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BUILDING REGULATIONS

&
DESIGN GUIDELINES -
STRUCTURAL

Department of Planning and Development - TRAKHEES


Ports, Customs & Free Zone Corporation
Government of Dubai, United Arab Emirates
BUILDING REGULATIONS & DESIGN GUIDELINES- STRUCTURAL
Second Edition-2017

BUILDING
REGULATIONS
& DESIGN
Prepared & Issued by:

Department of Planning and Development - TRAKHEES


GUIDELINES-
Ports, Customs & Free Zone Corporation
Government of Dubai, United Arab Emirates
Email: Trakhees.Accreditation@trk.pcfc.ae
Website: www.trakhees.ae
STRUCTURAL
2nd Edition-2017

This edition issued in April 2017


Dubai, United Arab Emirates

All rights reserved to Department of Planning and Development - TRAKHEES - Ports, Customs & Free Zone
Corporation (PCFC), Government of Dubai, United Arab Emirates (UAE). No parts of this publication may
be reproduced, stored in any retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic,
mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without the prior consent of the copyright owner. Department of Planning and Development - TRAKHEES
These regulations and guidelines have been established to be applied within Trakhees - PCFC Jurisdiction.
Implementation of these regulations out of Trakhees jurisdiction is the sole responsibility of the concerned Ports, Customs & Free Zone Corporation
parties, whereby the local authority regulations shall be precedent and govern. Government of Dubai, United Arab Emirates

2 3
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

T he publication of this book could not have been possible without the ungrudging
efforts put in by a number of individuals working in ALL sections of the Department
of Planning and Development TRAKHEES. We would like to thank the Section Managers
and their respective teams for their meticulous effort in maintaining the Content, Structure
and Quality of the book. We also wish to acknowledge contributions made by PCFC legal
department, Consultants and Engineers from different organizations; and lastly, to other
Local and International Organizations in the field of Construction whose publications and
articles in terms of local and international standards are frequently used.

In addition, our sincere thanks to all those who contributed their comments, feedback, and
suggestions, which have all been considered in this edition. As there is always room for
improvement, Trakhees will continuously welcome comments/suggestions on this Book,
and will consider all that are received. Your comments will continue to improve this book
leading to its ultimate acceptance. As always, it has been a great joint effort.

Trakhees - Ports, Customs & Free Zone Corporation

4 5
TABLE OF CONTENTS TABLE OF CONTENTS

SECTION 1: GEOTECHNICAL GUIDELINES & REGULATIONS SECTION 3: GUIDELINES FOR PRE STRESSED & PRECAST CONCRETE WORKS (SLABS)

1.1.Introduction.............................................................................................. 12 3.1.General.....................................................................................................80
1.2. Basic Guidelines For Soil Investigation Report.......................................... 12 3.2. Pre Stressed Concrete Systems................................................................ 81
1.3. Recommendations To Be Included In The Soil 3.2.1. Materials............................................................................. 81
Investigation Report.................................................................................27 3.2.2. Registration Of Pt Specialist................................................ 85
3.2.3. Storage Of Materials............................................................ 85
1.3.1. Excavation Works................................................................. 27
3.2.4. Method Statement............................................................... 85
1.3.2. Open Excavation And Protection.......................................... 27
3.2.5. Permission To The First Project............................................ 85
1.3.3. Backfill Materials And Compaction Criteria.......................... 28
1.3.4. Retaining Structures............................................................ 28 3.3. Software Approval & Design Guidelines...................................................86
1.3.5.Dewatering.......................................................................... 29
3.3.1. Software Approval............................................................... 86
1.3.6. Shallow Foundations........................................................... 34
3.3.2. Design Guidelines................................................................ 86
1.3.7. Pile Foundations.................................................................. 34
1.3.8. Foundation Concrete............................................................ 35 3.4. General Notes For Specialist & System Approval......................................92
1.3.9.Liquifaction.......................................................................... 35
3.5. Documents Required For Obtaining the Prestress Permit.........................92
1.4. Soil improvement Guidelines....................................................................36 3.6. Guidelines For Pre Cast Concrete Works...................................................93
1.4.1. Soil Improvement................................................................. 36 3.6.1. Pre Cast Specialist Registration........................................... 93
1.4.2. Safety Against Liquefaction................................................. 47 3.6.2. Pre Cast Design Guidelines.................................................. 94
1.4.3. Calculation Theory............................................................... 48 3.6.3. Documents Required For Obtaining Precast
1.4.4. Evaluation Of Likely Liquefaction Induced Hazards.............. 49 Structure Permit................................................................. 106
1.4.5. Lateral Extend of Ground improvement................................ 50

1.5. Shorting Guidelines..................................................................................50 SECTION 4: STRUCTURAL DESIGN GUIDELINES – STEEL STRUCTURES


1.6. Design Guidelines For Building Piles.........................................................56
4.1.Introduction............................................................................................ 110
1.6.1. Design Criteria For Piling Works........................................... 56
1.6.2. Points To Be Checked During Construction.......................... 59 4.2. Applicable Codes.................................................................................... 110
1.6.3. Piles Testing......................................................................... 60 4.2.1. Dead And Live Loads........................................................... 110
4.2.2. Seismic Loads..................................................................... 111
4.2.3. Wind Load........................................................................... 111
SECTION 2: STRUCTURAL DESIGN GUIDELINES – BUILDING STRUCTURES 4.2.4. Design Codes...................................................................... 111
2.1.Introduction..............................................................................................64 4.3. Performance Criteria - Analysis, Design and Detailing.............................. 111
2.2. Design Outcome.......................................................................................64 4.3.1.General............................................................................... 112
2.3. Sustainability And Environmentally Responsible Design..........................64 4.3.2.Loading............................................................................... 113
4.3.3. Limit State Of Strength........................................................ 113
2.4. Applicable Codes......................................................................................65 4.3.4. Limit State Of Serviceability................................................ 114
2.4.1. Dead And Live Loads............................................................ 65 4.3.5.Foundation.......................................................................... 116
2.4.2. Seismic Loads...................................................................... 65 4.3.6. Holding Down Bolts............................................................ 116
2.4.3. Wind Loads.......................................................................... 65 4.3.7.Fatigue................................................................................ 116
2.4.4. Design Codes....................................................................... 66 4.3.8. Structural Integrity.............................................................. 117

2.5. Performance Criteria.................................................................................66 4.4. General Guidelines For Industrial Steel Structures.................................. 118
2.5.1. Design Life........................................................................... 66
2.5.2. Computer Models, Structural Analysis and Design REEFERENCES....................................................................................................................................... 122
Requirements...................................................................... 66
2.6. Structural Calculations.............................................................................72
FIGURES & TABLES INDEX....................................................................................................................... 126
2.7. Structural Drawings..................................................................................74

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INTRODUCTION

T he main principles of the structural buildings design guidelines were released first time
in 2006, as set out in Chapter 25 amongst the CED-Blue Code. These guidelines were
aiming to provide the structural engineers with the general and minimum requirements
for very limited structures; and the weak point was being not extended to cover all types
of structural developments in terms of geometry and construction materials. Trakhees-
CED, in its ongoing and incessant communication with engineering community, have
received an adequate encouragements to go further in producing separate volume for
structural design guidelines that can tackle all the common structural industry. Through
the past year, a comprehensive and oriented effort have been offered to establish a set of
guidelines that providing bases of analysis and design as well as the required documents
for submissions to meet the needs of approvals for residential, commercial and industrial
buildings, whether being made of concrete, steel or pre stressed materials through a set
of unified consistenceand compatible rules. The information contained in this volume has
been also compiled for use, guidance since proposing the structure scheme, interpretation
of geotechnical data, computer modeling, loading, analysis and design. It is also providing
the designers with the basic requirements for review and checking of the design documents
with CED team from the submission time until the approval that will facilitate and ease the
ermits issuance. It is anticipated that the use of these guidelines will result in a uniform
design and constructionof buildings throughout all types of structures.

8 9
GEOTECHNICAL
GUIDELINES &
REGULATIONS
01
SECTION

10 11
SECTION
1 GEOTECHNICAL GUIDELINES & REGULATIONS SECTION: 1 GEOTECHNICAL GUIDELINES & REGULATIONS

1.1 INTRODUCTION geographical maps from the concerned authorities and also with
relevant to the information about magnitude of superimposed
These Design Guidelines & Regulations are intended to provide minimum loads, number of floors, shape of structure, past land use, surface
geotechnical design requirements for RC buildings foundations and substructures topography, geological features and surface drainage.
to safeguard life or limb, environment, property and public welfares.
1.2.2 To specify the number of boreholes (one borehole for each 750 m2
Submission for no objection certificates for different types of applications by for structures small in plane area, exploration should be made at
consultants to be as per this guidelines to avoid any delay for the project or a minimum of three points). For structures of moderate size, it is
abortive work to the CED part. Incomplete submissions will be returned without customary and satisfactory to anticipate making five boreholes, one
review and as such CED shall not be responsible for any delays to the project at each corner and one deeper at the centre or under the core area.
accordingly. CED reserves the right to levy additional appraisal fees for checking In case of structures covering a large area, the exploration points
the incomplete and unchecked submissions noting that this fee shall be paid by may be placed in a grid. The mutual distance between the boreholes
the consultant and not to be passed on to the client.
The Guidelines are aimed to give the designers, geotechnical engineers,
specialist contractors and inspectors a general idea of the basic requirements
for review and checking the structures schemes until approval from the CED
according to principles and standards in order to facilitate and speed the
completion of the work efficiently. It is anticipated that the use of these guidelines
will result in a uniform design and construction of buildings throughout DW
projects. Any requests for revisions must be fully documented and presented
to the Civil Engineering Department for review and acceptance prior to any work
commencement. These guidelines are provided as a reference and may not be
taken as authority to construct without prior review. These guidelines supersede
all previous geotechnical guidelines and are subject to revision without notice.
These Guidelines contain Soil Investigation and Enabling Works requirements
and any items not covered specifically here in shall be in accordance with the
latest editions of British Standards. The Consultant shall ensure that the selected
design standards are the latest editions and fully compatible with Trakhees
Building Regulations and Design Guidelines-Structural.

1.2 BASIC GUIDELINES FOR SOIL INVESTIGATION REPORT


The purposes of site investigation is assessing its suitability for the construction Fig. (1.1) Boreholes Distribution
of civil engineering and building works and of acquiring knowledge of the
characteristics of a site that affect the design and construction of such work and
points that considered an appropriate for structures should normally
the security of neighboring land and property. For new works, the objectives of
be 20 – 40 m. Where a certain project consists of a number of
ground investigations are to obtain reliable information to produce an economic
adjacent units, one exploration point per unit may suffice if the data
and safe design, to assess any hazards (physical or chemical) associated with
of the boreholes have shown a uniform soil formation. In uniform soil
the ground, and to meet the construction requirements. The investigation should
conditions, the borings or excavation pits may be partially replaced
be designed to verify and expand information previously collected.
by penetration tests or geophysical soundings. (B.S. 5930-1999). Fig.
1.2.1 Soil investigation report for any structure shall be mainly based (1.1).5930-1999). Fig. (1.1).
upon its location with specified coordinates as per affection plan and

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SECTION: 1 GEOTECHNICAL GUIDELINES & REGULATIONS SECTION: 1 GEOTECHNICAL GUIDELINES & REGULATIONS

1.2.3 For pad and strip foundations, the depth of soundings or borings below the ground by means of boreholes, simple sampling and testing, making
the anticipated foundation level should normally be between 2.5 and 3 groundwater observations in boreholes, and properly recording the
times the width of the foundation elements (minimum 8.0m depth for information obtained. The boring log shall highlight and describe any
any borehole). Greater depths should usually be investigated in some of fluid loss (mud loss) during drilling at any depth interval, and where ever
the exploration points to assess the settlement conditions and possible open cavities were encountered, (as sudden drop of drilling rods, etc…)
ground water problems subject to the specialist recommendation. For description of the depth interval and field observations shall be included.
rafts, the depth of in-situ tests or borings should normally be equal to Boreholes should be carefully backfilled, concreted or grouted up. Trial
the foundation width. excavations should be outside the proposed foundation areas.
1.2.4 Normally exploration should be undertaken below all deposits that 1.2.9 Geological stratum or design borehole must clarify the thickness of each
maybe unsuitable for foundations purposes, e.g. made ground and weak soil layer with the characteristic properties.
compressible soils, including weak strata overlain by a layer of higher
1.2.10 At the top of Sand stratum, and thereafter at 1 m intervals of depth, a
bearing capacity. If rock is found, a penetration of at least 3.00 m in
standard penetration test should be carried out as per Fig. (1.2). For Rock
more than one borehole may be required to establish whether bedrock
layers, Continuous rotary core sampling should be used as shown in Fig.
or aboulder has been encountered.
(1.3). Correlation between SPT Blows & Sand Relative Density is as per
1.2.5 For piled foundations, the borings, penetration tests or other in-situ Table (1.1).
tests should normally be performed to explore the ground conditions
to such depth that ensures the design certainty. The exploration depth
below the pile toe level normally taken as 5 times the diameter of the Standard penetration Test (SPT)
83.5-kg Drop
pile shaft or 5.00 m whichever is greater. However, there will be cases Hammer P&D ASTM D 1586
when substantially deeper soundings or borings are needed subject to Repeatedly
Falling 0.78m
the specialist advice. It is also a requirement that the investigation depth AnvII
Need to Correct reference

shall be at least equal to the width of the rectangle circumscribing the (ASTM D 4633)
group of piles forming the foundation measured downward from the pile Borehole
Drill Rod
toes level. (”N” or
*A” Type)
1.2.6 The greater the natural variability of the ground, the greater the extent of Split-Barrel
Note: Occasional
Fourth Increment Used
the ground investigation required to obtain an indication of the character (Drive) Sampler to provide additional
(Thick Hollow
of the growoints to establish the overall geological structure. The lateral Tube):
soft material
and vertical extent of the investigation should cover all ground that O.D. = 50mm
I.D. = 35mm
may be significantly affected by the new works or their construction. An L = 780mm

per 0.3 meters Soothing


intensive investigation can only reduce uncertainties.

Hollow sampler Driven in


Q 15m Q 15m Q 15m

3 successive increments
1.2.7 Boreholes coordinates (x, y) as well as the levels referred to DMD to be First Increment SPT Resistance (N-value)

N = No. of Blows
presented on the site layout. The site layout should reflect the essential or “ Blow Counts” is total
number of blows to drive
data such as the plot limits, legend, north direction, neighbouring Second Increment
sampler last 300mm
structures, traffic, utilities, vegetation, hazardous chemicals …etc as Third Increment
(or blows per feet).

shown in Fig. (1.1).


1.2.8 Suitably qualified and experienced geotechnical engineer should Schematic presentation of an standard Penetration Test
normally be responsible for recording the information obtained from the
borehole as it arises at field; this should include a measured record of
strata, with simple soil and rock descriptions. The driller in charge of an
Fig. (1.2): Procedures for Standard Penetration Test (SPT)
individual drilling rig should be skilled in the practice of exploration of

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SECTION: 1 GEOTECHNICAL GUIDELINES & REGULATIONS SECTION: 1 GEOTECHNICAL GUIDELINES & REGULATIONS

1.2.15 Unconfined Compressive Strength (UCS) MN/m2 (Minimum of Two


Standard Angle of samples for each rock layer especially when pile foundation is used,
Static Cone
Relative Penetration Internal
Resistance enabling the structural designer for calculations of the socket friction
State of Density Resistance Friction
(qc) and end bearing). Table (1.4) indicates Rock Fracture State, Table (1.5)
Packing (N) (ø)
indicates Rock Strength Classification & Table (1.6) indicates Sandstone/
Tsf or Conglomerate Properties.
Percent Blows / ft Degrees
kgf/cm2
1.2.16 Pressure meter/dilatometer test, Fig. (1.4), must be done if the soil
Very Loose < 20 <4 < 20 < 30 stiffness values versus depths are required as and when soil stratum is
Loose 40 - 20 10 - 4 40 - 20 35 - 30 modelled using advanced material model through finite element analysis
Compact 60 - 40 30 - 10 120 - 40 40 - 35 of the geotechnical structure. Table (1.7) indicates Elastic Parameters for
Dense 80 - 60 50 - 30 200 - 120 45 - 40 Various Soils.
Very Dense > 80 > 50 > 200 > 45
1.2.17 Piezo Cone Penetration Test for reclaimed soil.

Table (1.1): Correlation between SPT Blows & Sand Relative Density
Conductor cable

Logger/Recorder
Cable Head

Head Reducer

Winch

Upper Geophone

Lower Geophone

Borehole Fluid

Fig. (1.3): Rock Core


Filter Tube

1.2.11 Soil identification, including Atterberg limits; sieve analysis; moisture


Source
content and sulfate content tests should be performed for each soil as
per the attached soil classification system in Table (1.2). Source Driver

1.2.12 c kN/m2 (cohesion of soil) and (angle of internal shearing resistance) Weight
by providing direct shear test (Minimum of Two Samples for each layer).
Overall Length
Correlations to be as per Table (1.3).
1.2.13 Unit weight of soil ( s) kN/m3 (above and below the ground water table).
Correlations to be as per Table (1.3). Concept illustrataion of P.S logging system
1.2.14 Active, passive, and at rest earth pressure coefficients (ka, kp, and ko).
Correlations to be as per Table (1.3). Fig. (1.4). Pressure meter / Dilatometer Test

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SECTION: 1 GEOTECHNICAL GUIDELINES & REGULATIONS SECTION: 1 GEOTECHNICAL GUIDELINES & REGULATIONS

Term RQD (%)


Very Poor 0 - 25
Poor 25 - 50
Fair 50 - 75
Good 75 -110
Excellent 90 -100

Table (1.4): Rock Fracture State

Uncon ned
Term compressive
strength(MN/m)
Very weak <1.25

Weak Gravel size lumps can be broken in half by heavy hand pressure. 1.25 to 5
Moderately weak 5 to 12.5
pressure
Moderately strong When held in the hand rock can be broken by hammer blows. 12.5 to 50

Low priority range Intermediate High Very High Extremely High Strong When resting on a solid surface, rock can be broken by hammer blows. 50 to 100
L I H V E Very strong Rock chipped by heavy hammer blows. 100 to 200

Extremely strong Rock rings on hammer blows. Only broken by sledgehammer. <200

Table (1.5): Rock Strength Classification


Plasticity index %

Parameters Sandstone Conglomerate


Dry Density (Mg/m 3 ) 1.35 to 1.83 3.14 to 5.15
0.81 to 3.18 1.50 to 1.63
Strength (MN/m2 )

Table (1.6): Sandstone / Conglomerate Properties


Liquid Limit, %
Reference: BS:5930.1999

Table (1.2): Soil Classification System Type of Soil Modulus of Elasticity (MN/m 3) Poisson's Ratio

Medium Loose Sand 10.35 - 24.15 0.20 - 0.40


Soil Parameters Loose to Dense to Engineered
Medium dense dense to very dense Medium Dense Sand 17.25 - 27.60 0.25 - 0.40
dense
Bulk Density (Mg/m 3 ) 1.6 1.8 1.9 2.0 Dense Sand 34.50 - 55.20 0.30 - 0.45
Submerged Density (Mg/m3 ) 0.6 0.8 0.9 1.0 Silty Sand 10.35 - 17.25 0.20 - 0.40
Internal Friction Phi (degrees) 25 - 30 30 - 35 35 - 40 > 40 Sand and Gravel 60.00 - 172.50 0.15 - 0.35

pressures Soft Clay 4.10 - 20.70


K0 0.58 - 0.50 0.50 - 0.43 0.43 - 0.36 0.36
Ka Medium Clay 20.70 - 41.40 0.20 - 0.50
0.44 - 0.33 0.33 - 0.27 0.33 - 0.22 0.22
Kp 2.46 - 3.00 3.00 - 3.60 3.00 - 4.50 4.50 41.40 - 96.60

Table (1.3): Soil Properties Correlations Table (1.7): Elastic Parameters for Various Soils

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SECTION: 1 GEOTECHNICAL GUIDELINES & REGULATIONS SECTION: 1 GEOTECHNICAL GUIDELINES & REGULATIONS

1.2.18 All equipments, materials and procedure associated with the - BS 1377: Part 3: 1990 (Amd. 9028/96) Cl. 5.2(Acid Extract) / (Water
geotechnical work should comply with the latest editions of relevant Extract). For Test Method: BS 1377: Part 3: 1990 (Amd./9028) Cl. 5.5
standards and codes of practice as listed: (Water Extract / Acid Extract). Sulphate Content of Soil: For Sample
Preparation.
- BS 5930: 1999 British Code of Practice for site investigation.
- BS 1377: Part 3: 1990 (Amd. 9028/96) Cl. 7.2.3 (Water Extract) /
- BS 8002-1994 British Code of Practice for Earth retaining structures
7.3.3 (Acid Extract). For Test Method: BS 1377: Part 3: 1990 (Amd.
- BS 6031-1981 British Code of Practice for Earth works 9028/96) Cl. 7.2 (Water Extract) / 7.3 (Acid Extract). Chloride
Content of Soil: For Sample Preparation.
- BS 8004-1986 British Code of Practice for Foundations
- BS 1377: Part 3: 1990 (Amd. 9028/96) Cl. 9.4. For Test Method: BS
- ASTM Volume 4.08 “Soil & Rock”, where applicable. 1377: Part 3: 1990 (Amd. 9028/96) Cl 9.5. pH of Soil: For Sample
- ASTM D 2938-95 for Unconfined Compressive Strength and sample Preparation.
comply with ASTM D 4543 – 08, Cl.3.1. - BS 1377: Part 3: 1990 (Amd. 9028/96) Cl. 5.4. For Test Method:
- BS 1377-1990 Methods of tests for Soils for civil engineering BS 1377: Part 3; 1990 (AMD. 9028/96) Cl. 5.5. Sulphate Content of
purposes Ground Water: For Sample Preparation.

- BS1377-9:1990, 3.3 for standard penetration test. - BS 1377: Part 3: 1990 (AMD. 9028/96) Cl. 5.4. For Test Method: BS
1377: Part 3 1990 (Amd. 9028/96) Cl. 7 (Mohr Method). Chloride
- BS 1377-9:1990, 4.1 for plate load test. Content of Ground Water: For Sample Preparation.
- BS 1377-9:1990, 2.1 and 2.2”, Core cutter methods “BS 1377- - BS 1377: Part 3: 1990. Gypsum Content.
9:1990, 2.4”, Water replacement method “BS 1377-9:1990, 2.3”,
Rubber ballon method “ASTM D 2167-08” and Nuclear methods - BS 1377: Part 3: 1990 (Amd. 9028/96) CI.9.4. Test Method: 8S
“BS 1377-9:1990, 2. For soils bulk densities, Sand replacement 1377: Part 3: 1990 (Amd. 9028/96) Cl. 9.5. pH of Ground Water: For
method “ Sample Preparation.
- BS 1377: Part 3: 1990, Cl.6 (Amd. 9028/96) - Determination of the
- BS 1377:1990 Part 3 AMD 9028/96 C l.5, Cl.7 & C1.9 for Chemical
Carbonate Content .
Analysis of Soil and Water.
- BS 1377 : Part 3 : 1990, Cl.3 (Amd. 9028/96) - Determination of the
- BS 1377:1990 Part 2 AMD 9027, Method 3 for moisture content.
Organic Matter Content. Table (1.8) is for Carbonate Classification
- BS 1377:1990 Part 1 Cl.7.3 AMD 8258/95 for Particle Size Analysis System
and BS 1377:1990 Part 2 Cl.9.2 AMD 9027/96 for test method.
- ASTM D 5731-02 - Determination of the Point Load Strength Index of
- BS 1377:1990 Part 2 AMD 9027, Method 4.3 for liquid limit for Rock
clayey soils.
- BS 1377: Part 7: 1990, Cl.4 (Amd.8262/94) - Determination of Shear
- BS 1377:1990 Part 2 AMD 9027, Method 5 for plastic limit and Strength by direct Shear (small shear box apparatus)
plasticity index for clayey soils. - ASTM D 2664-04 -Standard Test Method for Tri-axial Compressive
- BS 1377:1990 Part 2 Cl. 6.5.4 for linear shrinkage. Strength of Un-drained Rock Core Specimens without pore Pressure
Measurements.
- BS 1377: 1990 Part 4 Cl. 7 for CBR tests.
- ASTM D 3148-02 - Standard Test Method for Elastic modulii of intact
- BS 1377. Part 2: 1990 Method 8.3 for Specific Gravity (Particle rock core specimen in uni-axial compression.
Density). Method soil samples to be prepared according to BS
1377, Part 1 1990, clauses 7.3 & 7.4.4. - Where conflicts exist, the most stringent specification should be
applied.

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SECTION: 1 GEOTECHNICAL GUIDELINES & REGULATIONS SECTION: 1 GEOTECHNICAL GUIDELINES & REGULATIONS

INCREASING GRAIN SIZE OF PARTICULATE DEPOSITS 1.2.23 Presenting the ground or subsurface conditions and the geology of
0.002mm 0.06mm 2mm 60mm
the site through the findings of the boreholes giving full details of the
Carbonate MUD (carb. clay) Carbonate SILT Carbonate SAND Carbonate GRAVEL
90
Siliceous Carbonate
strata encountered on boreholes Logs having an accurate classification
Clayey Carbonate MUD Siliceous Carbonate Siliceous Carbonate
(carbonate clay) SILT SAND GRAVEL of the soils according to BS 5930:1999. The boreholes Logs must
50
Calcareous CLAY Calcareous Silica SILT Calcareous Silica SAND Calcareous Silica GRAVEL indicate the necessary figures that describing the relative density of the
10 coarsegrained-soils and the quality and the strength of rock such as:
CLAY Silica SILT Silica SAND Silica GRAVEL
CALCILUTITE(carb.mudstone) CALCISILTITE(carb.siltstone) CALCARENITE(carb.mudstone) CALCIRUDITE(carb.congl. or breccia)
90 • Standard Penetration Test (S.P.T) with cone or without. Fig. (1.2)
INCR EAS ING LITHIFICATION

TOTOAL CAR B ONATE CONTENT


Clayey CALCILUTITE Siliceous CALCILUTITE Siliceous CALCARENITE Siliceous CALCIRUDITE
• Water content (W.C.) for cohesive soils.
50

Calcareous CLAYSTONE Calcareous SILTSTONE Calcareous SANDSTONE Calcareous CONGOLOMERATE • Liquid Limit (L.L.) for cohesive soils.
10
CLAYSTONE SILTSTONE SANDSTONE CONGLOMERATE or BRECCIA • Plastic Limit (P.L.) for cohesive soils.
Fine grained LIMESTONE Detrital LIMESTONE 90
Fine grained Fine grained Siliceous Detrital
Conglomeratic LIMESTONE
• Unit weight of soil ( s) above and below the ground water table.
Argilaceous LIMESTONE Siliceous LIMESTONE LIMESTONE
50 Table (1.3).
Calcareous CLAYSTONE Calcareous SILTSTONE Calcareous SANDSTONE Calcareous CONGOLOMERATE
• Sieve analysis of soils.
10
CLAYSTONE SILTSTONE SANDSTONE CONGLOMERATE or BRECCIA
• Hydrometer analysis for soils having %fines greater than 10%.
CRYSTALLINE LIME STONE or MARBLE
50 • Free Swell (F.S.) for swelling soils.
Conventional metamorphic nomenclature applies in this section
• Rock Quality Designation (RQD) for rock soils. Table (1.4)
• Total and Solid Core Recovery (TCR & SCR) for rock soils. Fig. (1.3).
Approximate
Compressive
Uncontined

Very soft Hard to moderately strong strong to • Unconfined Compressive Strength (UCS) for rock soils. Table (1.6)
Strenth

to hard moderately weak to strong extremenly strong


(<36 to 300kn/m2) (0.3 to 12.5 MN/mn2) (12.5 to 100MN/m2) (70 to > 240MN/m2)
• Point load tests on rock samples.
• Pressure meter test. Fig (1.4)
induration
Degree of

Non-indurated Slightly indurated Moderately indurated Highly indurated


• And other any specialized tests that may be specified in theproject
specification including:

Table (1.8): Carbonate Classification System - Instrumented UCS tests to measure the small local modulus
and Poisson’s ratio. Table (1.7).

1.2.19 Performing engineering analysis of field and laboratory findings. - UU and CD tri-axial compression tests on soil and weakrock,
including instrumented tests for local modulus determination.
1.2.20 The visual description of the geotechnical engineer at site for soil Table (1.7).
samplesand procedures used for sampling, transportation and storage.
- Consolidation tests on cohesive soils.
1.2.21 Method of sampling the undisturbed, Split Spoon (for SPT) for disturbed
samples. Fig. (1.2). - Collapse potential tests on upper sand within the upper zone
of un-saturation.
1.2.22 Tabulation of quantities of field and laboratory work, presentation of
fieldobservations which were made by the supervising field personnel - Borehole Log must confirm scale, sample key, legend for type
during the subsurface explorations. of soil, ends of stratum and ground water table level.

22 23
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1.2.24 Stating the depths range at which the ground water table was

(kg/cm2)
encountered and to show if the ground water table is subjected to tidal 600
Sample No: NU1

weather seasonal variations or by artificial induced effects. Therefore


500 4
reconfirmation is recommended prior to any works related to the ground A = 8.5
water regime. Standpipe peizometers to be installed inside minimum 2

Stress on piston, pst


400
B c = 1.10
two boreholes for each site after drilling and cleaning of drilling mud by 300 0
1 2 4 6 8 10 (kg/cm2)
clean water flushing for monitoring the ground water depth.

(kg/cm2)
200
Sample No: NU2
1.2.25 Conducting a number of field permeability tests (Falling head for soil
100
and packer tests for consolidated and rock material) to measure the 4

conductivity of ground materials. 0


0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5
2 = 5.5
c = 1.90
0 0.1 0.2
1.2.26 Earth profile must be plotted using the findings of boreholes in different 0
1 2 4 6 8 10 (kg/cm2)
PENETRATION, INCHES
ground sections as per Fig. (1.5).
1.2.27 Mentioning all the field and laboratory tests achieved in details and
Fig. (1.6): Describing Soil Properties
illustrating the results properly as per Fig. (1.6).

BH.1
18.00m
BH.2
18.00m
BH.3
18.00m
BH.4
18.00m
BH.5
16.00m
BH.6
37.00m BH.7 1.2.28 Chemical analysis to study the possible susceptibility of foundation
GROUND FILL GROUND FILL GROUND FILL GROUND FILL GROUND FILL
concrete to aggressive in-situ conditions and corrosivity and thereby to
GROUND FILL
SAND SAND
SAND
determine the concrete mix specifications by determining pH, Sulphur
SAND SAND SAND SAND SAND
SAND
Trioxide and Chloride content of the soils and ground water. Minimum
SANDSTONE SANDSTONE SANDSTONE SANDSTONE
number to be considered should be three soil samples from above the
CONGLIMERATE CONGLIMERATE CONGLIMERATE
CONGLIMERATE
CONGLIMERATE ground water table, and three ground water samples for each plot.
CALCISILTITE CALCISILTITE CALCISILTITE CALCISILTITE CALCISILTITE

1.2.29 Recommendations for choice and the type of foundation based on the
geotechnical study carried out by the geotechnical engineer and the local
experience in the area.
BOREHOLE CROSS SECTION

Fig. (1.5). Earth Profile 1.2.30 Information about the seismicity of the area; Soil Profile Type to be
considered in the seismic analysis according to (Table 16-J) as per UBC
1997, Volume 2, ‘Structural Engineering Design Provisions’, Division IV
Compacation Curve 150
30 ZAV = zero air void curve peak = 4 3.4 ‘Earthquake Design’. Conduct a representative downhole / cross hole
(kN/m3)

(G 8 = 2.70)
25 Nonlinear seismic logging test(s), Fig. (1.7), for an appropriate number of boreholes
= 4 4 .6
S= 100 based on the area of the site and geologic variations, to measure the
Shear stress (k Pa)

20 = 9.8
Maz. Dry 100%
shear and primary seismic wave profiles and dynamic soil / rock
Dry Unit Weight,

15 Unit Weight 80% cv =3 6.2


10
70% 50 parameters. Table (1.9) is for UBC 1997 Soil Profile Class Estimation.
Measured
Optimum at varying
5
Moisture
moisture
contents 1.2.31 Liquefaction analysis in case of reclaimed soil: (CPTU is highly
opt 0
Content, w
0 0 50 100 150 200 recommended).
0 5 10 15 20 25
Water Content, w (%) Normal stress (k Pa) 1 mm = 0.03in
b) Shear strenghts envelopes 1 kPa = 0.145 lbf/in2

Fig. (1.6): Describing Soil Properties


(kg/cm2)

Sample No: NU1


600

24 25
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1.2.32 Cyclic stress ratio (CSR) induced in the soil due to earthquake shall be
Well estimated considering Richter Magnitude M=6.0, (Amplification Factor =
1.5) and ground motion parameters as follows:
Ground Surfaces
• UBC zone class: 2A, ground acceleration a=0.225g at ground level
or 0.15g at cap rock level.
• UBC zone class: 2B, ground acceleration a=0.275g at ground level

ve
or 0.2g at cap rock level.

t Wa
Direc
1.2.33 Calculation of cyclic resistance ratio (CRR, soil “strength”) based on
Lower Reciver
in-situ test data from SPT (Seed & Idriss) or CPT method (1996 NCEER
2m
workshop on Liquefaction Evaluation).
Downhole Hydrone
Upper Reciver 1.2.34 Evaluation of liquefaction potential by calculating the factor of safety
against liquefaction from the earthquake load and soil strength.
1.2.35 [F.S. = CRR/ (1.2-1.5) CSR]. There are a potential for liquefaction if the
F.S. less than unity, the layer is susceptible to liquefy and the ground
densification or mitigation measures are needed.
Fig. (1.7). Standard Down Hole Seismic
1.2.36 Estimation of liquefaction induced settlement.
Soil/Rock Shear Wave SPT UCT Range Soil
Description Velocity (m/s) Range (Kpa) Profile Type
Hard Rock 1500 - - SA 1.3 RECOMMENDATIONS TO BE INCLUDED IN THE SOIL INVESTIGATION
Rock 760 to 1500 - - SB
REPORT:
Very Dense SC
Soil & Soft Rock 360 to 760 > 50 100
1.3.1 EXCAVATION WORKS: Excavation works should be carried out in
180 to 360 15 to 50 50 to 100 SD
accordance with good construction practice and following BS 6031:2009
180 <15 50 SE
“Code of Practice for Earthworks”. Recommendations for excavation of
SF
rock for cases of deep excavations should be provided. Fig. (1.8).
SPT: Standard Penetration Test on Soil
22 23 q=100kps
21
31
50 30
20 33
c 19 90 3
18 Roack ArmourCole Maloe
In addition, the following other parameters can be considered: 8 16
1718 34
50 57 40 5040
35 36 38 37
7 9 10 11 14 15 27 52 5354 55
12 13 44 5050 51 4
vand C acan be considered with depending on the
25 18
48 26 484748 66 72 55 74 87
52 70 64
Seismic 64

Zone Factor (Z): 82 81


Swismic Zone Factor Z=0.15 7 Bedrock
SA SB SC SD SE
0.12 0.15 0.18 0.22 0.30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110
Ca
0.12 0.15 0.25 0.32 0.50 Fig. (1.8): Safe angle for open excavation
Cv

D a is 0.22 1.3.2 OPEN EXCAVATION AND PROTECTION: Where space permits and above
D is 0.32
the water table, sides of the excavation would be necessary to be battered.
Table (1.9): UBC 1997 Soil Profile Class Estimation The CIRIA Report No. 97 “Trenching Practice” recommends a maximum

26 27
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safe temporary slope of 35 degrees to the horizontal. Recommendations 1.3.5 DEWATERING: Care should be taken during dewatering to ensure
for the safe angle for open excavation in different related soil and / or that fines are not removed during pumping since this could result in
rock materials are to be provided, in accordance to related technical unpredicted settlements of the surrounding ground and associated
guidelines and local requirements. structures.
1.3.3 BACKFILL MATERIALS AND COMPACTION CRITERIA: The material used - Fig. (1.10) Indicates Surface Dewatering System (French Drains).
for backfilling purpose (Maximum 2.00 m thickness) shall be of selected
- Fig. (1.11) Indicates Well Point Dewatering System
fill composed of sand/granular mixture free from organic materials
or other deteriorates substances. The Plasticity Index of the backfill - Fig. (1.12) Indicates Deep Wells Dewatering System.
material shall not exceed 10%. The maximum particle size of backfill
- Fig. (1.13) Shows the Well Pit Details during running dewatering and
material shall not exceed 75m and the percentage passing 75m Sieve
after dewatering
shall not exceed 20%. The organic materials content should not exceed
2% and the water soluble salt content shall not exceed 5%. The backfill - Fig. (1.14) Indicates the Details of Dewatering Deep Well
materials shall be placed in layers of thickness 150mm to 250 mm and
to be compacted to not less than 95% of the maximum dry density.
The specialist must state whether the material available in site could
be used for general backfilling or not after performing the necessary 50-100 cm

analysis. Sand cone test may be carried out to determine the degree of
compaction while the plate load test (as per ASTM D1195/D1195M– 09)
also is an acceptable test where the bearing capacity corresponds to the
allowable settlement will be confirmed.

8 0 -1 0 0 o m
100-150 mmPVC Slotted Pipe
1.3.4 RETAINING STRUCTURES: The specialist must recommend the most
Geo Textile Wrap
preferable shoring system, Fig. (1.9), (if required) as well as the soil
parameters to be adopted for the design as per Table (1.3).

Step Walls Concrete Water


Seal above
Ground

Complicated
Ground Final Excavation Level

Deadman
and Helix
Brace Raker and
above Fixed Tieback Typical Section of French Drain System
Ground Length Anchor

Fig. (1.10): Surface Dewatering System (French Drains)


E-80
ah Cooper
av External Railroad
Force
Surcharge on Wall
and Lagging
Limited Embedment Earthquake Spacing
due to bedrock

Fig. (1.9): Shoring Systems

28 29
SECTION: 1 GEOTECHNICAL GUIDELINES & REGULATIONS SECTION: 1 GEOTECHNICAL GUIDELINES & REGULATIONS

Installation level

FLEXIBLE PIPE
Diaphragm wall shoring

Deep well
Installation level

Diaphragm wall shoring

Deep well
Anmored cable Discharge Hose
GROUND LEVEL

Deep well
Submersipie Pump

Anmored cable Discharge Hose


First Stage
PVC WELL POINT PLASTIC PIPE

Fig. (1.12):
Deep well
Discharge Deep Wells
to approved point Dewatering System
Submersipie Pump

First Stage

Discharge buried 30 cm below excavation level (if required).


AGGREGRATE AROUND
WELL POINT PIPE Trench
Discharge to approved point
WELL POINT PIPE

Final excavation level


FILTER OF

1 ME TER

Well pit

Discharge buried 30 cm below excavation level (if required).

Anmored cable Trench


Discharge hose
Final excavation level
Diaphram Wall
CONNECTION OF PVC WELL POINT PIPE Well pit
Deep well
Submersibia pump
TO THE STEEL HEADER PIPE Inner
Well Discharge
face

Anmored cable Final Stage


Discharge hose
Fig. (1.11): Well Point Dewatering System Diaphram Wall
Deep well
Submersibia pump
Inner
face Well Discharge

Final Stage

Fig. (1.12): Deep Wells Dewatering System

30 31
SECTION:
SECTION:11 GEOTECHNICAL GUIDELINES & REGULATIONS SECTION: 1 GEOTECHNICAL GUIDELINES & REGULATIONS

To Main Line Installation level


DEWATERING WELL
Flowmeter
Internal tube for
Platform
Well caslng( 400-450mm Dla)
RAFT Water Prooling RAFT
membrane Smooth External tube for
Bored hole(800-1000mm) Steel Tube
1600mm

Smooth Tube
Discharge from pump

R.c.c Tube of
Repression
pipe entry form Calibrate Filtration Gravel

Depth
deep well open 600mm Filter material(3/8 Aggregate)
Filing
block work
400mm
Internal tube for
P.C.C
Perforated
100mm Steel Tube
External tube for

PERFORMED TUBE
200mm 80mm Submersible pump
Excavation Excavation
TYPICAL WELL PIT
(Dewatering runing,well pit open) 800-800mm
W.T. W.T.
TYPICAL CROSS SECTION OF External Tube
DEEP WELL Well Toe & Tube
Stopper
Fig. (1.13): Well Pit Details (Running / Finished)

Fig. (1.14): Details of Dewatering Deep Well

TO MAIN LINE Installation level


Initial Water Table level
Raft Raft

Genaral P.c.c 1600mm

R.c.c
Deep Well Closed
600mm H
Fitting Final excavation level
Block Work
Final Water Table Level after drawdown

Drawdown curve
P.c.c
100MM h Level of water retalned in the well
80MM
200MM
WELL PIT DETAILS
hw

Fig. (1.14): Details of Dewatering Deep Well


Fig. (1.13): Well Pit Details (Closed)

32 33
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1.3.6 SHALLOW FOUNDATIONS


- The foundation level should be in compliance with the architectural
requirements. 1 PILE 2 PILE 3 PILE 4 PILE 5 PILE 6 PILE

- Net allowable bearing pressure to be determined considering


shallow foundations at the foundation level using practical
experience and the results obtained from the field standard
7 PILE 8 PILE 9 PILE 10 PILE
penetrations tests, the empirical equations developed by Terzhagi
- Peck/Merehof and modified by Bowles considering a proper FOS
against shear failure of the soil.
11 PILE 12 PILE 13 PILE
- Using the calculated allowable bearing pressure value, the total
settlement for isolated/strip footing and raft foundation shall be
within 25mm & 50mm respectively. The differential settlements
should be indicated.
14 PILE 15 PILE 16 PILE
- The proposed foundation recommendations must ensure that an
adequate safety factor against likely uplift pressure established Fig. (1.15): Piles Distribution
based on selected Design GW level is satisfactory to local authority
and / or project requirements particularly when basement floor(s) - The geotechnical report shall include an estimate of single pile vertical
exist. and lateral stiffness for the adopted pile cut off levels and penetration
depths. Lateral stiffness shall be based on cyclic conditions. The
- Modulus of sub-grade reaction ks (kN/m3) shall be indicated in the assessment of pile group effects on vertical and lateral stiffness shall
soil report when the raft foundation is recommended. be performed by the foundation design Engineer.
- The foundation ground must be proof rolled with vibratory - For bored cast-in-situ piles, settlements of the order of 1% of the pile
compactor to confirm that any loose materials are compacted to not diameter is normally required to mobilize full skin friction whereas
less than 95% of the maximum dry density obtained by performing full bearing is developed at much higher settlements (usually at 10%
modified Procktor test. of pile diameter). Therefore, it is recommended that the pile capacity
- The specialist should confirm in writing that the undesirable shall be based on full skin friction and partial end bearing.
materials have been removed, the foundation ground has been - Where the borehole depth is not satisfactory for the design,
inspected and the recommended bearing capacity corresponding to additional boreholes should be carried out to the required depth to
the foundation depth is properly achieved. reconfirm the continuity of the strata. Fig. (1.15): Piles Distribution

1.3.7 PILE FOUNDATIONS 1.3.8 FOUNDATION CONCRETE


- The soil report should propose the suitable type of pile to be Concrete mix design should consider strictly the chemical analysis data
used, the allowable working loads in compression and tension for both soil and water and to be in line with Trakhees Construction
considering minimum factor of safety of 2.5. Piles spacing should Materials Quality Control Guidelines.
be recommended in the piling recommendations Minimum 2.5 the
pile diameter, Fig. (1.15). It should be noted that the minimum pile
1.3.9 LIQUIFACTION:
toe level should be at least at depth of two times the diameter of
pile socketed in the hard strata in order to consider this strata in The likely liquefaction induced effects are:
the design. - Settlement.

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- Surface manifestation.
- Lateral spreading or land sliding.
- Loss of bearing capacity for shallow foundation.
- Loss of lateral soil stiffness

1.4 SOIL IMPROVEMENT GUIDELINES


1.4.1 Soil liquefaction improvement techniques may be characterized as POUNDER

densification, drainage, reinforcement, mixing, replacement, Vibro


Compaction, Vibro replacement (Vibro Stone Columns), deep dynamic PATH # 2 1 2 1 2 1
compaction and compaction jet grouting.
WORK PLATFORM
• Wick drains, Fig. (1.16), are also an accepted technique whenever
a permanent dewatering is provided. However, the use of this COMPACTED SOIL LOOSE SOIL
technique should be evaluated with extreme caution.
• Fig. (1.17) Shows the method statement of the dynamic compaction FIRM BASE
and in Fig. (1.18) Comparison between dynamic and vibro
compaction is presented with respect to tip resistance along depth.
Fig. (1.17): Method Statement of Dynamic Compaction

DYNAMIC COMPACTION VIBRO COMPACTION

HYWARD
BAKER

0 5 10 15 20 25 30 0 5 10 15 20 25 30
0
0 2
2 4
4 6
6
8 8
10 10
12 12
14 14
16
16 18
18 20
20

Fig. (1.18): Comparison between Dynamic & Vibro Compaction

Fig. (1.16): Wick Drains Technique


36 37
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• Range of soil (particle size-sieve analysis) suitable for vibratory


Controlled Modulus Coloumns
techniques are zoned in Fig. (1.19) Indicating the best improvement Stone Columns Dynaminc Replacement
technique suitable for such soil. Fig. (1.20) Shows the most suitable +
Preload
techniques for both cohesive and granular soils.
• The prices per cubic meters of the treated soil with respect to
depth for surface compaction, dynamic compaction and deep vibro
compaction are presented in Fig. (1.21) to ease the decision for the
+25-36 in +80-100 in
proposed improvement technique with respect to cost for granular
soils COHESIVE SOILS: Clays, Sites, Peats

Range of soils suitable for vibratory techniques


Dynamic Compression
100%

90%

80%

70% Compressive Soil


60%

50%
D C B A
40%
GRANULAR SOILS: Gravel, Sand, Fill
30%

20% Fig. (1.20): The Most Suitable Improvement Techniques for both
10% Cohesive and Granular soils
0%
0.001 0.01 0.1 1 10 100 1000
Particle size (mm)
Price per
0 m3 treated soil
Zone A: The soils of this zone are very well compactable.
2
The right borderline indicates an empirically found limit
where the amount of cobbles and boulders prevents HEIC
4 (Impact Roller)
compaction because the vibroprobe cannot reach the
compaction depth. DC
6 (Weight Dropping)
Zone B: The soils in this zone are suited for Vibro Compaction. Vibro Compaction
They have a fines content of less than 10%. 8 (Depth Vibrator)

Zone C: Compaction is only possible by adding suitable back-


10
fill (Material from zones A or B) from the surface (stone
columns or sand columns). Treatment
Depth [m]
Zone D: Stone columns are a solution for a foundation in these
soils. There is a resulting increase in bearing capacity
and reduction on total and differential Fig. (1.21): Cost Comparison for the Different Improvement
Techniques for Granular Soils
Fig. (1.19): Range of Soils Suitable for Vibratory Techniques

38 39
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1.4.1.a Deep Compaction (Vibro Compaction)


The Vibro Compaction technique, Fig. (1.22), is most suitable
for medium to coarse grained Sand with less than 10 % material Penetration
finer than 63 m and clay content (particle size less than 0.002 The vibroprobe penetrates to the required
depth by vibration and jetting action of water
mm) of less than 2%. Cohesive soils consisting of silt and clay and/or air from bottom nozzle jets.
material do not respond to vibratory compaction. The range of
soils suitable for a vibratory technique is shown on, Fig. (1.19).

Compaction
The vibroprobe is retracted from the
maximum depth in approximately 0.5m
(V23) to 1m (V48) intervals. The in situ sand
Follow up
tube
Coupling

Electric Motor

The compaction is achieved either with


Bearing

Eccentric

Nose Cone
Fig. (1.23): Deep Compaction (Vibro Compaction)
Method Statement
48 mm amplitude

Penetration Compaction 1.4.1.b Dynamic Compaction


Dynamic compaction, Fig. (1.24), involves lifting and dropping
Fig. (1.22): Deep Compaction (Vibro Compaction) Technique a heavy weight several times in one place. The process is
repeated on a grid pattern across the site. Trials indicate that
the masses in the range 5 to 10 tones and drops in the range 5
to 10m are effective for compacting loose sand.
• The Vibro Compaction can increase the in situ density.
Increase in soil density is achieved through compaction
by an applied static or dynamic stress. The advantage of
Vibro compaction is to mitigate liquefaction for depths
up to 20.00m.
• The compaction pattern shall be proposed on a triangular h
pattern with maximum grid dimensions of (3.00 – 5.00)
m or as recommended by the specialist. Smaller spacing m
may be tried in case of not reaching the specific test
result. The re-compaction may be required in case of
where compaction criteria have not achieved. Fig. (1.23)
shows the vibro- compaction method statement.
Fig. (1.24): Dynamic Compaction Technique

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1.4.1.c Soil Replacement


Vibro-Replacement Stone Columns: Vibro-replacement stone
columns, Fig. (1.25), improve the resistance of cohesionless
soils to liquefaction by several mechanisms. The primary
mechanism of treatment is the densification of the native soil.
Secondary benefits may also come from the reinforcing effects
of the stone columns (e.g.,. they are usually stiffer than the
surrounding soil), an increase in the in-situ horizontal stress
(e.g., due to the packing of stone in the column), and the
drainage of earthquakeinduced pore water pressures through
the stone columns.
Vibro-displacement method uses compressed air to displace
the soil laterally as a probe is advanced through the weak
strata. Backfill is placed in to the hole in stages as the probe is
incrementally withdrawn and lowered again to compact the fill.
This process, also known as the ‘dry method’, forms a stone
column. The columns are typically smaller in diameter than the Fig. (1.26): Deep Mixing (Soil Mixing) Technique
‘wet’ method and are used in the stiffer soils.
Typically, the reagent is delivered in a slurry form (i.e. combined
with water), although dry delivery is also possible. Depending
on the soil to be mixed, the volume of slurry necessary ranges
from 20 to 30 percent by volume. Can be a variety of materials
including: Cement (Type I through V), Fly ash, Ground Blast
Furnace Slag, Lime, Additives.
No single tool will be the best for all soil types and, for this
reason, mix tools are often developed for individual projects.
Considerations include: soil type and available turning
equipment, often designed for particular site conditions, size
ranges from 1.6 to 11.5-ft diameter, can be a combination of
partial flighting, mix blades, injection ports and nozzles, and
Fig. (1.25): Vibro-replacement Stone Columns Technique shear blades. The in situ injection and mixing of cement into
weak soils is becoming more common. Recent applications
1.4.1.d Soil Mixing include liquefactionmitigation and the strengthening of weak
cohesive soils adjacent to embankments, levees and bridge
Soil Mixing, also known as the Deep Mixing Method, Fig.(1.26),
abutments.
is the mechanical blending of the in situ soil with cementitious
materials (reagent binder) using a hollow stem auger and 1.4.1.e Grouting
paddle arrangement. The intent of the soil mixing program is
to achieve improved character, generally a design compressive Grouting can stiffen and strengthen the soil layer by increasing
strength or shear strength and/or permeability. Soil mixing its density, increasing the lateral stresses, and acting as
can also be used to immobilize and/or fixate contaminants as reinforcement. Grouting may also be used to produce controlled
well as a treatment system for chemical reduction to a more heaving of the ground surface to re-level a structure that has
‘friendly’ substrate. been damaged by differential settlements.

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There are different procedures or methods of grouting, Fig. Cement Grouting, Fig. (1.29), also known as Slurry Grouting, is
(1.27), that can be classified as; permeation (cement or the intrusion under pressure of flowable particulate grouts into
chemical injection) grouting, compaction grouting, jet grouting. open cracks and voids and expanded fractures. Slurry Grout
Materials may be Cement, Clay (Bentonite), Sand, Additives,
Microfine Cement, Fly Ash, Lime and Water

Upper Water/
Air jet

Lower Grout
jet

Hydrofracture Grouting Compoction Grouting Permeation Grouting Jet Grouting


(intrusion/Spliting) (Displacement) (Flow into (Portial Replacement/
Existing Pores) Mix in Place)

Fig. (1.27): Different procedures of Grouting Techniques

1.4.1.f Permeation Grouting


Structural chemical grouting is the permeation of sands with
fluid grouts to produce sandstone like masses to carry loads. Fig. (1.29): Cement Grouting (Slurry Grouting) Technique
Water control chemical grouting is the permeation of sands
with fluid grouts to completely fill void to control water flow. 1.4.1.g Compaction Grouting
Permeation grouting, Fig. (1.28) can be used for lagging
operation, support of footing, grouted tunnel support, grouted Compaction Grouting is the injection under relatively high pressure of
cut-off wall and grouted pipeline support. a very stiff, “zero slump” mortar grout to displace and compact soils in
place. The monitored injection of very stiff grout into a loose sandy soil
results in the controlled growth of a grout bulb mass that displaces the
surrounding soils as per Fig. (1.30). This action increases lateral earth
pressures and compacts the soil, thereby increasing its resistance to
liquefaction.

For Lagging Operation Support of Footing Grouted Tunnel Support

Loose Stratum Loose Stratum Loose Stratum

Firm to medium Stratum Firm to medium Stratum Firm to medium Stratum


Pit Excavation Below Grouted Pipeline Support
Water
Fig. (1.30): Compaction Grouting Technique
Fig. (1.28): Permeation Grouting Technique

44 45
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1.4.1.h Jet-Grout The parameters to be used will be designed and checked with
trial columns prior to start of the works. With jet grouting, it
Jet-grout is the form of jet-grout column “soil-crete pile” by
is possible to treat a broad range of grounds, consisting of
drilling a hole specified with its length in the relevant design
different type clays, loose sands and to overcome the drawbacks
and then by jetting with proper mixing and pumping equipment
of the other injection systems. It is a valid alternative to other
with the jetting parameters to achieve designed diameter.
consolidation systems such as dewatering, micro-piles, stone
Using a drilling rig holes between 400 to 700 mm diameters columns etc.
will be drilled down to required column depth. The drilling
can be carried out by traditional rotary or rotary percussive 1.4.2 SAFETY AGAINST LIQUEFACTION
methods. And then jetting will be done while dragging the drill
The hydraulic fill, loose, fine and saturated sands may subject to
set at a specified drag and revolution speed.
liquefaction (significant loss of strength due to buildup pore water
The rig must be equipped with automatically adjustable drag pressure and subsequent deformation in some locations under the cyclic
and revolution speed controls. The jetting takes place at the loading of earthquakes).
bottom of the drilling set at the special tool named “monitor”
To mitigate liquefaction hazards, soil improvement is required and its
with one or two nozzles the diameter of which is from 1.5 mm
efficiency shall be ensured from CPT readings pre and post-tests, (ASTM D
to 3.0 mm depending on the design parameters. The cement-
5778 or BS 1377: Part 9: Test 3.1 Amd 8264-95 and SSMFE test Procedure
water mix ejects from these nozzles at minimum pressure of
for Cone Penetration Test (IRTP) - 1989 and updated 1997). The pre CPT
300 bars with 250 m/s jet speed.
shall be carried out every 900 m2 maximum or as per project specs and
Dragging the drilling set upwards with a pre-set dragging the results to be compared with the post compaction CPT results for the
rate while jetting is continued causes to destroy the natural same area as per Fig. (1.31). The locations of post CPTs shall be selected
structure of the soil and then mix the soil with cement-water at the central points and/or at one third the maximum distance between
mix at very high pressure therefore forms a jet-grout column the improved points. Proper weighted average for near and far tested
as per Fig. (1.31). points should be considered.
For deep foundations, the achievement of 6.0 MPa (Seismic Zone: 2A) and
8 MPa (Seismic Zone 2B) weighted average of the tip resistance profile
for the post compaction CPT is an accepted criterion of the compaction
efficiency.
For shallow foundations, one plate load test/structure to be carried
out (as per ASTM D1194 – 94). The criteria of acceptance shall be the
achieving of targeted bearing pressure of 150 kPa corresponds to
maximum settlement of 25 mm and maximum distortion of 1:500.

Fig. (1.31): Jet Grouting Technique

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SECTION: 1 GEOTECHNICAL GUIDELINES & REGULATIONS SECTION: 1 GEOTECHNICAL GUIDELINES & REGULATIONS

For CPT-Based liquefaction analysis, soil profiling according to Robertson


1996, or similar method shall be performed to highlight localities of high
fines content.
Level survey (before & after improvement) shall be submitted along with
soil improvement tests result report for CED approval.

1.4.4 EVALUATION OF LIKELY LIQUEFACTION INDUCED HAZARDS


“Special Publication 117, GUIDELINES FOR EVALUATING AND MITIGATING
SEISMIC HAZARDS IN CALIFORNIA”, adopted on March 1997 by the State
Mining and Geology Board.
The evaluation of likely liquefaction hazard shall be carried out by
competent and qualified geotechnical Engineer. The evaluation shall be
based on the results of adequate number of filed tests (preferably CPTU).
Wherever, the analysis indicates significant liquefiable zones, and then
the site or part of it shall be recommended for further deep compaction.
Wherever, minor, localized liquefiable zones within limited depth were
indicated, and then it is important to assess the likely induced effects
such as:
a) Liquefaction induced settlement of surface foun dations,
b) Surface Manifestation,
Fig. (1.32): Cone Penetration Test Readings c) Loss of bearing strength of surface foundations,
d) Loss of lateral stiffness of piles,
1.4.3 CALCULATION THEORY:
e) Effects on life lines,
Cyclic stress ratio (CSR) induced in the soil due to earthquake shall be
f) Any other influences…
estimated as per clause 1.2.32. Cyclic resistance ratio (CRR) induced in
the soil shall be estimated as per clause 1.2.33.
1.4.4.a Settlement:
Liquefaction potential shall be evaluated by calculating the factor
If shallow footings exist and no improvement has done,
of safety against liquefaction for specific earthquake load and soil
differential settlement more than the maximum liquefaction
strength. (F.S. = CRR / [(1.2-1.5) CSR). The accepted factor of safety
induced settlement should be expected and considered.
against liquefaction shall be more than unity.
Recommended Procedures for Implementation of DMG Special 1.4.4.b Surface manifestation:
Publication – 117 Guidelines for Analyzing and Mitigating Liquefaction
Surface manifestation such as sand boils or ground fissure
Hazards in California. Implementation Committee, March 1999-
may be occurred during earthquake shaking emphasising that
“Preliminary screening of Liquefaction”
ground settlement have already takes place noting that the
The ground water table adopted by the designer for liquefaction analysis settlement may be occurred even with the absence of surface
shall consider the surrounding site conditions. manifestation. The evaluation of the potential for ground

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cracking and sand boils (Ishihara, 1985) is based on the not pause a threat to the personnel working on site or cause any damage to
thickness of the potentially liquefiable layer and the thickness nearby existing buildings or roads. Fig. (1.33) shows the method statement
of the non-liquefiable crust. for contiguous, secant and soldier piles shoring systems.

1.4.4.c Loss of bearing capacity for shallow foundation:


As per the Implementation Committee, the loss of bearing
Augering of Borehole
capacity may be significantly occurred if the induced vertical Installation of Casing Concreting of Borehole
stresses on liquefiable layer located at certain depth exceeds
10% of the bearing pressure imposed by the foundation. There
is no recognized analytical method to evaluate the loss of
bearing capacity at this time.
The Committee recommends that Ishihara’s method of surface
manifestation analysis to be used for shallow foundations.

1.4.4.d Loss of lateral soil stiffness:


Loss of lateral soil stiffness has a greater impact on the design
of piling and shoring works. The negative skin friction for the
untreated fill layer shall be considered in determination of
Fig. (1.33-a). Contiguous Piles Shoring System
the pile capacity. The pile shall be considered unconstrained
along the untreated layer in both vertical and lateral analysis.
Lateral load to be considered due to ground motion from an
earthquake of a=0.225g at ground level or 0.15g at cap rock
level.
Augering of Secondary Borehole
Installation of Casing Concreting of Secondary Borehole
1.4.4.e Lateral spreading or land sliding:
Such spreads can occur on gently sloping ground or where
nearby drainage or stream channel can lead to static shear
biases on essentially horizontal ground (Youd, 1995).
Construction
of Guide wall

1.4.5 LATERAL EXTEND OF GROUND IMPROVEMENT


To mitigate the liquefaction hazards, the treatment of the fill material
shall be extended laterally by two-thirds the liquefiable layer thickness
beyond the whole building foundation limits, (Lai 1988).
Fig. (1.33-b): Secant Piles Shoring System

1.5 SHORING GUIDELINES


a) For neighbouring shallow foundation or for excavations deeper than 1.50
m, suitable side protection have to be ensured so that the excavation shall

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c) The shoring works should be designed as a rigid vertical system subjected


to the earth, water pressures and support reactions taking into account the
staged construction.
d) The maximum retained height is 15.00 m (BS 8002: 1994, Section 1.1).
Advice from the shoring works specialist is required in case of excavation
depth of 15.00 m is required.
e) The excavation and support systems should be designed to ensure that
the settlement or lateral yield of the surrounding ground surface is within
acceptable limits particularly where the excavation adjoins roads where
drainage, electricity services are located. The maximum lateral displacement
permitted for the shoring systems is 40 mm.
f) The minimum surcharge load is 15 kN/m2 and value of 15 kN/m2 should
be added for each neighbouring existing plot floor when the neighbouring
foundation is a raft. Traffic surcharge load to be considered 20 kN/m2 at
roads sides.

Fig. (1.33-c) Soldier Piles Shoring System g) Cantilever shoring systems are suitable for moderate height only. The
Method Statement for Different types of Shoring Systems maximum height of such sheet pile cantilever walls is 5.00 m. (BS 8002:
1994, Section 4.4.2.).
h) Minimum factor of safety of fixation and embedded depth should be taken
b) Structural bending moments, shear forces and prop or tie forces should as 2.00.
be derived from the equilibrium calculations using design earth pressures i) Bored piles contiguous or secant piles are very preferable when the shoring
and water pressures. The ultimate limit state and serviceability limit works is closed to an existing foundation. Difference of water levels in front
state should be the same as those used for the overall equilibrium and and back to shoring system should be taken into consideration in case of
deformation calculations. All Stages of constructions to be studied as per secant piles, sheet pile wall or diaphragm wall after dewatering.
Fig. (1.34).
j) Maximum spacing between soldier piles is 2.50 m and maximum spacing
between tie back anchors is 4.00 m.

NITALE PHASE PHASE 1 PHASE 2 PHASE 3


k) The design earth pressure are derived from design soil strengths using the
usual methods of elasto-plastic behaviour, with earth pressure coefficients
given in BS 8002 : 1994, Section 1.3.9.
l) In checking the stable equilibrium and soil deformation, retaining walls
should be designed assuming a depth of unplanned excavation in front of
the wall not less than 10 % of the total height retained for cantilever walls
or of the height retained below the lowest support level for propped or
anchored walls. The minimum unplanned depth is 0.50 m ((BS 8002: 1994,
Section 3.2.2.2).
Fig. (1.34): Shoring Stages of Construction
m) The long term analysis is likely to be critical where the soil mass undergoes
a net reduction in load as a result of excavation, such as adjacent to a
cantilever wall. For granular soils, the relative strength is always the drained
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strength and the earth pressure is always in terms of effective stresses. (BS
63mm HDPE
8002: 1994, Section 3.2.3)
ANCHOR HOLE
n) Concrete and reinforcement should conform to the requirements of BS
GROUT
8004, BS 8110-1 or BS 5400-4, BS 5400-7 and BS 5400-8. The mix should 0.6” ANCHOR STRAND
be designed to provide the necessary structural strength and the flow 2. GROUT HOSE
requirements to ensure adequate compaction and continuity. Special 1. GROUT HOSE
methods of placement, for example by tremie tube should be taken into
account. (Silwinski Z. and Fleming W.G.K, 1974.)
o) Where props or anchors are used, wailing beams should be provided along AA - Cross Section
the face of the wall at this lateral support level to unify shoring behaviour. (unscaled)
The wailing beam may be designed as horizontally spanned steel beams.
The gaps occurred in between the individual piles and the wailing beams ANCHOR HOLE
due to irregularities or deviations from true verticality and position of
individual piles should be wedged or in filled. 1. GROUT HOSE
2. GROUT HOSE
p) Wherever ground anchorages are used (Fig. (1.35)), in-situ acceptance tests
shall be carried out prior to anchor stressing and locking, Fig. (1.36), in GROUT
accordance to BS 8081: 1989. A qualified 3rd party consultant / laboratory
shall witness the tests and issue an independent report of the tests results 0.6” ANCHOR STRAND
ANCHOR SEPARATOR
and conclusions.
BB - Cross Section
(unscaled)
ES
EDG
AD, W
TE, HE
HOR
PLA Fig. (1.35): Tie Back Anchors Method Statement
ANC
A

2nd grout hose


ANCHOR CENTRALIZER

ANCHOR HOLE

ANCHOR CENTRALIZER 1st grout hose


A

ANCHOR SEPARATOR
B

GROUT Anchor seperator ge)


(chan
SEAL GHT
E LEN
HOR FRE
ANC
0.6 INCH STRAND
B

HT
LENG
UND
HOR BO
ANC

Fig. (1.35): Tie Back Anchors Method Statement

Fig. (1.36): Tie Back Anchors Stressing Testing

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q) Guide wall should be used to improve the lateral tolerance of the shoring e) Piles shall be designed with a minimum safety factor of 2.5.
systems execution.
f) Uplift capacity of single pile is normally less than the friction capacity
r) Loose- to medium – dense sands may undergo liquefaction during an in compression (Poisson’s effect), and hence shall be taken not
earthquake. The depth of potential liquefaction should be assessed for the greater than 0.7 of the friction capacity estimated for compressive
earthquake conciliations appropriate to the site. It may be necessary to capacity.
carry the foundation of the retaining wall below the liquefaction zone, or
g) Considering horizontal force and bending moment resulting from out
compact the soil within the zone using deep vibro compaction (Seed H.B.
of position by 75 mm in horizontal direction at working level, and
et al (1983) and Ishihara (1993). BS 8002: 1994, Section 3.3.4.4.
out of the plump (verticality) by 1:75 according to BS 8004: 1986,
s) In shallow excavations or structures built adjacent to a tidal waterfront area, Section 7.1 and 7.4.5.4.8. Where the pile head is fully restrained
piping or uplift may occur due to water pressure differences generated by by tie beams, pile caps or raft, the contribution of the restraining
tidal action. Structures should be checked against instability from these system shall be considered to the favour of pile design.
causes.
h) Considering lateral load acting on pile as resulted from super
t) The normal tolerances in the formation of close bored pile walls should structure analysis and shall be in the order of 5 % of the pile capacity
be maximum 1 in 75 to 1 in 100 for verticality and 50 mm for lateral plan at least.
tolerances measured at right angles to the line of the wall. (BS 8002: 1994,
i) Elastic analysis to obtain the lateral straining actions using (Reese
Section 4.4.7.5.1)
& Matlock).
u) The required verticality tolerance for secant piles is normally of the order
j) The stirrups of the pile shall be checked according to Table 3.8 of
of 1:200 and for positional tolerances of the order of 25 mm, where walls
BS 8110, Part 1: 1997 and shall not be closer than 150 mm centres
have to be constructed in close proximity to other structures. (BS 8002:
to ensure proper placing of concrete as per BS 8004 : 1986, Section
1994, Section 4.4.7.5.1)
7.4.4.4.2.
v) The safety and stability of nearby buildings and service should not be put
k) The length of steel bars anchored to the foundation to be according
at risk.
to Table 3.27 of BS 8110, Part 1: 1997.
l) To prevent ingress of water and aggressive ground water from
1.6 DESIGN GUIDELINES FOR BUILDING PILES penetrating the concrete, the design shall be carried out as per BS
1.6.1 DESIGN CRITERIA FOR PILING WORKS 8102 Type B using BS 8007 considering 0.20 mm crack width. Crack
width for pure tension piles resisting uplift forces shall be limited to
a) The permissible service stress should not exceed 25% of the 0.10 mm.
specified cube strength at 28 days as per BS 8004 : 1986, Section
7.4.4.3.1 m) Settlement calculations under the working loads to be provided. The
expected value to be within 1% of the pile diameter.
b) The ultimate axial load should not exceed the value of “N” given in
BS 8110, Part 1 : 1997, Section 3.8.4.3 n) Assessment of pile group settlement shall be carried out by the
foundation design Engineer and shall be compared to acceptance
c) The min. percentage of reinforcement for piles shall be 1% of the limits adopted for the project.
gross section area.
o) Pile skin friction in sand should be reduced by 50 % in case of using
d) Pile bearing capacity calculations as per (Tomlinson’s Pile Design bentonite as drilling slurry.
and Construction Practice) as advised by BS 8004: 1986, Section
p) For friction piles the spacing should be not less than three times
4.5.3. The different types of soil and the nature of shaft resistance
the pile diameter, and not less than twice the pile diameter for end
when using bentonite, water or full length casing shall be taken into
bearing piles as per BS 8004: 1986, Section 7.3.4.2. Piles spacing is
consideration. Negative skin friction should be added to the applied
recomended to be minimum 2.5 times the pile diameter.
load in case of piles penetrating reclaimed soil.
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q) For tension piles designed to resist the uplift forces or end


bearing piles installed from ground level until deep bedrock, the
reinforcement should normally be carried down for the full length.
According to BS 8004 : 1986, Section 7.4.5.3.2
r) The longitudinal reinforcement should extend at least 1.00 m below
the bottom of casing so that movement of the reinforcement during
extraction of casing is minimized. BS 8004 : 1986, Section 7.4.5.4.5
1. Install temporary casing concentric with 2. Drill to the required depth 3. Lower the rebar cage inside
the pile points. the drilled borehole.
s) A minimum additional allowance of 40 mm should be added to
concrete cover recommended in Table 3.4 of BS 8110, Part 1: 1997.
t) Cover spacers may be of pre-formed plastic to be used for the pile.
The spacers should be threaded to lateral stirrups and should be
spaced of not more than 2.0 m with minimum of three to be placed
in each row. One set should be fixed at the pile cut-off level and one
at approximately 1.0 meter from the toe of the cage. Guide casing

u) For top layers composed of reclaimed/very loose untreated sand,


end bearing in addition to skin friction resistance within the rock 4. Concreting using concrete pump
and tremie pipe
5. Withdraw the guide casing. 6.Completed pile.

socketed length only shall be considered. Lateral spreading forces,


negative skin friction as well as actual reduced lateral stiffness of
pile due to buckling should be investigated.
Fig. (1.37) shows the method statement for continuous flight auger piling
Fig. (1.38): Method Statement for Drilled Bored Piles
as well as the drilled bored piles.

1.6.2 POINTS TO BE CHECKED DURING CONSTRUCTION, FIGS. (1.38 & 1.39)


a) If betonite slurry is used, the density should be less than 1.10 g/mL.
The viscosity as measured by the Marsh Cone should be within a
range of 30 to 90 seconds, and the 10 min. gel strength to be in the
range of 1.4 N/m2 to 10 N/m2. The pH value should be maintained
within a range of 9.5 to 12. BS8004: 1986, Section 6.5.3.8.1.
1 Augering
b) The geophysical properties of the bentonite slurry should be re-
established prior to the commencement of concreting operation. A
submersible and circulation pumping system or air lifting system
may be utilized for this purpose.
c) If extensive bentonite slurry loss occurs during drilling, the drilling
2 Extracting of Auger 3 Installing of Drilled Bored Piles will be stopped immediately. The bore will be backfilled with the
Flights and Injection Steel Reign- excavated material in order to create a plug surrounding the pile
of Cement Mortar forcement
shaft. Re-drilling will then take place. If further fluid loss or shaft
Continuous Flight Auger Piling collapse occurs, the bore will be immediately backfilled with low
strength, lean mix concrete prior to any further excavation taking
Fig. (1.37): Method Statement for Different Types of Bored Piles
place.

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SECTION: 1 GEOTECHNICAL GUIDELINES & REGULATIONS SECTION: 1 GEOTECHNICAL GUIDELINES & REGULATIONS

d) Before Installing steal cage and casting concrete when reaching load. ASTM D 4945-89.
the pile toe level, loose and remolded material and debris will be
d) 10% of the total number of working piles shall be tested using cross-
removed with the drilling or cleaning bucket.
hole sonic core logging test method for piles of diameter equal or
e) High slump concrete of specified grade should be used according to more than 600mm. ASTM D 6760-08.
Table 14 of BS 8004 : 1986
e) 100 % of working piles shall be tested by using low strain dynamic
f) For a continuous assurance of concrete quality and integrity, integrity test and shall be repeated for piles statically tested. ASTM
concrete should be poured to minimum 1.50 m above the theoretical D 5882-07.
pile cut-off level.
f) The following procedure shall be followed for particular tests
g) Casting of piles shall be performed as a continuous operation. The whenever are required by the project specification or design
concrete should be designed to remain workable for a minimum of conditions:
three hours from the time of the batching to the time of placement
- Pile instrumentation test should be performed on tested pile(s).
into the pile.
The test shall be performed at the time of static load test for
h) The concrete shall be placed by tremie tube method; the tube piles of diameters 1000 mm or more.
diameter. shall not be less than 150 mm. The tube shall be inserted
- Static laterally loaded piles test should be conducted where the
at the centre of the pile to reach the toe. The top shall be connected
lateral loads governing the design.
to a funnel. The concrete shall be delivered directly from the transit
mixer to the funnel. The tube to be lifted 100 mm above pile toe - Static tension pile test should be conducted where tension
level prior to concreting. While concreting, the length of the tube to piles are used to resist uplift.
be shortened if necessary but shall be maintained always into the
- 10 % of working piles boreholes and all preliminary & statically
concrete of at least 2.0 m length.
tested working piles are to be selected randomly and tested by
i) Continuous supervision on site by engineer and the contractor is mechanical calliper logging (ASTM D 6167 – 11 & ASTM D 5753
always necessary to ensure that the piles are properly executed. – 95e1).
j) Care to be taken to ensure that there will be no displacement or - Steel reinforcement and concrete strength and durability shall
distortion of reinforcement during the formation of the pile. be tested as per QC Guidelines.

1.6.3 PILES TESTING


Piles testing shall conform to the following minimum requirements:
a) At least one for each pile diameter, non-working pile shall be tested,
to 200% of the pile’s working load. BS 8004:1986, Section 7.5.5 or
ASTM D 1143/1143M. Osterberg cell can be accepted only in the
preliminary test.
b) 1 % of the total number of working piles and minimum one test for
each pile diameter/type shall be statically tested to not less than
150 % of the pile’s working load, BS 8004:1986, Section 7.5.5 or
ASTM D 1143-89.
c) 5 % of the total number of working piles shall be tested using high
strain dynamic method to not less than 150 % of the pile’s working

60 61
STRUCTURAL DESIGN
GUIDELINES - BUILDING
STRUCTURES
02
SECTION

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SECTION
2 STRUCTURAL DESIGN GUIDELINES – BUILDING STRUCTURES SECTION: 2 STRUCTURAL DESIGN GUIDELINES – BUILDING STRUCTURES

2.1 INTRODUCTION 2.4 APPLICABLE CODES


Structural guidelines listed below shall be applied to all building structures and The following codes with listed parameters shall be permitted for the purpose of
are intended to provide minimum structural design requirements for building structural design. Technical codes not listed in this document shall be submitted
sub and super structures. Please refer to the applicable codes for detailed for review and approval prior to adopting in the design. Consultant should ensure
technical guidance and requirements. that selected design standards are the latest editions and fully compatible with
CED’s design regulations, guidelines and Trakhees - CED/Dubai Municipality
The guidelines are aimed to give the design engineers a general idea of the
circulars.
basic requirements in designing the structures to comply with the CED-Trakhees
regulations and the relevant building codes. It is anticipated that the use of 2.4.1 DEAD AND LIVE LOADS
these guidelines will result in a uniform design and construction of buildings
throughout projects in CED-Trakhees jurisdiction. 1. BS 6399: Part 1 ‘Loading For Buildings: Code of Practice for Dead
and Imposed Loads’.
Any requests for variations to the guidelines presented must be fully documented
and presented to the CED-Trakhees for review and acceptance prior to any 2. BS 6399: Part 3 ‘Loading For Buildings: Code of Practice for Imposed
application. Roof Loads’
3. ASCE 7: ‘Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other tructures’,
2.2 DESIGN OUTCOME Chapter 3 ‘Dead Loads’ and Chapter 4 ‘Live Loads’
The design shall meet all relevant standards for safety, durability, fire resistance 4. Adopted dead and live loads shall satisfy recommendations of the
and serviceability. The designer shall investigate alternative systems and shall Dubai Municipality, CED - TRAKHEES and other relevant statutory
achieve optimized economical and constructible solution. authorities.
5. Peripheral walls and cladding loads shall be considered separately
2.3 SUSTAINABILITY AND ENVIRONMENTALLY RESPONSIBLE DESIGN
as line loads.
Design should satisfy sustainability and environmental guidelines adopted for
the project. The following should be taken into account in structural design 2.4.2 SEISMIC LOADS
approach: 1. UBC 1997, Volume 2, ‘Structural Engineering Design Provisions’,
1. Consultant shall propose a design maximizing the use of environmentally Division IV ‘Earthquake Design
friendly and energy efficient technologies in material and construction 2. Seismic zone shall be considered as per Dubai Municipality latest
techniques. Circular and Trakhees-CED evaluation.
2. Designer should consider climate change implications within the design 3. For special structures, ‘Recommendations for the Seismic Design of
life of the structure and accommodate them by adopting adequate design
parameters and detailing. High-rise Buildings’, CTBUH 2008, shall be adopted.

3. Where possible, consultant shall maximize the used of recyclable and 2.4.3 WIND LOAD
recycled construction materials.
1. ASCE 7: ‘Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures’
4. Consultant should specify locally manufactured materials as a first - Chapter 6. Design shall be based on basic wind velocity of 45 m/s.
preference where possible.
2. For all structures where wind loads are applied as per codes, other
5. Proposed design should involve a minimum level of disruption to the directions than the two orthogonal ones to be investigated for
natural environment. ultimate and serviceability limit states. The same shall be carefully
studied for irregular buildings.
6. Consultant should maximize the use of clean and non-destructive
construction technologies including off-site pre-fabrication. 3. Reliable wind tunnel study reflecting climatic site conditions shall

64 65
SECTION: 2 STRUCTURAL DESIGN GUIDELINES – BUILDING STRUCTURES SECTION: 2 STRUCTURAL DESIGN GUIDELINES – BUILDING STRUCTURES

be permitted as an alternative method of estimating wind loads. following information (Wherever is applicable):
Wind velocity shall reflect historic wind record for the respected
1. Description of the site: Location, BU name, plot number,
site. The wind loads resulting from wind tunnel test shall satisfy
project ID, etc
the requirements of ASCE 7.
2. Description of building: Building size, height, basements,
2.4.4 DESIGN CODES podium floors, typical floors, setbacks, floors use, etc
1. BS 8110 “Structural Use of Concrete” is accepted only for structures 3. Description of structure: Foundation type, vertical
where the seismic forces are not governing the design. members, lateral forces resisting system, floor slabs
2. ACI 318: ‘Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete’ scheme, building separations, etc
3. ACI Manual of Concrete Practice – the latest edition. 4. Applied standards in loading and design.
4. AISC 360 5. Materials properties: Concrete & reinforcement grades,
5. UBC 1997, Volume 2, ‘Structural Engineering Design Provisions’ modulus of elasticity, shear modulus, density of block
works, etc
6. BS 8004 “Foundations” is accepted only for foundations where the
seismic forces are not governing the design. 6. Fire resistance requirements: Fire rating, concrete cover to
reinforcement, minimum reinforcement, etc
7. BS 5950 “Structural Use of Steel Works in Buildings” is accepted
only for steel works where the seismic forces are not governing 7. Durability requirements: Design life of the structure,
the design. concrete quality for sub and super structure, minimum
8. BS 8007: ‘Design of concrete structures for retaining aqueous cover to reinforcement, protection measures for concrete
liquids’ below and above ground, crack width & deflection control.

9. BS 5628: ‘Code of Practice for Use of Masonry’ 8. Robustness requirements as per relevant standards.

10. IBC ‘International Building Code’, excluding seismic design 9. Damping: Proposed damping value for seismic design,
provisions. damping value for wind loading and occupancy comfort
control.
11. BS 8500 “Concrete – Complementary British Standard to BS EN
206” is accepted for concrete mix design. 10. Analysis and design Software, spreadsheets used for
design or/and verification, etc
2.5 PERFORMANCE CRITERIA 11. Detailed calculations shall include:
The following modelling and design criteria shall be followed.
a. Gravity loads correspond to different floors.
2.5.1 DESIGN LIFE b. Basic seismic parameters estimate.
1. Unless otherwise specified, 50 year design life of the structure shall
c. Weight of the building for seismic calculations.
be adopted.
d. Static base shear.
2.5.2 COMPUTER MODELS, STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS AND DESIGN
REQUUIREMENTS e. Vertical component of seismic loads.

2.5.2.1 STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS AND DESIGN f. Discontinuity and vertical irregularity considerations.

The designer shall submit detailed design criteria as well as g. Accidental torsion calculations.
design assumptions and should contain at minimum, the h. Directional effect of seismic loads.

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i. Scale factors calculations. 5. Appropriately set-up auto-meshing could be used for


regular rectangular buildings. Care should be given to
j. Interconnection requirements
connectivity and meshing constraints.
k. Wind loads parameters and coefficients or wind
6. The computer model of concrete buildings shall be
tunnel study report. analyzed considering realistic base restraint conditions
l. Basic load combinations for ultimate and service for cores, shear walls and columns. Adopted boundary
states design. conditions shall be reflected in the design and detailing of
sub and super-structure members.
12. Extracts from analysis outputs: Modal mass participation
ratios, tension stresses in shear/core walls and modifiers 7. Modulus of elasticity shall be calculated as per the code
corrections, wind tunnel and code forces comparison, total governing the design. Modulus of elasticity of high
and inter-story drifts calculations, vibration acceleration strength concrete shall be determined as per ACI-363 –
calculations, deflections and crack control calculations. Equations 6.1 to 6.8.

13. Software analyzed computer models conducted as per 8. The analyzed computer model shall be free from any major
CED’s requirements. warnings or errors.
9. Section modifiers shall be applied as per clause 19.10.11.1
14. If applicable, third party report confirming the full
of UBC-97. For transfer elements, the section modifiers
compliance of the submitted design documents with
shall be taken = 1.
the design provisions of the applicable codes and CED’s
design guidelines. The report shall be conducted as per 10. Soil profile type and other seismic parameters used
the relevant CED’s guidelines and requirements. in seismic analysis shall be as recommended in the
geotechnical investigation report.
2.5.2.2 COMPUTER MODELS
11. Iterative method of estimating P-Delta effect shall be
1. The 3D model should reflect the actual geometry of the considered in the analysis of buildings as requested by
structure / building and shall be in full compliance with clause 1630.1.3 of UBC 1997. Minimum of 3 iterations shall
the design criteria and assumption. be used.
2. The finite elements meshing shall appropriate to software 12. Structures and buildings shall be analyzed by employing
used for analysis. The designer shall ensure that the Response Spectrum Analysis in full compliance with UBC
analysis results are not affected by the quality of meshing. 1997.
3. The computer model shall have proper meshing of slab 13. Tall buildings and other structures with structural system
and wall elements. For walls and slabs. The meshing sensitive to construction sequence shall be investigated
should have rectangular bias with elements of aspect for the effects of construction sequence on internal load
ratio not exceeding 2:1. Where openings are provided in distribution.
the slab or wall elements, the mesh nodes shall be located
14. The design seismic case shall consist of combination of
at the corners of openings. two orthogonal excitation directions combined on the
4. The designer shall ensure proper connectivity for slab SRSS basis as requested by clause 1633 of UBC 1997.
elements (Joints/Corner of one element should not be 15. Seismic ductility factor shall be considered as per the
connected to edge of other element, unless appropriate structural lateral resisting system definition, UBC 1997,
calibration analysis is submitted with the model). The Clause 1629.6. Design of moment resisting frame system
mesh shall also have proper connectivity with columns shall satisfy the requirements of clauses 1626 & 1921.8,
and walls elements. UBC1997.

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2.5.2.3 GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS considered in design of vertical and horizontal members.


In plane section modifiers for slabs shall be reduced to
1. Where the structure is composed of a flexible upper
account for concrete cracked section area as per the code
portion and lower stiffer basement/podium, the seismic
governing the design.
scale factor shall be calibrated at foundation level to
design the basement elements and at top of basement to 10. Structural design shall accommodate shrinkage, creep and
design the tower elements. thermal strains by providing appropriate reinforcement or
specifying control or expansion joints. Expansion joints
2. The augmented section modifiers could be used to
shall satisfy seismic requirements of relevant code.
check the maximum drift and vibration acceleration only
as permitted by ACI, provided that the designer has to 11. Floor slabs shall be designed to be adequately supporting
estimates the degree of cracking and comply with the the entire construction loads from the next slab without
serviceability limit state at the adopted design service compromising the ultimate or/and service limit states
loads. requirements.
3. Permanent drift due to gravity loads to be checked and 12. Transfer element design shall be confirmed by alternative
shall be eliminated or minimized with proper technical design method.
arrangement.
13. For dead loads & earth pressure/uplift load combinations,
4. All structural framing elements and their connections, not the loads shall be factored as per clause 1909.2, UBC1997.
required by design to be part of lateral–force-resisting
system, shall be designed to be adequate to maintain 14. Individual pile caps and isolated footings subjected to
support of design dead plus live loads when subjected to seismic forces shall be interconnected by ties. Such ties
the deformation caused by seismic forces. shall be designed as per clause 1807.2, UBC 1997.

5. Effects of axial long term shortening due to elastic, 15. Third party structural review is required for
shrinkage and creep effects shall be investigated and specific structures as classified in CED circular Ref.
accounted for in the design and construction. If measures CIRCULAR-52027/2009/sk dated 26-04-2009.
to compensate for the effects of differential shortening
are taken, consultant shall include such information on 2.5.2.4 SERVICEABILITY LIMITS
engineering drawings and relevant documents. 1. All buildings shall be designed to limit maximum drift
6. Manual take down of gravity loads for all key vertical under 50 years wind load to 1/500 of building height.
elements to be compared with resulting loads from 2. All buildings shall be designed to limit inter-story drift to
analyzed model. 1/500 of the story height and not more than 10mm under
7. Loading and Design shall be carried out in compliance serviceability of 10 years wind. If no wind tunnel test results
with the code that the governing load combination was are available, 10 years serviceability wind speed of 38 m/s
derived from. can be adopted in Dubai for inter-story drift calculations.
Inter-story drift due to seismic shall be assessed and shall
8. Calculation of effects of accidental eccentricities and load not exceed the limitations of clause 1630.10, UBC 1997.
reductions shall be consistent with the code used for the
structural design. 3. Adequate provisions shall be adopted to eliminate risk of
damage to non-structural elements due to inter-story drift
9. Thermal effects shall be evaluated based on realistic and long term deflection of beams and slabs.
temperature distribution. Seasonal temperature change
shall not be less than 25 deg. C or in accordance 4. Wind induced vibration due to 10 years wind shall be
with credible local climate record. This effect shall be limited to 15 milli-g for residential and hotel buildings

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and 20 milli-g for office buildings. Damping ratio should but not limited to the following:
under no circumstances exceed 2.0% unless additional
1. Index sheet with contents and page numbers.
special damping devices are used. For buildings subject
to coupled modes response, the torsional velocity due 2. An introduction containing the project ID and briefly outlining the
to 10 years wind shall be limited to 3 milli-rad/s or as submission purpose together with the list of drawings, calculations,
recommended with credible relevant reference. reports, etc.
5. For buildings with irregular façade shapes and where 3. Design philosophy; reference Codes, complete design criteria and
a potential noise expected to occur, the tonal noise assumptions for loads, height of building, number of floors, etc.
generated as part of vortex shredding mechanism shall be
4. Column load calculations by area method & reaction method.
properly addressed by wind specialist. The consultant and
the wind specialist are solely responsible to undertake the 5. Stability analysis for wind and seismic loads including checking for
necessary study and to propose any effective remedial allowable drifts. For wind induced accelerations, a check for human comfort
measures to resolve the problem. criteria is to be enclosed.
6. Slabs & Beams shall be checked for long term deflection 6. Loads on columns, shear walls including wind and seismic moments are to
as per the code governing the design. be marked in the copy of foundation layout for critical load cases.
7. Slabs & Beams shall be checked for lateral forces impact. 7. Serviceability checks for deflection, crack width to be included where
applicable.
8. Vibration and oscillation of building structures should
be limited to avoid discomfort to users and damage to 8. Reinforcement calculations for beams, slabs, columns and shear walls. In
contents. Reference to specialist literature shall be made case if design is done using software, sample pages are to be enclosed.
as appropriate.
9. Soft copy of all the calculations copied in a CD as well as software models
2.5.2.5 SOFTWARE shall be submitted. All software models shall be run and free of errors. At
the time of joint review, the consultants shall bring a laptop PC installed
The following commercial structural software packages are with the design software to check the building model. In case modelling
commonly used structural design tools and are accepted by has been done using ETABS, SAFE, SAP, ROBOT, etc., consultant shall
CED for structural analysis and design. Computer software not submit only extract pages in PDF format of selected important input and
listed below shall be submitted for review and approval prior to output data that may facilitate the review process.
adopting in the design.
10. In case of specialised works such as post tensioned slabs, tent structures,
Acceptable popular commercial structural software packages: large span timber structures, prefabricated steel structures, the structural
ETABS, SAFE, SAP2000, ROBOT, STRAND, STAAD, PROKON. designs and drawings for these works shall carried out by specialised
consultants having an approved valid trade licence from Dubai Municipality.
2.5.2.6 UNIT SYSTEM
A copy of their Trade Licence needs to be enclosed. These drawings after
All structural calculations, computer output, technical reports, checked by consultant shall be stamped and signed by them and submitted
specialist consultant recommendations and drawings shall to CED along with a guarantee letter stating that they have verified the
be presented in SI unit system. All dimensions on structural designs of the specialist contractor and they take full responsibility for the
drawings shall be presented in millimetres. same.
11. Soil investigation report certifying all soil parameters conducted by an
2.6 STRUCTURAL CALCULATIONS approved soil specialist agency as per CED’s geotechnical guidelines.
All calculations shall be submitted in soft copy in pdf format arranged in sequence
12. To resist the Seismic loads, joint ductility, confinement of concrete and
according to the index sheet. The Structural Calculations shall generally include

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joint framing connection details shall be as per the requirements of concrete specifications for all exposure conditions, specifications
relevant approved codes. The reversal of stresses in structural members of other concrete types if used, concrete grades of reinforcement,
shall also be taken into account and proper detailing to be made along concrete cover to reinforcement, concrete protection. Materials
with supporting calculations. information shall comply with QA & QC guidelines.
e. Design criteria of any other unconventional slab system, if applicable.
2.7 STRUCTURAL DRAWINGS
2. Column Axes plan Drawings:
The Structural Drawings shall generally include but not limited to the following
information: Column/ walls axes plan showing the reduction in column/wall sizes. All
columns/walls shall have grid markings. Grid lines in structural drawings
1. General Notes drawings containing the following details: shall match with architectural drawings.
a. Standard abbreviation and symbols. 3. Foundation Drawings:
b. Reference to Soil Investigation Report indicating the safe bearing Plot limit line is to be marked in the foundation plan. The Piled Raft / Raft
capacity, depth of foundation, soil improvement, number of floors foundations drawings shall contain general arrangement showing plan,
for which foundation has been designed. The number of floors shall sectional elevations with levels, Reinforcement plan showing top and
comply with approved architect concept drawings. bottom steel, extra top and extra bottom steel and any shear resisting
reinforcement as per design requirements. Sections shall be drawn
c. General information and details shall include:
through lift pits, drain sumps and pour strips showing the arrangement of
1. Details of water proofing systems. reinforcement. The foundation drawings shall also show starter bars for
columns/walls as per design requirements. Arrangements and sections
2. Earthworks and dewatering instructions.
details of movement, settlement joints as well as water stoppers details to
3. Strength, density of block works, blocks works construction be provided, if applicable.
details and construction sequences.
4. Floors Slab Drawings:
4. Typical details of RC connections. General arrangement showing the thicknesses of slabs, openings inslab
5. Typical reinforcement curtailment/arrangement of columns, and their sizes, floor levels etc are to be submitted. Reinforcement details
slabs, beams, floating slabs, manholes and water tanks typical are to be drawn in plan and as well as in typical sections. Extra top and
details. bottom reinforcement and shear resisting steel shall be properly detailed.
In case of Post Tensioned /Hollow Core Slabs, drawings shall be prepared
6. Standard lintel details. by specialist consultants having the necessary valid Trade license. The
7. Construction and movement joints details. specialist drawings shall be reviewed with the relevant calculation, signed
and stamped prior to submission to CED. All specialist documents shall be
8. Mechanical pipes penetration details, extra reinforcement passed to CED under the lead consultant covering letter.
around openings, trenches, cable trays and transformers base
details. 5. Beams reinforcement drawings:
Schedule for beam sizes and reinforcement with adequate sections are
9. Details of inserts to concrete, holding down bolts, plinths and to be submitted. The amount and location of longitudinal reinforcement,
up stands/down stands elements. stirrups, side bars, torsional bars as well as sectional details of the special
10. Loads considered in design of different floors, mechanical beams, parapets, corbels, connections wherever is necessary to be
floors, transformer & LV room area, chillers and compressor provided.
areas, etc 6. Columns, Shear walls and Core walls:
d. Fire resistance rating for different structural members, reinforced General Arrangement drawings showing walls layout, thicknesses,

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SECTION: 2 STRUCTURAL DESIGN GUIDELINES – BUILDING STRUCTURES

elevations and openings are to be submitted. Detailed sectional plan


and sectional elevations for lift and core walls showing the reinforcement
in the walls, around openings, corner bars, spandrel beam details and
wherever is necessary to be provided.
7. Floating columns/walls and transfer beams/slabs structures:
The sizes of floating elements along with their locations are to be marked
in plan drawing. Sectional elevation showing the columns/walls below
and above the transfer structure has to be drawn. The transfer structure
sections shall include the reinforcement details of all members and
connections and any special provisions may be required by the design or
construction.
8. Staircases:
Detailed plan, sections and reinforcement drawings for staircase are to
be submitted.
9. Swimming pools:
Detailed GA plan and sections for swimming pool indicating the levels
and supporting arrangement including floating columns, if any. Adequate
sections are to be drawn to show reinforcement in base slab, walls, deck
slab, etc.
10. Non structural architectural features:
The architectural features constructed from concrete or any other materials
shall meet all the relevant stability, durability and constructability
requirements.
11. All the structural drawings shall have a standard title block containing
the project name, the plot number, BU’s name, client name, name of the
lead consultant, drawing title, key plan identifying the area relevant to the
drawing subject, full record of different revisions, etc.
12. All the structural drawings shall be cross referenced as much as possible.
13. All the structural drawings shall be signed and stamped in standard
location of the drawings. Typical space shall be left for CED stamping. If
applicable, all the submitted drawings shall be signed and stamped by the
third party consultant.
14. All the structural drawings required to be approved from CED shall be
combined together in PDF binder and shall be properly oriented as well
as arranged in order.

76
GUIDELINES FOR PRE
STRESSED CONCRETE
WORKS (SLABS)
03
SECTION

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SECTION
3 GUIDELINES FOR PRE STRESSED CONCRETE WORKS (SLABS) SECTION: 3 GUIDELINES FOR PRE STRESSED CONCRETE WORKS (SLABS)

3.1 GENERAL 3.2 PRE STRESSED CONCRETE SYSTEMS


The current pre stressed guidelines is relevant to the post tensioning bonded Pre stressed concrete specialist contractor shall have qualified international
systems only, Fig. (3.1), other pre stressed systems shall be submitted to CED – recognized pre stressing system to perform in accordance with its materials and
Trakhees for review and approval prior to commence any related work. technical requirements.
Vent pipe Vent pipe The specialist contractor shall have exclusive agency agreement with the system
Bulb
Formed sleeve
Oblong sleeye pipe Oblong sleeve pipe provider including supplying the local specialist with materials, all necessary
Mastic
Flat duct
Mastic
Flat duct technical support, and skilled manpower wherever is needed.
This agreement shall be registered and approved from relevant statutory
100

authority as appropriate and shall be yearly renewed, or confirmed by letter from


mother system agency if the period of agreement is more than one year.
300/300/400w 950 3.2.1 MATERIALS
Steel Plate
a. Anchorage system, Fig. (3.2).
Specialist contractor shall submit initially certificate of origin,
L1

material catalogue and full sample supported with technical data


sheet, if necessary, with no more than one year old.
80 80

55 55 55 55 55 55 55 55
260 260

Fig (3.2) Anchorage system

b. Pre stressed concrete equipment:


Specialist contractor shall submit the technical data for pre
stressing equipment which will be used in the works. Jacks,
hydraulic pumps, dead end machine, grouting machine, and duct
machine (If applicable), Fig. (3.3).
Fig (3.1): Pre stress bonded system The submission should include the calibration test for the jacks.
Hydraulic jacks calibration should be submitted for each project,
the calibration should be dated not more than 6 months prior to
submission date.

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Dead end machine Hydraulics Pump Stressing Jack

Grouting machine Stapler gun Duct Machine


Fig. (3.5) Ducts
Fig. (3.3) Pre stress equipment e. Duct Chairs, Fig. (3.6):
Chairs should be machine made and have epoxy coating for support
c. Strands, Fig.(3.4): parts and at least up to 20mm over the forms. Chairs distribution
Specialist contractor shall have strands supplier approval from shall be according to the specialist shop drawings, and should be of
Dubai Central Lab (DCL) and mill certificates. 6mm Diameter at least.

Fig. (3.6) Ducts Chairs

Fig. (3.4) Pre stress strands


f. Approval of shear stud :
Shear studs should be used in slabs with less than 200mm thickness
d. Ducts: if required by the design. Stud materials should be from specialized
Specialist contractor shall apply for the ducts supplier approval qualified factory, Fig.(3.7).
along with all specifications and certificates. Specialist contractor
shall have ducts supplier approval along with all specifications and
certificates.
Thickness of duct should not be less than 0.4mm. The duct size
shall be suitable to accommodate the required strands, provided
that the net clear area for grouting should be more than twice the
ducts cross sectional areas. Fig. (3.7) Shear stud
Corrugated and flat galvanized metal ducts are accepted, Fig. (3.5)

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g. Grouting material : 3.2.2 REGISTRATION OF PT SPECIALIST:


Specialist contractor shall submit grouting mix design for approval, The registration of PT specialist in Dubai Municipality is accepted to
the mix should contain: cement, water, along with shrinkage perform the PT activity within Trakhees jurisdiction. Accreditation of the
compensating materials. Minimum 28 days grout strength shall not PT engineer is mandatory.
be differed than 12 N/mm2 from the structural element concrete
characteristic strength. 3.2.3 STORAGE OF MATERIALS
Specialist contractor shall have suitable area to store the PT materials in
good condition.

3.2.4 METHOD STATEMENT


Specialist contractor has to submit the method of statement in
professional details for approval, from receiving of materials till handover
the grouting and shuttering removal; this shall be included in each project
submission.

3.2.5 PERMISSION TO THE FIRST PROJECT


For other PT systems ,specialist contractor shall submit the concept of
first project for approval in principle.
1. Upon the concept approval, the specialist shall submit the detailed
design for approval, CED shall be notified in advance of the date of
executing of each slab, CED’s engineer has to take the necessary
action to check and approve the work at site prior to concrete
placing.
2. After hand over the post tension work to the respected party, the
specialist contractor shall apply to the CED for final inspection.
3. Based on final inspection, CED will decide the final approval of the
specialist and the system as well.
4. All the above procedures shall be submitted to CED under the lead
consultant cover letter.

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3.3 SOFTWARE APPROVAL & DESIGN GUIDELINES 3.3.2.2 GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS

3.3.1 SOFTWARE APPROVAL a. Slab Thickness

Specialist contractor/consultant shall use licensed software only. 1. Slab thickness should be decided based on the loads
Software used by the specialist contractor require CED certification and and spans.
approval prior to implementation in the design. The software could be 2. For normal loads in residential and commercial areas,
certified and approved following the below procedures: the thickness of flat slab should be proposed to be as
Specialist contractor shall submit original license for the software, along explained in Fig. (3.8) provided that the ultimate and
with user technical manual and all related technical sheets, via cover service limits requirements are met.
letter from the specialist. 3. Vibration shall be considered in the design of the
To ensure a better understanding of the software capability and offices areas, following the above mentioned codes.
performance enhancement, the specialist shall respond to all CED 4. Cubic strength for the concrete used in pre stressed
enquiries and if necessary to conduct a technical demonstration or/and slabs shall not be less than 40 N/mm2.
presentation as per the CED arrangement.
The specialist contractor will be notified on the final approval of the Total imposed Span/depth Span/depth
Section Type load ratios Total imposed ratios
software as per the relevant discipline. (kN/m) 6m < L < 13 m Section Type load 6m < L < 13 m
(kN/m) (kN/m) (kN/m)
2.5 40 2.5 28
5.0 36 5.0 26
3.3.2 DESIGN GUIDELINES 10.0 30
> span/6
10.0 23

7. Ribbed slab 2.5 30


2.5 44
3.3.2.1 APPLIED DESIGN CODES 5.0 40 5.0 27
10.0 36 10.0 24
The following codes and report are permitted for design of post > span/3
8. One-way slab with narrow beam Slab Beam
Slab Beam
tension slabs. Unlisted codes shall be submitted for approval 2.5 45 25 2.5 42 18
5.0 38 16
prior to use in design. 5.0 40 22
10.0 34 13
span/5 10.0 35 18
> span/15
a. BS 8110 1997 structural use of concrete. 2.5 25
5.0 23
b. Technical Report (TR 43). 10.0 20

2.5 28
c. ACI-318. 5.0 26
10.0 23
d. Post Tension Manual, fifth and sixth edition. > span/3

e. Euro code 2.
Fig. (3.8) Slab thickness
f. ASCE-7-5
g. IBC-2006 b. Concrete cover
1. Concrete cover shall comply with durability or fire
resistance requirements, whichever condition is the
more onerous.
2. The cover shall be measured to the outside surface of
the duct; the minimum net cover for bonded system
shall be 35 mm.

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3. Requirement for the other pre stressed tendons 5. Strands shall not be extended from level to another.
shall be as per Section 6 - Technical Report TR43,
6. Tendons shall be avoided to be stopped inside the
second edition.
slab without support at ends. Support can be drop or
c. Tendons hidden beams, walls or columns.
1. The maximum tendon spacing shall not exceed 8 d. Loads
times the slab thickness or 1.5 m whichever is lesser. 1. Design loads shall comply with project design
For banded distributed system, tendon spacing criteria, BS 6399 and ASCE-7-05 requirements. In no
should not exceed 10 times the slab thickness or 1.5 cases, the live load should be less than 2.5 KN/m2.
m whichever is lesser in the banded direction. 2 ducts
(with minimum 3 strands/duct) passing through the 2. Jacking force should be taken as per design code and
column strip should be provided to maintain the should be not more than 80% of breaking loads.
banded direction requirements. Column strip shall e. Deflection control
include the area bounded within distance equal to
1. Factors related to short-term elastic deflection
0.5 slab thickness all-around the column perimeter;
estimation are as per Fig.(3.10):
otherwise distributed system shall be considered in
the respected direction, Fig. (3.9) . 2. Pre cambering in the PT slab is subject to designer
justification prior to implementation.

evently spaced tendons in span evently spaced tendons for short span
3. Long Term Deflection shall be checked using cracked
sections criteria and shall be within the allowable
banded tendons over columns for long span
banded tendons over columns limits as per the applied code.

Loading Factor related to short-term


elastic deflection value
Dead 3.0
Tendons banded in two directions Tendons banded in one direction
Post-tensioning (after losses) 3.0
Fig. (3.9) Banded-distributed systems Live 1.5
Fig. (3.10) Factor taking account of long term effects
2. Wherever there are certain difficulties to comply with
the strands distribution basis, partial pre stressed f. Conventional reinforcement in the pre stressed slab.
slab shall be used provided that the PT strands to
1. The minimum bottom shrinkage mesh shall be
be compensated with designed conventional steel
applied by using T10 each 300mm.
in the proper locations and directions.
2. All support areas shall have the applicable code
3. The minimum horizontal spacing between the ducts
specified minimum reinforcement in the top for
is the greater of 75mm or duct width.
purpose of distributing the cracks and strength
4. Curved tendons are to be avoided, but in case of design requirements.
difficulty to furnish the straight tendons, hair pins
3. Conventional reinforcement should be placed along
should be used in additional to bottom and top steel
edges of all slabs; this should include U-bars laced
mesh not less than T10-200 mm, the curving shall
with at least tow longitudinal base top and bottom,
not exceed 1:12.
Fig. (3.11).

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SECTION: 3 GUIDELINES FOR PRE STRESSED CONCRETE WORKS (SLABS) SECTION: 3 GUIDELINES FOR PRE STRESSED CONCRETE WORKS (SLABS)

flexural and 6. It should be noted that after stressing the bonded


restraining
reinforcement
system and before grouting has taken place, it
‘ U ’ bar
restraining reinforcement should be considered as un-bonded system.
prestressing tendon
slab 7. Grouting should be done at least three days before
Bottom bar removing the scaffolding. If the grouting has placed
wall
Transverse bar after removal of the scaffolding, the design should be
checked as un-bonded system.
Fig. (3.11) U-Bar at the edge of slab and junction of wall and slab
8. P/A should be not less than 0.7 MPa as an average
4. All columns should be checked for punching shear, value, If the average precompression exceeds 3.0
manually or by using applied software. MPa, the design engineer shall explicitly recognize
and account for the consequence of shortening of
5. Anchor bursting reinforcement should be added
the member in connection with the restraint of the
to resist the tensile stresses caused by the
member’s supports.
concentration of the force applied at the anchors,
Fig. (3.12). 9. In members where early stressing is desired to
reduce the risk of early shrinkage cracking, it is
common to stress the tendons in two stages. The
first stage is usually about 25% of the final pre stress
force, and is carried out as soon as the concrete has
gained adequate strength for the anchorage being
used. This concrete strength could be between 10
and 15MPa. It is important that sufficient site-cured
cubes or cylinders are provided to determine the
Fig. (3.12) Anti Burst steel at dead and live ends transfer strength.
10. Where prestressing is seating be wedges a minimum
g. General value of draw in value of 6mm should be used in the
1. Temperature and lateral force analysis should be design calculation.
done by 3-D building model, Pre stressed programs 11. Where a slab or system of secondary beams is
shall be used for gravity loads analysis only. stressed across primary beams, attention must be
2. Bottom steel at columns and support locations given to the sequence of stressing in order to avoid
should be not less than 30% of the top steel at the damage to the formwork of the primary beams.
same location.
12. Mixing factors and combinations from different codes
3. Elongation of the strands should be submitted with are not accepted.
design drawings in separate sheet.
4. The accepted deviation between site recorded
elongation and software output elongation shall be
within ±10%.
5. Transfer slabs or beams shall be of RCC only, pre
stressed tendons could be used to reduce the
deflection only.

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3.4 GENERAL NOTES FOR SPECIALIST & SYSTEM APPROVAL 3.6 GUIDELINES FOR PRE CAST CONCRETE WORKS
1. CED-Trakhees has the right to reject any post tension system in case 3.6.1 PRE CAST SPECIALIST REGISTRATION
experienced several defect during the system application. Precast concrete elements shall be produced by certified manufacturers,
2. CED-Trakhees has the right to re-evaluate the PT engineer, if the same did with certification demonstrating the capability of a manufacturer to
not perform satisfactory. fabricate pre-cast concrete elements to the requirements of standards.
The storage, transportation, handling and erection of the pre-cast
3. CED-Trakhees has the right to disqualify any supplier in case declination in elements shall be carried out in conjunction and coordination with other
product quality was noticed. construction activities as well as the respected standards controlling
4. CED-Trakhees can limit the work quantity for any specialist contractor such kind of construction systems, Fig (3.13).
based on the performance quality of the work that will be evaluated from Pre cast specialist should be registered in CED with certain products as
time to time. follows:

3.5 DOCUMENTS REQUIRED FOR OBTAINING PRE STRESS PERMIT


1. Consultant cover letter indicating the submission subject and description
of submission purpose , project ID, details of attached documents, etc
2. Specialist document: prequalification, trade license, practice registration I-Beam Box Beam Bulb Tree Column
record, system approval, designer approval, site engineer, etc…
3. Undertaking letter from specialist for pre stressing work (design and
Slab
execution) approved by the consultant.
4. Design criteria explaining all design data.
5. Software license copy. Inverted Ledger Rectangular Hollow-Core
Tee Beam Beam Beam Slab

6. PDF detailed drawings signed and stamped by specialist and consultant.


DWG drawings are required for review purposes.
7. List of submitted drawings.
Pile sections Sheet Pile Double
8. PDF calculation signed and stamped by specialist and consultant, Tee
including gravity, lateral force and thermal calculations (If any).
Fig. (3.13) Common Precast Concrete Products
9. 3D models of the full structure to check the lateral force and thermal
effects on P.T slabs design.
3.6.1.1 DOCUMENT REQUIRED FOR PRE CAST SPECIALIST REGISTRATION
10. P.T software models.
1. Valid trade license
11. Latest approved structural drawings.
2. Detailed information about the products, inclusive concrete,
12. Third party report (If applicable). steel, pre stressed materials, etc….
3. Applied codes and design criteria.
4. Method of statement for production, transportation,
handling and installation.

92 93
SECTION: 3 GUIDELINES FOR PRE STRESSED CONCRETE WORKS (SLABS) SECTION: 3 GUIDELINES FOR PRE STRESSED CONCRETE WORKS (SLABS)

5. CVs for designers and site engineers 3.6.2.5 STORAGE, TRANSPORTATION, HANDLING AND ERECTION
6. Quality assurance and quality control procedures. Pre cast units shall be designed to resist all kinds of stresses
induced by storage, handling, transport and erection, without
7. Test certificates, design mix… and full scale test.
permanent deformation and shall be braced for handling and
8. List of projects already completed successfully with the transportation when necessary, Figs (3.14 a - f).
same product/s.

3.6.2 PRE CAST DESIGN GUIDELINES


3.6.2.1 DESIGN CODES:
The following codes and reports are permitted to be used in pre-
cast design:
1. BS 8110-1997
2. ACI 318 – 2008
3. PCI Design handbook fifth edition. Supplemental line with “ Come-Along”

4. CPCI design manual 4.


Fig. (3.14a) Supplemental Lifting Points
5. UBC 1997 and ASCE 7-7 (Seismic loads).
6. ASCE 7 – 2005 (Wind loads).
Crane Line Load = W
7. IBC-2006 (International Building Code) WF
T = Sling Load =
2
3.6.2.2 Durability: Material strength of factory produced pre cast
Sling Angle =
reinforced and pre-tensioned concrete components shall comply
with design performance of the structure during its life span.
Concrete cover, fire resistance, crack and deflection control and
resistant to chloride ion attack should be maintained within the
relevant codes limitations.
Total Load = w

3.6.2.3 Concrete strength: The 28-day design strength of concrete used


in pre-cast and pre stressed products shall be 40 MPa minimum.
The transfer strength (when the pre stress force is transferred to
the concrete) can be 25 MPa or as required by the design. Multiplication Factor “F” for the Total Load
on Sling With a Sling Angle of

3.6.2.4 Span to depth ratio: as a guidance for span to depth ratios of 90 75 60 45 30


a
flexural elements, the following figures could be adopted: F 1.00 1.04 1.16 1.41 2.00

NOTE: is usually not less than 60


1. Hollow core floor slabs: 30 to 40 check bl-directional sling angle.
a A 30 sling angle is not recommended.
2. Double tee floor slabs: 25 to 35
3. Beams: 10 to 20 Fig. (3.14b) Force in Lift Lines

94 95
SECTION: 3 GUIDELINES FOR PRE STRESSED CONCRETE WORKS (SLABS) SECTION: 3 GUIDELINES FOR PRE STRESSED CONCRETE WORKS (SLABS)

P
T =
P sin0 cos
Y
0 P
PH =
tan0
yc
Z

c.g.

P T T P (a) Four Points With Two Cranes


Y

PV PV
e
yt yc
yb X
c.g.

M x= P H yc
P yc
M x=
tan0
M z = Pve

Pe
M z=
tan0

Fig. (3.14c) Moment caused by eccentric lifting


(b) Eight Points with two Cranes
and Two Spreader Beams

Fig. (3.14e) Hook lifting


Spreader
Beam

Rolling
c.g.
Block

Force Equal
Equal Equal on All Lines

All Reactions a) Four points with Spreader Beam b) Eight Points with Spreader Beam
Equal

R R R R
Fig. (3.14f) Use of spreader beam
Fig. (3.14d) Arrangement for equalizing lifting loads

96 97
SECTION: 3 GUIDELINES FOR PRE STRESSED CONCRETE WORKS (SLABS) SECTION: 3 GUIDELINES FOR PRE STRESSED CONCRETE WORKS (SLABS)

1. Each element must be stable after erection and offer


resistance to wind, accidental impact, and loads that may
be imposed due to other construction operations, Fig
(3.15).

Panel Loading

Gravity Loading

Fig. (3.16a) Transporting single-story panels

Seismic Loading
Parallel to Panel
Face

Seismic or
Wind Loading
Perpendicular
to Panel Face

Fig. (3.16b) Transporting of long panels

Fig. (3.15) Example of Precast panel with Earthquake loading

(1-x) x x x
2. Surfaces shall intend to remain free of discernible cracks
by limiting the flexural tension to the modulus of rupture
modified by a suitable safety factor.
3. The arrangement of temporary bracing should not interfere M1 M1

with adjacent erection and other construction processes.


Bracing must be maintained until permanent connections M2 M2
are completed. (a) One End Cantllevered (b) Both End Cantllevered

yb yb 1
4. Please refer to BS8110-1997 section 6.2.11 and PCI Section: x= 1 1+ 1+
x=
yt
2 yt yt 2 1+ 1+ y
5.2.4.2. b
Where:
yb =
5. The method used for transporting pre cast concrete yt =
products shall be considered in the structural design
including size and weight limitations and the dynamic
effects imposed by road conditions, Figs. (3.16 a,b & c). Fig. (3.16c) Equations for Equal Tensile Stresses at top and bottom of member

98 99
SECTION: 3 GUIDELINES FOR PRE STRESSED CONCRETE WORKS (SLABS) SECTION: 3 GUIDELINES FOR PRE STRESSED CONCRETE WORKS (SLABS)

3.6.2.6 CONNECTIONS Design Considerations:

Typical connections details shown in Figs (3.17 a - f) shall be With large factors of safety, friction may Topping if
transfer nominal forces required
followed. Additional structural integrity ties may be
required
1. The connection must have adequate strength to transfer
the forces to which it will be subjected during its lifetime. Fabrication Considerations:

2. The connection must have ability to undergo relatively Clean and simple
large inelastic deformations without failure. Bearing strip

3. The stresses caused by restraint of creep, shrinkage and Erection Considerations:

temperature change (Volume change) must be considered Clean and simple P.C. or C.I.P.
in the design. concrete
beam
4. The connection must meet the durability and fire resistance Fig. 5.3.3
requirements.
5. Connections shall be checked for the expected earthquake
and wind forces.
Design Considerations:
Can transfer internal diaphragm forces with beaded
stud anchors
Can be designed as structural integrity tie Plate with deformed With
bar grouted in returns Design Considerations: Reinforcement draped
slab keyway Topping if over beam and grouted
Fabrication Considerations: required Can transfer internal diaphragm forces in slab keyway
Can be designed as structural integrity tie
Advantageous to have no hardware in slab Grout Topping if
Consider concrete cover on reinforcement
Beam embedments must line up with slab required
over beam
joints
Accommodates variations in slab length Bearing strip

Erection Considerations:
Fabrication Considerations:
P.C. or C.I.P.
Advantageous to have connection completed concrete
beam Slab layout must have opposing joints lined up
by follow-up crew

Fig. 5.3.1 Grout Bearing strip


position
Erection Considerations:

Clean and simple


P.C. or C.I.P.
Design Considerations: Reinforcement
grouted in slab concrete
Can transfer internal diaphragm forces keyway beam
Can be designed as structural integrity tie Topping if
Grout required
Fig. 5.3.4
Fabrication Considerations:

May increase beam reinforcement for


shallower beam
Layout must have opposing slab joints lined up Bearing strip

P.C. or C.I.P.
Erection Considerations:
concrete Fig. (3.17b) Connections
Clean and simple beam
Fig. 5.3.2

Fig. (3.17a) Connections

100 101
SECTION: 3 GUIDELINES FOR PRE STRESSED CONCRETE WORKS (SLABS) SECTION: 3 GUIDELINES FOR PRE STRESSED CONCRETE WORKS (SLABS)

Design Considerations: Design Considerations:


Reinforcement
grouted in
Can transfer internal diaphragm forces slab keyway
Will develop volume change restraint forces Can transfer internal diaphragm forces
that must be considered in design of Can be designed as structural integrity tie Reinforcement per
connections Topping if
required Horizontal shear in composite beam must be design
transfered Topping
Fabrication Considerations: Opposing slab joints must line up
Slab manufacturing system must allow bottom
weld anchors Fabrication Considerations:
Beam inserts must align with slab inserts
allowing fabrication tolerances Weld Plate Clean and simple for slabs
(alt. ends)

Bearing strip Erection Considerations: Dam


Erection Considerations: cores Bearing strip
with
P.C. or C.I.P. beaded Beam may have to be shored until topping is
Connections can be completed by follow-up concrete stud anchors cured
crew beam
Access for welding may require ladders or Horizontal shear reinforcement may present P.C. or C.I.P.
safety hazard for erector concrete
Spacer may be required to make weld Core dams must be placed beam

Fig. 5.3.5
Fig. 5.3.7

Beam and slab inserts must align


Design Considerations: Reinforcement
grouted in Plate as required
slab keyway Design Considerations: by design
Can transfer internal diaphragm forces with beaded
Can be designed as structural integrity tie Reinforcement per Can transfer diaphragm shear stud anchors
design or deformed bar
Horizontal shear from beam cap must be Concrete Can provide lateral brace for beam
transferred Topping if
required Potential for negative moment in slabs Topping if
Opposing slab joints must line up
required
Fabrication Considerations:
Fabrication Considerations:
Clean and simple for slabs tolerance on sawcut ends, the insert should be
installed after slabs are cut to length
Dam Beam and slab inserts must align
Erection Considerations: cores Bearing strip with beaded
stud anchors Bearing strip
Beam may have to be shored until cap is
cured Erection Considerations:
Horizontal shear reinforcement may present P.C. or C.I.P.
safety hazard for erector concrete
beam If required for lateral beam stability, welding
Core dams must be placed may have to be completed as slabs are set
P.C. or C.I.P.
Fig. 5.3.6 concrete
beam
Fig. 5.3.8

Fig. (3.17c) Connections


Fig. (3.17d) Connections

102 103
SECTION: 3 GUIDELINES FOR PRE STRESSED CONCRETE WORKS (SLABS) SECTION: 3 GUIDELINES FOR PRE STRESSED CONCRETE WORKS (SLABS)

Design Considerations: Plate with deformed bar


Reinforcement grouted
in slab keyway
anchor grouted in Design Considerations:
Can transfer diaphragm shear slab keyway Topping if
Can provide lateral brace for beam Can transfar diaphragm shear required
Topping if Can be designed as structural inegrity tie Longitudinal
Potential to develop negative moment in slabs
required bar as req'd.
Fabrication Considerations:
Clean and simple for both beam and slabs
Fabrication Considerations:
Dowels from beam may present safety hazard
Plates in beam must align with slab joints
allowing tolerance Erection Considerations:
Bearing
Reinforcement must be tied in place
strip
Concrete must be cast around reinforcement
Plate with beaded Bearing
Edge form is required for cast-in-place concrete P.C. or C.I.P.
Erection Considerations: stud anchors strip
Dowels from beam may present safety hazard concrete
beam
Connection can be completed with a follow-up
crew Fig. 5.3.11
P.C. or C.I.P.
Lateral bracing for beam will not be provided
concrete
until keyway grout cures
beam Weld Plate (alt. ends)
Design Considerations: Topping if
required
Fig. 5.3.9 Can transfer internal diaphragm forces
Will develop volume change restraint forces
that must be considered in design of connection
Fabrication Considerations:
Slab manufacturing system must allow bottom
weld inserts Bearing
Beam and slab inserts must align with strip
allowance for tolerance

Design Considerations: Reinforcement grouted Erection Considerations:


in slab keyway Connections can be completed by follow-up crew with beaded
P.C. or C.I.P.
Can transfer internal diaphragm forces stud anchor
concrete
Can be designed as structural integrity tie Topping if beam
Spacer may be required to make weld
required Fig. 5.3.12

Fig. (3.17f) Connections


Fabrication Considerations:
Clean and simple

Design Considerations:
Weld plate
Can transfer diaphragm shear
Erection Considerations: Tortional and lateral beam restraint can be provided Topping if
Bearing
required
strip Will develop volume change restraint forces
Clean and simple
that must be considered in design of connection Bearing
Keyway dimensions may limit the
reinforcement diameter Fabrication Considerations: strip
P.C. or C.I.P.
concrete Slab manufacturing system must allow bottom
beam weld inserts
Beam and slab weld anchors must align with
allowances for tolerance
Fig. 5.3.10
Erection Considerations: P.C. or C.I.P. with headed
concrete stud anchors
Connections can be completed by follow-up crew
beam

Spacer may be required to make weld Fig. 5.3.13


Fig. (3.17e) Connections
Fig. (3.17g) Connections

104 105
SECTION: 3 GUIDELINES FOR PRE STRESSED CONCRETE WORKS (SLABS)

3.6.2.7 General considerations


1. Structural shall be designed for vibration as PCI S: 9.7.
2. Minimum total bearing width shall be 100 mm; the design
of bearing shall be as per Section: 5.2.3 in BS8110.
3. The pre cast design shall be complied with section 5 in BS
8110.
4. The pre cast system for slabs shall be with toping concrete
inclusive minimum reinforcement mesh of T8-200mm.

3.6.3 DOCUMENTS REQUIRED FOR OBTAINING PRECAST STRUCTURE


PERMIT
1. Consultant cover letter indicating the submission subject and
description of submission purpose , project ID, specialist and
system IDs, details of attached documents, etc
2. Specialist document: prequalification-trading license- system
approval, designer approval, site engineer, etc…
3. Undertaking letter from specialist for pre stressing work (design
and execution) approved by the consultant.
4. Design criteria explaining all design data.
5. Software license copy.
6. PDF detailed drawings signed and stamped by specialist and
consultant. DWG drawings are required for review purposes.
7. List of submitted drawings.
8. PDF calculation signed and stamped by specialist and consultant,
including gravity, lateral force and thermal calculations (If any).
9. 3D models of the full structure to check the lateral force effects on
P.T slabs design.
10. P.T software models.
11. Latest approved structural drawings.
12. Third party report (If applicable).

106
STRUCTURAL
DESIGN GUIDELINES -
STEEL STRUCTURES
04
SECTION

108 109
SECTION
4 STRUCTURAL DESIGN GUIDELINES - STEEL STRUCTURES SECTION: 4 STRUCTURAL DESIGN GUIDELINES - STEEL STRUCTURES

4.1 INTRODUCTION 4.2.2 SEISMIC LOADS

The guidelines in this section are applicable for steel structure and are intended 1. UBC 1997, Volume 2, ‘Structural Engineering Design Provisions’,
to provide minimum structural design requirements for steel buildings and Division IV ‘Earthquake Design’
other structures fabricated and erected with structural steel. The guidelines are
2. Seismic zone shall be considered as per Dubai Municipality latest
intended to give a general idea of the basic requirements for steel structures
Circular and Trakhees-CED evaluation.
while designing structures within the CED Trakhees jurisdiction.
3. For special steel structures and tall buildings, relevant sections of
Engineers shall refer to the applicable codes for the detailed technical guidance
structural design guidelines for building structures are applicable.
and requirements. It is anticipated that the use of these guidelines will result
in a uniform design and construction of buildings throughout projects in
4.2.3 WIND LOAD
CEDTrakhees jurisdiction.
1. ASCE 7: ‘Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures’
Any requests for variations to the guidelines presented must be fully documented
- Chapter 6. Design shall be based on basic wind velocity of 45 m/s.
and presented to the CED-Trakhees for review and acceptance prior to any work
commencement. 2. For all structures where wind loads are applied as per codes, other
directions than the two orthogonal ones to be investigated for
The design shall meet all relevant standards for safety, durability, fire resistance
ultimate and serviceability limit states. The same shall be carefully
and serviceability. The designer shall investigate alternative systems and shall
studied for irregular buildings.
achieve optimized economical and constructible solution.
3. For special steel structures and tall buildings, relevant sections of
Sections in design guidelines for building structures shall be referred to where
structural design guidelines for building structures are applicable.
indicated.
4. BS 6399-2 “Loading for Buildings – Part 2: Code of practice for
wind loads” is accepted for industrial structures only.
4.2 APPLICABLE CODES
The following codes are permitted for design of steel structures. Design codes 4.2.4 DESIGN CODES
not listed in this document shall be submitted for review and approval prior to 1. BS 5950 “Structural Use of Steel Works in Buildings”” is accepted
adopting in the design. Consultant should ensure that selected design standards only for steel works where the seismic forces are not governing
are the latest editions and fully compatible with CED’s design regulations & the design.
guidelines.
2. AISC 360: Specification for Structural Steel Buildings
4.2.1 DEAD AND LIVE LOADS
3. UBC 1997, Volume 2, ‘Structural Engineering Design Provisions’.
1. BS 6399: Part 1 ‘Loading For Buildings: Code of Practice for Dead
4. IBC ‘International Building Code’, excluding seismic design
and Imposed Loads’.
provisions.
2. BS 6399: Part 3 ‘Loading For Buildings: Code of Practice for
5. For design of concrete elements, refer to the list of design codes as
Imposed Roof Loads’
defined within clause 2.4.4.
3. ASCE 7: ‘Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other
Structures’, Chapter 3 ‘Dead Loads’ and Chapter 4 ‘Live Loads’
4.3 PERFORMANCE CRITERIA - ANALYSIS, DESIGN AND DETAILING
4. Adopted dead and live loads shall satisfy recommendations of the
Dubai Municipality, CED - TRAKHEES and other relevant statutory The following sections present the analysis, design and detailing criteria
authorities. with particular reference to normal and low to medium rise steel buildings
and structures. For special steel structures and tall steel buildings, detailed

110 111
SECTION: 4 STRUCTURAL DESIGN GUIDELINES - STEEL STRUCTURES SECTION: 4 STRUCTURAL DESIGN GUIDELINES - STEEL STRUCTURES

performance criteria given in guidelines for building structures shall be referred d. Fracture due to fatigue and brittle fracture.
to and the relevant sections shall be considered in the design.
e. Corrosion and durability.
4.3.1 GENERAL 10. Details of members and connections should be such as to realize
1. Minimum design life of the steel structure shall be 50 years unless the assumption made in design with out affecting any other part
otherwise specified. of structure.

2. The aim of structural design should be to provide, with due regard 4.3.2 LOADING
to economy, a structure capable of fulfilling its intended function
All relevant loads should be considered separately and in such realistic
and sustaining the specified loads for its intended life.
combinations as to comprise the most critical effects on the elements and
3. The design should facilitate safe fabrication, transport, handling the structure as a whole.
and erection. It should also take account of the needs of future
1. Dynamic loads shall be considered for cranes and for
maintenance, final demolition, recycling and reuse of materials.
members supporting machineries as per the manufacturer’s
4. The structure should be designed to behave as a one three recommendations and as per the applicable codes.
dimensional entity. The layout of its constituent parts, such as
2. Temperature effects shall be included in the design of the structure
foundations, steelwork, joints and other structural components
including temperature effects during erection stage, operational
should constitute a robust and stable structure under normal
aspect, etc.
loading to ensure that, in the event of misuse or accident, damage
will not be disproportionate to the cause. 4.3.3 LIMIT STATE OF STRENGTH
5. The basic anatomy of the structure by which the loads are In checking the strength and stability of the structure all loads shall be
transmitted to the foundations should be clearly defined. multiplied by the applicable load factors and all combinations of loads
6. Any features of the structure that have a critical influence on its producing the worst effects on the structure and its constituent elements
overall stability should be identified and taken account of in the shall be identified and used in the strength limit state design. Load
design. factors and combinations given in Table 1 below shall be used when BS
5950 is adopted for design.
7. Each part of the structure should be sufficiently robust and
insensitive to the effects of minor incidental loads applied during 1. Factors and combinations shall be used consistently throughout
service that the safety of other parts is not prejudiced. the project as per the design code adopted. Mixing factors and
combinations from different codes are not allowed.
8. The design intention should be to adopt a layout so as to rationalize
the use of member sizes and details to achieve maximum
structural efficiency and to obtain a combination of materials
and workmanship consistent with the overall requirements of the
structure.
9. Design shall include all limit states in addition to the limit states of
strength and serviceability as follows:
a. Strength limit states including general yielding, rupture,
yielding, buckling and transformation into a mechanism.
b. Serviceability limit states
c. Stability against overturning & sway.

112 113
SECTION: 4 STRUCTURAL DESIGN GUIDELINES - STEEL STRUCTURES SECTION: 4 STRUCTURAL DESIGN GUIDELINES - STEEL STRUCTURES

Loading Factor, f
Cantilevers Length/180
Dead load 1.4 Span/360
Dead load restraining uplift or overturning 1.0 Other beams (except) purlins and sheeting rails Span/200
Dead load acting with wind and imposed Purlins and sheeting rails See 4.12.2
loads combined 1.2
Imposed load 1.6 Tops of coloumns in single-storey building, except portal frames Height/300
Imposed load acting with wind load 1.2 Coloumns in portal frame buildings, not supporting crane runways To suit cladding
Wind load 1.4 Coloumns supporting crane runways To suit crane runway
Wind load acting with imposed load or In each storey of a builidng with more thean one storey Height of that storey/300
crane load 1.2 c) Crane girders
1.2 Span/600
from overhead travelling cranes
Span/500
properties alone) due to horizontal crane loads
Vertical load 1.6
Vertical load acting with horizonal loads Table 4.2. Deflection Limitations - BS 5950
(crabbing or surge) 1.4
Horizontal load 1.6 3. When checking for deflections the most adverse realistic
Horizontal load acting with vertical 1.4 combination and arrangement of serviceability loads shall
be considered, and the structure may be assumed to behave
Crane load acting with wind load* 1.2
elastically. On low pitched and flat roofs the possibility of ponding
should be investigated.
* When considering wind or imposed load and crane loading
acting together the value of f for dead load may be taken as 1.2. 4. Vertical and horizontal limits of deflection due to all loads shall in
general be limited to the deflection limits specified in the codes.
Special care shall be taken to limit the deflection to suit the
cladding, crane girder tolerances, members supporting sensitive
Table 4.1. Load Factors and Combinations - BS 5950
machineries etc.
5. Floor vibrations shall satisfy the criteria recommended by AISC
4.3.4 LIMIT STATE OF SERVICEABILITY
Design Guide Series 11 to satisfy serviceability requirements and
Serviceability loads shall be taken as the unfactored loads with all criteria for human comfort.
serviceability load combinations specified in the relevant codes used.
6. In order to ensure the durability of the structure under conditions
1. Deflections of a building or part under serviceability loads relevant both to its intended use and to its intended life, the
should not impair the strength or efficiency of the structure or its following factors should be taken into account in design:
components, nor cause damage to the finishing.
• Environment around the structure and the degree of
2. Deflection limits shall not exceed the suggested values given in exposure.
Table 2. as per BS 5950.
• Shape of the members and structural detailing.

114 115
SECTION: 4 STRUCTURAL DESIGN GUIDELINES - STEEL STRUCTURES SECTION: 4 STRUCTURAL DESIGN GUIDELINES - STEEL STRUCTURES

• Protective measures. 3. Structural members that support heavy vibrating machinery or


plant should be checked for fatigue resistance.
• Whether inspection and maintenance are possible.
4. Where aerodynamic instability can occur, account should be taken
• As an alternative to the use of protective coatings, weather
of wind induced oscillations.
resistant steels to BS EN 10155 may be used. Steels
complying with other prominent international codes such as 5. Where fatigue is critical, all design details should be precisely
the American and European codes are acceptable subject to defined and the required quality of workmanship should be clearly
review and approval by the authority. specified.

4.3.5 FOUNDATION 6. Resistance to fatigue should be determined by reference to BS


7608 or applicable codes.
Foundations shall accommodate all forces imposed on them. Attention
should be given to the method of connecting the steel superstructure to 4.3.8 STRUCTURAL INTEGRITY
the foundations and to the anchoring of holding-down bolts.
All buildings shall be effectively tied together at each principal floor level.
1. Where it is necessary to quote the foundation reactions, it should
1. Each column shall be effectively held in position by means of
be clearly stated whether the forces and moments result are from
horizontal ties in two directions, approximately at right angles, at
factored or unfactored loads. Where they result from factoed loads,
each principal floor level supported by that column.
the relevant factors for each load in each combination should be
stated. 2. Horizontal ties shall be provided at roof level, except where the
steelwork only supports cladding that weighs not more than 0.7
4.3.6 HOLDING DOWN BOLTS kN/m2 and that carries only imposed roof loads and wind loads.
Holding down bolts should be designed to resist tension due to uplift 3. Continuous lines of ties should be arranged as close as practicable
forces and tension due to bending moments as appropriate. to the edges of the floor or roof and to each column line. Ties
1. Holding-down bolts required to resist tension should be anchored designed and provided as shown in Figures (4.1) and (4.2) are
by a washer plate or other load distributing member embedded in acceptable.
the foundation. This plate or member should be designed to span
any grout tube or adjustment tube provided for the holdingdown Column ties
Edge ties
bolt.
2. Alternatively, a bend or hook in accordance with the minimum
Re-entrant corner
bend radius recommended in the codes may be used.
Tie anchoring
re-entrant corner
3. Expanding anchors or resin-grouted anchors are generally not
Edge ties
recommended. If they are required in exceptional cases, it should
be demonstrated that the required capacity can reliably be
achieved, both by the anchor and by the foundation.
A

4.3.7 FATIGUE Tie anchoring


column A

1. Fatigue need not be considered unless a structure or element is


subjected to numerous significant fluctuations of stress. Edge ties Beams not used as ties

2. Stress changes due to normal fluctuations in wind loading need Fig (4.1) Tying of Columns – Beams connecting columns only and
not be considered. at reentrant corners used as Ties

116 117
SECTION: 4 STRUCTURAL DESIGN GUIDELINES - STEEL STRUCTURES SECTION: 4 STRUCTURAL DESIGN GUIDELINES - STEEL STRUCTURES

All beams designed


to act as ties
1. Design calculations and details of all parts (See Figure (4.3)) of a
steel industrial building including foundations shall be submitted.
Tie anchoring
column A 2. Footings shall be designed to solely resist the horizontal thrust from
the portal frames. Hair pin bars connecting pedestal to the grade
slab for horizontal restraint shall be avoided.
3. A minimum footing effective depth of 300mm for all footings with
A
reinforcement cover meeting the durability requirements and the
recommendations in the soil investigation report shall be provided.
4. Connections and loading drawings shall be provided with the input
Fig (4.2) Tying of Columns – All beams including secondary beams and output from the applicable steel design software.
used as Ties
5. All steelwork drawings shall be properly coordinated with the
4. All horizontal ties, and all other horizontal members, should be architectural and services drawings. Bracings shall not foul with
capable of resisting a factored tensile load, which should not be openings & windows. A minimum of two bays shall be braced.
considered as additive to other loads, of not less than 75 kN.
6. For built up sections, thickness of structural steel members shall
5. Each portion of a building between expansion joints shall be not be less than 6mm for main members and 4mm for secondary
treated as a separate building. members.
6. For special buildings where it is stipulated to be designed to avoid 7. Anti-sag rods shall be a minimum of 16mm diameter and the
disproportionate collapse, all requirements with regard to tying of maximum spacing of rods shall not exceed 3.8m. The roof bracing
columns, continuity of columns, resistance to horizontal forces, rods used shall be of 20mm minimum diameter.
notional removal of column, accidental loading and key element
8. Wall wind bracing members shall be rolled steel sections such
design etc. shall be carefully studied and designed as required by
as angles or pipes. Rods or cables shall not be used as wall wind
the relevant sections of codes.
bracing elements.
4.4 GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR INDUSTRIAL STEEL STRUCTURES
RIDGE ROOF PURLIN
EAVE STRUT
ROOF SYSTEM RIGID FRAME COLUMN
GUTTER RIGID FRAME
EAVE HEIGHT

N
SPA
EAR
CL
Wall Bracings – Angle, Pipes or Suitable steel
sections only. Rods or cables shall not be used
CMU WALL
GIRT ENDWALL FRAME
BRACING BA ENDWALL COLUMN
YS
PA
CIN ENDWALL RAFTER
G Fig (4.4). Wall Bracing
ENDWALL
SIDEWALL ENDWALL CORNER
COLUMN
9. An elevation view showing the load transmission from the wind
Fig (4.3). Parts of a Typical Steel Industrial Building
bracing to the ground shall be submitted.

118 119
SECTION: 4 STRUCTURAL DESIGN GUIDELINES - STEEL STRUCTURES SECTION: 4 STRUCTURAL DESIGN GUIDELINES - STEEL STRUCTURES

10. All flange braces for rigid column frames shall be fixed to side wall grade, reinforcement, sheet profile and sheet design data from the
girts before constructing the exterior block work. profile manufacturer.
11. Bracing shall not be removed and shall remain intact through out 25. Purlin detail shall include data sheets with properties and design
the life of the building. data from the purlin manufacturer.
12. Crane supplier’s data sheets shall be provided for crane design 26. All joint details and layout of joints for expansions and contraction
and drawings. joints, control joints, construction joints etc. shall be provided.
13. Protective coating to structural steel shall be done at workshop 27. General structural steel notes showing the grades of steel and
and the required thickness shall be 240-270 microns. material properties, codes adopted in design, loadings considered,
typical details, fabrication, erection tolerances, painting and all
14. In cases where the foundations are designed by the main
other required specifications for the project shall be provided.
consultant and steel superstructure is designed by steel specialist
contractors, the consultant’s submission shall include design and 28. Drawings shall contain end gable view of the steel structural frames.
details of Anchor bolts with the bolt grade, diameter and the length
29. All internal columns shall be protected with encasement or
along with the foundation design and details.
protection bollard to avoid accidental damage to the structure.
15. All steel member bolted connections in the drawing shall show the
30. Soakpits (if required) shall be located away from the main structures
bolt grade, diameter and length. All Bolt length shall be checked
and foundations such that the soil strata below the foundations are
for end plate thickness, washer, nuts, threading projection beyond
not disturbed at any stage during or after construction.
nut etc.
16. Welded connection details shall include the type of welds,
thickness, length etc. indicated by the standard welding symbols.
17. All internal partitions shall be designed for internal critical wind
pressures coefficients.
18. Drawings shall include cross sections for the steel column fixing to
the pedestal.
19. Pedestal sizes shall include provision for RCC columns/wall
stiffeners if present, base plate size with clearance (to avoid
overlapping of reinforcement and anchor bolts details etc) and
grouting details.
20. Roof gutters shall be properly designed and detailed and the
necessary calculations shall be submitted.
21. All foundation levels in CED-JAFZA/DM datum shall be mentioned
clearly in the drawing as per soil report recommendations.
22. Maximum distance between the bolts in any connection shall be
limited to 350mm or shall be provided with stiffener plates.
23. Loading diagram for all floors and roofs including dead, imposed,
collateral, crane loads etc. shall be provided.
24. Composite deck slab details shall include concrete thickness and
120 121
REFERENCES

122 123
REFERENCES REFERENCES

1. Anandarajah, K. S. and Kuganenthira, N. “Incremental Stress-Strain Behaviour of 22. Harr , M. E. “ Foundations of Theoretical Soil Mechanics”, McGraw-Hill Book
Granular Soil”, J. Geotech. Eng. Div. ASCE, Vol. 121, No. 1, 1995, pp. 57 - 68. Company, New York.
2. Bowles J.E. “Foundation Analysis and Design”5th Edition-Mc Graw Hill International 23. Holeyman, A. E. (1997). “An Earthquake Engineering Approach to Vibrocompaction”,
Edition, 1997. Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Foundation
Engineering.
3. Bowles J.E. “Physical and Geotechnical Properties of Soils”5th Edition-Mc Graw
Hill International Edition. 24. Kramer, S. L. (1996). “Geotechnical Earthquake Engineering”, Prentice-Hall, Inc.,
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey.
4. BS 410: 1986 “Specifications for Test sieves”.
25. Hsai Yang Fang “Foundation Engineering Handbook” Second Edition, Van Nostrand
5. BS1377: 1990 “Soils for civil engineering purposes”.
Reinhold.
6. BS 5930: 1999 “Code of practice for site investigation”.
26. Hunt, R. E. “Geotechnical Engineering Analysis and Evaluation” McGraw-Hill, New
7. BS 6031:1981 “Code of Practice for Earthworks”. york .

8. BS 8002: 1994 “Code of practice for Earth retaining structures”. 27. Meyerhof, G. G. “Shallow Foundations”, J. Soil Mech. and Foundation Div. ASCE,
Vol. 91, No. SM2, 1965, pp. 2-31.
9. BS 8004: 1986 “Code of practice for foundations”.
28. Michalowski, R. L. and Shi, L. “Bearing Capacity of Footing Over Two-layer
10. BS 8081: 1989 “Code of practice for Ground anchorages”.
Foundation Soils”, J. Geotech. Eng. Div. ASCE, Vol. 121, No. 5, 1995, pp. 421 - 428.
11. BRE SP1:2005 “Concrete in aggressive ground”.
29. Mslivec, A. and Kysela , Z. “The Bearing Capacity of Building Foundations” Elsevier
12. British Geological Survey “Geology and Geophysics of United Arab Emirates”, Scientific Publishing Company, Oxford, 1978.
Vol.2. Geology”. (2006).
30. Seed, H. B. and Idriss, I. M. (1971). “Simplified Procedure for Evaluating Soil
13. British Geological Survey “Geology and Geophysics of United Arab Emirates”, Liquefaction Potential”, Journal of Soil Mechanics & Foundations Division, ASCE,
Vol.4. Geological Hazards. (2006). 97(SM9), 1249-1273.

14. CIRIA Publication-31 “Guide to Concrete Construction in the Gulf Region”. 31. Terzaghi , K., Peck R. B. and Mesri, G. “ Soil Mechanics in Engineering Practice” ,
John Wiley & Sons Inc., Third Edition, 1996.
15. CIRIA Publication-181 “Piled Foundation in weak rock”.
32. Tomlinson M.J. “Foundation Design and Construction” Fifth Edition – Lomgman
16. Das, B. M. (1994). “Principles of Geotechnical Engineering”, 3rd edition, PWS
Scientific & Technical.
Publishing, Co., Boston, Massachusetts.
33. Tomlinson M.J. “Pile Design and Construction Practice” Fourth Edition.
17. Dubai Municipality “Dubai Tide Tables”. (2008).
34. Youd, T. L., Idriss, I. M., Andrus, R. D., Arango, I., Castro, G., Christian, J. T., Dobry,
18. Duncan C. Willry “Foundation on Rock”, 2nd edition, E & FN Spon, New York,
R., Finn, W. D. L., Harder, L. F., Hynes, M. E., Ishihara, K., Koester, J. P., Liao, S.
(1999).
S. C., Marcuson, W. F., Martin, G. R., Mitchell, J. K., Moriwaki, Y., Power, M. S.,
19. Florkiewicz, A. “Upper Bound to Bearing Capacity of Layered Soils”, Can. Robertson, P. K.,Seed, R. B., and Stokoe, K. H. (2001). “Liquefaction Resistance
Geotechnique J. Vol. 26, No. 4, 1989, pp. 730 - 736. of Soils: Summary Report from the 1996 NCEER and 1998 NCEER/NSF Workshops
on Evaluation of Liquefaction Resistance of Soils”, Journal of Geotechnical and
20. Georgiadis, M. and Michalopoulos, P. A. “Bearing Capacity of Gravity Bases on
Geoenvironmental Engineering, ASCE, 127(10), 817-833.
Layered Soils”, J. Geotech. Eng. Div. ASCE, Vol. 111, No. 6, 1984, pp. 712 - 729.
35. Unpublished reports of various projects under the umbrella of Trakhees Authority
21. Griffiths, D. V. “Computation of Bearing Capacity on Layered Soils”, Proc., 4th int.
Jurisdiction.
Conf. Numerical. Methods Geomech. , Z. Eisenstein. Ed. Balkema, Rotterdam. the
Netherlands., 1982, pp. 163 -170 .

124 125
FIGURES & TABLES INDEX

126 127
INDEX INDEX

Figure No. Figure Title Page No. Figure No. Figure Title Page No.
Figure 1.1: Boreholes Distribution 13 Figure 1.29: Cement Grouting (Slurry Grouting) Technique 45
Figure 1.2: Procedures for Standard Penetration Test (SPT) 15 Figure 1.30: Compaction Grouting Technique 45
Figure 1.3: Rock Core 16 Figure 1.31: Jet Grouting Technique 46
Figure 1.4: Pressure Meter / Dilatometer Test 17 Figure 1.32: Cone Penetration Test (CPT) Readings 48
Figure 1.5: Earth Profile 24 Figure 1.33.a: Contiguous Piles Shoring System 51
Figure 1.6: Describing Soil Properties 24 Figure 1.33.b: Secant Piles Shoring System 51
Figure 1.7: Standard Down Hole Seismic 26 Figure 1.33.c: Soldier Piles Shoring System 52
Figure 1.8: Safe angel for open excavation 27 Figure 1.34: Shoring Stages of Construction 52
Figure 1.9: Shoring Systems 28 Figure 1.35: Tie Back Anchors Method Statement 54
Figure 1.10 Surface Dewatering System (French Drains) 29 Figure 1.36: Tie Back Anchors Stressing Testing 55
Figure 1.11 Well Point Dewatering System 30 Figure 1.37: Method Statement for Different Types of Bored Piles 58
Figure 1.12 Deep Wells Dewatering System 31 Figure 1.38: Method Statement for Drilled Bored Piles 59
Figure 1.13 Well Pit Details (Running / Finished) 32 Figure 3.1: Pre stress bonded system 80
Figure 1.14 Details of Dewatering Deep Well 33 Figure 3.2: Anchorage system 81
Figure 1.15 Piles Distribution 35 Figure 3.3: Pre stress equipment 82
Figure 1.16 Wick Drains Technique 36 Figure 3.4: Pre stress strands 82
Figure 1.17 Method statement of Dynamic Compaction 37 Figure 3.5: Ducts 83
Figure 1.18 Comparison between Dynamic & Vibro Compaction 37 Figure 3-6: Ducts Chairs 83
Figure 1.19 Range of Soils Suitable for Vibratory Techniques 38 Figure 3.7: Shear stud 83
Figure 1.20 The Most Suitable Improvement Technique for both Figure 3.8: Slab thickness 87
Cohesive and Granular Soils 39
Figure 3.9: Banded-distributed systems 88
Figure 1.21 Cost Comparison for the Different Improvement Figure 3.10: Factor taking account of long term effects 89
Techniques for Granular Soils 39
Figure 3.11: U-Bar at the edge of slab and junction of wall and slab 90
Figure 1.22 Deep Compaction (Vibro Compaction) Technique 40
Figure 3.12: Anti Burst steel at dead and live ends 90
Figure 1.23 Deep Compaction (Vibro Compaction) Method
Statement 41 Figure 3.13: Common Precast Concrete products 93
Figure 1.24 Dynamic Compaction Technique 41 Figure 3.14.a: Supplemental Lifting Points 95
Figure 1.25 Vibro-replacement Stone Columns Technique 42 Figure 3.14.b: Force in Lift Lines 95
Figure 1.26 Deep Mixing (Soil Mixing) Technique 43 Figure 3.14.c: Moment caused by eccentric lifting 96
Figure 1.27 Different Procedures of Grouting Techniques 44 Figure 3.14.d: Arrangement for equalizing lifting loads 96
Figure 1.28 Permeation Grouting Technique 44 Figure 3.14.e: Hook lifting 97

128 129
INDEX

Figure No. Figure Title Page No.


Figure 3.14.f Use of spreader beam 97
Figure 3.15: Example of Precast panel with Earthquake loading 98
Figure 3.16.a Transporting single-story panels 99
Figure 3.16.b Transporting of long panels 99
Figure 3.16.c Equations for Equal Tensile Stresses at top and 99
bottom of member
Figure 3.17.a Connections 100
Figure 3.17.b Connections 101
Figure 3.17.c Connections 102
Figure 3.17.d Connections 103
Figure 3.17.e Connections 104
Figure 3.17.f Connections 105
Figure 3.17.g Connections 105
Figure 4.1: Tying of columns-beam connecting columns only and 117
at reentrant corners used as Ties
Figure 4.2: Tying of columns-All beams including secondary 118
beams used as Ties
Figure 4.3: Parts of Typical Steel industrial Building 119
Figure 4.4: Wall Bracing 120
Table No. Table Title Page No.
Table 1.1: Correlation between SPT Blows & Sand Relative 16
Density
Table 1.2: Soil Classification System 18
Table 1.3: Soil Properties Correlations 18
Table 1.4: Rock Fracture State 19
Table 1.5: Rock Strength Classification 19
Table 1.6: Sandstone / Conglomerate Properties 19
Table 1.7: Elastic Parameters for Various Soils 19
Table 1.8: Carbonate Classification System 22
Table 1.9: UBC 1997 Soil Profile Class Estimation 26
Table 4.1: Load Factors and Combinations - BS5950 114
Table 4.2: Deflection limitation BS5950 115
130

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