
4. Who is to begin ? Кому начинать ?
5. Who is to blame? Кто виноват?
84 English Grammar Practice

PRACTICE ACTIV ITIES

Ex. 1 Fill in the chart practising the modal verb to be to. identify its meaning and the
synonymous expression as in the example.

Synonymous
Modal Verb Be to Use (Meaning) expression
1. The children are not to touch anything in the room. Strict prohibition The children
are forbidden to
touch anything.
2. He was to have made the copy of a very important
document but the Minister asked him to review
it again.
3. This ointment is to be applied every other day.

4. Children are not to run in the corridor.

5. I thought we were saying goodbye forever, but we


were to meet again, many years later, under very
strange circumstances.

6. This medicine is to be taken three times a day after


meals.

7. They were to have cooked a pizza but the client


changed his order.

8. I looked out of the window but there was nothing


to be seen.

9. The West German Chancellor is to visit France next


week.

10. If we are to get there by lunchtime we had better


hurry up.

11. Where am I to turn next?

12. Happiness is to be found in hard work.

13. But what am I to do at your party?

14. This I was only to learn later.


Teaching Unit 6. THE MODAL VERB BE TO 85

Ex. 2 Work out the best translation of the following sentences paying attention to the
patterns in bold type.

1. We must find the motive if we are to understand the crime.


2. Mr Bill Haynes, who was to have made such a blighting speech at the mass meeting,
didn't come.
3. After a legacy to Ellen and one to a former cook, all her property was to be divided
between the children of her brother and the children of her sister.
4. But where will we ourselves go? What is to happen to us?
5. Gather the wits, the best is yet to come.
6. Am I to take it that you are absolutely serious? Do you want to take the extreme step of
separating from your husband?
7. I suppose you have been telling our young friend, Chris, what his new duties are to be
and giving him a great deal of good advice.
8. These things are to be accepted, and with these rules, careless of what may befall when
the game is finished.
9. He dropped the subject. And yet, without detectives what was he to do?
10. The entire sum of money is to be converted to bank notes of small denomination.

Ex. 3 Paraphrase the following sentences so as to express a planned or unfulfilled action.


Use to be to in its correct form.

1. We decided to buy a new TV set before Christmas came but we failed as we hadn't saved
enough money.
2. Richard is planning to get his Master's degree this year. Now he is working hard on
thesis.
3. It was arranged for the plane to make an emergency landing at Frankfurt airport, but it
landed in Paris.
4. The deadline is tomorrow and I haven't finished my course paper.
5. Maria was supposed to get her driving licence in January but she failed her driving test.
6. Monika is studying hard for her History exam, she is planning to become a tourist guide
in a year.
7. The assistant promised to study the statistical data on the problem by Thursday but he
didn't manage to do it on time.
8. Betsy was promised to get some extra money for her work but instead she got the
normal amount.
9. I have planned to go to my hairdresser tomorrow.
10. Tell me, please, what to do if the guests come early.
11. Celina and Mike agreed to marry in September.
12. I'm waiting for Chris. He promised to come and help me.
13. Do you know when we are supposed to hand in our essays?
14. Dave volunteered to give a guided tour for a Swiss delegation but he fell ill.
15. Could you tell me where I can find Dr Smith, please?
86 _________________________________________________________________________________________ English Grammar Practice

Ex. 4 Speak about somebody's necessity as a result of orders or instructions.

Model: The Professor asked us to analyze the poem for the examination.
We are to analyze the poem for the examination.

1 . The headmaster asked me to arrange a meeting.


2. "The dean wants you to participate in the annual students' conference", said the monitor.
3. Do you remember what your boss asked you to do?
4. He was the only employee in the office when Mr Taylor came, so he was asked to show
the visitor around.
5. I hadn't finished my work in Bonn by the time fixed but the President asked me to come
back to Liverpool.
6. "I hope you've already been told about your new duty", - "Yes, Sir. To register all the
papers coming from the security department".
7. Our business partners are coming in a week. I was told to set up a programme of their
stay.
8 . The boss has invited me to advise to make a report on the latest developments in our
field. Of course, I'll follow his advice which sounds like an order...
9. Many developing countries allow new investment on a joint venture basis only. They
insist on local entrepreneurs, or state agencies, to participate in the ownership and even
management of foreign enterprise.
10. I was told to bring my CV to the interview when I talked to the person in charge on the
phone.

Ex. 5 Paraphrase the sentences so as to use strict prohibition in the past.

Model: My father didn't allow us to watch TV all the afternoon.


We were not to watch TV all the afternoon.
1. They said, "You mustn't be late".
2. My friend was not allowed to bring his dog into my house.
3. Steve's father said, "You must not go out again".
4. Diana exclaimed, "You're getting on my nerves, children! Stop making so much noise!"
5. The time was dangerous and the group leader didn't allow us to leave the camp before
7 o'clock.
6. Andrew was wasting his time playing football when he ought to be studying for his
examinations. That's why his father prohibited him to play football.
7. "Joe,", Alice exclaimed, "do not touch an exhibit! It's here not to be broken".
8 . The producer was furious, "You must not think of anything but your acting!"
9. She wanted desperately to help Jim but he could hardly stand the idea of anybody
helping him.
10. "I remember your predecessor", the secretary said. "While he was working, nobody,
even the Minister, could bother him".
Teaching Unit 6. THE MODAL VERB BE TO 87

Ex. 6 Choose a verb to complete the sentences. Use the modal verb to be to followed by the
infinitive if possible, and Future Indefinite tense form if not. (see Note 1)

appear arrive become begin feel fit move resign

1. A m an___________ in court today after a car he was driving killed two pedestrians.
2. The danger is that the bacteria_______________ more resistant to antibiotics over
time.
3. The Environment Department has announced that it _____________ 2.000 jobs out of
the capital.
4. When the news is broken to him, h e _________ both upset and angry.
5. Work__________ this week on the new Thames bridge.
6. The Business Information Group said that Brian Murdoch___________ as its executive
director.
7. We are all hoping that warmer weather____________ soon.
8. No more than six people____________ around the table comfortably.

Ex. 7 Here are some newspaper extracts. What verb do you think has been removed from
the if-clause and with what form - to be to followed by the infinitive or Present
Indefinite tense form? Choose from the following verbs. (see Note 2)

bring collapse compare elect flourish improve


do operate fail rise survive

1. We recognise the urgent need to improve international economic performance if we


sustainable benefits to millions faced with poverty.
2. The allocation of much-needed additional resources is necessary if w e _________ the
range of provisions for all children regardless of their ability.
3. If John_______________ in the vote next week, he will have to work with whoever the
party chooses as its deputy leader.
4. Middle managers are being retrained for the new information skills they will need if they
effectively.
5. An all-out trade war seems likely if the two Presidents______________ to agree at
tomorrow's meeting.
6. The European Union, if i t _________________ as a community, must find better ways
of consulting its citizens.
7. If humans__________ as a species, we must address environmental issues now.
8. The law needs to be revised if justice________________ .
88 English Grammar Practice

Ex. 8 Complete the second sentence so that it is similar in meaning as possible to the first
sentence.

1. What do you expect from me to say to that?


W hat____________________________________to that?
2. It was arranged that we should wait for them at the airport but they decided to pick us
up at the bus station.
W e________________________________ at the airport but they decided to pick us up
at the bus station.
3. Am I supposed to understand that the fault is all mine?
________ I _____________ that the fault is all mine?
4. How many times do you expect me to tell you that you spoil your child?
How many tim es_______________________ you that you spoil your child?
5. You can see Paula at all the disco places surrounded by crowds of admirers.
Paula______________________at all the disco places surrounded by crowds of
admirers.
6. No one said a word. How could I know that I was going to meet him at your place?
How _________________________ that I was going to meet him at your place?
7. Not a sound could be heard in the lecture room.
Not a sound__________________________ in the lecture room.
8. He was destined to live a long and happy life.
H e___________________________ a long and happy life.
9. It is planned that I should fly direct to Rome.
I ________________________ direct to Rome.
10. The journalist was expected to arrive at the conference, but he was asked to take an
interview with the Prime Minister instead.
The journalist______________________ at the conference, but he was asked to take an
interview with the Prime Minister instead.

Ex. 9 Fill in the blanks with must, have to or be to and the correct form of the infinitive in
brackets:

1. H e ___________ (to have) a music lesson in the morning but the teacher called up to
cancel it.
2. That day, however, I had a very important meeting at the Embassy and I ___________
(to cut) my visit short.
3. The Finnish woman w ho_________ (to work) for our company has not arrived yet.
4. When I got home I found I had left my passport at the agency and I ________ (to return)
in the afternoon to collect it.
5. H e ____________ (to stay) the night with us. I won't let him drive to the country in this
rain.
6. H e ______________ (to stay) the night with us and tomorrow he sets off on his tour to
Europe.
Teaching Unit 6. THE M ODAL VERB BE TO 89
7. H e____________ (to stay) the night with us because he has missed the last bus.
8. I ____________ (to be ) off. I want to go to bed.
9. What a pity yo u ________ (to go). I know it's time for you to catch your train.
10. He told me that I ______________________ (not to use) words which I didn't know.
11. He told me that I ____________ (to learn) by heart some twenty lines every day to know
English well.
12. He told me that I ________________(not to repeat) what I had heard.
13. My bike is under repair and now I _____________ (to walk), which takes up much of my
time.
14. My bike was under repair and I ____________ (to collect) it that afternoon.
15. My bike is under repair and I _____________ (to collect) it yesterday, but my friend gave
me his one.

Ex. 10 Provide either the beginning or the end of a short dialogue with the following
statements.

1. How was I to know that?


2. I am to go there by air.
3. Am I to believe my own eyes or not?
4. I am to be at my office in an hour.
5. These things are to be accepted.
6. We are to have a busy day.
7. I thought we were to have some ice-cream for dessert.
8. You didn't tell me what my job responsibilities were to be.
9. The whole family is to leave for the South in June.
10. I am to stay here for a week or two.
11. How is it to be done?
12. Who is to blame?
13. I didn't know that we were to see each other there.

Ex. 11 Translate into English, paying attention to the use of the modal verb to be to.

1. Я должна была встретиться с приятельницей в 6 часов, но она почему-то не пришла.


2. Поезд должен прибыть через 5 минут. Давай поторопимся, а то мы пропустим
наших друзей в толпе пассажиров.
3. Они должны приехать к нам в воскресенье.
4. Концерт должен начаться в 7 ровно.
5. Что я должна сделать?
6. Кому первому выступать на конференции?
7. Как нам воспринимать ваши слова: серьезно или в шутку?
8. Когда вы должны вернуться из командировки?
9. Вы пойдете туда немедленно и все уладите.
90 English Grammar Practice

10. Они должны были поехать на юг, но в последний момент передумали.


11. Они должны были остановиться в гостинице, но свободных мест не было, и они
остановились у знакомых.
12. Он должен был показать нам достопримечательности Киева, но заболел.
13. Мы решили, что прежде всего мы должны пойти в Британский музей и посмотреть
одну из богатейших библиотек в мире.
14. Мы договорились встретиться в 5 часов, но я опоздал.
15. Мы должны закончить работу к 6 часам, если мы хотим успеть в театр.
16. Посмотри, собирается гроза. Что теперь с нами будет? Мы промокнем до нитки!
17. По радио объявили, что вечером должен выступать президент.
18. Он знал, что ему предстояло быть на двух совещаниях на следующей неделе.
19. Их дом должны были снести, и ему пришлось переехать в новый жилой район.
20. Я был несколько удивлен, обнаружив в зале, где я должен был выступать, так много
людей.
21. Это лекарство можно заказать в любой аптеке.
22. Это должно было случиться. Никто не мог этому помешать.
23. Нам не суждено было встретиться до его отъезда.
24. Он сказал мне, что я должен ждать его здесь.
25. Не смей шуметь! Братья делают уроки.
26. Когда должен начаться фильм? - В 6 часов.
27. На этой неделе нам предстоит провести интервью со многими людьми.
28. В комнату ребёнка никого нельзя впускать. Его болезнь заразная.
29. И что же мне теперь делать?
30. И что я, полагается, должен вам ответить?
Teaching Unit 7. THE MODAL VERB SHOULD/OUGHT TO 91
Teaching Unit 7 THE M ODAL VERB SHOULD/ OUGHT TO

For Study

Historically should was the past form of shall and both the forms expressed obligation. But in present-
day English they have developed different meanings and are treated as two different verbs. Where
should appears, ought to can also be used. There is, however, a difference in structure. Whereas
should is followed by the infinitive without to, ought is always followed by the to-infinitive. Both
should and ought to are not changed in reported speech and are used to express:
1. Obligation, which acquires the meaning of
a) advisability and desirability.
Should /ought to in this meaning are used to advise people (including ourselves) to do things. They
are very similar to each other but not so strong as must.
This meaning is found in affirmative and negative sentences. Generally should / ought to refer the
modal meaning and the action to the present or future and are followed by the non-perfect infinitive
or the continuous infinitive.
People should/ ought to drive carefully. / Людям следует ездить аккуратно.
You shouldn't/oughtn't to say things like that to Granny. / Не следует так
разговаривать с бабушкой. (But it is more preferable to say: I don't think you
ought to say things like that to Granny.)
At your age you should / ought to be earning your living. / В твоем возрасте
тебе следует самому зарабатывать на жизнь.
You shouldn't / oughtn't to be sitting in the sun. Move out of it into the shade. / He
следует сидеть на солнце. Перейди в тень.
Should / ought to may also be combined with the perfect infinitive. In this case the meaning of the
combination depends on whether the sentence is affirmative or negative. In an affirmative sentence it is
used to talk about past events which didn't happen or about a desirable action which was not carried out:
He looks very pale. He should / ought to have stayed at home. / Ему следовало
остаться дома.
I should/ought to have phoned Chris this morning, but I forgot./ Мне следовало
позвонить Крис сегодня утром, но я забыл.
You should/ought to have chosen a more suitable time to tell me this news. / Тебе
нужно было выбрать более подходящее время, чтобы сообщить мне эту
новость.
In a negative sentence should in combination with the perfect infinitive serves to show that an
undesirable action was carried out.
I'm sorry, I shouldn't/ oughtn't to have said it. / Извините, мне не следовало
это говорить.
You shouldn't / oughtn't to have married her, David. It was a great mistake. / Тебе
не следовало жениться на ней, Дэвид. Это была большая ошибка.
They shouldn't / oughtn't to have spent so much money on travelling. / Им не
стоило тратить так много денег на путешествие.
92 English Grammar Practice

NOTE 1: It is possible to use had better instead of should/ought to, especially in spoken
English, to say that we think it would be sensible or advisable to do something.
However, it is not used to talk about the past or to make general comments.
If you are not well, you sh ould/ought to ask Ann to go instead. (o r... you'd
better ask...)
You should/ought to have caught a later train. (not You had better have . . . )
I don't think parents should/ought to give their children sweets. (no t... had \
better...) |

b) moral duty and responsibility.


Should/ought to are found in this sense in all kinds of sentences. However ought to is more preferable:
People should / ought to be warned of the danger of swimming off this beach. / Людей
необходимо информировать об опасности отплывания далеко от берега.
I should/ought to phone ту mother more often. / Мне следует чаще звонить
своей маме.
You should/ought tofeel some respectfor your elders. / Тебе следует уважать старших.
I wonder whether I shouldn't / oughtn't to speak to him. / Интересно, стоит ли
мне с ним разговаривать.
You should / ought to have been more responsible for your children. / Тебе
следовало быть более ответственным по отношению к своим детям.

2. Asking for advice or instructions.


In questions, should is used to ask for advice or instructions, like a less definite form of shall and is
followed by the non-perfect infinitive.
Should I go and see the police, do you think?/ Ты думаешь мне следует идти в
полицию?
What should we do?/Ч т о нам делать?
They asked what they should do. /О н и спросили, что им делать.
The normal question forms of ought to are rather formal. In an informal style, it is common to avoid
them by using a structure with think...ought to or by using should.
Do you think we ought to go now?/ Should we go now?/ Нам идти сейчас?
3. Orders and instructions.
In this meaning only should followed by the non-perfect infinitive can be used instead of must to make
orders and instructions sound more polite.
This form should be filled in ink. / Данный бланк следует заполнить чернилами.
You should make sure the car is in good condition before you go on a long
trip. / Убедитесь в том, что машина в полном порядке, прежде чем
отправляетесь в длительное путешествие.
4. Criticism (reproach).
Should/ought to in combination with the non-perfect or perfect infinitive are used to criticise people
or their actions. They occur both in affirmative and negative sentences.
Teaching Unit 7. THE MODAL VERB SHOULD / OUGHT TO______________________________________________________________________ 93
You should/ ought to be more attentive to your children! / Тебе следует быть
более внимательной к своим детям!
She really shouldn't / oughtn't to treat her sister like that! / Ей не следует
относиться к сестре подобным образом!
Не should/ ought to have asked me before he took my car. / Ему следовало
спросить разрешения прежде, чем брать мою машину.
You shouldn't / oughtn't to have rejected his invitation after all! (Although I
don't think you ought to have rejected...is more common.) / В конце концов не
следовало отклонять его приглашение.
5. Supposition implying strong probability.
In this meaning should/ought to are used to guess or conclude that something is probable because
it is logical or normal and therefore can be naturally expected. It corresponds to the Russian должно
быть, наверное, очевидно, вероятно.
With reference to the present or future should / ought to are used either with the non-perfect
infinitive or with the continuous infinitive :
I enjoyed her first novel so the new one should / ought to be good. / Мне
понравился ее первый роман, и новый, очевидно, тоже будет хорошим.
The store should/ ought to send us the catalogue of goods next week. / Вероятно,
магазин пришлет нам каталог с продукцией на следующей неделе.
There shouldn't / oughtn't to be a queue for tickets at this time in the evening. / В
это вечернее время не должно быть очереди за билетами.
The boys should/ought to be working now. / Мальчики, наверное, работают сейчас.
In combination with the perfect infinitive should / ought to can be used to make guesses or draw
conclusions about things which ought to have happened by now.
Ten o'clock. She should / ought to have arrived at her office by now. / Очевидно,
она уже пришла в свой офис к этому времени.
Не should/ ought to have received the report by now. I sent it a week ago. / Должно
быть, он уже получил отчет к этому времени. Я отправил его неделю назад.
The use of should/ ought to in this case does not seem to be very common as this meaning is usually
rendered by must.
6. Emotional colouring.
In this meaning should may be called the emotional should. The use of the emotional should is
structurally dependent. It is found in the following cases:
a) in rhetorical questions beginning with why:
Why should I do it?/ С какой стати я буду это делать?
Why should you help him ? / С какой стати ты будешь ему помогать ?
b) in the set phrase:
How should I know? / Откуда мне знать?
94 English Grammar Practice

PRACTICE ACTIVITIES

Ex. 1 Go through the sentences with the modal verbs should / ought to in the chart and
fill in the empty blanks. Identify the meaning of the suggested modal verb and write
down the synonymous expression as shown in the example.

Modal Verbs Should / Ought to Use (Meaning) Synonymous Expression


1. He ought to be in looking after his mother. Moral duty It is his responsibility to
look after his mother.
2. She should have married someone with more
responsibility than Billy.
3. You should read a receipt carefully before you
sign it.
4. How should I know when he is coming back?

5. You really oughtn't to speak to your mother like


that.
6. You shouldn't have driven through that red light,
as you could have caused an accident.
7. Children ought not to spend long periods in
front of a computer screen.
8. The plane from Chicago should be landing about
now.
9. You should treat your neighbours with more
respect.
10. You really ought to have registered before term
started.
11. I think I ought to let your parents know we are
here.
12. Why should you be different from other people?

13. I don't know anything about Mark but he should


have passed his final examination by now, I guess.
14. There oughtn't to be problems with traffic at
that time of the evening.
15. Should I stay here and wait for the results of the
interview?
Ex. 2 Match these statements with the advice you might give in each one.

1. It’s raining. a. You should take a rest.


2. It's too far to walk. b. You should ask a policeman.
3. Someone doesn't know which way to go. c. You should take an umbrella.
4. Someone is going to live overseas. d. You should wear an overcoat.
5. Someone has to get up early in the morning. e. You should see a doctor.
6. Someone hasn't got any money on them. f. You should learn the language before you go.
7. It's going to be a cold day. g. You should pay by cheque.
8. Someone is tired out. h. You should take a taxi.
9. Someone has seen someone breaking into a i. You should set your alarm clock.
shop window.
10. Someone is feeling hot and has a headache. j. You should call the police.

Ex. 3 What advice would you give to your friend who:


1. eats too many sweets?
2. has lost his wallet?
3. has an old car that is always being repaired?
4. is putting on weight?
5. spends too much money on clothes?
6. has lost his job?
7. has got a girlfriend that spends all his money?
8. lent his friend twenty pounds but hasn't got it back?
9. has very bad eyesight?
10. has got a pain in his chest?
11. is in trouble with his boss?
12. often has his things stolen?

Ex. 4 Group Work.

Work with a partner. Choose the role of a parent or a son/daughter. Imagine that you have a problem,
for example about friends, clothes, spending money etc. Describe the problem from your point of
view in a short paragraph. Look at the model, and then think up your own.
Father: My son is fourteen. He smokes and doesn't care about his health. He doesn't listen when I tell
him it's bad for him.
Son: I smoke because all the boys at school smoke. I don't really like it, but if you don't smoke you are
an outsider. My father won't listen. He just criticizes.
96 English Gram m ar Practice

Read both your points of view to the group. The group gives advice with should/ought to/shouldn't.
• The father shouldn't criticize the son.
• The son ought to try to understand why his father criticizes him.

Ex. 5 Study the following situations and say what you should or shouldn't have done.
1. You borrowed a book without asking. Your friend was angry.
I shouldn't have borrowed it. I should have asked first
2. You ate some fruit without washing it. You felt sick.
3. Without asking for permission, you took a photograph in a museum.
4. You bought a shirt without trying it on. It doesn't fit you.
5. After school you went to the cinema with some friends. Your mother was angry, because
you didn't tell her.
6. You left the chicken in the oven for three hours. It got burnt.
7. You called an ambulance, but it turned out to be just a small cut on your knee.
8. You started working for your exams just the night before and failed them.
9. You phoned your sister but she hung up on you.
10. You went to your favourite restaurant with your friend but there wasn't a big choice of
food that day.

Ex. 6 Study the following situations and express your criticism (reproach). Use either the
present time reference or the past.

1. The speed limit is 30 miles an hour but Tom is driving at 50.


He shouldn't / oughtn't to be driving so fast.
2. When we got to the restaurant there were no free tables. We hadn't reserved one.
We should / ought to have reserved a table.
3. It's very cold. Mr Taylor, who has been ill recently, is walking along the road without a coat.
4. We went for a walk. While we were walking, we got hungry but we hadn't brought
anything with us to eat.
5. I went to Paris. Marcel lives in Paris but I didn't see him while I was there. When I saw
him later, he said:
6. The notice says that the shop is open every day from 8.30. It is now 9 o'clock but the
shop isn't open.
7. The driver in front stopped suddenly without warning and I drove into the back of his
car. It wasn't my fault.
8. The children normally go to bed at 9 o'clock. It is now 9.30. They are not in bed; they
are watching television. (two sentences)
9. The accident happened because Tom was driving on the wrong side of the road.
10. Christopher has a new CD player. The children used it without his permission.
11. Darren is five years old. He is playing with a box of matches.
12. Beatrice is in hospital. Her son hasn't gone there to see her.
Teaching Unit 7 . THE MODAL VERB SHOULD / OUG HT TO 97
13. Andrew forgot to fill up the tank. He ran out of petrol on the way to his work.
14. The children played with the toys. They made such a mess of the room.
15. Bob didn't read the instructions carefully. He broke his camera.

Ex. 7 Complete the conversation with statements or questions using should, shouldn't,
should have or shouldn't have, together with the correct form of the verb in brackets.

Linda: Hello, Carol! I 1) should really have phoned (really phone) earlier, to thank you for dinner
last night. It was marvelous! You 2 ) ____________ (not take) so much trouble.
Carol: Oh, you know how I enjoy cooking. By the way, you left your glasses behind.
Linda: Did I? I'm always doing that. I 3 ) __________ (really look after) my things better.
Carol: I had a letter from Tony this morning. It says he's coming back to Britain on the 6th.
Linda: The 6th? But that's today! He 4 ) ____________ (arrive) by now.
Carol: No, there's a flight this evening so he 5 ) __________ (be) on that. Do you think I 6)
____________ (go) and meet him at the airport? Or 7 ) _____________ I (wait) and see if he
phones?
Linda: I think you 8 ) ____________ (wait). He 9 ) _____________ (not really expect) you to meet him if
he doesn't tell you the flight number.
Carol: I suppose you're right. His letter is a bit worrying really. He says he's got money problems.
Linda: That doesn't surprise me. He lent a lot of money to his American friends, didn't he? He
10) ____________ (not trust) them so easily. He 1 1 ) _____________ (ask) them for some kind
of guarantee.

Ex. 8 Rephrase each sentence so that it means the same as the preceding one. Use should/
ought to.

1. Very likely the shop will send me the catalogue in the next few days.
The shop________________________________ in the next few days.
2. I think it probable that your girl-friend is there already.
Your girl-friend_________________________there already.
3. Probably the price won't increase for a long time.
The price_____________________________ for a long time.
4. It is unlikely you will have any trouble.
You____________________________ any trouble.
5. I expect the bus to arrive any minute.
The bus______________________________ any minute.
6. I don't expect my brother to phone for another half hour.
My brother_________________________________ for another half hour.
7. I don't think her parents will find out about her intentions for several weeks.
Her parents_____________________________ for several weeks.
98 English G ram m ar Practice

8. Most likely the programme is on this evening.


The programme______________________ this evening.
9. Very probably the film won't begin for several weeks.
The film ______________________________________for several weeks.
10. The teachers don't think she will fail the exam.
S h e ________________________________________ the exam.

Ex. 9 Read the following sentences and finish what the person is saying.

1. He was due there at 6. It's 6.15 now. He (to arrive) by now.


He should / ought to have arrived by now.
2. The end of the meeting was timed for 7.00. It's now 7.10. It (to finish) by now.
3. The young man said he would only take a short time to get through the book. He (to
read) it by now.
4. Normally the ship sails at 10.00. It's 10.30 now. It (to sail) by now.
5. The children were hungry when they started their meal. They (to eat) a lot by now.
6. The climbers expected to reach the top in a day. They (to reach) it by now.
7. The students have been taking their exam for three hours already. They (to finish) it by now.
8. The lawyer promised to tell me about the will. He (to write) about it by now.
9. The diners refused to pay their bill. But they (to pay) it by now.

Ex. 10 Find the errors and correct the following sentences where necessary. (See Note 1)

1. Business letters had better be brief and to the point.


2. It's cold outside, so you had better put on a warm coat.
3. I think children had better learn to cook at an early age.
4. You'd better not go out tonight. It's raining.
5. As you are feeling ill, you'd better not go to work.
6. Some plants had better not be grown in direct sunlight. It will damage their leaves.
7. You had better have bought a cheaper car, if you are saving money.
8. I don't think parents had better let their children play with matches.
9. This soup is too salty! You had better send it back.
10. You'll catch a cold if you go out like that. I think you had better take a hat.

Ex. 11 Translate into English using the modal verb should/ought to and the correct form of
the Infinitive.

1. Я прошу прощения. Мне не следовало это говорить.


2. Я думаю, вам следует проявлять больше уважения к старшим.
3. Я подумал, что тебе следовало бы знать об этом.
4. Не стоит задавать таких вопросов.
5. Ну, что же, вы были правы. Мне не так надо было сделать это.
Te a ch in g U n it 7 . TH E M O D AL VERB S H O U LD / O U G H T TO _____________________________________________ 99
6. Как ты думаешь, чем мне следовало бы заняться?
7. Не стоит быть столь критичным в твоём возрасте.
8. Ей надо было бы раньше об этом вспомнить.
9. Очевидно, завтра похолодает.
10. Откуда мне знать, где он работает по вечерам?
11. Давай поспешим. Вероятно, к этому времени их самолет уже приземлился.
12. Тебе надо самому зарабатывать на жизнь.
13. Зачем мне идти туда пешком?
14. Тебе не следует винить его за это. В этом есть и твоя вина.
15. Вам нужно найти специалиста, который мог бы взяться за это дело.
16. Ты вся промокла. Зря ты не попросила кого-нибудь подвезти тебя.
17. Не надо торопиться накрывать на стол. Гости, вряд ли, придут раньше, чем через час.
18. Зачем тебе откладывать на завтра то, что ты можешь сделать сегодня?
19. Должно быть, к этому времени ты уже получил мой ответ.
20. С какой стати я буду делать то, что я не должна?

SHOULD / OUGHT ТО AND OTHER MODALS CO M PARED

Ex. 12 The modal verbs must, m ustn't, can, can't, sh ou ld and sh ou ldn 't all have different
uses in expressing obligation, perm ission and advice.

A. match the sentences with their m eanings.

1. I think you should marry him; I know you love a) I order you to marry him.
each other.
2. You can marry him if you really love him. b) I order you not to marry him.
3. You must marry the Duke, for me and for the c) I think it's a good idea for you to marry
family. him.
4. You shouldn't marry him because you don't d) I don't think it's a good idea for you to
love him. marry him.
5. You can't marry him; he's your brother. e) You are allowed to marry him / I allow you
to marry him.
6. You mustn't marry him. If you do I shall never f) You are not allowed to marry him.
speak to you again.

B. Write must, m ustn't, should, shouldn't, can or can't in the correct space.

1. is used to say that som ething is possible


2. is used to say that som ething is not possible
3. is used to advise someone to do som ething
4. is used to advise someone not to do som ething
5. is used to order som eone to do something
6. is used to order som eone not to do something
100 English Gram m ar Practice

C. Can't, mustn't and shouldn't can often be used in the same situation, but they
express different attitudes to the situation and to the person you are speaking to.

Match the three sentences on the left with the three attitudes on the right.

1. You can't smoke in here. a) I'm telling you not to smoke.


2. You mustn't smoke in here. b) They don't allow smoking here.
3. You shouldn't smoke in here. c) I suggest you don't smoke here.

Ex. 13 Match the two halves of these sentences.

1. She should be working a. when she was supposed to be working.


2. She shouldn't stay in bed all day b. because she woke up early anyway.
3. She shouldn't have fallen asleep c. but she's too tired.
4. She mustn't oversleep d. or she'll miss her interview.
5. She doesn't have to get up yet e. unless she's ill.
6. She didn't need to rest f. if she's not going to work today.
7. She needn't have set the alarm clock g. because she wasn't feeling tired.

Ex. 14 Fill the gaps in the sentences with must(n't), needn't or should(n 't ).

1. We've run out of paperclips. I ____________________get some more in the morning.


2. You________________ finish that report tonight if you are too tired. Midday tomorrow
is the deadline.
3. What are you doing here? You___________________be at the meeting downtown.
4. He really___________________have told his brother about this deal. It was supposed to
be absolutely confidential.
5. You_____________ clean the office because we haven't been using it today, but could
you tidy the shelves in the storeroom, please?
6. You______________________ make so much noise. We'll be asked to leave otherwise.
7. I'm going to be in trouble. I _______________ have posted these letters yesterday
afternoon and I completely forgot.
8. Y o u _______________ have typed this — a handwritten note would have been quite
adequate.
9. The meeting's finished. W e _________________ find out what's been decided any
moment now.
10. If you smell gas, yo u __________________phone the emergency number.
11. You___________________try to visit Nepal — it's a beautiful country.
12. Les isn't home yet. H e _________________ have been held up at work.
Ex. 15 Anna is giving a colleague some advice about a journey he is planning. Fill in the gaps
using should or have to.

OK, well, as you haven't done this trip before I (1) should give you a few tips to save your time and
hassle. First, you (2)______________ make sure you get to the airport really early because you always
(3 )_________ ____ queue for ages at check-in. They really (4 )_______________ introduce a more
efficient system, but they won't. Anyway, then you (5 )______________ go through passport control
and so on. You (6)______________ take something good to read because you'll have quite a long wait
in the departure lounge. At least you (7 )______________ be able to sit down there. That's another
advantage of being early. They (8 )______________ provide more seats, in my opinion. When your
flight's called, you (9)______________ follow an official out to your plane. You (10)_______________
not take very heavy hand luggage because you (11)______________ carry it yourself and there aren't
any trolleys. Everyone agrees there (12)______________ be, of course, but there aren't. The flight
is quite short. You get a meal, which you (13)______________ eat, even if it's not very appetizing,
because you have a long bus journey at the other end. The hotel is nice. I'm sure you'll like it. Now, do
you have any questions?

Ex. 16 Use should, need or had to with the correct form of the infinitive in brackets.

1. We______________ (to call) on him yesterday, but we were too busy as we____________
(to attend) an extra meeting.
2. I____________ (not to tell) him this news; he was so much upset, but I really___________
(to do) so, for the circumstances demanded that.
3. You______________ (to see) him dance! You have missed a lot. I _______________ (to
take) you to the concert.
4. It was very hard work but w e ______________ (to do) it.
5. S h e ______________ (not to let) it pass like that, sh e ______________ (to explain) it to
him that he was wrong.
6. Although it was unpleasant to her, s h e ______________ (to tell) him that he was
wrong.
7. I am very sorry, I ______________ (not to bother) you with this trifle.
8. You ______________ (not to come) so early, now you will have to wait.
9. You______________ (not to give) the child so much money. It will spoil him.
10. You______________ (not to return) the money so soon. I could have waited.
11. You _______________(not to help) him with this work. He could have managed it
himself.
102 English Grammar Practice

Ex. 17 Fill in the blanks with should / ought to, have to, be to or need followed by the
appropriate infinitive.

1. Mother always tells me that I _______(to be) more careful.


2. You_______(not to tell) him my telephone number, he knows it.
3. You_______(not to say) that! Look how distressed she is.
4. I don't want to do it, but I _______(to do) it.
5. All the same, I think yo u _______(to see) a doctor. There_______ (to be) something
wrong with you.
6. Don't forget that you_______(to get up) at seven!
7. But there was no other way out. I _______(to communicate) with him. No one else
knew her address.
8. Such things_______(not to be allowed).
9. You_______(not to write) such a long composition. The teacher only asked for 200
words, and you have written 400.
10. I _______(not to trouble) you. I feel really offended now.

Ex. 18 Fill in the blanks with either should or must.

1. a) You have spoken to him already. I see he knows everything.


b) You have spoken to him of the matter. Why keep him in the dark?
2. a) They_ have studied the subject more thoroughly; they will regret it later on.
b)They have studied the subject thoroughly; they answered every question.
3. a) You have ignored the traffic rules. That's why you were fined.
b) You have followed the traffic rules, then you would not have been fined.
4. a) He have forgotten to send them a telegram.
b) He have remembered to send them a telegram.
5. a) I have taken Grandmother's glasses instead of mine. I cannot see anything
through them.
b) I have taken my opera glasses. I don't see anything.
Ex. 19 Complete the second sentence using the correct form of must, need, should / ought
to or have to without changing the meaning.

1. It is vital to wear a helmet when you ride a motorbike.


You must wear a helmet when you ride a motorbike.
2. I expect we'll get the contract because we offered the best price.
We offered the best price so w e _______________________ .
3. It isn't necessary for us to spend a long time in the museum if it's not interesting.
W e_____________________________________________ .
4. It was wrong of you to speak to my mother like that.
You______________________________________________ .
5. She promised to phone me before lunch. It's seven o’clock now.
She_______________________________________by now.
6. I made far more sandwiches than we needed.
I ________________________________________so many sandwiches.
7. It's essential that my father doesn't find out what I've done.
My father________________________________________ .
8. In my opinion it would be wrong for them to move house now.
I don't think they_________________________________ .
9. My sister offered me a lift so it wasn't necessary for me to call a taxi.
As my sister offered me a lift, I _____________________.
10. Regular training sessions are essential if you want to succeed in athletics.
You________________________________________________ .
11. I don't think it's a good idea to wear that bracelet to school. It might get stolen.
You_______________________________________________ .
12. It's not acceptable to borrow money from people you hardly know.
You_____________________________________________ .

Ex. 20 Read the text and correct all the modal verbs in it which have been misplaced.

My son broke a window in our neighbour's house yesterday. As usual, it mustn't have happened. He
need have been playing with his ball rather carelessly, or I suppose it can have slipped out of his hand
when he was throwing it. He mightn't have been playing at all because his mother had called him in,
though he should possibly not have been listening. Our neighbour was to have heard the window
break, because he came straight out of his house and shouted, "Come here, you!" But my son ran
indoors to his mother. My neighbour kept shouting even when I went to speak to him.
"Your son must have stopped and apologized!" he yelled.
It's true my son must have stopped but my neighbour needn't have shouted at him. Anyway, I
apologised for my son and then I went back and told him how naughty he had been.
104 English Grammar Practice

Teaching Unit 8 THE MODAL VERB SHALL

For Study

In modern English the modal meaning of obligation in shall is combined with the function of an
auxiliary verb of the future tense.
Shall is still used to express obligation with the second and third person singular and plural, but it is
not common in this meaning in spoken English. Its use, as a rule, is restricted to formal or even archaic
style and is mainly found in subordinate clauses where it is structurally dependent.
It has been decided that the proposal shall not be opposed. / Было решено, что не
будет возражений против данного предложения.
However, the modified meaning of obligation with shall is still found in archaic style with the second
and third person singular and plural followed by the non-perfect infinitive in affirmative and negative
sentences. It expresses:
1. Promise or strong intention.

It shall be done as you wish. / Все будет сделано так, как вы пожелаете.
Не shall get his money. / Он получит свои деньги.
I give you ту word, you shall hear from me soon. / Я обещаю, я скоро дам о себе
знать.
Don't be afraid, Jane, you shall not be punished. / He бойся, Джейн, тебя не
накажут.

2. Threat or warning.
He shall regret this. / Он еще об этом пожалеет.
You shall fail at the exam if you don't work hard. / Ты провалишь экзамен, если не
будешь много работать.
You shall not play that loud music again! / Ты больше не будешь включать
музыку так громко.

3. Strict orders and instructions.


In this meaning shall is used for more formal instructions, especially in official documents, where they
can be viewed as formal rules and regulations. In other cases, must or should are preferred to express
ideas of this kind.
You shall all stay behind for thirty minutes and clean this room. / Все задержитесь
на тридцать минут для уборки помещения.
No player shall knowingly pick up or move the ball of another player. / Игрок не
должен заведомо дотрагиваться или передвигать мяч другого игрока.
The hirer shall be responsible for maintenance of the vehicle. / Наниматель несет
ответственность за сохранность транспортного средства.
You shan't go away without me. / Никуда не уходи без меня.
As a rule, shall as a modal verb is not translated into Russian, its meaning is rendered by emphatic
Teaching Unit 8. THE MODAL VERB SHALL 105
intonation.
4. An offer or suggestion.

In this meaning shall is used in questions with the first person singular and plural. Such sentences are
translated into Russian by the infinitive.
Shall we go out for a meal tonight?/ А не поужинать ли нам где-нибудь сегодня
вечером?
Shall I carry your b ag ?/ Поднести Вам сумку?

5. Asking for suggestions o r ad vice .


In such sentences shall occurs with a question word:
What time shall we come and see you?/ В какое время нам придти к тебе?
Who shall I pass the message to?/ Кому мне передать сообщение?

PRACTICE ACTIVITIES

Ex. 1 State whether shall is an auxiliary verb or a m odal verb and com m ent on its
meaning.

1. I shall pack up my things and leave today.


2. You shall tell me everything.
3. You shall come here next year, and stay for a whole month, I promise.
4. You shall finish this document by tomorrow. There must be no delay.
5. I rather think I shall be invited to take part in it.
6. I'll take the letter from you by force. You shall not leave my room till I have got it.
7. Oh! I shall be careful. Anyway, I shall be all right.
8. "You shall do nothing of the sort," he said.
9. I shall look forward to seeing you.
10. "Shall we go out for a moment, Richard?" she asked fretfully.
11. If I've found him, Miss, who shall I say is calling, please?
12. I shall have to be looking about for some ground somewhere.
13. "All is over between us," answered the woman mockingly, "and shall I return your letters
and your photographs?"
14. I shall be glad to deal with you.
15. You shall live within a few miles of each other, and shall meet every day.
106 English G ram m ar Practice

Ex. 2 Read the following sentences containing the modal verb sh a ll and fill in the
chart. Identify the use of it and the synonym ous expression as in the example.
Then translate the sentences into Russian.

Modal Verb Shall Use (Meaning) Synonymous


Expression
1. I have promised Mr Hardwick that the jewels Promise I have promised
shall be returned to him today. Mr Hardwick that the
jewels will be returned
to him today.
2. I give you a chance of escape. Sign this paper,
and you shall have twenty-four hours before I
place it in the hands of police.
3. What shall we do about Tom if he doesn't get
into a university?
4. You'd better hold your tongue, my dear, and
if you don't, every letter you've written to me
shall be sent to your mother-in-law.
5. "You shan't leave me alone in this terrible
place", shouted Larry in anger.
6. "Shall we go and have our coffee in the next
room?" he said. "If you like."
7. Well, my dear, I'm determined that there's at
least one thing you shan't do and that is to tell
our secret.
8. "You shall see the portrait yourself tonight!" he
cried, seizing a lamp from the table.
9. Shall I wait downstairs? You can ring if you want
me.
10. "If anything happens to her..." - Nothing shall
happen to her!"
11. I must be off now. Shall I come and see you
again tomorrow?
12. You sh a ll s it by me, and amuse me.

13. What time shall I be back?


Teaching Unit 8. THE MODAL VERB SHALL 107

Ex. 3 Make the question which goes in front of each answer, using the words in the box.

dance?
go to visit your parents this weekend?
I meet for lunch?
Shall
We have some coffee?
post these letters for you?
have some more cake?

Answers:
1. Yes, please, if there's any warm water.
2. You have some if you like. I am full.
3. Let's wait until there are some more people on the floor.
4. I'm afraid I can't. I have to be in the office from twelve till two.
5. Yes? Perhaps we ought to. We haven't seen them for several weeks now.
6. No, it's all right, I have to go and buy some stamps anyway.

Ex. 4 Ben needs something to do. He is offering help to other people. Make up sentences
that you think he might say.

Model: Nick's computer won't work.


Shall I try to mend it for you?
1. Tom needs some books from the library but he's lost his library card.
2. Mike can't find the address of the Young Scientists' Society.
3. Albert hasn't got enough money to buy the computer discs he needs.
4. Ben can't remember where he put his books on History.
5. Chris doesn't know how to spell some of the names of the planets.
6. David has to go to work but his car won't start.
7. Liz wants to go to the cinema but she has to baby-sit.
8. Brian needs to go to the sports club but he doesn't know the way.
9. Sandy doesn't know how to translate the article.
10. Judy can't carry her heavy luggage.

Ex. 5 Change the sentences according to the model.

Model: My friend said, "Shall I help you with your case?"


My friend offered to help me with my case.
1. He said, "Shall I ask my mother about it?"
2. The children said, "Shall we take Granny all her presents?"
3. My wife said, "Shall I get my father to advise us?"
108 English Gram m ar Practice

4. My brother said, "Shall I lend you some books?"


5. I remember you said, "Shall I change the arrangements?"
6. My boyfriend said, 'Shall we have a meal out this evening?"
7. My boss said, "Shall we travel first class?"
8. The guide said, "Shall we drive to the coast?"
9. My sister said, "Shall we buy a present to our brother?"
10. My mother said, "Shall we invite our friends to our house next week?"

Ex. 6 Read the following dialogue paying attention to the modal verb shall. Make up your
own dialogues using the ideas suggested below or your own ones.

JIM: I fancy going to the cinema this evening for a change. What do you think? Shall we go?
ROBERT: We could. What's on?
JIM: There's a James Bond film on.
ROBERT: OK. Shall I call for you? We could go by car. Shall I pick you up at about 6 o'clock?
JIM: Thanks very much. That'd be great.

1. I fancy eating out this evening for a change.

2. I fancy visiting my old friends this evening for a change.

3. I fancy going shopping this evening for a change.

4. I fancy cooking a nice meal this evening for a change.

Ex. 7 Respond to the following situations using shall /...?, shall we...? or you shall....

Model: An old lady clearly wants to put her large suitcase on the luggage rack. You ask her.
"Shall I put the suitcase on the rack for you?"
1. A young woman is shivering and the window is open. You ask her:
2. Your friend accidentally drops some sheets of paper on the floor. You ask your friend:
3. You and your friend want to do something this evening but you don't know what. You
ask your friend:
4. You are trying on a jacket in a shop. You are not sure whether to buy it or not. You ask
a friend for advice:
5. It's Ann's birthday next week. You want to give her a present but you don't know what.
You ask a friend for advice:
6. You and your friend are going on holiday together but you haven't decided where. You
ask him/her:
Teaching Unit 8. THE MODAL VERB SHALL 109
7. You and your friend are going out. You haven't decided whether to go by car or to
walk. You ask him/her:
8. Your friend wants you to phone later. You don't know what time to phone. You ask
him/her:
9. Your children cannot sleep at night because your neighbour plays loud music. You warn
him/her:
10. Some boys are playing football near your house. As a result one of your windows is
broken. You say to these boys:
11. You are looking after your young cousin. It is after midnight and he is still running
around the house. You promise him:
12. Your sister goes to a disco with some strange boys. She comes home well after
midnight. You warn her:

Ex. 8 Paraphrase the following sentences so as to use shall in different meanings.

1. Let's buy some of these flowers, shall we?


2. You are always wasting the money you get. I'll make you stop spending so much money
on cigarettes.
3. I suggest we buy two ice-creams when we go to the cinema.
4. You will get a pair of good gloves for your birthday, I promise.
5. My neighbour is always playing loud music when I am trying to concentrate. But he
won't play it loud again, I say it!
6. Why don't we go round and see how he is doing after the operation?
7. How about going to Italy for a holiday this year?
8. If you pass your final exams successfully, you will get a new computer, I promise.
9. I want you to listen to me and if you don't, I'll get you do it.
10. I ask you not to search my rooms. You have no right to do it. I forbid you!
11. You are to stay here till I come back.

Ex. 9 Make up short dialogues with the following statements.

1. You shan't go there. It's too dangerous.


2. He shall see his name in the paper.
3. You shall never cross the threshold of my house.
4. Nothing shall happen to him.
5. Shall we go downstairs to the canteen?
6. Shall I read it to you out loud?
7. Let's pack up our things and leave tomorrow night, shall we?
8. Don't worry. I shall be all right.
9. Be sure you shall do nothing of the kind.
10. He shall be glad to see you.
110 English G ram m ar Practice

Ex. 10 Translate into English.

1. Не ешь так много мороженого. У тебя заболит горло.


2. Мне позвонить или ты сама зайдешь ко мне?
3. Дать ли ответ сегодня или можно подождать несколько дней?
4. Вы останетесь здесь, иначе он будет вне себя от гнева.
5. Приготовить вам свежий чай?
6. Если он не будет слушаться, он будет наказан.
7. Вы ответите за свои поступки.
8. Вы сделаете так, как вам сказали.
9. Что вы мне посоветуете: поехать в турлагерь или на море?
10. Не ходи без головного убора в такую холодную погоду. Ты простудишься и за­
болеешь!
11. Как вы думаете, записаться мне на прием к врачу или нет?
12. Зря она отказалась от поездки в Турцию. Она пожалеет об этом, но будет поздно.
13. Открыть окно? По-моему, здесь душно.
14. Ты себя плохо ведешь! Ты будешь наказан и не пойдешь на прогулку.
15. Сколько мне заплатить носильщику?
16. Когда мы узнаем что-нибудь, вы непременно услышите об этом.
17. Это можно сделать и это будет сделано, если ты только поможешь мне.
18. Тебе поиграть? - спросила она. - Да, пожалуйста.
19. Когда он говорит «Сделай», я отвечаю «Будет сделано».
20. Я обещаю, что все будет сделано. Не нужно беспокоиться.
21. Я сделаю вас счастливой. Вы будете делать, что хотите и тратить, сколько угодно.
Teaching Unit 9. THE MODAL VERB WILL / WOULD 111

Teaching U nit 9 THE M O DAL VERB WILL / W OULD

For Study

The modal verb will has the following forms: will - Present Indefinite tense form and would - Past
Indefinite tense form. The latter form is used in two ways:
a) in past-time contexts to express an actual fact;
b) in present-time contexts to express unreality or as a milder and more polite form of will.

Besides being a purely modal verb, will generally combines its modal meaning with the function of an
auxiliary verb expressing future actions.
While shall and should are treated as two different verbs in modern English, will and would are
considered to be the forms of the same verb. However, in some of their meanings the use of will
is parallel only to would which denotes an actual fact in the past; in other meanings will is found
alongside would which expresses unreality in the present or serves as a milder or more polite form
of will.

Both will and would are used to express:


1. Volition (willingness, readiness, strong intention or determination).
This meaning is found in affirmative and negative sentences. The Present Indefinite tense form will,
in addition to expressing its modal meaning, serves to refer the modal meaning and the action to the
future. The Past Indefinite tense form would is generally used in reported speech and also serves to
refer the modal meaning and the action to the future but in this case it is viewed from a past moment.
In most cases this meaning is rendered in Russian by emphatic intonation, but sometimes by the verb
хотеть.
I will write as soon as I can. / Я обязательно напишу,как только смогу.
I will stop smoking! I really will / Я обязательно брошу курить. Я обещаю.
I won't answer your question. / Я отказываюсь отвечать на твой вопрос.
We decided that we wouldn't interfere. / Мы решили не вмешиваться.

2. Habitual (recurrent) actions and typical characteristics.


She will sit talking to herself for hours. / Она обычно сидит и разговаривает с
собой часами.
Sometimes he would bring me presents without saying why. / Иногда он дарил мне
подарки без особого повода.
When Alan was a toddler he would cling on to me whenever a stranger came in.
/ Когда Алан был ребенком, он постоянно держался за меня, когда к нам
приходили посторонние люди.
Sentences with stressed will / would can be used to criticise people's typical behaviour or to talk
about people who insist on behaving in strange or annoying ways. Will / would is not contracted
when it is used to describe an annoying habit:
112 English Gram m ar Practice

She will fall in love with the wrong people. / Она постоянно влюбляется не в тех
людей.
Не will fidget every time the exams come. / Он постоянно нервничает в период
экзаменов.
Не was a nice boy, but he would talk about himself all the time. / О н был хорошим
мальчиком, но постоянно говорил только о себе.

NOTE 1: Will (for the present) and would (for the past) can be used to make genera
statements in the same way as the simple present and past tenses of ordinary
verbs; to talk about characteristic behaviour or habits, or about things that are
or were always true:
Every day Dan will come home from work and turn on the TV.
During the war, people would eat all kinds of things that we don't eat now.
Would is not used in this way to talk about a particular occasion in the past:
The tour guide was very helpful. She contacted the Consulate for me when I
lost my passport. (no t:... would contact)

NOTE 2: The expression used to followed by the Infinitive is used for things that happened
regularly in the past or for things that were true in the past but are not true now.
It denotes habits, actions and states in the past.
I used to be very quiet.
We didn't use to care about what others thought.
I never used to wear make-up.
What did they use to be like?
Would followed by the infinitive is used to talk about repeated actions in the past.
It is not common with the verbs to be or to have when they express states in the
past.
I would sit in my room for hours.
I would go to pop concerts every week.
BUT: I used to have pink hair.

Be used to followed by -ing form denotes something familiar or usual:


I am used to being alone.
We were used to people staring at us.
Teaching Unit .9 . THE MODAL VERB WILL / WOULD 113
3. Persistence or refusal to perform an action.
This meaning is found in affirmative sentences, expressing persistence and in negative - refusal. Will
/ would is followed by the non-perfect infinitive. In Russian it is usually rendered as продолжает,
никак не хочет, ни за что не хотел.
I ask him to stop talking but he will. / Я прошу его прекратить разговор, а он
продолжает.
Mum! Sue won't give те back ту book. / Мама! Сью не отдает мою книгу.
Не was wet through, but he wouldn't change. / Он промок насквозь, но не хотел
переоде ться.
4. Inanimate objects (lifeless things) refuse or fail to perform their immediate function.
In this meaning will / would is found in negative sentences and is followed by the non-perfect
infinitive. In Russian it is usually rendered as никак не пишет/ не писала, никак не открывается
/ не открывалась and the like.
Му pen w on't/ wouldn't write. /М о я ручка не пишет / не писала.
The door won't / wouldn't open. /Д верь никак не открывается / не
открывалась.

5. Requests and offers.


This meaning occurs only in questions:
Will you give me a call when you get to the hotel?/Т ы мне позвонишь, когда
доберешься до гостиницы?
Will you have some more of the pie? What will you drink?/ Будешь еще пирог?
Что ты будешь пить?
Would you lend те the car tomorrow night, dad?/ Ты не мог бы мне одолжить
машину на завтрашний вечер, папа?
There is hardly any difference between the use of will and would here; the role of would in its
Subjunctive Mood form is to make the request still more polite.

NOTE 3: Will is used in requesting others to do things for somebody. Will you is very direct -
almost an order. Would you is more polite:
| Would you help me carry this, please?
Will you help me carry it NOW - I'm dropping it!
1. Polite requests:
| Help me! → 1) Will you help me, please?
2) Help me, will you please?
2. Abrupt requests and orders.
Will is used to insist angrily, but won't is used to plead or to beg:
Be quiet! → 1) Will you be quiet!
2) Be quiet, will you?
3) Be quiet, won't you?
114 English Grammar Practice

6. Supposition implying strong probability.


In this meaning only will is used with reference to the present or to the future in combination with the
non-perfect infinitive, or to the past in combination with the perfect infinitive. This meaning is found
with the second and third person singular and plural.
This will be the school, I believe. /Эт о, по-видимому, и есть школа.
You will have heard the news, I'm sure. / Я полагаю, что вы уже слышали
новость.
It should be noted that the use of will in this meaning is not common.
Note the set phrases with will and would:
a) Will not have (won't have) smb. do smth. - Я не допущу, чтобы...
I will not / won't have you speak to me like that. / Я не допущу, чтобы ты
разговаривал со мной таким тоном.
b) Would rather ('d rather) / would sooner ('d sooner) do smth.- Предпочитаю /
пожалуй...
I'd rather do it myself. / Я, пожалуй, сделаю это сама.
He'd sooner die than let me think he was a failure. /О н, скорее, умрет, чем
позволит мне считать его неудачником.
c) Would... m ind ... - Возражать против чего-либо.
Would you mind ту staying here for a while?/ Вы не возражаете, если я
останусь здесь на какое-то время?
I wouldn't mind your telling them about Hardy. / Я бы не возражала, если бы ты
рассказал им о Харди.
d) Would like / would love - Хотелось бы / Сделаю с удовольствием.
I would love to come to your wedding on September 6th. Thank you for the invitation.
/ Я с удовольствием приду на твою свадьбу шестого сентября.
I would like you to listen to me when I am talking. / Мне бы хотелось, чтобы ты
меня слушал, когда я с тобой разговариваю.
e) Will in the following sentences is used to express inevitability, characteristic
behaviour, quality or something naturally expected:
What will be will be. / Чему быть того не миновать.
Boys will be boys. /М альчиш ки остаются мальчишками.
Accidents will happen. /Несчастные случаи неизбежны.
115

PRACTICE ACTIVITIES

Ex. 1 Read the following sentences containing the modal verb will / would and fill in the
chart. Identify the use of it and the synonymous expression as in the example. Then
translate the sentences into Russian.

Modal Verb Will / Would Use (Meaning) Synonymous Expression


1. You have only to ask me and I will show you the Volition I am willing (I intend) to
rooms. show you the rooms.
2. My feet won't move! I feel so damn silly.

3. I was happy when Sam left, he would talk about


people behind their backs.
4. Will you have some more sweets?

5. This will be just what she wants.

6. I'll give you another opportunity to get the correct


answer.
7. Early passenger planes would hold fewer than 30
passengers.
8. I will take care of you, I promise, Megan.

9. His hair won't stick down though it looks as if he


had plastered everything he can think of on it.
10. I tried to speak but the words wouldn't come.

11. She wouldn't say what was wrong when I asked.

12. A baby will recognize its mother's voice soon after


it is born.
13. I want a photograph of you, — would you give me
one?

14. We sent the invitations on Monday, so they will have


received them by now. Why hasn't anyone replied?
15. When you look at clouds they will often remind you
of animals.
16. Dan will leave the lights on when he's last out of
the office.
17. Whatever I do, my car won't start first time on cold
mornings.
18. Shut the door, would you?
116 English Gram m ar Practice

Ex. 2 A. Practice the modal verb will to express different sorts of volition. Use the model to
help you respond to the following sentences.

Model: The car looks so dirty that it's unpleasant to use.


Oh, I'll clean it in a minute.
1. The sink is full of dirty dishes.
2. Why are the children still undressed?
3. There is such a mess in the bedroom.
4. This letter is very important and you haven't written it yet.
5. Your sister is waiting for your phone call and you haven't called her yet.
6. There are so many mistakes in this article.
7. The guests are coming in a minute but the meal hasn't been cooked yet.
B. Go through the situations below. Use the modal verb will or won't for willingness or
intention and a verb from the list.

post sin k pay get push call give

Someone wants to speak to your brother on the 'Hang on a moment. I'll call him.'
phone.
Someone's car won't start. 'Get in, we you.’
Someone is learning to swim, but is scared. 'Don't worry, you .'
The doctor is seeing a child who is sick. 'Cheer up! You well soon.'
A visitor phones to say he left a book at your house. 'There is no problem . I it to you.'
Someone is waiting at the bus stop but the last bus 'Get in, I you a lift.'
has left.
Someone complains that the juice the waiter has 'I am sorry, you for it then.'
brought is not fresh.

Ex. 3 Complete the sentences with either will or would followed by the bare infinitive form
of the verb in brackets.

1. Every time I come to the conference, that man will talk too much. (talk)
2. Around 2 o'clock every night, Sue_______ talking in her sleep. It's very annoying. (start)
3. We enjoyed going out with Frank and Carol, but they_in public. (argue)
4. There is a boy in my class w ho________ the most ridiculous question. (ask)
5. Every time he has heart problems, he______ his doctor in the middle of the night. (call)
6. Whenever I had to go to that restaurant, those people_____ so strangely. (behave)
7. When I happen to see this little girl, she________ so fast. (eat)
8. I have a student w ho________ always________ too late for the class. (arrive)
9. When my sister is in bad mood, she________ at people. (shout)
10. Every time I bought my son a new toy h e ________ it. (lose)
Teaching Unit 9. THE MODAL VERB WILL /W O U LD 117

Ex. 4 For each of the following sentences write a new sentence similar in the meaning to
the original one. Use will or would to make general statements.

1. The couple sometimes spend the whole evening saying nothing.


The couple__________ saying nothing.
2. His wife often phoned him when he was busy.
His wife__________ he was busy.
3. The secretary occasionally leaves work early to catch an earlier bus.
The secretary__________ to catch an earlier bus.
4. The inspector frequently arrived without any warning.
The inspector__________ without any warning.
5. The chefs often cook the food for so long that it is spoilt.
The chefs__________ that it is spoilt.
6. He frequently waits for his friend for a very long time.
H e __________ for a very long time.
7. The girl sometimes visited her mother on Tuesdays.
The g irl__________ on Tuesdays.
8. The enemy often knew about our attacks before we did.
The enemy__________before we did.
9. The old man frequently went for a walk after breakfast.
The old m an__________ after breakfast.
10 , My friend usually sits staring at the night sky.
My friend__________ at the night sky.

Ex. 5 If possible, complete the sentences with either will or would followed by the bare
infinitive form of the verb in brackets. If it is not possible, use Past Indefinite tense
form. (see Note 1)

1. Last night I gave him a problem and h e _________ it for me. (solve)
2. As soon as he woke up h e ________ things ready for breakfast. (get)
3. H e ________ work in 1963 as an assistant to the managing director. (begin)
4. After I read about the place in a magazine, I ________ to visit Madagascar myself. (want)
5. When I was younger I ________ hours just kicking a ball around the garden. (spend)
6. Even when it's freezing cold, some people________ just jeans and a T-shirt. (wear)
7. When I was at school all the children________ in silence when the teacher came into
the room. (stand up)
8. Everywhere she went, people________ her name and ask for her autograph. (call out)
9. Jack________ three days ago from a holiday in France. (return)
10. I usually get up late, so most mornings, I ________ just a cup of tea for breakfast. (have)
11. She________ all her closest friends and relatives to her 50th birthday party last summer.
(invite)
118 English Gram m ar Practice

Ex. 6 Some of the following sentences are incorrect. Find the errors and correct them. (see
Note 1)

1. I had to work late on Friday, so my mother would pick up Sue from school. picked
2. Mary wouldn't sing for me, even though I often asked her to.
3. The moment I asked Steve, he would agree to lend me the car for the day.
4. When I phoned, the receptionist wouldn't let me have an appointment with Dr Johnson
before next week.
5. At the interview they wouldn't tell me how much traveling was involved in the job.
6. Yesterday he would make me sandwiches and would bring me a cup of coffee.
7. When I had problems with my homework last night, my father would do it for me.
8 . Five years ago, the children in this school would help to plant all the trees you see before
you.
9. Before he moved to London, Thomas would meet me every day after work.
10. When I was young, shopkeepers would cycle around town, delivering food to customers

Ex. 7 Complete the sentences with would or used to. Where either form is possible, write
them both. Where there is a word in brackets, put it in the correct position. (see Note 2)

1. In the long sum m er holidays, we used to/would go out som ew here for a picnic every
day.
2. When I was a newly-trained teacher. I ______ work till late every night preparing lesson
3. They______ be happy together but they're not now.
4. When they came to London, they______ (never) travel anywhere on the tube.
5. When I had a car, I ______ drive everywhere, but now I'm much fitter because I always
walk or cycle.
6. During my last year at university, I ______ go to the library to start work at 9 o'clock
every morning.
7. When we shared a flat together, we _ _ _ _ _ (often) stay up talking late into the nigh:
8. I ______ like going to pop concerts when I was a teenager.
9. My father didn't know that w e ______ borrow the car when he was at work.
10. When I was a child, summers______ be warmer and winters colder than now.
11. When the weather was good, w e ______ go walking in the hills every weekend.
12. I ______have lots of free time before I started working here.
13. I ______ be very shy. Whenever a stranger came to our house, I ______ hide in a closet.
14. I remember my Aunt Susan very well. Every time she came to our house, sh e ____
give me a big kiss and pinch my cheek.
15. Illiteracy is still a problem, but it ______ be much worse.
16. When I was a child, I ______ take a flashlight to bed with me so that I could read comic
books without my parents' knowing about it.
Teaching Unit 9. THE MODAL VERB WILL / WOULD 119

Marta doesn't like some of the things that Bill does.

Model: He will play his music too loud when I'm trying to work.
He will leave the front door open when he goes out.

Think of a close friend or relative and say what things they do that annoy you.

Ex. 9 Rephrase each sentence so that it means the same as the preceding one. Use either
won't or wouldn't to talk about refusals.

Model: The girl begged her brother to take her to the dance, but he said "No".
The girl's brother wouldn't take his sister to the dance.
1. The secretary has asked them to pay her, but they refuse.
They_________________________________________________
2. I asked my father to give me more money, but he said, "Certainly not!".
My father______________________________________________
3. I know you want me to tell you what happened, but I refuse.
I ______________________________________________________
4. My friends keep asking me to sell them my car, but I always say "No"
I ______________________________________________________
5. They urged their grandmother to see the doctor, but she said it wasn't necessary.
Their grandmother________________________________________
6. The dentist wanted the little boy to open his mouth, but he kept it shut.
The little boy_____________________________________________
7. The young man asks the girl to marry him every time he sees her, but she always
shakes her head.
The girl _________________________________________________
8. The Opposition members shouted, "Resign!" at the Prime Minister, but he took no
notice of it.
The Prime Minister________________________________________
9. The general asked the enemy to surrender, but they shouted, "Never!"
The enemy_______________________________________________
10. I asked Ron to give me a lift to town but he said his car was broken.
Ron
120 English Gram mar Practice

Ex. 10 What's the problem? Use won't in your answers.

The window won’t open.

Now think of as many verbs as possible for the objects below to speak about refusals
Model: The car won't start (stop, m ove...).
the window, the knife, the door-handle, the table, the computer, the pencil, the suitcase, the
telephone, the video tape, the scissors.

Ex. 11 The first time Mr and Mrs Wilson went abroad, they were on their honeymoon - lots
of things went wrong. They still laugh about it, though at that time it was not so
funny! Complete Mrs. Wilson's description of it to her children with won't or wouldn't
and the verbs from the box:

accept/ let/ light/ move/ start/ stay/ stop

We were going to leave at 6 am on the day after our wedding, to get the 9 o'clock ferry from Dover
to France. Then the first thing went wrong - the car 1) wouldn't start! Dad got quite angry, and
kept shouting: "Why 2 ) ____________ it____________ ?" In the end he had to call a garage, and the
mechanic wanted 20$. We'd changed all our money into foreign currency, and in those days people
3 ) __________ normally_____________cheques from someone they didn't know.
"What shall I do?" Dad cried. "He 4 )_____________ a cheque!" At last the mechanic agreed, and we
just got to Dover in time for the boat.
"And why 5 ) ______________ the c a r______________?" asked Stephen. "Your Dad had forgotten tc
buy petrol", Mrs Wilson replied. "Anyway, we got to a campsite in France and tried to put up our tent
but it was so windy that it 6 )______________ up. We ended up sleeping in the car. Next morning, we
found that all our cooking things were wet. "The stove 7)________________ !" your Dad kept saying
So, we had a cold breakfast!
Teaching Unit 9. THE MODAL VERB WILL / WOULD 121
But the funniest thing was a few days later, when we were in the mountains. There was a flock of sheep
in the road, and they 8 ) _________________ us pass. "Sheep 9)_______________ unless you make a
loud noise!" Dad said, and he pressed the horn. But the horn got stuck, and it 10)_______________ !
It was terribly embarrassing, but at least the sheep got out of our way!

Ex. 12 Practise different kinds of requests with the following sentences. Turn them into a
short conversation. (see Note 3)

1. Bring us the menu!


Would you bring us the menu, please?
2. Tell us what is good!

3. Bring us the wine list!

4. Bring me the bill!

5. Check the bill!

6. Fetch the manager!

Ex. 13 What would you say to someone who...

1. is smoking in a no-smoking area and it makes you angry:____________________


2. is talking during a concert and it irritates you:___________________________
3. has opened a train window on a cold day and you are running a fever:_______
4. is talking loudly on the phone in a train compartment and you are trying to sleep:
5. is constantly interrupting your conversation with another person:___________

Ex. 14 What prediction does Mr. Wilson say in the situation below? Complete the sentences
using items from the box.

woken up yet for one of the children changed


your great grandmother the postman getting worried

1. He hears a knock at the door: Ah! That'll be the postman.


2. The phone rings at midnight: I'm not getting up! It _____
3. Stephen's friend calls at 7a.m.: It's very early. H e________
4. He and his wife are delayed in town: The children____________
5. Stephen and Julie are looking through old photos: That_________________
6. He is going to meet his old teacher, after 20 years: I expect h e ______________
122 English G ram m ar Practice

Ex. 15 Make up short dialogues with the following statements.

1. No, I will never do that again.


2. I'm sorry that I was rude, but I couldn't help it, and I will try to keep my temper.
3. I will go at once.
4. I won't let you assume any airs of superiority over me.
5. No, the knife wouldn't cut.
6 . Yes, I will always come here on fine sunny days.
7. Would you like me to translate these stories for you?
8 . Would you mind explaining, please?
9. Would you get me a glass of water?
10. I will never allow him to go there.
11. Would you like to come with me to the country for a few days?
12. Would you have any objection to telling us exactly what passed between you?
13. I will not do what you ask me. I will not.

Ex. 16 Complete these dialogues with will, won't, would, wouldn't and the correct form of
the infinitive of the verbs in the box.

argue be come have hold prepare say start stop watch work

Model: ‘Sue says she's enjoying the job but she's putting on w eight.'
'Yes, that will be because o f all those long business lunches.'
1. 'Are you having problems with your new camera?'
'Yes, the flash__________ in semi-darkness, only when it's fully dark.'
2. 'Shop assistants used to be more polite, didn't they?'
'Yes, a few years ago th e y______ always_______"please" and "thank you" and smile
3. 'Surely there are too many people here to get on one plane?'
'No, a jumbo je t ______ easily_______over 300 people.'
4. 'I hope Josh is OK at that summer camp. He might be homesick.'
'Don't worry about him. H e ________ a great time!'
5. 'Do you think that the jury will acquit Nick?'
'I hope so. I'm sure that his lawyer________ a solid defence.'
6. 'I don't think this new secretary is as good as Janice was.'
'I don't know. Janice______ always ____ _ whenever you pointed out errors in her
typing.'
7. 'The new horse at the riding stables seems to be working out very well.'
'Quite well, but h e ________ and eat whenever he gets the opportunity!'
8. 'Oh no, I've just noticed a mistake in the headline for the front page article!'
'Phone the printers. They printing it yet - they don't print until early
morning.'
Teaching Unit 9. THE MODAL VERB WILL / WOULD 123
9. 'What happened after the car broke down?'
'Well, we knew that traffic________ along that road so late, so we slept in the car.'
10. 'Why are you and Jack arguing so much these days?'
'He takes me for granted. H e ________ TV every evening and ignore me completely.'

Paraphrase the bold parts of this phone conversation, using will, won't, would and
w ouldn't

JAKE 020 7543 9216


ALICE Hi, Jake. It's Alice here.
JAKE Alice, how nice to hear from you!
ALICE Actually, Jake, I'm phoning to ask you for some advice.
JAKE (1) I'm willing to help you if I can, of course.
ALICE Your mother receives help from the Council, doesn't she?
Can you tell me what (2) they agree to do and what (3) they don't agree to do for older
people?
JAKE Yes, of course. Mum has a home help. She comes three times a week. (4) She's perfectly
happy to do light cleaning and (5) she's willing to get the shopping, but (6) she refuses to
do anything heavy.
ALICE That's fair enough. What about cooking?
JAKE Well, when she first started (7) she was happy to prepare supper when she came, but she
stopped that after a few weeks.
ALICE Why was that?
JAKE You know my mum. (8) She insists on saying exactly what she thinks. Apparently the home
help used to make Italian food and Mum didn't like it. (9) She refused to eat it. Why are you
asking, anyway?
ALICE It's Dad. He can't move around very easily now. The neighbours are great, they (10) make
a habit o f popping in now and again but (11) he's unwilling to ask them fo r help if he's in
trouble.
JAKE Mmm. You can understand that.
ALICE Oh, but he's so impatient. I take him to the shops once a week, but yesterday (12) the car
refused to start and I was about half an hour late. (13) I wondered if he would wait for me?
No, (14) he insists on trying to cope by him self! He went to the shops and collapsed on the
way there.
JAKE Oh, dear. It's a worry, isn't it? Look, (15) do you mind waiting fo r a few minutes? I'll look
out the phone number for the right person at social services.
124 English Grammar Practice

Ex. 18 18. C o m p le te th e d ia lo g u e s b e lo w th e p ictu re s. U se will, shall or would.

STUDENT 1: Will you pass me the dictionary, please? MAN: .....................................................................


STUDENT2: Y e s. h e re y o u a re . w om an: O h , y e s , p le a s e ! W e a lw a y s n e e d
s o m e o n e to t a k e th e m in u te s

friend: I w o n ’t, t h a n k s . I'm t r y in g to lo s e w e ig h t. POLICE OFFICER:.................................................................


THIEF: C o m e w ith y o u ? N o , w h y s h o u ld I?

m an: I d o n 't u n d e r s t a n d w h a t y o u w a n t fro m


STUDENTS: O h . M is s , n o t a n o t h e r e s s a y fo r m e!
h o m e w o rk ! W e ’v e a lr e a d y w ritte n tw o WOMAN: ................................................................................
th is w e e k . m an: B u t I d o r e s p e c t yo u !
Ex. 19 There are nine more mistakes in this text connected with the modal verb w ill/ would.
Find the mistakes and correct them.

1. I'll never forget the day my life changed. It was a normal day - in those days I
2. shall do my homework straight after school so that I could go and listen to pop would

3. music at Janice's after dinner. So I was sitting in front of the fire, trying to keep
4. warm. Mum was ironing. I looked at the clock.
5. 'Dad's late,' I remarked to Mum.
6. 'It's Thursday. He'd be visiting Granny.'
7. My grandmother lived in a cold, draughty cottage on the moors. Mum and
8. Dad wanted her to move in with us, but our house was very small, and she won't.
9. They knew that the cold winter months would have hastened her death - she
10. already suffered from chronic bronchitis - but she was a stubborn old woman
11. who will insist on her independence.
12. 'Won't it be nice if we had some money? We could buy a big house and
13. Granny could have a flat of her own in it. I hate being poor.'
14. 'Oh, pet, I shan't say we're poor. We're not as well off as some, but we've
15. got a roof over our heads and food in our bellies.' Mum would always see
16. the best in every situation. It really annoyed me! 'Will I make a nice cup of tea?
17. Your Dad would be frozen when he gets in. He'll want to save the bus fare so
18. I'm sure he's walked all the way from your grandmother's.'
19. At that moment, the door opened and Dad walked in, waving a slip of paper.
20. 'Forget the tea, Mary. We're going out tonight. First prize in the lottery.
21. We're rich!'

Ex. 20 Translate into English paying attention to the use of the modal verb will (would) and
the forms of the Infinitive.

1. Вы пообедаете с нами? - Нет, спасибо. Мне надо идти.


2. Я обязательно зайду к вам завтра.
3. Я пойду туда с удовольствием.
4. Хотя работа трудная, я ее охотно сделаю.
5. Ваш ребенок обычно часами сидит перед телевизором. Не позволяйте ему делать
это.
126 English G ram m ar Practice

6. Дайте мне, пожалуйста, вашу ручку, моя не пишет.


7. Я никогда не напомню тебе о том несчастном случае.
8. Помогите мне открыть шкаф. Он никак не открывается.
9. Зимой они обычно ходят на каток каждый вечер.
10. Я сам извинюсь за тебя перед Аней.
11. Не хотите ли пойти на прогулку и полюбоваться морем?
12. Всякий раз как я рассказываю ему эту забавную историю, он обычно веселс
смеется.
13. Я хочу взять отпуск и хорошо отдохнуть.
14. Я сообщу вам, как только приеду на место.
15. Доктор велел ей лежать, но она и слышать об этом не хотела.
16. Замок никак не открывается.
17. Хотите еще стакан сока?
18. После работы он обычно дожидался нас у ресторана.
19. Я заплатил деньги, и я останусь здесь.
20. Вечера он по большей части проводил за игрой в шахматы.
21. Он несколько раз чиркнул зажигалкой, но она не сработала.
22. Он попытался объясниться, но я не стал его слушать.
23. Сегодня воскресенье, и все магазины, естественно, будут закрыты.
24. Он сказал, что был бы рад, если бы я согласился приехать и погостить у него
несколько дней.
25. Я бы все сделал, чтобы ей помочь. Но спасти ее, к сожалению, не удалось.
26. Чему быть, того не миновать.
27. Кто-то стучит в дверь. Это, очевидно, мой сосед.
28. Несчастные случаи неизбежны.
29. Да оставь ты меня в покое!
30. Мой босс был просто невыносим: он всегда находил для меня работу к концу
рабочего дня.
Teaching Unit 10. THE MODAL VERB DARE 127
Teaching Unit 10 TH E MODAL VERB DARE

For study
The verb dare can be used in two ways: as an ordinary verb, followed by the infinitive with to and
as a modal verb. As a modal verb dare has two forms: dare for the present tense and dared for the
past tense. Questions and negatives are made without do; the third person singular has no -s; the
following infinitive is used without to.
It means:
1. To have the courage or impudence to do something. Its use is very restricted. It is mainly found in
questions, which are actually exclamations, and in negative sentences.
How dare she say that! / И как она осмеливается такое говорить!
I daren't say what I think. / Я не решаюсь сказать то, о чем думаю.
Dare she tell him? (Is she brave enough to tell him?) / И у нее хватает мужества
рассказать ему?
Не dared not open his eyes. / Он не решался открыть глаза.

2. Supposition, which is used in British English in affirmative sentences to mean / think probably, I
suppose. In Russian this phrase corresponds to очень возможно, пожалуй, осмелюсь сказать.
I dare say it will rain soon. / Пожалуй, скоро пойдет дождь.
I dare say you are right. / Осмелюсь сказать, вы правы.

As an ordinary verb dare has all the necessary forms, followed by the infinitive with to. It may have
the following meanings:
1. To have the courage or impudence (like the modal dare). Its use is also restricted. It is mainly
found in negative sentences.
She didn't dare to tell him what had happened. (She didn't have the courage.) / Она
не решалась сказать ему, что случилось.
Не doesn't dare to come here again. / Он не осмеливается придти сюда снова.
She told те she had never dared to ask him about it. / О н а сказала мне, что
никогда не осмеливалась спросить его об этом.
Don't you dare to touch me. / Не смей ко мне прикасаться.

2. То challenge, to defy
I dared him to jump. (I challenged him to do it.) / Я вдохновил его на прыжок.
I dare you to say this straight to her face. / Попробуй, скажи ей это прямо в лицо.

In modern English, dare is not a very common verb. In an informal style, people generally use other
expressions to convey the same meaning.
He daren't say what he thinks. (=He's afraid to say what he thinks.) / О н не
осмеливается сказать, что он думает.
128 English Gram m ar Practice

PRACTICE ACTIVITIES

Ex. 1 Read the following sentences containing the modal verb dare and then identify its
use (meaning).

1. How dare you break the rules of crossing the road!


2. He dared not speak in front of her.
3. Dare she go there alone?
4. She dared not tell me about it.
5. I dare say you are wrong.
6. "How dare she come here!" cried David indignantly.
7. I dare say there are several things that I could teach you if you would like to learn them
8. Simon didn't look at her and I dared not run the risk.
9. I daren't say what our conversation was about.
10. How dare you say that of me! Get out!

Ex. 2 Translate the following sentences into Russian, paying attention to the verb dare
(both modal and ordinary).

1. Julia walked to her husband's room, and fo r a while dared not enter.
2. How dare you address my friend and I in such a manner? How dare you?
3. For a full ten minutes he dared not look at Lucy.
4. "Don't you dare touch him!" cried Sally.
5. I dare say we were a couple of young fools to take on such a job.
6. She laughed, shocked. How dare he tease her, right in the teeth of disaster!
7. I dare say you can guess the reason of all these questions.
8. She had found that learning poems was a soothing way to take her mind off the
disappointment of her marriage, whose extent she did not dare to admit even to herself.
9. He dared not look up for fear of finding his letter of application turned down.
10. "Don't you dare to speak to me!" she cried in tears.
11. I dare you to run across the road with your eyes shut.

Ex. 3 For each of the sentences below, write a new sentence with dare, as similar in meaning
as possible, to the original one.

1. How can you be so impudent as to speak to your mother in such a tone?


How___________________________________________ in such a tone?
2. He felt that he was wrong but had no courage to admit it.
He felt that he was wrong but_________________________________________.
3. The little girl had no courage to stroke the dog.
The little g irl________________________________________________ the dog.
Teaching Unit 10. THE MODAL VERB DARE___________________________________________________________________________ ______________ 129
4. How can you be so impudent as to interfere in their conversation?
How _______________________________________________ in their conversation?
5. He had no courage to speak and he kept silent.
H e ___________________________________________ and he kept silent.
6. He had no courage to tell them the truth as it might upset them.
H e___________________________________________ as it might upset them.
7. It's impudent of you to try to deceive me!
How __________________________________________deceive me.
8. How can you venture to reproach her for it? It was all your fault.
How __________________________________________her for it?
9. I suppose you can help me a bit.
I ________________________________________________ a bit.
10. The boy had no courage to climb the tree.
The boy________________________________ the tree.
11. I suppose this task is too difficult.
I _________________________________________________ too difficult.
12. Bill wasn't brave enough to tell me that terrible news.
Bill________________________________________that terrible news.
13. How can you be so impudent as to send her a message like this?
How __________________________________________like this?
14. Nobody had the courage to live in that house after his leaving.
Nobody________________________________________ after his leaving.
15. How can you venture to ask her about it?
How________________________________________________ about it?
16. Sheila had no courage to investigate the murder.
Sheila__________________________________________ the murder.
17. I suppose he will be late for the interview.
I ___________________________________ for the interview.

Ex. 4 Respond to the following statements, using dare.

Model: I won't help her with the preparations.


How dare you say so ?

1. I won't go to my sister's wedding.


2. Carol wants to be the first in skiing competition.
3. Jack says our work is poor.
4. Nick refused to take part in the discussion.
5. Why didn't you ask him to take you to London with him?
6. Michael never rings before coming round.
130 English G ram m ar Practice

Ex. 5 Complete the following sentences.

1. I dare s a y ....
2. How dare you upset your m other....
3. He dared not ad m it...
4. Don't you see that she dare not meet your eyes because ...
5. How dare you say that to me ...
6. How dare you tease the child ...
7. I dare not interfere b u t...
8. How dare you attem pt...
9. How dare you speak to her like th a t...
10. He dared not argue ...
11. How dare you blame me ...
12. How dare you contradict your m other...
13. How dared you open that letter ...
14. The child didn't dare ....

Ex. 6 Complete the following sentences using the verb dare.

1. Tony was beyond himself with indignation when his colleague reminded him about h is
salary. He hoped ...
2. Larry wanted to open his heart to Christine, to speak about his love in the train coming
home, but the compartment was overcrowded and ...
3. It was dark in the room and the baby...
4. I knew that this news would upset them and ...
5. Give me that letter...
6. Becky tore the teacher's textbook and when the teacher asked the pupils who had done
it s h e ...
7. Though he understood that he was wrong ...
8. Don't contradict me ...
9. The girl couldn't swim ...
10. David's mother saw that his coach was unjust to him b u t...

Ex. 7 Translate the following sentences, paying attention to the use of the verb dare.

1. Он не осмеливается придти сюда снова.


2. Как ты смеешь разговаривать со мной таким тоном?
3. Я полагаю, он собирается уволить её с работы за постоянные опоздания.
4. Как он смеет обращаться с животным так жестоко!
5. Осмелюсь сказать Вы немного устали после участия в конференции.
6. «Не смейте бить этого ребёнка», - закричал прохожий.
T e a c h in g U n it 1 0 . T H E M O D A L V E R B D A R E 131
7. Девочка разбила любимую чашку матери и не осмеливалась сказать ей об этом.
8. Мэри знала, что её отец страшно разгневан, и не осмеливалась поднять на него
глаза.
9. Как ты смеешь читать мой дневник?
10. Крис знал, что его мама была не права, но не отважился сказать ей об этом.
11. Я не решаюсь вмешиваться в ваш спор, но мне кажется, вы оба неправы.
12. Она не отважилась признаться в своей ошибке даже самой себе.
13. Миссис Джейсон была вне себя от ярости, когда Ричард отважился напомнить ей,
что она не заплатила ему.
14. Моего сына сейчас нет в городе, но я полагаю, он скоро придёт. Что ему пе­
редать?
15. Осмелюсь сказать, что вы допустили ошибку.
16. Сколько же лет прошло с тех пор, как мы встретились в последний раз? Я не
осмеливаюсь подумать.
17. Он не посмел бы придти сюда без разрешения.
132 English Grammar Practice

MISCELLANEOUS PRACTICE
CAN, MAY, MUST, HAVE TO, NEED, BE TO, SHOULD,
OUGHT TO, SHALL, WILL, DARE

Ex. 1 Fill in the blanks with a suitable word or phrase practicing modals. Identify the
use of the modal verb and the synonymous expression.

Modal Use (Meaning) Synonymous expression


1. She must have worked (to w o rk ) late Supposition, Evidently, she worked late
last n ig h t; sh e lo o ks e x h a u s te d . implying strong last night.
probability
2. W h e n w e e m ig ra te d to A u s tra lia , w e O b lig a tio n , a ris in g
(to le a v e ) o u r p e ts b e h in d . o u t o f c irc u m s ta n c e s
3. T h e lig h ts in th e o ffic e a re o n . G a ry Probably, G a ry is still
still (to w o rk ). w o rk in g .

4. You are a little b it o v e rw e ig h t. You O b lig a tio n , im p ly in g •


(to ta k e ) m o re e xe rcise . a d v is a b ility

5. I d id n 't in v ite Pau l to th e party. He I d id n 't in v ite Pau l to th e


(n o t to c o m e ). p arty . It's hardly possible
t h a t h e ca m e .

6. I (to ca rry) y o u r b ag if yo u like.


V o litio n (w illin g n e s s )

7. We (n o t to o rd e r) so m u ch
A b s e n c e o f n e c e s s ity
fo o d as n o b o d y w a s h u n gry .
8. You (n o t to a p o lo g is e ). It's n ot It's not necessary to
y o u r fa u lt. a p o lo g ise . It's n o t y o u r fault
9. You ( to b e) k in d e r to h er; sh e 's Why are you so u n k in d to
o n ly a baby. yo u r baby?

10. You re a lly (n o t to e a t) so


C ritic is m (R e p ro a c h )
m u c h red m e a t in th e re sta u ra n t.
11. S h e (n o t to ta k e ) a n y m o n e y There was no need fo r her
b e c a u s e h e r frie n d w a s g o in g to pay. to ta k e a n y m o n e y, b e ca u se
h e r frie n d w a s g o in g to pay

12. H e (to ta k e ) y o u r c a r sin c e he S u p p o s itio n , im p ly in g


had th e keys. stro n g p ro b a b ility

13. T h e y (to se ll) th e ir h o u se but O b lig a tio n , a ris in g


th e n d e c id e d to w a it a b it longer. o u t o f a n o t c a rrie d
o u t p lan
MISCELLANEOUS PRACTICE 133

14. You (to try) to treat customers more Why didn't you even try to
politely when you worked in that store. treat your customers politely?
15. Susan (to help) you if you
Unreality
had asked her.
16. they (to spend) all that Do you believe that they
money in just one week? have spent that money in
just one week?
17. we (to go)? It's getting Do you think it's time for us
late. to go?
18. You (to start) learning Spanish Obligation arising out
if you're going to live in Madrid. of circumstances
19. you (to collect) my parcel
Polite request
for me?
20. You (not to smoke) cigars on an You aren't allowed
aeroplane. to smoke cigars on an
aeroplane.
21. You (not to pay) by cheque
Prohibition
without a cheque guarantee card.
22. The doctor says I (to lose) weight
Necessity
before the operation.
23. _I_ (to paint) my room a Do you allow me to paint
different colour, please? my room a different
colour?
24. Call them later; they (to sleep) Perhaps, they are sleeping
now. now.
25. You (to write) to your It's your moral duty to
grandfather more often. write to your grandfather
more often.
26. She types very fast. Actually she
Ability
( to type) 150 words per minute.
27. You (to confirm) your Obligation with no
registration in writing. freedom of choice
28. Ian (to tell) her the truth; she Criticism
now feels betrayed. (Reproach)
29. You (to be) a member of the You are required to be
library before you can borrow books. a member of the library
before you can borrow
books.
30. I'm sorry to bother you but you May I ask you to help me?
(to help) me?
134 English Grammar Practice

Ex. 2 Match a first sentence (1 -1 0 ) with a second sentence (a - j) to make short exchanges.

1. "Shall we go to a Chinese restaurant this a) "Not really; I'll be popping out myself in a
evening?" minute".
2. "May I borrow your calculator for a b) "I'd rather stay at home.'
moment?"
3. "Would you help me get the dinner ready?" c) "Actually it would be difficult to do without
you right now".
4. "You shouldn't get upset so easily." d) "Could you give me another week then?"
5. "You ought to have gone to the doctor as e) "It's up to you really; it depends how
soon as you felt bad". strongly you feel."
6. "Do you think I should go and complain to the f) "I'm sorry but I'm using it".
manager?"
7. "I'm sorry but you can't hand in the g) "I've apologised; what else can I do?"
assignment a month late."
8. "Could I have some time off to visit my friend h) "Do I have to? I've got to do my homework".
in hospital?"
9. "Can I get you anything from the shops?" i) "I can't help it; he really makes me furious".
10. "You shouldn't have spoken like that to your j) "I couldn't because there was no one to
mother." take me".

Ex. 3 Fill in a modal or a synonymous expression and the appropriate form of the verbs in
brackets.

1. I'm getting fat. I really have to try (try) to lose some weight, like the doctor said.
2. What a lovely day!___________________________________ (we/go) for a walk?
3. I'm not sure where Gary is. H e__ (be) at the library.
4. That________________________ (not /be) Bill's car. He doesn't own one.
5. Tom ____________________(sleep) but I'm not sure. Why don't you go and see?
6 . Don't worry. You____________________________ (not/dress) formally for the party.
7. If you wanted to borrow my car, yo u _____________________________ (ask) me.
8 . This d o g ____________________ (belong) to Harry. It's got his address or
its collar.
9. Only authorised personnel_____ ________________________ (enter) this area.
10. You _____________(not/smoke) in some public places.
11 . I saw John in the town centre this morning. He_________________________ (not/go) tc
Spain yet.
12 . Fortunately h e __________________ (convince) the police that he was innocent.
13. Tom drives really well now. He __________ (pass) his driving test easily next
month.
14. She (not/be) at the party last night. She was ill.
MISCELLANEOUS PRACTICE 135
15. They ___ (announce) the winners on March 16th. It's
scheduled.
16. She____ (start) working on Monday. The manager has told her to.
17. I missed the film last night because I (work) late.
18. Everyone in the world____________ (have) food and shelter.
19. Yo u ___________________________ (comply) with the regulations. We expect you to
do so.
20. People________________ ( treat) animals in a better way but they don't always
do so.
21. You _____ (not/be) at the disco last night, it was closed.
22. The light's on. They ___________________(get) home before we did.
23. You know where the park is, don't you? Y o u _______________ (pass) it on your way
here.
24. Sh e _________________ (not/go) very far. She's left her bicycle here.
25. "Where's Kelley?" "I'm not sure, she_______________ (watch) television."
26. "Are you coming on Saturday or on Sunday?" "I don't know. I __________ (not/come)
this week at all."
27. _______________ (John/leave) his job and going to another company?
28. Harry______________ (not/play) in the team tomorrow. He hurt his leg last week.
29. "Why didn't Kim come?" "I don't know. She_____________ (forget)."
30. "Why didn't Roger answer the doorbell?" "He_______________ (not/hear) it."
31. "How did that stain get on the carpet?" "I'm not sure. The baby______________ (drop)
food on it."
32. John thinks Mr. W right_________________ _ (call) the police and tell them what has
happened.
33. H e _______________ (not/go out) without telling me; it is not in his habit.

Ex. 4 Circle the letter of the correct answer to complete each sentence.

1 . Although many spectators believe that the Australian gymnast, with her amazing
flexibility and control,___________ the gold medal, the Olympic judges awarded it to
the Romanian instead.
(A) must have won (C) had to win
(B) should have won (D) won
2. Before the construction of the Panama Canal, ships__________ around the tip of
South America to get to the Pacific Ocean from the Atlantic Ocean.
(A) should have traveled (C) had to travel
(B) must have traveled (D) have travelled
3. It seems obvious, when looking at a map, that the eastern part of Brazil____________
connected to Africa long ago when the earth was forming.
(A) must be (C) should have been
(B) must have been (D) might be
136 English Grammar Practice

4. The mayor told the townspeople that______________ drink the water until the
laboratory declared it safe again.
(A) they didn't have to (C) they'd better not
(B) they'd rather not (D) they weren't supposed to
5. It is generally agreed that when you travel in countries other than your own, you
conform to the local customs as much as possible.
(A) could (C) may
(B) might (D) should
6. The financial advisor told her client that h e _____________ invest in a money market
fund or h e ____________ invest in municipal bonds - either way would be safe.
(A) could/could (C) could / must
(B) m ust/m ust (D) must / could
7. Residents of the apartment complex___________ rent a reserved parking space at $
45 per month if they wish.
(A) must (C) might
(B) may (D) have got to
8. Anorexia nervosa is a disease afflicting young women who believe that they
be as thin as the models in the fashion magazines.
(A) had better (C) could
(B) have got to (D) ought
9. The botanists knew that the tree_____________be about 750 years old because it
displayed the number of rings to indicate that.
(A) had to (C) was supposed to
(B) could (D) should
10. All the experts believe that the horse from Kentucky____________ win the big race
next Saturday because of his breeding, his endurance and his training.
(A) is supposed to (C) must
(B) has to (D) should

Ex. 5 Two possible paraphrases are given after each sentence below. Decide which of them
is the correct one.

1. Little children can be very noisy.


a) Noise is a possibility when little children are around.
b) Making noise is a skill that little children have.
2. The plane is likely to arrive soon.
a) I order the plane to arrive soon.
b) I am certain that the plane will arrive soon.
MISCELLANEOUS PRACTICE 137
3. Customers may leave their cars in the car park behind the shop.
a) Customers have permission to leave their cars in the car park behind the shop.
b) There is a possibility that customers will leave their cars in the car park behind the
shop.
4. Lady Clara could have committed the crime.
a) There is a possibility that Lady Clara committed the crime.
b) Lady Clara had the skill to commit the crime.
5. Paul has the class until eight o'clock, so he may not get here in time for the start of the
film.
a) He does not have permission to get here in time for the start of the film.
b) There's a possibility he won't get here in time for the start of the film.
6. No one can drive faster than 30 miles an hour in towns.
a) No one has the skill to drive faster than 30 miles an hour in towns.
b) No one has permission to drive faster than 30 miles an hour in towns.
7. I couldn't walk until I was a year and a half old.
a) I did not have permission to walk until I was a year and a half old.
b) I did not learn the skill of walking until I was a year and a half old.
8. Stephen should pass his exams.
a) It is probable that Stephen will pass his exams.
b) Stephen has an obligation to pass his exams.
9. Will you answer the phone?
a) Are you going, in the future, to answer the phone?
b) I request that you answer the phone.
10. You should wear glasses.
a) My advice is that you wear glasses.
b) There is a possibility that you will wear glasses.
11. I couldn't start my car this morning.
a) I did not have permission to start my car this morning.
b) I did not manage to start my car this morning.

Ex. 6 Tick (Ö ) the pairs of sentences that express approximately the same idea. Put a cross
(X) by those where there is a clear difference in meaning.

Model: 1. I may well have been a little bit late in arriving.


It's quite possible I was a little bit late. Ö
2. We may not get there in time for the speeches.
We couldn't get there in time for the speeches. X
1. This could be the chance we've all been waiting for.
This might be the chance we've all been waiting for.
138 English Grammar Practice

2. This may very well be the last chance for peace.


This might very well be the last chance for peace.
3. That's probably the postman dropping in the weekly free newspaper.
That'll be the postman dropping in the weekly free newspaper.
4. They won't have read our fax yet.
I doubt if they've read our fax yet.
5. The exam results should be here by now.
The exam results should be here any day now.
6. They must have taken a short cut to get here.
They had to take a short cut to get here.
7. You could have done yourself a nasty injury.
You might have done yourself a nasty injury.
8. The washing machine shouldn't be making such a strange noise.
The washing machine couldn't be making such a strange noise.

Ex. 7 Read the story. Replace each part in bold with a modal expression having the same
or a similar meaning.

One of the most puzzling experiences I've ever had happened last winter. It was one of
those typical dark and stormy nights that you read about in mystery novels. Sitting on the sofa
in the living room, I (1) was able to hear thunder and see an occasional flash of lightning. It (2)
was obviously at least 1:00 a.m. I was reading a mystery novel that was so exciting that I (3) had
no ability to put it down. Suddenly the phone rang, startling me out of my wits. I picked up the
receiver, muttering to myself something like, "Who (4) is it going to be at this hour of the night?
(5) Someone probably died." But no. There were a few seconds of silence; then a low, disembodied
voice said, "Help me . Help me." "Who are you?" I asked. "Who is this?" No answer. The phone went
dead.
The next morning it all seemed like a bad dream. I was troubled enough by the experience to tell
my friend Josh about it. (6) "Perhaps, it has been just a crank call," he said. (7) "Or, maybe, it has been
one of your friends playing a joke on you."
"What (8) do you think I should do?”
"Do? Why do anything? It won't happen again."
It did happen again, though the following night. At precisely 1:12 a.m. (I looked at my watch this
time) the phone rang again, waking me out of a sound sleep. The same deep, disembodied voice was
on the other end of the line. I responded in the same way, but the voice just said, "Help me, help me."
Then there was silence, and the line went dead as before.
The next day I told Josh about it again. "I still say (9) it's got to be some friend of yours playing a
joke. Don't you recognize the voice?"
"Not at all", I said. (10) It's hardly possible that it is anyone I know."
"Well, call the phone company. (11) They'll probably have an idea about what to do."
I never did call the phone company, for some reason. This experience went on for the next five
nights. At precisely 1:12 a.m., the phone would ring, and I would pick it up , only to hear the same
MISCELLANEOUS PRACTICE 139
thing. "Help me, help me." After that, it stopped. Since then I haven't stopped wondering if (12) it
would have been right to call the police.
I wonder if it (13) really was someone who needed help. Or was it just a trickster?
(14) Maybe I'll never find out.

Ex. 8 For each of the sentences below, write a new sentence as similar in meaning as
possible to the original sentence, but using the word(s) given. The word(s) must not
be altered in any way.
1. I strongly recommend you to try this sundried tomato bread.
taste_____________________________________________________________
2. It was stupid of the government to try to break the strike.
not_______________________________________________________________
3. I warn you not to chat up my girlfriend again!
shall________________________________________ ________ ____________
4. We didn't book the table but it didn't matter as there was hardly anyone in the
restaurant anyway.
to ________________________________________________________________
5. It is essential that you disconnect the gas supply before removing the boiler.
be disconnected___________________________________________________
6. Why are we obliged to state ethnic origin on official forms these days?
have_________________________________________________
7. It probably won't be difficult to get tickets for the first night.
difficulty__________________________________________________________
8 . Why didn't you let me know beforehand that you couldn't come?
have______________________________________________________________
9. It's well past dinner-time; surely the conference has finished by now.
have___________________________________________________ _
10. I suppose it's possible that she has been seriously operated on.
undergone_________________________________________________________
11. Our plan was to buy a washing machine but at the last minute we decided to spend
our money on a new oven.
bought______________________________________ _______ _______________
12. I don't believe you that it was me you spoke to; I wasn’t even in the country at the
time.
been_______________________________________________
13. Who, do you think, was able to do such a terrible thing?
done____________________________________________
140 English Grammar Practice

Ex. 9 Write what each person would say in each situation using modals, then identify their
use. Sometimes more than one answer is possible.

Model: A student has just come into the class and left the door open. It is noisy outside. You say
to him : Will/ Would/ Can/ Could you close the door, please? (request)
1. You have opened the kitchen window to let in some fresh air. Your sister, who is recovering
from a bad cold, comes in. You say to her:
2. Your friend wants to pay for your dinner. You tell her it's not necessary.
3. Your mother wants to know where your sister is. You think she is helping your father in
the garden. You say to her:
4. A friend from Portugal phones to tell you she will be coming to England for two weeks
next summer. You want her to stay with you. You say to her:
5. You are going on holiday. Your sister wants to take so many pairs of shoes that her
suitcase won't fasten. You ask if it is necessary.
6. Your friend is sure your father goes to a gym every morning before work as he always
looks so healthy. He says to you:
7. Tom was driving fast when he accidentally went off the road. Fortunately no one was
killed or injured. You say to him:
8. Your friend failed his exam. He hadn't revised at all. You say to him:
9. John is taking part in a horse race. You don't know if John will win. You ask your friends
if it's possible.
10. Your friend has won $10,000 in the lottery. What do you advise her to do?
11. It's snowing. Tom said he would be home early and he still hasn't arrived. What do you
think?
12. It is your birthday. Your friend gives you a very expensive present. What do you say?
13. You are at a train station. An old lady is carrying a heavy suitcase. How do you offer tc
help her?
14. You see your window cleaner with a broken arm. What do you say to your friend?
15. Your friends are late for your dinner party. What do you say as you impatiently look at
your watch?
16. Your friends arrive three hours late for the dinner party. They say they were delayed by
an unexpected visitor. How do you reply?

Ex. 10 These sentences are wrong. Find and correct the errors.

1. I don't know who gave me this book; it can have been my parents.
It could have been my parents.
2. Mr Ridley says he had left the building before the money was stolen, but may he have
come back later?
3. She shouldn't be out so late. Look at her, she mustn't be more than fifteen.
4. You must have been Arthur's sister. Hello, I'm Jim.
M ISCELLANEOUS PRACTICE 141
5. I've just phoned Henry's parents. They say he's just left them. The journey takes two
hours. It's five o'clock, so he really may arrive here by seven.
6. I think we ought look into a nice guided tour - that is, if we can find one that won't
bankrupt us.
7. Fortunately, I could get a scholarship to attend college; otherwise I could have never
afforded to go.
8. You had better to set your alarm if you expect to be able to wake up on time.
9. The only thing I can think of as to why Joe isn't here is that he might have have to work
late.
10. Do you think I am to take a gift to the party today, or do you think I might be able to wait
until Saturday?
11. They might not had been injured in the accident if they had been wearing their seatbelts.
12. We ought to take some extra cash along on the trip, but we absolutely don't have to
forget our passports.
13. Joe has called to say that he won't be able to make it by seven o'clock, but he must
manage to get here by eight.
14. You shall fertilize your rose bushes if you expect them to produce any flowers.
15. I suppose Amy might have stayed late at the office, but she told me she hadn't to work
tonight.

Ex. 11 Read the following student's essay. Find and correct the nine errors in the use of
modals.

WHY WE ITCH
One must might think with all the scientific progress that has been made in the last century,
researches would be able by now to answer this very simple question: Why do we itch? Unfortunately,
scientists can't answer this question with any certainty. They simply don't know.
There are some clear cases involving itching, if a patient goes to her doctor and complains
of terrible itching and the doctor finds hives or some other kind of rash, the doctor might say that
she must eaten something that didn't agree with her - or that she might been stung or bitten by
some insect. This kind of case can be easily diagnosed. Most itching, however, does not have obvious
causes.
Here's what scientists do know. Right under the surface of the skin there are sensory receptors
that register physical stimuli and carry massages to the brain. These receptors detect pain and let the
brain know about it. If there is a high level of physical stimulation to the body, this stimulation might
reported it to the brain as pain. If the level of physical stimulation is low, the sensors might be report
it as itchiness.
There has been a lot of speculation about the function of itching. Some researches theorize
that the function of itching may to warn the body that it is about to have a painful experience. Others
theorize that early humans might developed itching as a way of knowing that they needed to take
vermin and insects out of their hair. Still others believe that itching could a symptom of serious
diseases such as diabetes and Hodgkin's disease.
142 English Grammar Practice

One of the most interesting aspects of itching is that it may have be less tolerable than pain.
Research has shown, in fact, that most people tolerate pain better than itching.
Many will allow their skin to be painfully broken just so they can get rid of an itch.

Ex. 12 Underline six more mistakes to do with modal verbs or modal expressions, then
correct them.

Minutes of Holmefield NeighbourCare meeting

1. Sergeant Dibden reminded us that we don't have to tackle a burglar if one mustn't
2. enters our home as this can be very dangerous. He also reminded us that we
3. by law need to inform the police and our insurance companies of all
4. keyholders after a break-in.
5. Mrs Sanders from Twyfield Close reported that she had been burgled two
6. afternoons before. The burglar should have got in through an open downstairs
7. window, although at that time of day there must be plenty of people
8. around who witnessed the break-in. You'd better report it to the police if you
9. saw anything as it's our civic duty.
10. Mr Harrison from Dukes Avenue was concerned that he hadn't taken up an
11. invitation from a security company to assess his house for security risks, but he
12. was relived to discover from Sergeant Dibden that he needn't have invited
13. them anyway, as the police can do security checks.
14. Finally, remember, if you need speak to a police officer, you can call Sergeant ...........
15. Dibden at Homefield police station at any time. ...............

Ex. 13 Split into three groups. Read the following stories and make as many positive and
negative deductions as possible. Give reasons for your deductions.

THE MARIE CELESTE


The Marie Celeste was a sailing ship. It was sailing from New York to Italy in 1872. There was a crew of
eight on board as well as the captain's wife and daughter. A month after the journey started, another
ship noticed the Marie Celeste floating off the coast of Spain. When the sailors from the other ship
went on board, they found everything in place on the Marie Celeste. The sails were set, the table was
laid for dinner, there was plenty of food in the kitchen. There were toys on the floor in the captain's
cabin, as if his little daughter had just been playing. The crew's clothes were hanging up neatly and
their boots were all in place. And nobody has ever discovered what happened to the captain and his
family or the crew.
MISCELLANEOUS PRACTICE 143
Discuss what could have happened to the people on board the M arie Celeste. Give reasons fo r your
deductions, where necessary:

M odel: There can't have been a storm because the sails were set.
The captain must have tried to save his fam ily.

THE SAD STORY OF SUSIE JONES


Susie Jones was going to get married, but the day before the wedding she suddenly called it off. She
left the country and lived abroad for several years. When she came back she got a very good job as a
television producer but she resigned unexpectedly six months later. She devoted the rest of her lonely
life to caring for abandoned animals.

Discuss the possible reasons fo r Susie's actions:


1) Why Susie's marriage didn't take place;
2) Why she left the country;
3) Why she had to leave her jo b on television;
4) Why she devoted her life to abandoned animals.

M odel: She m ight have discovered that her fiancé was already married.

BRILLIANT JAM ES

'Brilliant Jam es' came from a rich family. He could read when he was three and he was very good-
looking. Despite all these advantages, he is now unemployed and homeless.

Discuss what actually happened to Jam es and the possible reasons fo r his being unemployed.

M odel: He might have failed all his exams.

Ex. 14 Translate the following sentences into English paying attention to the use of different
modal verbs.

1. Ты могла бы позвонить и сказать, что задержишься! Мы так волновались.


2. Напрасно вы волновались. Всё прошло отлично.
3. Боюсь, что вам придётся согласиться на их условия.
4. С какой стати я буду ему первая звонить?
5. Дети пытались открыть дверь, но она никак не открывалась.
6. Ах, если бы только я могла предвидеть это!
7. Неужели он действительно отказался вам помочь?
8. Он давно ушёл и к пяти часам должен вернуться.
9. Никто, наверное, не сказал ему об этом.
10. Мне пойти и узнать, сделал ли он работу? Он должен был закончить её вчера.
144 English Grammar Practice

11. Он должен был всё закончить вчера, но его неожиданно вызвали в Лондон.
12. Не может быть, чтобы он забыл заказать нам номера в гостинице. Он, очевидно,
заказал их на ваше имя.
13. Мне можно идти?
14. Он, вероятно, не сказал им об этом, и они, возможно, не придут.
15. Ты должен был нам сказать, что не сможешь выступить за команду сегодня.
16. Она никак не хотела объяснить, в чем дело.
17. Мне, возможно, придётся поехать туда на такси. Так, по всей вероятности, будет
быстрее.
18. Мне незачем говорить вам, почему это надо сделать сразу.
19. Ты напрасно ходил за ключом. Дверь была открыта.
20. Осторожно. Вы чуть не упали.
21. И куда бы это он мог уйти так поздно?
22. Мне придётся посидеть эти дни дома. Врач говорит, я не должен никуда выходить,
пока температура не спадёт.
23. Вы непременно вернёте мне мою собственность! Я вам это обещаю!
24. Он не мог не заметить, что его дом преобразился.
25. Вам следует больше заботиться о детях. Они в вас очень нуждаются сейчас.
26. Как ты смеешь разговаривать так со своим отцом?
27. Ему больше никогда не суждено было её увидеть.
28. В этой комнате нельзя пользоваться сотовыми телефонами.
29. Когда я увидел его, я не мог не засмеяться.
30. По всей вероятности, самолёт не приземлится вовремя.
31. Если нам суждено всю жизнь быть соседями, нам необходимо подружиться.
32. Вы могли бы сделать это для меня?
APPENDIX 1
APPENDIX 1
The Modal Verb Can /Could

Meaning Forms of the Forms Types of Lexical Russian Sentence patterns


modal verb of the sentences equivalents equiva­
Infinitive lents
Ability can (can't) non- affirmative to be able to; мочь; She can dance well.
(physical. - Present In­ perfect to be good at; уметь; I could guess what she wanted.
mental). definite; could common negative to be capable не уметь; He couldn't save the patient.
capability (couldn't) -Past of; не мочь Can you drive a car?
Indefinite interrogative to have the
ability to do
smth.
Possibil- can (can't) non- affirmative it's possible можно; You can have your photo taken here when
ity due to - Present In­ perfect for smb./ может; the photographer is free.
circum- definite; could common negative smth. to do не может I couldn't go to the theatre yesterday be­
stances (couldn't) -Past smth. cause I was busy.
Indefinite interrogative Can I have a cup of tea? (= Is the place
open?)
Permission can - Present non- affirmative to allow; можно; You can pay by your credit card.
Indefinite; perfect to permit; разрешать; The teacher said we could hand in our es­
could -Past common to be allowed; позволять says in a week.
Indefinite to be permit­
ted

Request can - Present non- interrogative Do you al­ Можно...? Can I have some more cake?
Indefinite; perfect low...? Мне He asked me if he could use my car.
could -Past common Do you per­ разреше- Could I ask you something if you're not too
Indefinite; mit...? но...? busy?
could - Sub­ Am I al- Вы мне
junctive II form lowed...? разреша-
(polite) ете...?

145
146__________________________________________________________________________English Grammar Practice
Prohibition can't - Present non- negative not to be al­ нельзя; You can't sit on the grass.
Indefinite; perfect lowed to; не раз­ He said that we couldn't take so many
couldn't -Past common not to be per­ решено things with us.
Indefinite mitted to
Unreality could - Sub- any form affirmative would be able мог бы; He could borrow my car if he asked.
junctive II form of the to do smth; могли бы He could have been Prime Minister if he
infinitive negative would have hadn't decided to leave politics.
been able to Could you go on business with me if I asked
interrogative do smth. you?

Surprise. could - Sub- any form Interrogative Is it possible неужели; Can/Could she be a doctor?
astonish- junctive II of the (general ques- that...? может ли Can/Could they be working together?
ment form; infinitive tions) Do you be- быть, чтобы; Can/Could he have lost his job?
lieve that...? возможно Can/Could she have been keeping to a diet
can ли for a few years?

any form Interrogative Is it possible Неужели он Can/Could he be dissatisfied with his mar-
of the (negative infini- that...? (она) не...? riage?
infinitive tive): Do you be- Может ли Can/Could they have told nobody about it?
Negative pre- lieve that...? быть, чтобы Can/Could you never have used your credit
fixes; он (она) card?
Negative pro- не...? Can/Could it be that he didn't give you a
nouns; Возможно refund?
Negative ad- ли, чтобы он
verbs; (она) не...?
Complex sen-
tences
(Can/Could it be
that...)
APPENDIX 1
Incredulity. could - any form negative It's hardly Невероят- They can't/couldn't be married.
improbabil- Subjunctive II of the (positive Infini- possible that; но, чтобы...; She can't/couldn't be sleeping now.
ity form; infinitive tive) I refuse to Не может Tom can't/couldn't have got into an acci-
believe that; быть, dent.
can It's doubtful чтобы...; They can't/couldn't have been travelling for
that Вряд ли... so long.

__________________ _______ ______________________________________________


any form negative (nega- It's hardly Невероят- She can't/couldn't dislike it here.
of the tive Infinitive): possible; но, чтобы He can't/couldn't have misplaced the keys.
infinitive Negative pre- I refuse to она (он) It can't/couldn't be so that he didn't forgive
fixes; believe that; не...; her.
Complex sen- It's doubtful Не может
tences that быть, чтобы
( It can't/ он (она) не...
couldn't be so
that...)

Supposition could - any form affirmative maybe; возможно; She could work as an actress, but I am not
implying Subjunctive II of the perhaps; может быть sure.
uncertainty. form infinitive possibly; The doctor could be examining the patient.
doubt it's possible They could have gone to Italy.
Tom could have been studying for two hours
already.

147
148_____________ ___________________________________________________________ English Grammar Practice
Criticism could - Sub­ non­ affirmative You might мог(ла) You could at least ask me before you put on
(reproach) junctive II form perfect (have)...; бы... my shoes.
common You could have told me you were leaving for
the United States.
perfect Why don't
common (didn't) you?

_
Emotional could - Sub- any form Interrogative what И что это; What can/could he mean ?
colouring junctive II of the (special ques- where И как он; What can/could they be doing there?
form; infinitive tions) when И где она Where can/could she have gone to?
how How can/could you have been staying away
for such a long time?
can

NOTE: Note the following set phrases with can:


a) Cannot (can't) help doing smth. - He могу не делать что-либо.
b) Cannot (can't) but do smth. - Мне ничего другого не остается, как...
APPENDIX 1________ __ _______________________________________________________________149
The Modal Verb M a y / M ig h t

Meaning Forms of the Forms of the Types of Lexical Russian Sentence patterns
modal verb Infinitive sentences equivalents equivalents
Permission may - Present non-perfect you are allowed можно; You may go for a walk with
Indefinite common affirmative to...; разрешать; my friends.
might - you are permitted позволять He said we might use our
Past Indefinite to... dictionaries.

Request may - Present non-perfect Do you allow...? Можно...? May I use your phone?
Indefinite common Interrogative Do you permit...? Мне разре­ She asked me if she might
might - Am I allowed...? шено...? go out of town for the week­
Past Indefinite Вы мне end.
m ight-Subjunc­ Indirect ques­ разрешаете?
tive II form (polite) tion structures I wonder if I might take a
few days off.
Prohibition may not - Present non-perfect you are not per­ нельзя; You may not go swimming
Indefinite common mitted to...; не разрешаю; today.
might not - negative you are not al­ не позволяю The teacher said we might
Past Indefinite lowed to... not enter the room until she
called us.

Possibility of may - Present non-perfect affirmative it is possible for можно; You may order a taxi by
the fact (factual Indefinite common smb./smth. to do может быть; telephone.
possibility) might - smth.; могут In those days a man might
Past Indefinite there is a chance be hanged for steeling a
that smth. will sheep.
happen (is hap­
pening)
1 5 0 __________________________________________________________________________ English Grammar Practice
Unreality m ight-Subjunc­ any form of would perhaps мог бы; If you tried phoning him,
tive II form the infinitive do..; могли бы you might make an appoint­
would perhaps ment.
affirmative have done... If you hadn't bought so
many expensive things this
year, you might have saved
some money.
Criticism (Re- might - Subjunc­ non-perfect Why don't мог бы; You might at least offer to
proach) tive II form common (didn't) you...? могли бы help.

perfect com­ affirmative I reproach you He might have opened the


mon for... door for me.
Supposition might - Subjunc­ any form of affirmative maybe; возможно; This may/might be his last
implying uncer- tive II form the infinitive perhaps; может быть major speech before the
ta intv. doubt possibly; election.
may it's possible When I go to Vienna, I may/
negative might (not) be staying with
Richard, but I'm not sure
yet.
His maths may/might have
improved after so much
practicing.
David didn't know where
the ball was, but he thought
his sister may/might have
been playing with it.

NOTE: Note the following set phrases with may/might:


a) If I may say so...- Если можно так сказать...
b) Strange as it may seem... - Как бы странно ни казалось...
APPENDIX 1_________________________________________________________________________________
The Modal Verb Must

Forms of the Forms of the Types of Lexical Russian


Meaning Sentence patterns
modal verb Infinitive sentences equivalents equivalents
Obligation must - in present non-perfect affirmative it's necessary должен; A man must stand up for
with no free- or future time common for smb. to do обязан; his rights.
dom of choice contexts; smth. необходимо; I really must stop smoking.
or from the in past time con­ надо He said he must go to the
speaker's point texts in Indirect dentist.
of view Speech
Strict prohibi- mustn't non-perfect negative to be forbidden; нельзя; People mustn't cross the
tion common not to be al­ не разрешается; street against the red light.
lowed запрещается The driver mustn't do faster
than the speed limit.
Emphatic ad- must non-perfect affirmative to advise убедительно You must come to our
vice, request or mustn't common strongly; прошу; party. It will be fun.
invitation to recommend; настоятельно
(must is usually negative to invite insist­ советую You mustn't take it seri­
stressed) ently; (рекомендую); ously.
not to advise очень прошу;
не рекомендую

151
152 ___________________________________________________________________________ English Grammar Practice
Supposition must any form of affirmative They must know each
im plying strong the infinitive other.
probability, as­ She must be moving into a
surance new house.
He must have gone away.
The students must have
вероятно; been writing a test for an
probably;
очевидно; hour already.
surely;
obviously; наверное;
negative: He must be quite unaware
evidently; должно быть;
a) negative o f the circumstances.
no doubt; по всей вероят­
prefixes:un-; in-; Ann must be inexperienced
undoubtedly; ности;
dis-;mis- in translating medical
in all probability без сомнения;
b) negative articles.
по-видимому
words: never, There must be nobody in
none, no, no one the house as there is no
etc. light inside.
c)modal words: She must have misunder-
probably, surely, stood me.
obviously, No one must have helped
evidently, no her.
doubt etc.
future reference: They are likely to come next
the expressions: week.
to be likely, to be He is sure to win.
sure

NOTE: Note the follow ing set phrases w ith must:


a) I must be going / I must be off - Мне пора уходить.
b) I must tell you th a t.../ I must say...- Я должен (должна) сказать ...
The Modal Verb Have to, Have got to

Forms
Forms of the Types of Lexical Russian
Meaning of the Sentence patterns
modal verb sentences equivalents equivalents
Infinitive
Obligation. have (has) to non- affirmative to be obliged приходится; I have to be at the office
necessity - Present Indefi- perfect to (instead of вынужден; before nine.
arising out of nite; common must in the должен I have got to get to work
circumstances had to - Past past and in by bus.
Indefinite; the future) She had to stay at home
will have to - Fu­ yesterday.
ture Indefinite; She will have to repeat
have(has) got the course.
to - in colloquial
English;
Do (does) ...have Do people have to pay for
to? interrogative medical care?
Did ...have to...? Why did he have to go to
Have (has)... got the police station?
to...?
Absence of don't (doesn't) non- negative not to be не приходит- You don't have to take a
necessity (an have to; perfect obliged to ся; jacket, it's rather warm.
action which didn't have to; common нет необхо­ I didn't have to do the
was (is) not haven't (hasn't димости; cooking as we were eat­
performed as got) to не нужно ing out.
there was (is) I haven't got to be at
no obligation) college in the morning
tomorrow.

NОТЕ: Note the following set phrase:


You have (got) to be kidding - Долж но быть, т ы шутишь.
154 ____________________________________________________________________________ English Grammar Practice
The Modal Verb N e e d

Forms of the Forms of the Types of Lexical Russian


Meaning Sentence patterns
modal verb Infinitive sentences equivalents equivalents

Personal necessi- need non-perfect affirmative it is necessary мне лично необходи­ I need wait for him.
ty due to circum- common (not typical) for me...; мо; мне нужно
stances
interrogative Need you answer this let­
ter?
Lack of personal needn't non-perfect negative it is not neces­ мне лично не нужно; I needn't type this letter
necessity common sary for me...; у меня нет again.
необходимости; She need never know what
мне вряд ли надо; you have just told me.
мне едва ли I need hardly tell you how
необходимо I feel.

Absence of needn't perfect negative it wasn't abso­ не было необходи­ I needn't have cooked
necessity with common lutely neces­ мости; dinner. Just as it was ready
a n actio n, which sary for me...; не нужно было; Chris and June phoned
was performed зря; to say that they couldn't
though it wasn't незачем; напрасно come. (=I cooked the
necessary (было сделано) dinner)
The Modal Verb Be to

APPENDIX 1______________________________________
Forms
Forms of the Types of Lexical Russian
Meaning of the Sentence patterns
modal verb sentences equivalents equivalents
Infinitive
Obligation am (is, are) to; non-perfect affirmative to plan; должен; The President is to visit Nigeria
was (were) to common to arrange; договориться; next month.
a) arising o u t of to decide; планировать I was to make a speech at the
an arrangement interrogative to agree; conference.
or plan to be supposed; What were you to prepare for
to be expected today?
negative I wasn't to be there at 5.

b) arising out of was (were) to perfect affirmative to mean должен был, He was to have come last Sun­
an arrangement common to expect но...; day, but he couldn't.
or plan which to hope планировал; I was to have phoned her but I
wasn't carried to intend хотел; failed.
out надеялся.

Strict order. is (are) to; non-perfect affirmative to tell smb.; должен; You are to do your homework
Instruction was (were) to common to order обязан; before you watch TV.
(applying to необходимо; The exercise is not to be done in

___________________________________
some rules and negative не следует writing.
directions) делать ч.-л.; She could go to the party but
не нужно she was to be back by nine.

Strict prohibition isn't (aren't) to; non-perfect negative to be forbid­ не должен; You are not to smoke on the
wasn't (weren't) common den; нельзя plane.
to to be prohibited We were told we were not to
be late.

155
156_______________________________________________________English Grammar Practice
Possibility am (is, are) to; non-perfect affirmative to be arranged всегда можно This book is to be found on this
was (were) to common according to an найти что-то; shelf
passive interrogative order; Where is this disc to be bought?
to be possible; нельзя He wasn't to be seen anywhere.
negative to be impossible

Something am (is, are) to; non-perfect affirmative to be destined суждено He was to be my teacher and
thought of (or was (were) to common to happen; случиться; friend for many years to come.
destined to to become суждено стать; She didn't know at that time
happen) as negative предстоит that she was never to see her
unavoidable family again.

NOTE: Note the following set phrases with be to:


a) Where am I to go? Куда ж е м не деват ься? Куда ж е мне идти?
b) What am I to do? Что м не делат ь? Как мне быт ь?
c) What is to becom e o f m e? Что со мной будет ?
d) Who is to begin? Кому начинат ь?
e) Who is to blam e? Кто виноват ?
APPENDIX 1__________________________________________________________ 1 5 7
The Modal Verb S h o u ld / O u g h t to

Meaning Forms of the Forms of the Types of Lexical Russian


Sentence patterns
modal verb infinitive sentences equivalents equivalents
Obligation with should non-perfect affirmative I advise you to нужно; This soup is too salty, you should/
the meaning of shouldn't common do...; следует; ought to send it back.
ought to I recommend следовало бы; We should/ought to have taken a
a) advisability. oughtn't to you to do...; не следует taxi when it rained.
desirability It is desirable
perfect com­ for you to You shouldn't /oughtn't to go to
mon (affirma­ do...; that store; the prices are too high
tive sentence: I don't recom­ there.
a desirable negative mend you...; You shouldn't/ oughtn't to be sit­
action was I wouldn't ting in the sun.
not carried advise you... I shouldn't/oughtn't to have
out; negative bought this car.
sentence: an
undesirable
action was car­
ried out)
b) moral duty should any form of affirmative it is your следует; You should /ought to treat your
and responsibility shouldn't the infinitive moral duty..; обязан; neighbours with more respect.
ought to it is your мой (твой) You should/ought to be driving
oughtn't to responsibili­ долг; more carefully.
ty...; должен; I wonder whether I shouldn't/
it is your не следует oughtn't to speak to my sister
responsibili­ about her marriage.
negative ty not to do He should/ought to have phoned
smth... his parents.
158____________ __________________________________________ English Grammar Practice
Asking for advice should non-perfect interrogative Do you re­ Мне это Should I leave these papers on your
or instructions ought to common commend...? делать? desk?
(in a structure Do you ad­ Вы думаете, Do you think we should /ought to
with think... vise...? мне следует...? send him these documents?
ought to) What is your Как вы
advice...? думаете, что
нам делать?
Orders and in- should non-perfect affirmative my orders for должны; Guests should vacate their rooms
structions common you are...; нужно; by midday.
my instruc­ следует The documents should be sent by
tions for you mail.
are...;
the order is
that...;
Criticism (re- should any form of affirmative You might do (не)следует; You should /ought to be more rea-
proach) shouldn't the infinitive (have done); надо; sonable when you deal with your
ought to Why don't могла (бы); clients!
oughtn't to (didn't) you...? нужно (бы) The child shouldn't/oughtn't to be
Why do (did) playing with a box of matches.
negative you...? You really should/ ought to have
registered before term started!
You shouldn't/oughtn't to have
called him a fool - it really upset
him!
S u p p o s it io n should non-perfect affirmative
im p ly in g s t r o n g shouldn't common
P r o b a b ilit y ought to
oughtn't to

perfect negative
common

E m o t io n a l should non-perfect interrogative


c o lo u r in g shouldn't common
APPENDIX 1___________________________ _____________________________ ______________
probably; должно быть; 'We are spending the winter in
evidently; наверное; Miami.' - 'That should /ought to be
very likely; очевидно; nice.
(unlikely) вероятно The train from New York should be
arriving about now.
We needn't get ready yet; the
guests shouldn't/oughtn't to come
for another hour.
The Parkers should/ought to have
got back from their holidays by now.
Why do you С какой Why should I go there?
want me to стати...? How should I know?
do it? Откуда мне
How is it pos­ знать...?
sible...?

159
1 6 0 ____________________________________________________________________________English
The Modal Verb S h a ll

Forms of the modal Forms of the Types of Lexical Russian


Meaning Sentence patterns
verb Infinitive sentences equivalents equivalents
Promise, strong shall non-perfect affirmative to promise; обещаю; You shall have my
intention shan't common to intend намерен сделать answer tomorrow.
[with the 2ndand 3d (by emphatic intona­ They shall win this game.
person singular and negative tion) You shall not see me again,
plural) I promise.
Threat, warning shall non-perfect affirmative to warn; серьезно He shall do as I say.
shan't common to threaten предупреждаю; Anyone found guilty shall
(with the 2ndand 3d угрожаю be punished at once.
person singular and negative (by emphatic intona­ You shall not slip through
plural) tion) my fingers.
Strict orders. shall non-perfect affirmative to make smb. должны (a); You shall stay just as you
instructions shan't common do smth.; перестаньте; are.
(with the 2ndand 3d to tell smb.; прекратите The judge's decision
person singular and negative to order (by emphatic intona­ shall be final.
plural) tion) You shall not touch me
again.
Suggestion, offer shall non-perfect interrogative How about...? Вы хотите чтобы Shall I get you some fresh
(with the 1st person common Why don't я...? coffee?
singular and plural) we...? Давай(те)...; Let's buy new furniture,
Do you want Я предлагаю... shall we?
me to do it? (by emphatic intona­
Am I to do it? tion)
I suggest...

Grammar Practice
Asking for shall non-perfect interrogative What is your Как ты думаешь? What on earth shall
suggestions or common suggestion? Кто (как) по- we do?
advice What can you твоему...? Who shall answer the tele­
advise? phone?
APPENDIX 1__________________________________________________________________________ 161
The Modal Verb W ill/ W o u ld

Forms of the Forms of the Types of Lexical Russian


Meaning Sentence patterns
modal verb Infinitive sentences equivalents equivalents
Volition (willing- will (won't) non-perfect affirmative to intend; охотно что-то I will definitely pay you back next week.
ness, readiness, - Present common to be willing; делать; I won't answer your question.
strong intention Indefinite to wish; .(не)желать; The President said he would make an
or determina- would to want; (не)хотеть announcement soon.
tion) (wouldn't) - negative to be deter­ We decided that we wouldn't buy a car
Past indefinite mined this year.
Habitual (recur- will - Present non-perfect affirmative usually; обычно; She will fall in love with the wrong
Indefinite
re n t ) a c t i o n s and common used to do; как обычно; people.
typical character- would - past continue (do постоянно; Dad would always help us with our
istics Indefinite regularly) бывало maths homework.
Persistance or will (won't) non-perfect affirmative to insist on; упорно I ask her to stop talking on the phone
refusal to - Present common to keep on; продолжать; but she will.
Perform an Indefinite to refuse; настаивать; We begged him to give up drinking but
action would to continue отказываться; he would.
(wouldn't) - negative не хотеть My secretary won't book my flights.
Past indefinite The shop assistant wouldn't change this
coat for me, even though I hadn't worn it.
Inanimate ob- will (won't) non-perfect negative to resist никак не...; It's no use trying to open the door; it
jects - Present common ни за что не...; won't open.
(lifeless things) Indefinite совсем не...;
refuse to per- would так и не...; The car wouldn't start this morning.
form their imme- (wouldn't) - все равно не...
diate function Past indefinite
Requests and will - Present non-perfect interrogative Could you...? Будьте так Will you send me the bill, please?
offers Indefinite common May I ask добры; Come this way, will you?
would - Sub­ you...? Не могли бы
junctive II Will you be вы...? Would you lend me your cell phone for
form (a polite so kind as...? Можно вас a moment?
request) I offer you... попросить? Would you have some more wine?
16 2
S u p p o s it io n w ill non-perfect affirmative probably; вероятно; This will be just what she wants.
im p ly in g s t r o n g (with the 2nd common it's probable; очевидно; This will be the school, I believe.
P r o b a b ilit y and 3d person it's certain; наверное You will have heard the news, I'm sure.
singular and perfect certainly

_________________________________________________
plural) common

NOTE: N o t e t h e f o llo w in g s e t p h r a s e s w it h will/would:


a) Will not have (won't have) smb. do smth. — He допущу, чтобы...
b) Would rather ('d rather) / would sooner ('d sooner) do smth. — Предпочитаю / пожалуй...
c) Would... m in d ... — Возражать против чего-либо.
d) Would like / would love - Хотелось бы / Сделаю с удовольствием.
e) What will be will be. / Чему быть того не миновать.
Boys will be boys. / Мальчишки остаются мальчишками.
Accidents will happen. / Несчастные случаи неизбежны.

The Modal Verb Dare

Forms
Forms of the Types of Lexical Russian
Meaning of the Sentence patterns
modal verb sentences equivalents equivalents
Infinitive
To have the dare(daren't) - non-perfect interrogative to have the осмеливаться; How dare she come here?
courage or Present Indefi­ common courage to do иметь смелость; I daren't say what I think.
impudence nite negative smth; не иметь He dared not look at her.
to do smth dared - Past not to have the смелости

English Grammar Practice


Indefinite courage to do
smth

Supposition based dare non-perfect affirmative to suppose; допускать; I dare say you are right.
on personal cour- common to assume предполагать I dare say he will not come.
age
APPENDIX 2 163

APPENDIX 2

COMMENTARY ON MODAL VERBS

1. She can dance well.


Can dance is a compound verbal modal predicate which consists of the modal verb can in its
Present Indefinite tense form used to denote ability (capability) and the non-perfect infinitive
active dance.

2. Can you go shopping for me, please ?


Can go is a compound verbal modal predicate which consists of the modal verb can in its Present
Indefinite tense form used to denote a request and the non-perfect infinitive active go.

3. He could have been Prime Minister if he hadn't decided to leave politics.


Could have been is a compound verbal modal predicate which consists of the modal verb could
in its Subjunctive II form used to denote unreality and the perfect infinitive active have been
referring the action to the past.

4. Could they be working together?


Could be working is a compound verbal modal predicate which consists of the modal verb could
in its Subjunctive II form used to denote surprise ( astonishment) and the continuous infinitive be
working referring the action to the present.

5. He said we might use our dictionaries.


Might use is a compound verbal modal predicate which consists of the modal verb might in its
Past Indefinite tense form used to denote permission and the non-perfect infinitive active use.

6. You may not go swimming today.


May not go is a compound verbal modal predicate which consists of the modal verb may in its
Present Indefinite tense form used to denote prohibition and the non-perfect infinitive active go.

7. He might have opened the door for me.


Might have opened is a compound verbal modal predicate which consists of the modal verb might
in its Subjunctive II form used to denote criticism and the perfect infinitive active have opened
referring the action to the past and showing that it wasn't carried out.

8. They might have been practising the language for a year, I guess.
Might have been practising is a compound verbal modal predicate which consists of the modal
verb might in its Subjunctive II form used to denote supposition implying uncertainty, doubt and
the perfect continuous infinitive have been practising used to denote an action which started in
the past and continued into the moment of speaking.

9. A man must stand up for his rights.


Must stand up is a compound verbal modal predicate which consists of the modal verb must used
to denote obligation with no freedom of choice and the non-perfect infinitive active stand up.
164 English Grammar Practice

10. They must be moving into a new house.


Must be moving is a compound verbal modal predicate which consists of the modal verb must
used to denote supposition implying strong probability, assurance and the continuous infinitive
be moving referring the action to the present.

11. I have to get to work by bus.


Have to get is a compound verbal modal predicate which consists of the modal verb have to in
its Present Indefinite tense form used to denote obligation arising out o f circumstances and the
non-perfect infinitive active get.

12. You don't have to take a jacket. It's rather warm.


Don't have to take is a compound verbal modal predicate which consists of the modal verb have
to in its Present Indefinite tense form used to denote absence of necessity and the non-perfect
infinitive active take.

13. I needn't have cooked dinner.


Needn't have cooked is a compound verbal modal predicate which consists of the modal verb
needn't used to denote absence o f necessity and the perfect infinitive active have cooked referring
the action to the past and showing that it was performed though it wasn't necessary.

14. He was to have come last Sunday but he couldn't.


Was to have come is a compound verbal modal predicate which consists of the modal verb was
to in its Past Indefinite tense form used to denote obligation arising out o f a plan and the perfect
infinitive active have come referring the action to the past and showing that the plan wasn't
carried out.

15. He was to be my teacher and my friend fo r many years to come.


Was to be is a compound verbal modal predicate which consists of the modal verb was to in its
Past Indefinite tense form used to denote something thought o f as unavoidable and the non­
perfect infinitive active be.

16. This soup is too salty, you should /ought to send it back.
Should /ought to send is a compound verbal modal predicate which consists of the modal verb
should/ought to used to denote advisability and the non-perfect infinitive active send referring
the action to the future.

17. I shouldn't/ oughtn't to have bought this car.


Shouldn't/ oughtn't to have bought is a compound verbal modal predicate which consists of the
modal verb shouldn't / oughtn't to used to denote advisability and the perfect infinitive active
have bought referring the action to the past and showing that an undesirable action was carried
out.

18. You should /ought to treat your neighbours with more respect.
Should/ ought to treat is a compound verbal modal predicate which consists of the modal verb
sh ould/ought to used to denote moral duty and the non-perfect infinitive active treat referring
the action to the present.
APPENDIX 2 165
19. You really should/ ought to have registered before term started!
Should / ought to have registered is a compound verbal modal predicate which consists of the
modal verb should / ought to used to denote reproach and the perfect infinitive active have
registered referring the action to the past and showing that it wasn't carried out.

20. The train from New York should / ought to be arriving about now.
Should/ought to be arriving is a compound verbal modal predicate which consists of the modal
verb should/ought to used to denote supposition implying strong probability and the continuous
infinitive be arriving referring the action to the future.

21. Why should I go there?


Should go is a compound verbal modal predicate which consists of the modal verb should used to
denote emotional colouring and the non-perfect infinitive active go.
22. Anyone found guilty shall be punished at once.
Shall be punished is a compound verbal modal predicate which consists of the modal verb shall
used to denote threat (warning) and the non-perfect infinitive passive be punished.

23. I will definitely pay you back next week.


Will pay is a compound verbal modal predicate which consists of the modal verb will in its Present
Indefinite tense form used to denote volition and the non-perfect infinitive active pay.

24. Dad would always help us with our maths homework.


Would h e lp is a compound verbal modal predicate which consists of the modal verb would in
its Past Indefinite tense form used to denote a habitual or recurrent action and the non-perfect
infinitive active help.

25. Would you lend me your cell phone fo r a moment?


Would lend s a compound verbal modal predicate which consists of the modal verb would in
its Subjunctive II form used to denote a polite request and the non-perfect infinitive active lend
referring the action to the present.

26. How dare she come here?


Dare come is a compound verbal modal predicate which consists of the modal verb dare used to
denote impudence and the non-perfect infinitive active come.
166 English Grammar Practice

REFERENCES
1. Alexander L. Longman English Grammar. Pearson Education, Ltd, 2005.
2. Alexander L. Longman English Grammar Practice for Intermediate Students. - Longman, 1990.
3. Collins Cobuild English Grammar, Harper Collins Publisher, 2005.
4. Eastwood J. Oxford Practice Grammar. Intermediate. - Oxford University Press, 2008.
5. Evans V. Round-Up. English Grammar Practice 5, 6. - Longman, 2001.
6. Evans V. FCE Use of English 2. - Express Publishing, 2001.
7. Foley M., Hall D. Advanced Learners'Grammar. - Longman, 2003.
8. Hashemi L., Murphy R. English Grammar in Use. Supplementary Exercises. - Cambridge University
Press, 1995.
9. Hewings M. Advanced Grammar in Use. - Cambridge University Press, 1999.
10. Kaushanskaya V.L. et al. A Grammar of the English Language. - Prosveschenye, 1973.
11. Kobrina N.A., Korneeva E.A., Ossovskaya M.N., Guzeeva K.B. An English Grammar. Morphology.
Syntax. - St. Petersburg, 1999.
12. Krutikov Y.A., Kuzmina I.S., Rabinovich Kh.V. Exercises in Modern English Grammar. - Moscow,
1971.
13. Krylova I.P., Gordon E.M. A Grammar of Present-day English. Practical Course. - Moscow, 1999.
14. Krylova I.P. A Grammar of Present-day English. Practice Book. - Moscow, 1999.
15. Murphy R. English Grammar in Use. A self-Study Reference and Practice Book for Intermediate
Students. - Cambridge, 1998.
16. Prodromou Luke. Grammar and Vocabulary for First Certificate. - Longman, 2001.
17. Quirk R., Greenbaum S., Leech C., Svartvik J. A University Grammar of English. - Longman, 1973.
18. Side R. and Wellman G. Grammar and Vocabulary for Cambridge Advanced and Proficiency. -
Longman, 2000.
19. Swan M. Practical English Usage. - Oxford University Press, 1996.
20. Swan M., Walker C. How English Works. A Grammar Practice Book. - Oxford University Press,
1997.
21. Thomson A.J., Martinet A.V. A Practical English Grammar. - Oxford University Press, 1997.
22. Vince M., Emmerson P. Intermediate Language Practice. English Grammar and Vocabulary. -M ac­
millan, 2003.
23. Vince M., Sunderland P. Advanced Language Practice. English Grammar and Vocabulary. - Macmil­
lan, 2003.
24. Walker E., Elsworth S. Grammar Practice for Upper Intermediate Students. - Pearson Education
Limited, 2000.

D IC T IO N A R IES
1. Cambridge International Dictionary of English. - Cambridge University Press,1995.
2. Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English. - Pearson Education Limited, 2003.
3. Webster's Desk Dictionary of the English Language. - Portland House, 1990.
CONT ENTS 167

CONTENTS

ВВЕДЕНИЕ .................................... ............................................................................................... 3


Unit 1 . THE MODAL VERB CAN/COULD ......................................................................................................................... 5
Unit 2. THE MODAL VERB MAY/M IG HT......................................................................................... 22
Unit 3. THE MODAL VERB M UST.................................................................................................... 36
MISCELLANEOUS PRACTICE CAN/M AY/MUST.......................................................................... 49
Unit 4. THE MODAL VERB HAVE ТО/HAVE GOT TO....................................................................... 56
Unit 5. THE M ODAL VERB NEED..................................................................................................... 67
Unit 6. THE MODAL VERB BE TO................................................................................................. 81
Unit7.THE MODAL VERB SHOULD/OUGHT TO............................................................................. 91
Unit8. THE MODAL VERB SHALL.................................................................................................... 104
Unit9.THE MODAL VERB WILL/ WOULD........................................................... ............................ 111
Unit 10. THE MODAL VERB DARE................................................................................................. 127
MISCELLANEOUS PRACTICE......................................................................................................... 132
APPENDIX 1................................................................................................. ................................. 145
APPENDIX 2................................................................................................................................... 163
REFERENCES................................................................................................................................... 166
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Подгорная Наталья Владимировна

Практическая грамматика: М ОДАЛЬНЫ Е ГЛАГОЛЫ


English Grammar Practice: MODAL VERBS

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Оформление обложки А. Г. Островский
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