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1 Problems Sections 11.1, 11.2 and 11.3 1.1


(F) True or False
(1) If lim n→∞
an = L, then lim n→∞
f(an) = f( lim n→∞
an) = f(L).
(2) lim n→∞|an| = 0 if and only if lim n→

an = 0.
(3) Every bounded, monotonic sequence is
convergent.
(4) If lim n→∞
an = 0, then
∞ X n=1
an is convergent.
(5) If lim n→∞
an doesn’t exist, then
∞ X n=1
an is divergent.
(6)
∞ X n=1
1 np
is convergent if and only if p > 1.
(7) Let f(x) = 1 x2 , for x > 0 . Let Sn =
∞ X n=1
1 n2
and Rn = S − Sn , where
Sn =
n X k=1
1 k2
then
1 n + 1 ≤ Rn ≤
1 n
(8) If
∞ X n=1
an (an 6= 0) is known to be a convergent
series, then
∞ X n=1
1 an
is a divergent
series.
(9) If
∞ X n=1
an is convergent series, then
∞ X n=1
c an = c
∞ X n=1
an where c is a constant.
(10) If
∞ X n=1
an is divergent and c 6= 0, then
∞ X n=1
c an is divergent.
1.2
Determine whether the sequence converges or
diverges. If it converges, find the limit.
(1) an = e
1 n (2) an =rn + 1 9n + 1
(3) an =
(−1)n+1n n +√n
(4) an = 2−n cosnπ (5) an = (lnn)2 n
(6) an =
n! 2n
Calculus (II) — 2020.3.9 Sections 11.1,
11.2 and 11.3 1
1.3 (F) Show that the sequence defined by
a1 = 2 an+1 =
1 3−an satisfies 0 < an ≤ 2 and is
decreasing. Deduce that the sequence is
convergent and find its limit.
1.4 (F) Let a and b be positive numbers with
a > b. Let a1 be their arithmetic mean and
b1 their geometric mean: a1 = a + b 2 b1 =
√ab Repeat this process so that, in
general,
an+1 =
an + bn 2
bn+1 =panbn
(a) Use mathematical induction to show that
an > an+1 > bn+1 > bn
(b) Deduce that both {an} and {bn} are
convergent. (c) Show that lim n→∞ an = lim
n→∞ bn. Gauss called the common value of
these limits the arithmetic-geometric mean
of the numbers a and b.
1.5 (F) (a) Show that if lim n→∞
a2n = L and lim n→∞
a2n+1 = L, then {an} is convergent and
lim n→∞
an = L.
(b) If a1 = 1 and
an+1 = 1 +
1 1 + an find the first eight terms of the
sequence an. Then use part (a) to show that
lim n→∞ an = √2. This gives the continued
fraction expansion √2 = 1 + 1 2 + 1 2+···
Calculus (II) — 2020.3.9 Sections 11.1,
11.2 and 11.3 2
1.6 (F) → (?) Determine whether the series
is convergent or divergent. If it is
convergent, find its sum.
(1)
∞ X k=1
k(k + 2) (k + 3)2
(2)
∞ X k=1
1 + 2k 3k
(3)
∞ X k=1
k √2
(4)
∞ X k=1
(cos1)k (5)
∞ X k=1
arctank (6)
∞ X k=1 1 ek
+
1 k(k + 1)
(7)
∞ X k=2
2 k2 −1
(8)
∞ X k=1
ln
k k + 1
(9)
∞ X k=2
1 k3 −k
1.7 (F) → (?) Find the values of x for
which the series converges. Find the sum of
the series for those values of x.
(1)
∞ X n=0
2n xn
(2)
∞ X n=0
sinn x 3n
(3)
∞ X n=0
enx
1.8
Find an and
∞ X n=1
an.
(F) (1) If the nth partial sum of a series
∞ X n=1
an is sn =
n−1 n + 1
(2) If the nth partial sum of a series
∞ X n=1
an is sn = 3−
n 2n
1.9
What is wrong with the following
calculation? 0 = 0 + 0 + 0 +··· = (1−1) + (1
−1) + (1−1) +··· = 1−1 + 1−1 + 1−1 + ... = 1
+ (−1 + 1) + (−1 + 1) + (−1 + 1) +··· = 1 +
0 + 0 + 0 +··· = 1 (Guido Ubaldus thought
that this proved the existence of God
because “something has been created out of
nothing.”)
Calculus (II) — 2020.3.9 Sections 11.1,
11.2 and 11.3 3
1.10
In Example 9 (*) we showed that the harmonic
series is divergent. Here we outline another
method, making use of the fact that ex > 1+x
for any x > 0 .(See Exercise 4.3.84.) If Sn
is the nth partial sum of the harmonic
series, show that eSn > n + 1. Why does this
imply that the harmonic series is divergent?
(*):In the textbook (James Stewart: Calculus
early transcendentals 8e) 1.11 (F) → (?)
Use the Integral Test to determine whether
the series is convergent or divergent.
(1)
∞ X k=1
1 k5
(2)
∞ X k=1
1 √k + 4 (3)
∞ X k=1
k2e−k3
1.12 (F) Find the values of p for which the
series is convergent.
(1)
∞ X n=2
1 n(lnn)p
(2)
∞ X n=1
n(1 + n2)p
1.13 (F)
Find all positive values of b for which the
series
∞ X n=1
b lnn converges.
1.14 (F) Find all values of c for which the
following series converges.
∞ X n=1
c n −
1 n + 1
.
2 Problems Plus
1. A sequence that arises in ecology as a
model for population growth is defined by the
logistic difference equation pn+1 = kpn(1−pn)
where pn measures the size of the population
of the nth generation of a single species.
To keep the numbers manageable, is a
fraction of the maximal size of the
population, so 0 ≤ pn ≤ 1. Notice that the
form of this equation is similar to the
logistic differential equation in Section
9.4. The discrete modelwith sequences
instead of continuous functions-is
preferable for modeling insect populations,
where mating and death occur in a periodic
fashion.
Calculus (II) — 2020.3.9 Sections 11.1,
11.2 and 11.3 4
An ecologist is interested in predicting the
size of the population as time goes on, and
asks these questions: Will it stabilize at a
limiting value? Will it change in a cyclical
fashion? Or will it exhibit random behavior?
Write a program to compute the first n terms
of this sequence starting with an initial
population p0, where 0 < p0 < 1. Use this
program to do the following. 1. Calculate 20
or 30 terms of the sequence for p0 = 1 2 and
for two values of k such that 1 < k < 3.
Graph each sequence. Do the sequences appear
to converge? Repeat for a different value of
p0 between 0 and 1. Does the limit depend on
the choice of p0? Does it depend on the
choice of k? 2. Calculate terms of the
sequence for a value of k between 3 and 3.4
and plot them. What do you notice about the
behavior of the terms? 3. Experiment with
values of k between 3.4 and 3.5. What
happens to the terms?