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# Moto r Torqu e Calculation

## Motor Torque Calculation

Selecting the proper motor and driver to meet a specific application needs motor torque calculation. Generally speaking,
the user can follow the below steps to choose the proper motor and driver.
1. Determine the motion profile and calculate acceleration, deceleration and maximum velocity required to make the
desired move.
2. Select mechanical drive mechanism to be used and calculated inertia, friction and load torque using formulas provided
in this document.
3. Determine required motor torque for the specific application.
4. Select proper motor and driver based on their speed-torque characteristics.
Lead screw drives are widely used in many applications, such as XY tables, slides, tool bit positioning, pick-and-place
machines, engraving machines, microscope drives, and etc.

Inertia:
JL – Inertia of the load [kg·m2]
P N1 2 JG1 – Inertia of the Gear 1 [kg·m2]
J L = mW +T ( × ) [kg × m 2 ]
2p N 2 JG2 – Inertia of the Gear 2 [kg·m2]
JS – Inertia of the lead screw [kg·m2]
1 N JM – Inertia of the motor [kg·m2]
J G1 = mG1 DG21 ( 2 ) 2 [kg × m 2 ]
8 N1 JT – Inertia of the system [kg·m2]
mW+T – Weight of the work and the table [kg]
1
JG2 = mG 2 DG2 2 [kg × m ]2
ω0 – Initial velocity of the motor [rad/s]
8 ω1 – Final velocity of the motor [rad/s]
N2 2 t – Time for velocity change [s]
J T = J L + J G1 + J G 2 + J S ( ) + JM [kg × m 2 ]
N1 Ta – Acceleration torque [N·m]
Torque: TT – Total calculation torque [N·m], TT = TL + Ta
N w - w0 *
Ta = J T a = ( J L + J G1 + J G 2 + J S ( 2 ) 2 + J M ) 1 [ N × m] TM – Required motor torque [N·m], TM = KS·TT
N1 t KS – Safety factor (Reference Value is 1.5 to 2.0.)

## mW +T gP(sin a + m cos a ) α – Angle of inclination [˚]

TL = [ N × m] μ – Frictional coefficient of sliding surfaces
2ph
η – Efficiency (Reference Value is 0.85 to 0.95.)
g – Gravity constant (9.8 m/s2)
TT = TL + Ta [ N × m] *
Please use the max acceleration of the specific
application.
TM = K S TT [ N × m]

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Moto r Torqu e Calculation
Wire belt drives are usually adopted by relatively long distance drives, such as conveyors, jet-ink machines, plotters,
assembly lines, and etc.

Inertia:
JL – Inertia of the load [kg·m2]
1
J L = mL D 2 [kg × m ]2
JP – Inertia of the pulley(s) [kg·m2]
4 JB – Inertia of the belt [kg·m2]
1
J P = mP D 2 [kg × m 2 ] *(Remember to multiply JM – Inertia of the motor [kg·m2]
8 JT – Inertia of the system [kg·m2]
by 2 if there 2 pulleys.) mL – Weight of the load [kg]
1
J B = mB D 2 [kg × m 2 ] mP – Weight of the pulley [kg]
4 mB – Weight of the belt [kg]
D – Diameter [m]
JT = J L + J P + J B + J M [kg × m 2 ]
ω0 – Initial velocity of the motor [rad/s]
Torque: ω1 – Final velocity of the motor [rad/s]
w1 - w0 t – Time for velocity change [s]
Ta = J T a = ( J L + J P + J B + J M ) [ N × m] **
t Ta – Acceleration torque [N·m]
m gD(sin a + m cos a )
TL = L [ N × m] **
TT – Total calculation torque [N·m], TT = TL + Ta
2h
TM – Required motor torque [N·m], TM = KS·TT
KS – Safety factor (Reference Value is 1.5 to 2.0.)
TT = TL + Ta [ N × m] α – Angle of inclination [˚]
μ – Frictional coefficient of sliding surfaces
TM = K S TT [ N × m] η – Efficiency (Reference Value is 0.85 to 0.95.)
g – Gravity constant (9.8 m/s2)
*
This is for solid cylinder, and see page 1 for hollow
cylinder.
**
Please use the max value(s) of the specific
application.

## Tel: (86)755-26434369 2 Web site: www.leadshine.com

Moto r Torqu e Calculation
There are many direct drive applications, such as index tables, feeding materials, and etc. A motor is typically connected
to the load through a flexible or compliant coupling. This coupling provides a small amount of damping and helps
correct for any mechanical misalignment. Direct drive is attractive when mechanical simplicity is desirable and the load
being driven is of moderate inertia.
Ø Solid Cylinder Ø Hollow Cylinder

Inertia:
Inertia: 1 p
J L = m( D12 + D22 ) = rL( D14 - D24 ) [kg × m 2 ]
1 p 8 32
J L = mD 2 = rLD 4 [kg × m 2 ]
8 32
JT = J L + J M [kg × m 2 ]
JT = J L + J M [kg × m 2 ]
Torque:
Torque: w1 - w0
Ta = J T a = ( J L + J M ) [ N × m] *
w1 - w0 t
Ta = J T a = ( J L + J M ) [ N × m] *
t
TT = TL + Ta [ N × m] *
TT = TL + Ta [ N × m] *

TM = K S TT [ N × m]
TM = K S TT [ N × m]
JL – Inertia of the load [kg·m2]
JL – Inertia of the load [kg·m2] JM – Inertia of the motor [kg·m2]
JM – Inertia of the motor [kg·m2] JT – Inertia of the system [kg·m2]
JT – Inertia of the system [kg·m2] m – Weight of load [kg]
m – Weight [kg] D1 – External diameter of the disc [m]
D – Diameter [m] D2 – Internal diameter of the disc [m]
ρ– Density of the load [kg/m ] 3 ρ – Density of the load [kg/m3]
L – Length of the load [m] L – Length of the load [m]
t – Time for velocity change [s] t – Time for velocity change [s]
Ta – Acceleration torque [N·m] Ta – Acceleration torque [N·m]
TT – Total calculation torque [N·m], TT = TL + Ta TT – Total calculation torque [N·m], TT = TL + Ta
TM – Required motor torque [N·m], TM = KS·TT TM – Required motor torque [N·m], TM = KS·TT
KS – Safety factor (Reference Value is 1.5 to 2.0.) KS – Safety factor (Reference Value is 1.5 to 2.0.)
*
*
Please use the max value(s) of the specific application. Please use the max value(s) of the specific application.

Traditional gear drives are more commonly used with stepping motors. The fine resolution of a microstepping motor can

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Moto r Torqu e Calculation
make gearing unnecessary in many applications, where gears are used only for increase system precision. Gears
generally have undesirable efficiency, wear characteristics, backlash, and can be noisy. Gears are useful; however, when
very large inertias must be moved because the inertia of the load reflected back to the motor through the gearing is
divided by the square of the gear ratio. In this manner, large inertial loads can be moved while maintaining a good
load-inertia to rotor-inertia ratio (less than 10:1).

Inertia:
JL – Inertia of the load [kg·m2]
1 N p N JG1 – Inertia of the Gear 1 [kg·m2]
J L = mDL2 ( 2 ) 2 = rLDL4 ( 2 ) 2 [kg × m 2 ] * JG2 – Inertia of the Gear 2 [kg·m2]
8 N1 32 N1
JM – Inertia of the motor [kg·m2]
JT – Inertia of the system [kg·m2]
1 N
J G1 = mG1 DG21 ( 2 ) 2 [kg × m ]
2
N1 – Number of gear teeth of the Gear 1 [constant]
8 N1 N2 – Number of gear teeth of the Gear 2 [constant]

## 1 m – Weight of the load [kg]

J G 2 = mG 2 DG2 2 [kg × m 2 ] mG1 – Weight of the Gear 1 [kg]
8
mG2 – Weight of the Gear 2 [kg]
J T = J L + J G1 + J G 2 + J M [kg × m ]
2
DL – Diameter [m]
ρ – Density of the load [kg/m3]
Torque: L – Length of the load [m]
w - w0 ω0 – Initial velocity of the motor [rad/s]
Ta = J T a = ( J L + J G1 + J G 2 + J M ) 1 [ N × m] **
t ω1 – Final velocity of the motor [rad/s]
t – Time for velocity change [s]
TT = TL + Ta [ N × m] ** Ta – Acceleration torque [N·m]
TM = K S TT [ N × m] TT – Total calculation torque [N·m], TT = TL + Ta
TM – Required motor torque [N·m], TM = KS·TT
KS – Safety factor (Reference Value is 1.5 to 2.0.)
*
This is for solid cylinder, and see page 1 for hollow
cylinder.
**
Please use the max value(s) of the specific
application.

FD
TL = + TF [ N × m] *

2
F – Force to rotate the load [N]
D – Diameter [m]