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 That is to say feelings and intuitions – play a major role in most of the ethical decisions people
make. Most people do not realize how much their emotions direct their moral choices. Inner-
directed negative emotions like guilt, embarrassment, and shame often motivate people to act


 Is the capacity of consciously making sense of things, applying logic, and adapting or justifying
practices, institutions, and beliefs based on new or existing information


 Is shaped by individual personality and behavioral characteristics. Subjective biases can

influence decisions by disrupting objective judgments. Common cognitive biases include
confirmation, anchoring, halo effect, and overconfidence.


 Reason is the basis or motive for an action, decision, or conviction. As a quality, it refers to the
capacity for logical, rational, and analytic thought; for consciously making sense of things,
establishing and verifying facts, applying common sense and logic, and justifying, and if
necessary, changing practices, institutions, and beliefs based on existing or new existing
information. It also spells the difference of moral judgments' from mere expressions of personal
preference. In the case of moral judgments, they require backing by reasons. Thus, reason
commends what it commends, regardless of our feelings, attitudes, opinions, and desires.

 Impartiality involves the idea that each individual’s interests and point of view are equally
important. Itis a principle of justice holding that decisions ought to be based on objective
criteria, rather than on the basis of bias, prejudice, or preferring the benefit to one person over
another for improper reasons. Impartiality in morality requires that we give equal and/or
adequate consideration to the interests of all concerned parties. The principle of impartiality
assumes that every person, generally speaking, is equally important; that is, no one is seen
intrinsically more significant than anyone else.


 Moral Courage is the courage to take action for moral reasons despite the risk of adverse
consequences. Courage is required to take action when one has doubts or fears about the
consequences. Moral courage therefore involves deliberation or careful thought.

 A moral agent is a person who has the ability to discern right from wrong and to be held
accountable for his or her own actions. Moral agents have a moral responsibility not to cause
unjustified harm. Traditionally, moral agency is assigned only to those who can be held
responsible for their actions.


 Humans acquire culture through the learning processes of enculturation and socialization, which
is shown by the diversity of cultures across societies. Culture is an umbrella term which
encompasses the social behavior and norms found in human societies, as well as the knowledge,
beliefs, arts, laws, customs, capabilities and habits of the individuals in these groups.


 Ethics are the set of moral principles that guide a person's behavior. These morals are shaped
by social norms, cultural practices, and religious influences. Ethics reflect beliefs about what is
right, what is wrong, what is just, what is unjust, what is good, and what is bad in terms of
human behavior.

 Cultures very substantially in both moral judgments and moral behaviors. Cultural variation in
morality within societies can vary as much as cultural variations in morality between societies.
We review contemporary work on cultural factors affecting moral judgments and values, and
those affecting moral behaviors.

 Culture relativism is the view that beliefs, customs, and ethics are relative to the individual
within his own social context. In other words, “right” and “wrong” are culture-specific; what is
considered moral in one society may be considered immoral in other, and, since no universal
standards of morality exist, no one has the right to judge another society’s costumes

 Cultural variation in morality within society's can vary so much as cultural variations in morality
between societies.

 Cultural factors contributions to this variation include religion, social ecology (weather, crop
conditions, population, density, pathogen, prevalence, residential mobility), and regulatory
social institutions such as kinship structures and economics markets.

 Whether between or within nations and societies, cultures vary substantially in their promotion
and transmission of a multitude of moral judgments and behavior. Cultural factors contributing
to this variation include religion, social ecology(weather, crop conditions, population density,
pathogen prevalence, residential mobility), and regulatory social institutions such as kinship
structures and economic markets. This variability raises questions for normative theories of
morality, but also holds promise for future descriptive work on moral thought and behavior.

 Cultural relativism is the idea that a person's beliefs, values, and practices should be understood
based on that person's own culture, rather than be judged against the criteria of another.


 The culture of the Philippines is a combination of cultures of the East and West. Filipino identity
was created primarily as a result of pre-colonial cultures, colonial influences and foreign traders
intermixing and gradually evolving together. In pre-colonial times, the Philippines was a divided
set of nations, islands and tribes being ruled by their own kings, chieftains, lakans, rajahs, datus
and sultans. Every nation has its own identity and some are even part of a larger empire outside
of what is now the Philippines. Manila, for example, was once part of the Islamic Sultanate of
Brunei, and the Sulu Archipelago was also part of the Hindu Majapahit. The advent of colonial
rule in the islands marked the beginning of the Philippines as an entity, a collection of Southeast
Asian countries united under Spanish Empire.


• Opening yourself to others and feel one with other with dignity and respect deal with them as
fellow human beings

• Sense of fairness and justice

• Concern of others

• Ability to empathize with others

• Helpfulness and generosity

• Practice of hospitality

• Sensitive to other feelings and trust


• A genuine and deep love for family.

• Commitment and responsibility

• Honor and respect

• Generosity and sacrifice

• Sense of trust and security


 Filipinos have a cheerful and fun loving approach to life and its up and down, pleasant
disposition, a sense of humor and propensity for happiness that contribute not only to the
Filipino charm but also to the Filipino spirit

 Emotional balance and optimism

 Healthy disrespect for power and office



 Capacity for hard work given to raise ones standard living of a decent life for ones family.


 Faith in god – accepting reality to comprehend as a human created by god. “Pampalakas-loob”

Extreme Personalism

 Always trying to give personal interpretation to actions

 Thank you with “but” (compliment-criticism- complement)


 Strong Family protection good or bad condition


 Relaxed attitude but poor time management

 Impatient and unable to delay gratification or reward

 Love to take short-cuts or “palusot” system

 Carelessness


 Yeah proud pinoy. Its all because of the race(nationality/blood) not by persons attitude, hard
work, dream and perseverance etc.

 Very complacent (relax) but their rarely is a sense of urgency (its ok we have 1 day left to
finished, just relax)

 Strong reliance to others fate

Understanding the Diversity of Moral Beliefs: Relativism, Absolutism and
What is culture clash?
-a conflict arising from the interaction of people with different cultural values.

What happens when two cultures clash?

-Assimilation. The process of a assimilation when the two cultures meet often

only happens when one is more advanced than the other and swallow up the other culture. This
eventually leads to complete loss of cultural identity. It sometimes- like adoption, results in a complete
new culture.

Examples of culture clash.

 An example of cultural conflict is the debate over abortion.

 Wars can also be a result of a cultural conflict; for example the differing views on slavery were
one of the reasons for the American civil war.


 Ethical absolutists...there is a single standard in terms of assessments that can be made, and
that standard is usually their own

 Ethical relativists see each culture as an island unto itself, right in its own world and they deny
there is any overarching standard in terms of which conflicting culture can be judged

 Ethical pluralists acknowledge that cultures can legitimately pass judgments on one another and
encourages us to listen to what other cultures say about us as well as what we say about them

 Ethical relativist—Each culture is right unto itself, so such practices would be morally permissible
in some countries and morally wrong in the US

 Ethical absolutists—there is a single moral truth in terms of which all cultures and individuals are
to be judged

 Pluralists try to find some middle ground (in some situations this practice may make sense, less

 These ethical positions provide a rich context for understanding the variation of all ethical
theories that Hinman discusses

 Divine command —we ought to do whatever God wills

Issue is whose God? and does God speak differently to each of us? or do we interpret
the messages differently?

 Egoism—each person should act selfishly to maximize self interest

 Utilitarian– Should act in such a way as to produce the greatest overall amount of pleasure or

 Kantian ethics —Act in ways that respect the autonomy and dignity of ourselves and others

 Rights theorists —content that there is a certain universal moral minimum with which all people
must comply

Claims of Cultural Relativists

1. Different societies have different moral codes

2. The moral code of a society determines what is right within that society

3. There is no objective standard that can be used to judge one societies code as better than

4. The moral code of our society offers nothing special

5. There is no universal truth in ethics…

6. It is arrogant to judge the conduct of other societies, we should adopt an attitude of tolerance

Universal Values in Societies

1. Value of protecting the young

2. Truth telling

3. Prohibition of murder

“There are some moral rules that all societies must have in common, because those rules are necessary
for society to exist.”

What other universal values or moral rules can you think of?

 Prohibition against incest

 Personal responsibility

 The proper role of government is to take care of its citizens

 Everyone should serve their country

 Everyone should obey the law

Lessons From Cultural Relativism

1. Rests on invalid argument

2. Although it enjoys much appeal

3. Two important lessons

1. Warns us about the dangers of assuming that our preferences are based upon some
absolute rational standard. They are not. Many of our practices are merely particular to
our society and it is easy to forget this.

2. Keep an open mind that

Maybe our feelings about practices, values and beliefs are merely social conventions—
example homosexuality. Maybe our feelings are not necessarily perceptions of the truth…they
may be nothing more than cultural conditioning

There is a certain appeal to cultural relativism, but there are some major shortcomings to thethe
theory. Many of the practices and attitudes that we think as natural law are really only cultural
products. Need to keep this in mind if we are to avoid being arrogant and have open minds