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Nominal Training Duration: 18 Hours (Basic)

18 Hours (Common)
105 Hours (Core)

141 hours

Course Description:

This course is designed to enhance the knowledge, skills and attitude in bread and pastry
production to prepare and present desserts; prepare and display petites fours in accordance with
industry standards. It covers the basic, common and core competencies.

To obtain this, all units prescribed for this qualification must be achieved:


500311105 Participate in workplace communication
500311106 Work in team environment
500311107 Practice career professionalism
500311108 Practice occupational health and safety procedures


TRS311201 Develop and update industry knowledge
TRS311202 Observe workplace hygiene procedures
TRS311203 Perform computer operations
TRS311204 Perform workplace and safety practices
TRS311205 Provide effective customer service


TRS741379 Prepare and produce bakery products
TRS741380 Prepare and produce pastry products
TRS741342 Prepare and present gateaux, tortes and cakes
TRS741344 Prepare and display petits fours
TRS741343 Present desserts

Course Content
BREAD AND PASTRY PRODUCTION NC II (Prepared by: Reggie H. Baguio)
A. Occupational Health and Safety
a. Definition of terms 4
b. Hazard 4
c. Risk 5
d. The 5’s Japanese Productivity Philosophy 6
e. Personal Protective Equipment 7
f. A Safety guidelines for your workplace 7

o Safety Signs and Symbols

B. Good Manufacturing Practices
a. Personal Hygiene 10
b. Proper Hand Washing 11
c. Food Hazards 11
d. Cross Contamination 12
e. Raw Materials and Product Handling 12
o General Storage Guidelines 13
f. Waste Management 14
o Cleaning and Sanitizing 15


a. History of Baking 16
b. Factors that Contribute to Successful Baking 16
o Common Malpractice 17
c. Laboratory Safety Guidelines 17
o Workers in the Laboratory Area 18
o Facilities 18
o Cooking Outfit 18
d. Baking Terms 18
e. Baking Tools and Equipment 20
f. Preventive Maintenance Technique and Procedure 29
o Preventive Maintenance Practices 29
o Proper Storage of Tools and Equipment 29


A. Basic Ingredients

a. Flour as Foundation 30
b. Liquid ingredients 31
c. Sugar and Related Products 32
d. Shortening 33
e. Eggs 33
f. Leavening agents 33
g. Salt 34
h. Flavoring Agents 34
B. Measurements, Conversion and Substitution 35
a. Measuring dry and liquid ingredients accurately 37
C. Storage of Ingredients 39

BREAD AND PASTRY PRODUCTION NC II (Prepared by: Reggie H. Baguio)

A. Basic Mixing Methods
a. Beating 40
b. Creaming 40
c. Cutting in 41
d. Cut and Fold 41
e. Folding 41
f. Kneading 41
g. Stirring 41
h. Sifting 41
i. Whipping 42


a. Basic Yeast-Leavened Bread 43
o Steps in Making Bread 44
 Basic Quick Bread 44
 Faults and Remedies of Basic Quick Breads 45
- Banana Muffin 45
- Chocolate cake with frostings 46
- Cheese cupcake 47
 Basic Yeast Bread 48
- Pandesal 49
- Spanish bread 49
- Ensaymada 50
 Cookies 52
 Method of Mixing Cookies 52
 Faults and Remedies of Cookies 53
- Chocolate crinkles 54
- Brownies 55
- Coconut macaroons 56
 Other Forms of Pastries 57
 Kinds Of Pie 57
- Pizza 59
- Buko Pie 60
- Tart 61
 Types of Cake Formulas 62
 Stages of Egg Whites
- Chiffon Cake (mocha, pineapple, orange) 65
- Yema Cake 65
For Assessment
a. Soft dough 66
b. Sponge cake 67
c. Swiss butter cream icing 68
Costing 68

BREAD AND PASTRY PRODUCTION NC II (Prepared by: Reggie H. Baguio)

Possible/ Sample Questions on Bread and Pastry Production NC II 71


Definition of Terms
Airborne - carried by air
Antidote – a remedy counteracting a poison
First aid – the provision of initial care for an illness or injury
Injury - damage or harm of the structure or function of the body caused by an outside force, which may
be physical or chemical
PPE – (Personal Protective Equipment) refers to devices worn by workers to protect them against
hazards in the work environment including but not limited to safety helmet, safety spectacles, face
shields etc.
Occupational hazards - refer to various environmental factors or stresses that can cause sickness,
impaired health
Safety – free from danger, risk or injury
Workplace – refers to the office, premises or worksite where a worker is temporarily assigned
Bacteria - a simple, single celled microorganism.
Electroshock - caused by touching exposed electrical wire or a piece of electrical equipment which is not
grounded properly.
Grounded – means that the electrical conductor is connected to the ground, which becomes part of the
electrical circuit
Microorganisms – are living cells so small that they can only be seen in a microscope. They are
commonly found to contaminate food – bacteria, molds, and yeast.
Molds – also a microorganism, that has “furry” growth often found on spoiled food.
Sanitation – the science and practice of maintaining clean and healthy conditions of food production
so that the food served to customers cannot make him ill.
Toxin – a poisonous substance that makes you sick
Hazards and Risks in the Workplace

Hazard is a term used to describe something that has the potential to cause harm or adverse
effects to individuals, organizations property or equipment. A situation that could be dangerous to
people in the workplace.

Examples include any substance, material, process and practice that has the ability to cause
harm or adverse health effect to a person under certain conditions.

Types of workplace hazards include:

1. On Job Hazards: The safety regulations in the workplace should keep job hazards on top priority.
• The floors have to be checked for tripping hazards.

BREAD AND PASTRY PRODUCTION NC II (Prepared by: Reggie H. Baguio)

• All the walkways should be well - lit and in case there are blind spots, all the employees and workers
should be aware of them. This could help avoid untoward collisions and accidents.
• Cords and wires should be secured away from the walkways and the corridors. All electric wiring
should be covered with appropriate material.
• Fire safety regulations and electrical safety regulations should also be made.

2. Safety hazards: Inadequate and insufficient machine guards, unsafe workplace conditions, unsafe
work practices.

3. Biological hazards: Caused by organisms such as viruses, bacteria, fungi and parasites. (Risk from skin
irritations and allergies to infections)

4. Chemical hazards: Solid, liquid, vapor or gaseous substances, dust, fume or mist especially if you are
working with cleaning products, bleaches, and other chemical agents.
Chemicals should be rightly labeled to avoid any detrimental mistakes. Mixing of the wrong
chemicals can cause a terrible chemical reaction which could be hazardous to all the employees. There
should be measures to taken to ensure that only chemicals that are safe be kept together and
stored together. The supervisor should have full working knowledge of the chemicals to ensure that
no mistakes happen due to ignorance or negligence. The worker should be guided on the proper
chemical storage procedures.

5. Ergonomic hazards: Anatomical, physiological, and psychological demands on the worker, such as
repetitive and forceful movements, vibration, extreme temperatures, and awkward postures arising
from improper work methods and improperly designed workstations, tools, and equipment. It may
include lighting, chairs, lifting, repeated movements, and computer screens.

6. Psychological hazards: Those that are basically causing stress to a worker. This kind of hazard troubles
an individual very much to an extent that his general well - being is affected. Stress can lead to long term
health problems like headaches, anxiety and impatience. Workplace stress may include heavy
workloads, lack of control over pace of work, shift work, noise, working by yourself, fear of job-loss and
conflict with the employer and co-workers.

Work Hazard Example of Hazard Example of Harm Caused

Thing Knife Cut
Substance Benzene Leukemia
Material Asbestos Mesothelioma
Source of Energy Electricity Shock, Electrocution
Condition Wet floor Slips, falls
Process Welding Metal fume fever
Practice Hard rock mining Silicosis

Risk is the chance or probability that a person will be harmed or experience an adverse health
effect caused by a hazard. It may also apply to situations with property or equipment loss.

Example: The risk of developing cancer from smoking cigarettes could be expressed as "cigarette
smokers are more likely to die of lung cancer than non-smokers”.

BREAD AND PASTRY PRODUCTION NC II (Prepared by: Reggie H. Baguio)

Factors that influence the degree of risk include:

· How much a person is exposed to a hazardous thing or condition;

· How the person is exposed (e.g., breathing in a vapor, skin contact), and how severe are the
effects under the conditions of exposure.

Risk assessment is the process where you:

· Identify hazards
· Analyze or evaluate the risk associated with that hazard
· Determine appropriate ways to eliminate or control the hazard.

Hazards Risks Safety measures/ actions

Manual handling of hand tools -
Back injury Teach and remind workers of correct lifting
knives, secateurs, loppers,
Repetitive strain and carrying techniques. Rotate tasks.
crowbars, weed bags, mattocks.
Back injury Teach and remind workers of correct
Lifting heavy objects incorrectly
Repetitive strain Lifting technique. Rotate tasks.

Repetitive movements,
Back / limb injury Teach and remind workers of correct lifting
bending and awkward working
Repetitive strain technique. Rotate tasks.

Warn volunteers and remove trip hazards

before commencing work. Do not leave
Trip hazards Injury tools on path ways. Watch where one
walks, and goes slowly. Mark tools with
fluorescent color.

Keeping a Workplace Clean and Organized

Good housekeeping is one of the sure ways to keep a safe workplace. It is not a result of
cleaning up once a week or even once a day, but of keeping the workplace cleaned-up all the time. Aside
from preventing accidents and injuries, good housekeeping saves space, time and materials.


BREAD AND PASTRY PRODUCTION NC II (Prepared by: Reggie H. Baguio)

Japanese 5S English Equivalent Meaning
Take out unnecessary items and dispose.
SEIRI Sort Keep only the items you need at work, and
discard or store everything else.
It means that there is a place for everything
SEITON Set in order; Systematize and everything should be in its place. Arrange
necessary items in good order for use.
At the end of each working day, take time to
SEISO Sweep; Shine clean up your office or working space. Keep
the workplace neat and clean.
Maintain high standard of cleaning and
SEIKETSU Standardize; Sanitize
workshop organization at all times.
Do things spontaneously without being told
or ordered. Self-discipline is a condition of
SHITSUKE Sustain; Self-discipline
training people to follow cleaning disciplines


PPE can protect you from hazards associated with jobs such as handling chemicals or working in
a noisy environment. In food preparation this is the cooking outfit which gives protection to the
worker against different hazards that may be encountered during cooking.

These are the following:

 Hair covering/ hairnet – prevents hair from falling into food product
 Facial mask – barrier to airborne contamination during sneezing, coughing and talking
 Aprons – reduce risk of contamination and help maintain cleanliness.
 Gloves – reduce risks of contamination.
 Pot holder – protects against burns when taking hot items on top of the stove.


1. BURNS - Cool the burn with cool water. Do not put grease, or oil on burn – they can make it
worst. Do not try to clean a burn or break blisters. Call a physician.

2. FALLS - Stop severe bleeding. Cover wounds with sterile dressing. Keep the person comfortable
and warm. If you think the bone is broken, do not move the person unless necessary as in the
event of fire, call for a medical assistance.

3. POISONING - Swallowed Poison. If the container is available, use antidote recommended in the
label. If none is given call the emergency station of a hospital, the nearest clinic, or rural health
center. Tell them what kind of poison was taken and they will recommend an antidote. Do not
try to neutralize a poison by giving raw eggs, salt water, mustard, vinegar or citrus fruit
juices as an antidote or to cause vomiting. Never attempt to induce vomiting by sticking
your fingers anywhere in the patient's mouth; this procedure can be very dangerous.

BREAD AND PASTRY PRODUCTION NC II (Prepared by: Reggie H. Baguio)

Safety Signs and Color at Work
Safety signs and color are useful tools to help protect the health and safety of
employees and workplace visitors.

Safety signs are used to:

 Draw attention to health and safety hazards

 point out hazards that may not be obvious
 provide general information and directions
 remind employees where personal protective equipment must be worn
 show where emergency equipment is located
 indicate where certain actions are prohibited

Sign Categories
As shown in the table below, there are three basic sign categories used in the
workplace. Each category is distinguished by its shape.

BREAD AND PASTRY PRODUCTION NC II (Prepared by: Reggie H. Baguio)

Ways to achieve personal hygiene.

1. Regularly wash and cut your hair to keep a neat appearance. If you have facial hair, you can
save money by maintaining it yourself with a set of quality clippers.

2. Visit the dentist at least once a year (twice a year is optimal). Though you are brushing
every day, your dentist will correct any dental problems you have.

3. Bathe every day before work, or every night before you go to sleep. This will help you
cleanse/remove body odor.

4. Wear deodorant or antiperspirant daily if you tend to sweat heavily. Some people can
actually get away with not wearing deodorant, but most people, especially those who
have heavy duty jobs or work in warm climates, benefit greatly from it.

5. Scrub your hands with soap and water before you handle any food especially when you
have just come from the toilet, after touching your hair or other parts of your body,
and after your hands cover your mouth or nose when you cough or sneeze. Be sure to clean
under fingernails where dirt and bacteria tend to accumulate.

6. Trim your nails; especially if you work in the food service. This will help keep your hands
much cleaner and prevent the spread of the germs to the food.

7. Keep hand sanitizer and facial tissues near your work desk. If you do not work on your desk,
put travel sizes of these items in your pocket. Sanitizer and tissues will come in handy
when you're ill and can also prevent the spread of germs resulting from touching items such
as money and computer keyboards.

8. Use a separate towel or cloth for drying dishes, wiping countertops, and wiping

9. Avoid working with food when you have an open cut, sore, boil, or infected wound in your
hands. Pus and other liquids secreted by the wound contain millions of harmful bacteria that
can cause food poisoning.

10. Keep hands out of food as much as possible. Otherwise, wear disposable gloves.

11. Avoid smoking while preparing or handling food as ashes may drop into the food.

12. Wear suitable clothes at work. Do not wear clothes with long sleeves when working with
food. Wear also comfortable and clean shoes. Be sure aprons are always clean.


Washing is the single most effective way to prevent the spread of infections. "Germs"
(a general term for microbes like viruses and bacteria) can be spread casually by touching
another person. You can also catch germs when you touch contaminated objects or surfaces and
then you touch your face (mouth, eyes, and nose).

"Good" hand washing techniques include using an adequate amount of soap, rubbing
the hands together to create friction, and rinsing under running water.


 After using the washroom (includes changing diapers).

 After sneezing, coughing, or using tissue.
 Hands are visibly soiled.
 Before and after eating, handling food, drinking or smoking.
 After touching raw meat, poultry, or fish.
 After handling garbage.
 Handling pets, animals or animal waste.

Right way to wash your hands

 Wet your hands with clean running water (warm or cold) and apply soap.
 Rub your hands together to make lather and scrub them well; be sure to scrub the backs of your
hands, between your fingers, and under your nails.
 Continue rubbing your hands for at least 20 seconds.
 Rinse your hands well under running water.
 Dry your hands using a clean towel or air dry

Other hand issues

 Hand sanitizer should never be substituted to proper hand washing.
 Fingernails should be kept short and without nail polish while handling food.

Food hazards are biological, chemical or physical agents with the potential to cause food
spoilage, illness or injury.
Biological hazards include microorganisms like, virus, protozoa and fungi and parasitic
worms. They pose great threat to food safety. Most microorganisms are good and some are bad,
these are called "pathogens" and they produce toxins which cause illnesses.

Microbes are found:

o In air, soil, and water
o In intestines of animals and humans
o On skins of fruits and vegetables
o On raw meat, poultry and seafood
o On insects and rodents
o On hand, skin and clothing
Ways to prevent microbial growth
1. Sterilization – destructs microbial spores
2. Pasteurization – destructs most bacteria
3. Refrigeration – slows growth of microorganisms
4. Freezing – will end growth of bacteria
5. Deep freezing – will end growth of molds
6. Vacuum packaging to remove oxygen ; canning

Cross-contamination is the transfer of biological or chemical contaminants from foods
(usually raw) to other foods. It is one of the causes of food poisoning.

Practices that would prevent cross-contamination

1. Store raw from ready to eat food.
2. Keep highest hygiene level for ready-to-eat food.
3. Minimize bare hand contact
a. Use utensils
b. Use clean and disposable gloves
c. Wash your hands before touching gloves
d. Change gloves between tasks
- When they are dirty or torn
- When they are contaminated
- Anytime that hand would need washing
4. Don’t prepare food when you are sick
5. Observe proper hand washing
6. Separate different types of raw food.
7. Clean and sanitize/disinfect between container changes of different types of food
8. Use labels and coding in segregating raw materials and utensils


Storage of raw materials
1. Apply First In, First Out (FIFO) policy
2. Observe temperature control
3. Separate raw from ready-to-eat food
4. Store dried food off the floor in sealed containers to protect from pest and moisture
5. Label store food with expiration date (sort by date)
6. Never store food together with chemicals

Storage and Transport

1. Finished product should be stored and transported under conditions that will protect against
contamination deterioration of the product and damage to the container
2. Periodic inspection of the product during storage should be done
3. Product should be dispatched in the sequence of numbers.

General Storage Guidelines

1. Label food
2. Rotate products to ensure the oldest inventory is used first. (FIFO)
3. Establish a schedule to ensure that stored product is depleted on a regular basis. Example,
flour stored in plastic bins should be used within six to twelve months from the time it was
placed in the bins. After that time period, the bins should be emptied, the flour discarded,
and the bins cleaned and sanitized
4. Discard food that has pass the expiration date
5. If food id removed from its original package: put it in a clean, sanitized container and cover
it. Label the container with the name of the food and the original used-by or expiration date.
6. Never use empty food containers to store chemicals or put food in empty chemical
7. Check temperatures of stored food and storage areas
8. Do not store food near chemicals or cleaning supplies
9. Keep all storage areas clean and dry

Refrigerated Storage Guidelines

1. Set refrigerators to the proper temperature (41˚F or 5˚C)
2. Monitor temperature regularly
3. Do not overload refrigerators
4. Never place hot food in refrigerator, this can warm the interior and put other food into the
temp. danger zone
5. Keep refrigerator doors closed as much as possible. Frequent opening lets warm air inside
6. Store raw meat, poultry and fish separately from cooked and read-eat-food or below cooked
and read-eat-food
7. Wrap food properly (zip lock). Leaving it uncovered can lead to cross-contamination.

Frozen Storage Guidelines

1. Keep freezers at a temperature that will keep products frozen
2. Check freezers temperature regularly
3. Place deliveries/goods in freezers as soon as they have been inspected
4. Clearly label frozen food that was prepared on site

Dry Storage Guidelines

1. Moisture and heat are the biggest dangers to dry and canned food
A. Keep storerooms
a. Cool (50˚F to 70˚F / 10˚C TO 21˚C)
b. Dry (50% to 60% humidity)
c. Well ventilated
d. Clean
B. When storing food in dry storage, keep it away from walls, out of direct sunlight and
at least 6in or 15cm off the floor.
Storing Eggs
1. Keep eggs in refrigerated storage until used
2. Use eggs within 4-5 weeks of packing date

Storing Dairy
1. Follow FIFO
2. Discard products that has passed use-by or expiration dates

General Requirement for Food Contact Surfaces

1. Non-toxic (no leaching of chemicals)
2. Non-absorbent (can be drained and/or dried)
3. Resist corrosion
4. Inactive to cleaning and sanitizing chemicals

Storage of Clothing and Gloves

1. Store in clean and dry place
2. Ensure that clothing and gloves are not exposed to splash, dust or other contaminants
3. Store clean garments separately from soiled garments and gloves

Storing Utensils, tableware and equipment

a. Clean and sanitize drawers and shelves before items are stores
b. Clean and sanitize trays and carts used to carry them
c. Store glasses and cups upside down
d. Store flatware and utensils with handles up
e. Cover equipment food contact surfaces until ready for use

Waste management is the collection, transport, processing or disposal, managing and
monitoring of waste materials. The term usually relates to materials produced by human activity,
and the process is generally undertaken to reduce their effect on health, the environment or

Waste management procedures and techniques

1. Waste avoidance is engaging in activity that prevents generation of waste. Waste
segregation is the process of dividing garbage and waste products in an effort to reduce, re –
use and recycle materials.
2. Waste reduction is the minimization of wasteful consumption of goods.
3. Re - use is the process of recovering materials intended for some purpose without
changing their physical and chemical appearance.
4. Recycling is the treatment of waste materials through a process of making them
suitable for beneficial use and for other purposes.
5. Composting is the controlled decomposition of organic matter by microorganism mainly
bacteria and fungi into a humus like product.
6. Waste disposal refers to the proper discharge of any solid waste into or any land.

Cleaning and Sanitizing

Cleaning is the process of removing food and other types of soil from a surface. Sanitizing is
the process of reducing the number of microorganisms on a clean surface to safe levels. Surface
must be first cleaned and rinse before sanitized.
Clean all food contact surfaces:
a. Each time you use them
b. When you begin working with another type of food
c. When you are interrupted during a task
d. As often as possible, but at least every four hours if you’re using something constantly

In cleaning floors
a. Sweep
b. Mop on detergent solution
c. Wash
d. Rinse

Storing Cleaning Tools and Chemicals

a. Should be placed in storage area away from food and food preparation areas.
b. Storage area should provide utility sink for cleaning buckets and washing cleaning tools,
floor drain for dumping dirty water and hooks for hanging mops, brooms and brushes to
allow them to air-dry.


BAKING is the process of cooking food by indirect heat or dry heat in a confined space
usually in an oven using gas, electricity, charcoal, wood at a temperature from 250˚F to 400˚F. It is
considered the best method of cooking to retain the nutrition value of food.
Stone Age
 Swiss Lake Dwellers, more than 8,000 years ago, learned to mix flour and water which they
cooked on heated stones.
 The Babylonians, Chileans, Assyrians and Egyptians had used the same procedure of
breaking bread.
 Royal Egyptian household discovered accidentally that the dough when set aside flowed and
expanded. Since then bread was baked in this manner in 17th century

Baking in Greece
• Slaves started public bakeries somewhere in Greece 300-200 BC and was took over by
• It was said that the quality of baked product then was comparable to the quality of baked
products today.

Baking in America
• In 1604, baking was brought to America by the Jamestown colonists. The industry flourished
with the country in the last half of the 19th century. Construction of ovens and mixing
troughs was much improved. A variety of baked products came out. Other baked products
such as cakes and pies, biscuits, crackers and cookies were introduced. Wheat and baked
products were shipped and introduced to the East.

Baking in the Philippines

• American occupation brought in flour. In 1958, the first Philippine flour mill became
operational. Wheat, instead of flour was brought to the country. For several years, the
Philippines depended upon the U. S. for wheat supply.
• In 1962, the U. S. Wheat Associates, Inc. came to the Philippines not only to market wheat
but also to improve the baking industry. From 1976 to 1985, eight flour mills were
established in different parts of the country. Since then, the industry has provided a means
of livelihood for many Filipinos. •
• Schools have included the offering of baking courses in the curriculum.


1. Have a genuine desire for baking.
2. Understand the properties and characteristics of your ingredients.
3. Know the correct methods/ techniques in mixing batters and dough according to the desired
4. Use good quality ingredients.
5. Use standardized recipes - means the recipes have been tried and tested as to method of mixing
proportion of ingredients used and the expected quality of the bake products; Following correct
baking procedure
6. Measure or weigh ingredients accurately.
7. The use of appropriate tools and baking utensils. Use the right size and kind of pans.
8. Follow the correct temperature and baking time.
Common Malpractice in Baking
1. Inaccurate measurement
2. Wrong hand mixing technique
3. Substitution of quality ingredients
4. Use of inappropriate tools and utensils
5. Failure to follow the correct temperature and baking time


1. Hand Sanitation is Essential.
- Wash hands with water and soap.
- Scrub hands, wrist and fingernails for at least 20 seconds.
- Rinse with water.
- Towel dry your hands.
2. Avoid bare hand contact with foods.
3. Avoid wearing loose clothing.
4. Remove bulky clothing.
5. Remove jewelries from hands and arms.
6. Keep nails clean and short.
7. Wear closed-toed shoes in the food/ kitchen lab.
8. Always wear an apron when baking.
9. Tie hair back during laboratory activities.
10. Immediately close cabinet doors and drawers.
11. Use equipment for its intended use.
12. Always cut slowly and with care.
13. Pay attention to the labels.
14. Clean, rinse and sanitize all counters and the sink to reduce the risk of food-borne illness.
15. Use a dry oven mitt to move hot/ lift hot items.
16. Clean up all spills immediately to prevent slipping or injury.

- Stay in your assigned work area.
- Wandering in the classroom could result in crowded kitchen.
- The more students in a work area, the greater the risk of injuries such as burns and cuts .

Workers in the laboratory area

Workers should observe as follows:

1. Remove jewelry before starting to work

2. Hands should be clean and nails cut short.
3. Use appropriate work outfit
4. Keep sick persons out

1. Sanitize laboratory equipment, tools and utensils thoroughly before use
2. Store all ingredients properly. Dry and wet ingredients should be stored in appropriate
3. Observe safety precautions

Cooking outfit
1. Hair covering/ hair net
2. Apron
3. Face mask
4. Plastic gloves
5. Hand towel
6. Dish towel
7. Pot holder

 Bake - To cook in an oven with dry heat. The oven should always be heated for 10 to 15
minutes before baking.
 Baking blind - This is the process of partially or fully baking a pastry case in the oven without
the filling. Line a tart tin with pastry, cover it with greaseproof paper and weigh it down with
ceramic baking beans or dried chickpeas, beans or lentils. Baking blind is ideal if you have a
no-cook filling, a filling that needs little cooking or is cooked at a low temperature. It ensures
a crisp finish.
 Batter - A mixture of flour, liquid, and other ingredients that is thin enough to pour.
 Beat - To thoroughly combine ingredients and incorporate air with a rapid, circular motion.
This may be done with a wooden spoon, wire whisk, rotary eggbeater, electric mixer, or food
 Caramelize - To heat sugar until it is melted and brown. Caramelizing sugar gives it a
distinctive flavor.
 Combine - To stir together two or more ingredients until mixed.
 Cream - To beat one or more ingredients, usually margarine or butter, sugar, and/or eggs,
until the mixture is smooth and fluffy.
 Crimp - To seal the edges of two layers of dough with the tines of a fork or your fingertips.
 Cut in - To distribute solid fat throughout the dry ingredients using a pastry blender, fork, or
two knives in a scissors motion.
 Dough - A soft, thick mixture of flour, liquids, fat, and other ingredients. Stiffened
 Drizzle - To drip a glaze or icing over food from the tines of a fork or the end of a spoon.
 Dust - To sprinkle lightly with sugar, flour, or cocoa.
 Fold in - To gently combine a heavier mixture with a more delicate substance, such as
beaten egg whites or whipped cream, without causing a loss of air.
 Glaze - To coat with a liquid, thin icing, or jelly before or after the food is cooked.
 Grate - To shred with a handheld grater or food processor.
 Grease - To rub fat on the surface of a pan or dish to prevent sticking.
 Icing - There are a number of different ways to ice a cake. Icing is a term used both for the
action of covering a cake and for the covering itself. Icing is sometimes called frosting,
particularly in American recipes.
Popular icings include:
 Glacé icing (icing sugar and water)
 Buttercream (icing sugar and softened butter)
 Cream cheese icing or frosting (icing sugar, cream cheese and butter)
 Fondant icing (a malleable icing made from ingredients including icing sugar, water
and glucose that can be rolled out. It's generally easier to buy this type of icing, also
known as ready-to-roll icing or regal ice)
 Royal icing (a glossy, runny icing that sets hard, made from icing sugar and egg
 Knead - To fold, push and turn dough or other mixture to produce a smooth, elastic texture.
 Lukewarm - A temperature of about 105°F, which feels neither hot nor cold.
 Mix - To stir together two or more ingredients until they are thoroughly combined.
 Partially set - To refrigerate a gelatin mixture until it thickens to the consistency of unbeaten
egg whites.
 Peel - To remove the skin of a fruit or vegetable by hand or with a knife or peeler. This also
refers to the skin or outer covering of a fruit or vegetable.
 Pre-heat oven - PREHEATING your oven and allowing it time to reach the correct
temperature before you put anything in it is possibly the single most important thing you
can do when you are baking. If you don’t preheat your oven the temperature won’t be hot
enough and the end result may be a heavy, undercooked mess – obviously a great reason to
turn on your oven as early as possible.
 Proof - To allow yeast dough to rise before baking. Or to dissolve yeast in a warm liquid and
set it in a warm place for 5 to 10 minutes until it expands and becomes bubbly.
 Refrigerate - To chill in the refrigerator until a mixture is cool or until dough is firm.
 Rind - The skin or outer coating of such foods as citrus fruit or cheese.
 Rolling boil - To cook a mixture until the surface billows rather than bubbles.
 Sifting - This is the method of passing flour, cocoa or icing sugar through a sieve to remove
lumps and aerate it. Most cake recipes will suggest you sift these ingredients for best results.
 Softened - Margarine, butter, ice cream, or cream cheese that is in a state soft enough for
easy blending, but not melted.
 Soft peaks - Egg whites or whipping cream beaten to the stage where the mixture forms soft,
rounded peaks when the beaters are removed.
 Steam - To cook food on a rack or in a wire basket over boiling water.
 Stiff peaks - Egg whites beaten to the stage where the mixture will hold stiff, pointed peaks
when the beaters are removed.
 Stir - To combine ingredients with a spoon or whisk using a circular motion.
 Toss - To mix lightly with a lifting motion, using two forks or spoons.
 Whip - To beat rapidly with a wire whisk or electric mixer to incorporate air into a mixture in
order to lighten and increase the volume of the mixture.
 Zest - The colored outer peel of citrus fruit, which is used to add flavor. The zest is often
referred to as “grated peel” in recipes. To create zest, choose the diagonal-hole side of a box
grater (it will zest more cleanly than if you use the nail-hole side) and rub lightly to avoid
getting the white pith, which is bitter. For broader strips of zest, use a swivel-blade peeler or
a sharp knife to cut away the peel.



Transparent Glass or plastic cup With a headspace above,

graduated into 1, ¾, 2/3, ½,
1/3, and ¼ used for measuring
liquid ingredients.

Individual Measuring Cups or Usually made of stainless or

Dry Measuring Cups plastic (in 1, ¼, ½, ¾, 2 cups)
used for measuring dry

Measuring Spoon A tablespoon, teaspoon, one-

half teaspoon and one-fourth
teaspoon are used for
measuring small quantities of

Weighing Scale Used for weighing small

amounts of ingredients.

Mixing Bowl Used for general mixing. They

should be large enough to
allow for easy mixing and for
rising in case of yeast bread.

Wooden Spoon/ Mixing Spoon Used to cream together butter

and sugar and for mixing batter
or dough.

Rubber Scraper Used to remove sticky

ingredients from measuring
cups and down the sided of the
mixing bowl. It is also used to
turn batter in baking pans.

Flour Sifter Used to remove foreign objects

of the flour, also used to
incorporate air into the flour
and ensure accurate

Rolling Pin Used to flatten dough for

bread, biscuits and pastries.
The handle of the rolling pin
should be comfortable to grasp
and should turn freely with
plenty of room for fingers.

Paring Knife Used for removing the skin of

fruits and vegetables.

Kitchen Knife/ Chef’s Knife Used for chopping large

quantities of nuts, fruits, or

Straight Spatula/Palette Knife Used to removed muffins/

dough from pans. Spread
sandwich fillings, put icing on
cakes and turn cookies.

Offset Spatula A broad- bladed implement

bent to keep the hand off hot
surfaces. It is used for turning
and lifting eggs, pan cakes and
meats on griddles, grills, sheet
pans like and also used to
scrape and clean griddles.

Kitchen Shear/Scissor Needed in cutting sticky or juicy

foods. The scissors are dipped
in hot water occasionally to
prevent the blades from
sticking together. Also used for
cutting fancy coffee cakes and

Bench Scraper/Dough Cutter Broad, rectangular stiff piece of

metal or plastic used to cut
pieces of dough and to scrape
Grater/Shredder Needed to prepare such
ingredients as cheese, fruit
peels and fresh coconuts

Biscuit or Cookie Cutter Used to form biscuits and

cookies into various shapes.

Pastry Blender Used to cut shortening in flour

when baking bread, biscuits
and scones.

Pastry Wheel Used to cut strips of dough.

The use of this utensil prevents
dough from being “dragged
along” the blade of a knife
when one is used.

Wire Whip/ Whisk A device with loops of stainless

steel wire fastened to a handle.

Pastry Bag and Tips A funnel-like or cone shape

cloth or plastic bag with an
open end that can be fitted
with metal or plastic tips of
varying sizes and designs used
for shaping ,piping or
decorating with materials such
as cake icing, whipped cream
duchesse potatoes and soft

Pastry Brush Used for greasing baking pans

and tops of pastry products.

Fork Used to toss the flour mixture

in pastries.
Hand Mixer and Stand Mixer Used for beating eggs and
cream in a fast and efficient

Cake Rack/ Cooling Rack Used for cooling cakes and

other baked products without
“steaming” the bottom crust.

Baking Sheet/ Cookie or Flat Used to bake cookies, biscuit

Sheet and breads on.

Sauce Pan Used in cooking meat and

vegetables as well as fillings for
pies, bread and other baked

Zester A small fine toothed metal

grater often mounted on a
wooden or plastic handle to
remove the zest or colored
portions of citrus peels in thin

Double Boiler Used for scalding milk and

cooking the filling for cakes so
that these do not get burned.

Tong Used for gripping and lifting

foods, of which they are many
forms adapted to their specific

Bread Knife Used to cut bread and other

baked products.

Paper Cups Are paper or foil cups that are

used to line muffin or cupcake
pans. It holds the batter for
easy release of baked cakes
from pans.

Mortar and Pestle Used for grinding spice and

Oven Mitt/ Hot Pads Insulated fabric gloves used to
protect hands when handling
hot items.

Muffin Pan Give muffin their round

cupcake shape and uniform
size. It is also used for baking
coffee cakes, clover leaf rolls
and puffs.

Cake Pans Used for baking cakes. They

come in different sizes and
shapes- round, square,
rectangular, loaf shape, heart
shape and tube.

Tube-center Pan
Deeper than a round pan and
with hollow center, it is
removable which is used to
bake chiffon type cakes.

Jelly roll Pan A shallow rectangular pan used

for baking rolls.

Bundt Pan Round pan with scalloped sides

used for baking elegant and
special cakes.

Loaf Pan An oblong or rectangular pan

used to hold bread dough in

Custard Cups Made of porcelain or glass used

for baking individual custard.

OVEN- Are the workhorses of the bakery and pastry shop and are essential for producing the bakery
products. Ovens are enclosed spaces in which food is heated, usually by hot air.
Deck Oven
The items to be baked either
on sheet pans or in the case
of some bread freestanding
are placed directly on the
bottom, or deck of oven. This
is also called STACK OVEN
because several may be
stacked on top of one

Rack Oven It is a large oven into which

entire racks full of sheet pans
can be wheeled for baking.

Mechanical Oven
The food is in motion while
it bakes. It’s a most common
types are a revolving oven,
in which its mechanism is
like that of a Ferris wheel.
The mechanical action
eliminates the problem of
hot spots or uneven baking
because the mechanism
rotates throughout the

Dutch Oven A thick-walled (usually cast

iron) cooking pot with a light –
fitting lid. It have been used as
cooking vessels for hundreds of
years. They are called
“casserole dishes” in English
speaking countries other than
the USA.

Convection Oven
Contains fans that circulate the
air and distribute the heat
rapidly throughout the interior.
Strong forced air can distort the
shape of the products made
with batter and soft dough.

Ovens- are the workhorses of the bakery and pastry shop and are essential for producing the bakery
products. Ovens are enclosed spaces in which food is heated, usually by hot air.
Things to consider about ovens:
1. Look for a size suitable for your kitchen. Measure available space. It should have at least 10
centimeters allowance from all sides. The bigger the oven the bigger the allowance.
2. Your kitchen should be well ventilated to remove excess hot air.
3. For big ovens, an exhausted fan is required.
4. Gas fired or electric ovens are both suitable for baking.
5. Preheating takes 20 to 40, depending the size of the oven. When desired temperature is
achieved, that is the time to put your cake, and must maintain that temperature
throughout the baking process.
6. For proper baking all ovens should have THERMOSTAT CONTROL. It is a device that controls
the temperature inside the oven. It automatically turns off when desired temperature is
achieved. And automatically turns on when it falls below desired the temperature.
7. Even though there is a thermometer dial outside the oven, an extra OVEN THERMOMETER
will show the exact heat in degrees (Fahrenheit or Centigrade/Celsius) inside the oven.
Place or hang it inside the oven.
8. Look closely on the thermometer dial outside the oven if it is Fahrenheit or Centigrade.
Usually ovens with maximum temperature of 250 are in Centigrade/Celsius. And an oven
with maximum temperature of 500-600 is in Fahrenheit. See chart for conversion.

°C = °F-32 X 5/9 °F = °C x 9/5 + 32

If using a fan-forced oven , your cooking time may be a little quicker, so start checking your food a
little earlier

9. Don’t totally rely on the temperature dial or knob when setting your desired temperature,
like 350 F, it is not always accurate. Sometimes it will be hotter than 350 F, so adjust it a
little lower or vice versa. Then is when an oven thermometer will come in handy.
10. When your cake burns easily on the base, try putting a cookie sheet underneath. This
usually happens in small ovens, when the heat is almost too close to your cake.
11. When your cake burns on the top surface, lower wire rack.
12. After baking, turn off the fire and let the oven door open to cool.
13. Clean as needed. Don’t forget to pull the plug when cleaning an electric oven, so as to
prevent shock.
14. When your oven needs repair, don’t just call any technician, he must be company trained.
So whatever the brand of your oven is, call the company repair service. Don’t forget to ask
for a warranty after repair.
15. Always check gas tank for leaks. LPG smells pungent.
16. Keep this in mind “Safety First”. And don’t forget to inform your helpers and assistants
working with you about the safety precautions.
17. It is a MUST to install 2 units of fire extinguishers in your kitchen. Just in case the other one
fails to extinguish you still have another one. Place it where anybody can see it right away.
18. Turbo broilers are another type of oven; it is called a convection oven. You can also use this
to bake your cakes.
19. An oven toaster is quite small and has no thermostat control. It is not advisable to use this
for baking.


1. Hold a lighted match or igniter safely near the burner tube of the oven.
2. At the same time push and turn the oven knob in a counterclockwise direction towards the
desired oven temperature setting.

REMINDER: Should the initial lighting fail, turn to its “OFF” position immediately and allow the
accumulated to be dispersed before re- ignition. Always close the oven door gently and with care.
Letting the door to slam may affect the rise of the cake being baked.


1. Do pre-heat the oven 15 to 20 minutes before baking.
2. Do put the oven rack at the center of the oven for proper heat distance.
3. Don’t let the pans touch the sides of the oven or touch each other.
4. Don’t put the pans one on top of the other when baking with 2 racks. Stagger them so heat
will circulate.
5. Don’t open the door until at least half of the baking time has passed. Do use an oven
thermometer to make sure you are baking at the proper temperature.
6. Do clean up any spill on the oven floor so they won’t burn when oven is used again.


Very low 225 to 275
Low 300 to 325
Medium 350 to 375
Hot 400 to 425
Very Hot 450 to 475
Broil 500


Establishing a preventive maintenance program helps to ensure that all equipment and tools
function as intended. Failure to perform maintenance activities during production may increase the
risk of microbial contamination. Preventive maintenance includes periodic examination and
maintenance of tools and equipment. Saving money is one good reason in performing preventive

Preventive maintenance practices

Cutting Tools
1. Sharpen knives frequently including folding knives and disinfect before use.
2. Replace knives if damaged or if they cannot otherwise be maintained in sanitary condition.
3. Frequently inspect cutting blades before and during operation for damage, product residue
build up or cleaning needs.
4. Remove the blades and clean separately, and remaining parts are disassembled (if possible)
and cleaned on regular basis.
5. Store them in their designated places.
Handy Tools
1. Protect all handy tools from dirt, rust and corrosion by air drying them.
2. Wash and dry utensils with a clean dry rag before storing them.
3. Rinse tools and utensils in very hot clean water to sterilize them.
4. Have a periodic inspection and cleaning of tool.
For longer and efficient use of baking equipment the following pointers will be helpful:
Cleaning the Range
1. Switch off and remove the electric plug to allow the range to cool before cleaning.
2. Remove and wipe food particles, burnt sediments and grease away from top of the range.
3. Clean the parts thoroughly particularly those that are removable. Clean the burners with a
dry brush or with a clean dry cloth.
4. Remove the grates before cleaning the entire oven. Scrape the food particles carefully. Wash
and dry the removable parts very well.
Cleaning the mixer
1. Remove the detachable parts.
2. Wash the beaters and bowls after use.
3. Wipe the parts with dry cloth thoroughly.


The proper care and storage of tools and equipment are not only the concern of the
management but of the workers who use the equipment.

Importance of proper storage of tools and equipment

1. It is an important factor for safety and health as well as good business.
2. Improves appearance of general-shop and construction areas.
3. Reduces overall tool cost through maintenance.
4. This also ensures that tools are in good repair at hand.
5. Teaches workers principles of (tool) accountability.

Pointers to follow in storing tools and equipment:

1. Have a designated place for each kind of tools.
2. Label the storage cabinet or place correctly for immediate finding.
3. Store them near the point of use.
4. Wash and dry properly before storing.
5. Store knives properly when not in use with sharp edge down.
6. Put frequently used items in conveniently accessible locations.
7. Gather and secure electrical cords to prevent entanglement or snagging.
8. Cutting boards should be stored vertically to avoid moisture collection.
9. Metal equipment can be stacked on one another after drying such as storage dishes and
10. Make sure the areas where you are storing the equipment are clean, dry and not

Flour is a finely ground meal or powdery product obtained from milling cereal grains, root
crops, starchy vegetables and other foods. There are different kinds of flour depending on the
raw materials used such as rice flour, potato flour, soya flour, cassava flour and several others.

The protein content of flour is called gluten exist in dry form. Gluten is responsible for the
tough, rubbery and elastic property when flour is mixed with water and other liquids. Gluten is
composed of approximately equal proportions of glutenin and gliadin. Glutenin gives the dough
strength to hold leavening gases and determines the structure of the bakes products. Gliadin
gives elastic or stretching properties of gluten.

- the main ingredient or framework of baked products
- contributes color, texture and flavor
- improve the nutritive value
- use for various cooking products like thickening agent, binding, dredging and stiffening

Types of Flour:
a. Bread Flour-BF (Hard Wheat)
- Strong Flour or First Class Flour
- contains 12% or more gluten
- Used in breads, rolls and almost all yeast-raised dough production because of its high
protein content.
- When rubbed between fingers it feels rough or sandy, dry and granular
- Has a creamy color.
- When pressed together, does not lump easily.

b. All- Purpose Flour- APF (Semi Hard Wheat)

- Family Flour or General Flour and sometimes referred to as Pastry Flour.
- contains 10 to 12% gluten and it is used in almost all bakery goods from breads,
pastries, cookies and cakes
- good substitute for bread flour or cake flour
- if used for bread, it needs more kneading and less mixing to prevent gluten
- when you rub it between your fingers it feels smooth and if pressed hardly on your
hands, it holds its shape
c. Cake Flour- CF (Soft Wheat)
- Soft Flour
- 10% or less gluten
- used in cakes, cookies and other baked goods that need little or no gluten at all
- its color is usually white and it feels glossy and smooth like powder
- clumps a bit and tends to hold its shape if pressed with your hands
- whiter than bread and all-purpose flour.

d. Other types- rye, buckwheat, corn flour and others are often used only for specialized
types of baking. Each imparts a distinct quality to the finished product.

e. Durum flour – it is usually enriched and used to make noodles

f. Self-rising flour- basically ordinary all-purpose flour that has baking powder and salt
added to it.

- act as emulsifying agents for cakes when beaten stiff and folded into the flour
- they help hold gas to increase the volume and tenderness of baked products
a. Water
- it helps disperse other ingredients
- the cheapest among all liquid ingredients
- used to hold the batter or dough together and to blend all the ingredients
b. Milk
- gives delightful aroma
- provides improve nutrition, flavour and eating quality
- helps improve color of the crust
- improve texture and (increases) volume due to the increased ability of milk to absorb

Kinds of Milk

a. Whole Fresh Milk- cow’s milk containing a minimum of milk fat and non-fat milk solids
b. Evaporated Milk- made from fresh whole milk
c. Skim Milk- varying amounts of milk fat is removed from whole milk
d. Condensed Milk- with sugar added and water removed
e. Filled Milk- with added vitamins
f. Buttermilk- a low-fat or fat-free milk to which a bacterial culture has been added. It has a
mildly acidic taste. Sour milk, made from milk and lemon juice or vinegar, can be substituted
in baking recipes.
g. Fat-free half-and-half:- Made mostly from skim milk, with carrageenan for body, this
product can bring a creamy flavor to recipes without added fat.
h. Light cream and half-and-half:- Light cream contains 18 to 30 percent milk fat. Half-and-half
is a mixture of milk and cream.
i. Non-fat dry milk powder- When reconstituted, this milk product can be used in cooking.
j. Sour cream and yogurt- Sour cream is traditionally made from light cream with a bacterial
culture added, while yogurt is made from milk with a bacterial culture added. Both are
available in low-fat and fat-free varieties.
k. Whipping cream- It contains at least 30 percent milk fat and can be beaten into whipped

c. Fruit Juice
- can be a substitute for water and milk
- add flavor to baked products- example: pineapple juice, orange juice


- aside from sweet taste, it gives appetizing golden color
- makes baked products tender because of its property to retain moisture
- acts as food of the yeast in yeast bread
- add aroma and energy value to the baked products

Types of Sugar
a. Granulated Sugar- it is refined sugar that is commonly used at home.
b. Brown Sugar- it is partially purified product ranging from light to dark
brown. Regular granulated sucrose containing various impurities that
give distinctive flavor
c. Confectioner’s Sugar/ Powdered Sugar- combination of sugar and
cornstarch, with the latter added to prevent caking. Its fine, smooth, and powder- like
quality makes it excellent for making candies, icings, frostings and dessert sauces.
d. Caster Sugar-it is refined white sugar with size between that of granulated
and confectioner’s sugar. It is used in cakes and dessert-making because it
easily dissolves without forming lumps.

- may be single fat or oil or a combination of several fats and oils.
- general term used for fats or oils used to tenderized baked products
- contributes to the fluffy and tender texture of pie crust and cookies
- assists in the uniform dispersions of leavening gas
- increase volume, give shape and texture to baked products

Classification of Shortening
a. Butter – this is mainly used for cakes and cookies. Its shortening value is inferior to that of
lard. Butter does not cream well and lacks uniformity. Butter contributes a desirable sweet
“buttery” flavor to food.
b. Margarine- An artificial butter product made from various hydrogenated fats and flavorings,
unlike butter, margarine mainly consists of vegetable fat and skim milk. Margarine and
butter may look the same. However, margarine lacks the distinct flavour that butter has. 80
percent vegetable oil that is partially hydrogenated to hold a solid form. The remaining 20
percent is liquids, flavoring, coloring, and other additives. Margarine may be salted or
c. Lard – this is best for breads, biscuits, pie crust and a few types of cakes and cookies. Hog fat
or lard is usually solid even at room temperature. Also use for greasing pans.

- one of the best protein foods
- used for added structure, richness and nutrition, and good keeping quality
- help to support the weight of the sugar and shortening, thus keep the product from
becoming heavy
- serves as a means of incorporating air
- supply liquid to batter and dough

– gas added or produced during the mixing and/or heating of a batter or dough making the
mixture rise.
-makes baked product light and porous
- volume increases as the air entrapped in the flour mixture expands when heated

Three Types of Leavening Agents

a. Biological/ Natural Enzyme

- Yeast is a single-celled plant capable of converting sugar to
alcohol and carbon dioxide in a process known as

b. Chemical/Commercial
- Baking Powder-A leavening agent containing both baking soda and one or two acids - citric or
tartaric. It reacts without acid from the other ingredients when wet and when it becomes
hot. The baking powder used at home is "double-acting" because it has two types of acid -
one reacts when liquids are added in the bowl and the other
reacts when it becomes hot during baking. Carbon dioxide is the
gas produced that "lifts" the batter and makes a light product in
the end.
- Baking Soda (Sodium Bicarbonate) A chemical leavening agent that
releases carbon dioxide when acids or acid sources are added to it
such as sour milk, molasses and cream of tartar. Baking soda has one other advantage in the
kitchen -- it's a natural fire extinguisher.Always mix with other dry ingredients before adding
any liquid, since leavening begins as soon as soda comes in contact with liquid.

c. Water Vapor or Steam contributes to the improvement of the texture and volume of the

d. Cream of Tartar (potassium hydrogen tartrate) - used to stabilized the egg whites and allow
them to reach its full volume.

- (Sodium Chloride)
- enhance and correct the flavor of other ingredients in the dough
- used to control and regulate the fermentation process in the bread making
- it toughens the gluten , thus permits greater volume
- allows absorption or more water, sugar caramelizes more readily

- the amount to be used depends on the customer’s desire and the baker’s knowledge of their
a. Spices and Seeds- finely ground, aromatic vegetable products to improve the quality of
cooked food (example: mace, cinnamon, nutmeg)

b. Flavorings- extracts are solutions of the flavors in ethyl alcohol or other solvent (example:
orange, lemon and vanilla extract)

c. Chocolate – popularly used in the baking of cakes, pies and cookies. They provide variety as
well as body and bulk to the mix or icing.

Milk chocolate is at least 10-percent pure chocolate with added cocoa butter, sugar, and milk solids.

Semisweet and bittersweet chocolate can be used interchangeably. They contain at least 35-
percent pure chocolate with added cocoa butter and sugar.

Sweet chocolate is dark chocolate that contains at least 15-percent pure chocolate with extra cocoa
butter and sugar.8

Unsweetened chocolate is used for baking and cooking rather than snacking. This ingredient
contains pure chocolate and cocoa butter with no sugar added.

Unsweetened cocoa powder is pure chocolate with most of the cocoa butter removed. Dutch-
process or European-style cocoa powder has been treated to neutralize acids, making it mellower in

White chocolate, which has a mild flavor, contains cocoa butter, sugar, and milk solids. Products
such as white baking bars, white baking pieces, white candy coating, and white confectionery bars
are sometimes confused with white chocolate. While they are often used interchangeably in recipes,
they are not truly white chocolate because they do not contain cocoa butter.


p. = pinch
sp. = speck
f.g. = few grains
t., tsp., TSP. = teaspoon
T., tbs., tbsp., TBSP = tablespoon
Oz. = ounce
c = cup
pt. = pint
qt. = quart
gal. = Gallon
pk. = peck
bu. = bushel
lb., # = pound
doz., dz. = dozen
min. = minute
hr. = hour
C. = degrees Celsius
F. = degrees Fahrenheit


1 tablespoon = 3 teaspoon
2 tablespoon = 1/8 cup = 28.35 grams = 1
4 tablespoon = ¼ cup
5 tablespoon + 1 teaspoon = 1/3 cup
½ cup+1/4 cup = ¾ cup
¾ cup plus2 tablespoons = 7/8 cup
16 tablespoon = 1 cup = 8 ounces
2 cups = 1 pint
4 cups = 1 quart = 2 pints
16 ounces = 1 pound
8 cups = ½ gallon = 2 quarts
1 pound ( lb.) = 463.59 grams
1 kilogram ( kg. ) = 2.21 pounds
1 gram = .035 ounces
1 medium orange = ¼ to ½ cup ( slice )
1 medium apple = 1 cup slice
14 oz. can condensed milk = 1 ¼ cups
14 oz, can evaporated milk = 1 2/3 cups
1 lb. brown sugar = 2 ¼ cups (packed)
1 lb. confectioner sugar = 3 ½ cups
1 lb. confectioner sugar = 2 ½ cups
1 lb. nuts = 4 ½ cups
1 lb. dried nuts = 2 cups
5 whole eggs = 1 cup
12 egg yolks = 1 cup
8 egg whites = 1 cup
1 bar butter = 1 cup = ½ pound
1 stick butter = ½ cup


1 gallon (gal.) = 4 quarts
1 quart = 2 pints
= 964.4 milliliters
1 teaspoon ( tsp. or t.) = 4.9 milliliters
1 tablespoon (T. or tbsp. ) = 14.8 milliliters
15 ounces raisins = 3 cups


1 cup all-purpose flour....................... 1 cup + 2 tbsp cake flour

1 tablespoon cornstarch.................................2 tablespoon all-purpose flour
1 cup sifted cake flour....................................7/8 cup all-purpose flour sifted ……………. 1 cup all
purpose flour minus 2 tablespoon.
1 cup sugar granulated ..................................1 1/3 cup brown sugar, lightly packed
1 cup honey .................................................1 ¼ cup sugar plus 1 /2cup liquid
1 ounce chocolate ........................................ 3 tablespoon cocoa plus 1 tablespoon fat
1 teaspoon baking powder ......................... ½ teaspoon cream of tartar + ¼ teaspoon baking soda
1 teaspoon active dry yeast .........................................1 package (7gram) dry yeast compressed yeast
1 square unsweetened chocolate............................... 3 tablespoon cocoa plus 1 tablespoon fat
1 cup butter ................................................................ 1 cup margarine ………….. 7/8 cup of lard plus ½
teaspoon salt
1 cup whole milk ................................................. 1/2 cup evap milk + ½ cup water…………. 1 cup water
+ ¼ cup powdered milk
1 cup milk............................................................ 3 tablespoon of sifted non - fat dry milk plus 1 cup
water, 6 tablespoons of sifted crystals plus 1 cup water
1 cup butter milk or sour milk .................................. 1 ¾ teaspoon of cream of tartar plus1 cup of
sweet milk

A. Flour
1. Sift the flour
2. Scoop to fill the measuring cup to overflow. DO NOT SHAKE.
3. Level off with spatula


All-Purpose Flour: 1 cup = 120-130 grams = 4¼ ounces
Bread Flour: 1 cup = 130 grams = 4½ ounces
Cake Flour: 1 cup = 110 grams = 4 ounces
Whole Wheat Flour: 1 cup = 120 grams = 4¼ ounces

B. Sugar
a. White sugar
1. Sifting is not necessary before measuring unless it is lumpy
2. Fill the measuring cup until overflowing. DO NOT SHAKE THE CUP.
3. Level off with spatula
b. Brown sugar
1. Check if the sugar is lumpy before measuring. Roll out the lumps. Remove the dirt.
2. Scoop into the measuring cup and pack compactly until it follows the shape when


Granulated Sugar: 1 cup = 200 grams = 7 ounces
Caster Sugar: 1 cup = 200 grams = 7 ounces
Light Brown Sugar: 1 cup = 215 grams = 7½ ounces
Dark Brown Sugar: 1 cup = 230 grams = 8 ounces
Confectioners’ Sugar: 1 cup = 120 grams = 4½ ounces

C. Powdered food (baking powder and baking soda)

1. Remove the lumps in the powder by stirring
2. Dip the measuring spoon into the powder
3. Level with spatula or back edge of the knife or right in the can opening

D. Shortening
a. Solid Fats
1. Fill the measuring cup/spoon with the shortening while pressing until it is full
2. Level the fat with a straight of a knife or spatula
b. Liquid fats
1. Pour oil in the glass measuring cup
2. Check if it is filled up to the measuring mark. Do not lift the cup when measuring

E. Milk
a. Liquid form
1. Pour milk into the glass measuring cup up to the measuring mark. Do not lift the cup.
b. Powdered milk
1. Remove lumps in milk by stirring
2. Scoop lightly to fill the measuring cup or spoon without shaking until it overflows
3. Use the spatula or straight edge of the knife to level the measurement
Accuracy in measuring basic ingredients is especially necessary when baking bread, pies and
cakes. Ingredients are measured by weight, volume and some other convenient means:

1. Weight Measurement- the usual scale used for weighing is the dietetic scale (500 grams) of
the spring balance type. The knob on the numbered face may be “zeroed” after placing an empty
container can then be read directly.

2. Volume Measurement- cups are used in measuring the volume of ingredients. The glass cup
with headspace above the calibrated level is used for liquid ingredients and the metal cup with no
headspace above is used for dry ingredients.

3. Other Means- a convenient means of measuring portions is by noting down weights and volume
of manufactured foods as indicated on the label of standard packages, which is on cans, cartons,
bags and the like. For example: 1 pound of butter means to 2 cups, and a number 2 can liquid
contains 2 cups.


 Store in tightly covered containers to keep out dust, moisture and insects.
 Store in a dry place at room temperature. It may be stored for 2-3 months.

 Unopened cans of evaporated or sweetened condensed milk may be stored at room
 Once opened, they should be refrigerated immediately.

 Sugar should be stored in a covered container and in dry place.
 Brown sugar should be stored in an airtight container to keep the sugar from drying out.

 Eggs should be stored in the refrigerator with large end up.
 When stored at room temperature, eggs lose more quality in a day than a week in the
refrigerator. For best quality, eggs should be used within a week.
 To store leftover yolks, cover with cold water and refrigerate in a tightly covered containers.
Pour off water when ready to use the yolks. Use within one or two days.
 To store egg whites, refrigerate in a tightly covered containers and use within one or two

 Leave butter in its original package and keep it in the food compartment of the refrigerator
or freezer, it will last up to 2 weeks.
 Placed partially used portions of butter in a covered dish, refrigerate and use up within a
few days.
 Store home-rendered fats such as pork fat in the refrigerator.
 Vegetable shortenings should be kept at room temperature for shorter periods of time as
when refrigerated. Under refrigeration, they keep for several months.

 Store baking powder, baking soda and cream of tartar tightly in a covered containers in a dry
place. To test if baking powder is active: place ½ tsp. in ¼ cup water. It should bubble up if
it’s still good. For baking soda, pour a few drops of vinegar in ¼ tsp. It should bubble up if it’s
still good.
 Check the label on yeast products for the date of expiry.
Chapter IV: Baking Techniques and Methods

Basic Mixing Methods

Once the ingredients have been selected and measured, often the
next step is to mix them all together.

The general objectives in mixing batters and dough are:  

1. Uniform distribution of ingredients;  

2. Minimum loss of the leavening agent;  

3. Optimum blending; and,   

4. Development or prevention of gluten. 

A. BEATING – to incorporate air in a mixture by mechanical agitation, using a spoon or fork,

whisk, rotary beater or electric mixer, means to vigorously agitate foods to incorporate air or
develop gluten. It also means to thoroughly combine ingredients and incorporate air with
rapid, circular motion. This may be done with a wooden spoon, wire whisk, rotary egg
beater, electric mixer or food processor.
B. CREAMING – the process of stirring and beating a solid fat (butter, margarine or
shortening) so that it absorb air. Creamed fat will be soft, smooth, light and fluffy. Creaming
is the technique that requires the baker to beat butter and sugar vigorously until they’re soft
and creamy, using either an electric mixer or wooden spoon. This aerates the mixture and
gives it a mousse like texture. The eggs then need to be incorporated slowly and steadily in
order to prevent the mixture from curdling and to give the cake a fine light texture. The
purpose of creaming is to air in the form of tiny bubbles, to act as a rising agent.

How to Cream With a Stand Mixer

It is important to start on low to medium-low speed until all ingredients have been
incorporated, then switch to medium to medium-high speed, making sure to scrape the
bowl down periodically to make sure all ingredients have been mixed thoroughly.

To do:
1. Add the butter stick(s) to the mixing bowl of a stand mixer, fitted
with a paddle attachment. When the butter is still cold, but takes the
imprint of a finger when gently pressed, it is ready to be creamed.

If the butter is solid from the cold or your stand mixer is not
powerful enough, you can cut it into tablespoon sized pieces before using.
Refrigerate the pieces briefly if too warm or soft. Never use a microwave: it will melt it, even
though it will look solid.

2. Beat the butter on low (or medium-low) until softened. It will take
about 60 seconds or less, depending on the amount.
When using a stand mixer, never go above medium speed, or the butter will heat up.
Stop and scrape the beaters and the sides and bottom of the bowl. If you run the mixer at
high speed for a few seconds, the butter will magically clear from the mixer blades. Then,
scrape the bowl

3. Add the sugar in a steady stream at the side of the bowl with the mixer on low.

4. Increase the mixer speed to medium and beat for 1 or 2 minutes until lighter in
yellow and somewhat aerated. Stop the beater blades, and with a large rubber spatula,
scrape the blades and the mixer bowl's sides and bottom.

5. Next, if it is a shortened cake, the (cold) eggs are added gradually

in stages, with the mixer on low. The yolks help emulsify and hold moisture
within the formed air cells and create a water-in-fat emulsion. After the
eggs have been added, increase the mixer speed to medium and beat the
mixture for 2 minutes. (If the eggs are cold, the batter will curdle slightly.
It's ok. It will come together as the batter warms from the beaters. ) Set the
kitchen timer to help you keep track of the time. The mixture will become fluffy and aerated.
The butter and eggs are an excellent temperature. Notice in the photo that it forms ridges
on the side of the mixing bowl after the beaters pulls through the mixture; the batter is tacky
and not too warm so it sticks to the side of the mixing bowl. The batter has become lighter in
color as it takes on air bubbles and SOMEWHAT fluffy, as well.

6. Then, starting with the flour and dry ingredients, add it with the liquid (cold milk)
alternately in stages. The mixture will curdle slightly from the cold milk, but will be corrected
with the addition of flour.

7. After completing the last addition of flour, stop the mixer, and scrape the side and
bottom of the bowl with a large rubber spatula. Then, let the mixer run for 30 seconds on
LOW. The batter should look mixed. Do NOT over mix. Remove the
mixing bowl from the mixer. With a large rubber spatula, give the
batter ONE or TWO quick folds to incorporate any stray flour or milk
left at the sides and bottom of the bowl. Then, STOP.


 Let the butter to sit at room temperature for an hour to soften, beat the butter first
to soften and then added sugar. Then beat it to light and fluffy mass.

 For cold, hard butter, cut the butter into 1/2-inch pieces and place it with the sugar
in a mixing bowl set over barely simmering water.

 Beat with a wooden spoon for several seconds until the butter softens.

 Then set the bowl in a basin of cold water and beat for a minute or two until the
mixture is light, fluffy, and a pale ivory color.
C. CUTTING IN – mixing a fat and flour with the use of pastry blender or two knives in a
scissor-like manner; method that distributes solid fat throughout the dry ingredients using a
pastry blender, fork or two knives.
D. CUT AND FOLD – a combination of two motions; cutting vertically through the mixture
and turning over and over across the bottom of the mixing bowl at each turn.
E. FOLDING – the gentle combining of two or more mixtures (one of which is often
whipped egg whites or whipped cream) in a figure eight motion, using a spoon or rubber
spatula; a method of gently combining a heavier mixture with a more delicate substance
such as beaten egg whites or whipped cream without causing a loss of air. When folding, a
large metal spoon is the ideal tool because the thin edge cuts through the mixture swiftly
and cleanly, ingredients are folded to cut through the mixture and cause minimum
disturbance to the air bubbles. It is important not to beat the flour in as this will cause
trapped air to escape and reduce the volume of the mixture.
F. KNEADING – the pressing, folding and stretching of dough to develop gluten for good
bread structure; to fold, push and turn the dough or other mixture to produce a smooth,
elastic texture. Kneading dough is essential to making bread. Kneading stretches the dough
and develops the gluten, the springy stuff that gives bread its texture. It also helps to
uniformly distribute the gasses that are the byproduct of the yeast‘s metabolism.
G. STIRRING – mixing ingredients with spoon, fork or spatula: to move spoon in circular
motion to incorporate ingredients. Usually refers to combining liquids or melted ingredients.
To stir ingredients cooking on the stove top, use a wooden spoon and stir from the bottom
of the pan to prevent scorching. String helps to cool a mixture and evenly distribute the
H. SIFTING – to separate coarse particles in the ingredients by passing through a sieve. Air is
incorporated through this method. Sifting means to pass usually dry ingredients through a
fine wire mesh so as to produce a uniform consistency and add air to dry ingredients, such as
flour and catches any lumps or unwanted particles to be discarded. It is done by using a flour
sifter or by spooning the flour into a fine mesh food strainer and shaking or tapping it over a
When a recipe says: 1 cup sifted, flour – it means sift and then measure. To do, sift flour over
measuring cup to measure. Or 1 cup flour, sifted – that means to measure and then sift.
Sifting is done to incorporate into the flour and removes any unwanted particles.
F. WHIPPING – kind of beating eggs and cream to fill them with air and make them thick
and fluffy; to stir rapidly adding air to make light and fluffy in consistency. Cream that is to
be whipped needs to have a fat content of at least 36%. It is common for cream to be
sterilized and this makes the cream take longer to whip.
The Whipping Stages of Egg Whites
 Foamy stage – the egg whites are just lightly whipped to a frothy but still fluid consistency.
They will consist of large bubbles on the surface that readily pop. The foam will not hold any
peaks when the whisk is lifted from it.
 Soft peak stage – this means that the foam is moist, shiny and bright white. When the whisk
or beaters are lifted, the foam will form a dull peak, then pile softly or gently curl over. It will
also flow when the bowl is tilted.
 Stiff peak stage – at this stage, the foam maintains its glossy sheen and holds an upright peak
when the whisk or beaters are lifted. It will not flow or will just barely flow, when the bowl is
tilted. At this point, the foam has reached its maximum volume.
 Over beaten stage – the egg whites are over beaten when the foam begins to look dry and



- These are breads leavened with a biological leavening agent like yeast in any form (dried or
compressed). It is a staple food made from flour, shortening, leavening agent and other ingredients.

Types of Mixing Dough

1. Straight Dough Method- this method combines all the ingredients together at one time to
make the dough. The dough is kneaded and set aside to rise.

2. Sponge Dough Method- this method mixes parts of the liquid, flour and all of the yeast to
make a soft mixture which is set aside to rise until bubbly. Then the remaining ingredients are added
and the mixture is treated as straight dough.

3. No Knead Method- this method uses batter instead of dough. This makes bread making
faster because one does not have to knead and shape a dough. However, the texture of the finished
product is not as fine as that of kneaded dough.


1. Combining and mixing the ingredients for bread

2. Kneading
3. Fermentation
4. Resting Period
5. Punching Down
6. Shaping the dough
7. Second rising or proofing
8. Baking

Classification of Bread
1. Quick Bread
2. Yeast Bread


Quick breads are breads leavened with the help of chemical leaveners (baking powder and
baking soda) and similarly with mechanical leavening involving the incorporating of more air into the
dough and batter by creaming and mixing action.
Muffin - Small, cake-like sweet or savory leavened breads.
Cupcake - small cakes, and are made by one of the traditional cake methods such as the creaming
method, the reverse creaming method, the chiffon method, and so on. They tend to have a finer
crumb than muffins.

While no single criterion distinguishes a muffin from a cupcake if you do not adopt the technical
definition above, the following trends exist:

• Cupcakes tend to be sweeter than muffins; there are savory muffins

• Cupcakes are often iced or frosted, whereas muffins tend to have no topping, or a simple
crumb topping
• Cupcakes usually have a head or top no larger than the body of the cupcake; muffins are
often encouraged to overflow their baking cup, so that their top is larger in diameter, giving
them somewhat of a mushroom shape
• Cupcakes are almost always, well, cupcake shaped; muffins can be made as just muffin tops
• Cupcakes are almost never crispy or crunchy; muffins are often encouraged to brown and
develop texture, especially on the tops

Characteristics of Good Quick Breads

Light texture
Coarse but even grain
Evenly sized air cells that are equally distributed
Golden-brown crust

Faults and Remedies of Basic Quick Breads:

Problem Characteristics Faults Remedies
1. Flat, soggy (heavy with water) Over mixing Follow directions for mixing
speed and time.
Under baking Follow directions for baking
time and temperature. Have
oven temperatures checked
for accuracy.
2. Tunneling Over mixing Follow directions for mixing
speed and time.

Oven temperature too hot Follow directions for proper

baking temperatures. Have
oven temperatures checked
for accuracy.
3. Flat, tough Batter at room Do not mix batter until ready
temperature for too long to bake or refrigerate batter
period of time until baking time.
4. Flat top Oven temperature too low Follow directions for proper
temperature. Higher
temperatures produce


Materials needed: Muffin Pan, flour sifter, wooden spoon, mixing bowl, chopping board and knife,
measuring cups and spoon, Papers cups (2 or 3 oz.), Cupcake box or any sealed containers, ice cream
scoop (optional)



½ cup butter (1 stick)
1 ½ cup white sugar


2 pieces eggs
1 tsp. vanilla


2 cups sifted All-Purpose Flour DRY INGREDIENTS
1 tsp. baking powder
1 tsp. baking soda
2 tsp. salt

½ cup sour milk (¼ cup evap. + ¼ cup water + 2 tsp. calamansi juice) LIQUID

1 cup mashed ripe lakatan (5-6 pieces)

1 cup chopped any kinds of nuts (optional)
1 cup chopped chocolate (optional)





NOTE:Materials needed: Muffin Pans, flour sifter, mixing bowl, wooden spoon, measuring cups and
spoon, Papers cups (2 or 3 oz.), Cupcake box or any sealed containers, Pastry bag and tips for the
Frostings, Chocolate chips or sprinkles for toppings (optional), ice cream scoop (optional)
2 cups sifted All-Purpose Flour
1 cup sifted unsweetened Dutch-processed cocoa powder
2 cups granulated/white sugar
2 tsp. baking soda
1 tsp. baking powder
½ tsp. salt


2 large eggs
Optional- 25 grams instant coffee powder (any brand) dissolved in
1 cup water
1 cup evaporated milk mixed with 1 tsp. vinegar
¼ cup corn oil or veg. oil - for added moisture on the cupcakes





For the Butter Frostings: (optional)

1 cup (1 whole) unsalted butter, chilled
3 cups sifted Powdered Sugar



Materials needed: Muffin Pans, flour sifter, mixing bowl, wooden spoon, measuring cups and spoon,
grater, can opener, Papers cups (2 or 3 oz.), Cupcake box or any sealed containers, ice cream scoop
½ cup butter (1 stick)
½ cup granulated sugar


2 eggs
1 ½ cup sifted All-Purpose Flour
3 tsp. baking powder
½ tsp. salt

½ cup evap. Milk

1 tsp. vanilla

1 cup grated cheese (any brand)

1 can (BIG) Condensed milk




Types of Dough
1. Lean Dough- composed only of the basic ingredients.
2. Rich Dough- composed of basic and other flavorings.

External Characteristics of a Well-made Bread

Shape- well portioned, rounded top
Size- large but not airy in proportion to weight
Color- even, rich golden brown
Crust- tender, crisp, even thickness, free from cracks

Internal Characteristics of a Well-made Bread

Color- creamy white, free from streaks
Grain- fine, thin walled cells evenly distributed
Texture- tender, soft, slightly moist
Flavor- wheaty, sweety, nutty

Basic Ingredients in Yeast Bread

1. Flour- this is the chief ingredient of yeast bread. It contains 2 proteins, gliadin and gluten.
2. Yeast- this is the leavening agent. It is a microscopic plant which can cause fermentation in
sugar or flour to form CO2. The CO2 gas can expand the gluten structure causing the bread
to rise.
3. Salt- improves the flavor of the bread and controls the rate of yeast growth.
4. Sugar- breads can be made without sugar but a small amount of sugar is ready source of
food for yeast and speeds up yeast action.
5. Liquid- ingredients of bread is usually milk or water or both.
6. Shortening- makes bread tenderer and helps improve quality.


6 cups APF 1 ½ cups brown sugar
1-2 cups water 1 tsp. salt
5 tsp. instant dry yeast ¼ cup shortening

Fine bread crumbs

1. Sift flour before measuring then put it in the mixing bowl.
2. Mix together the yeast and sugar on one side of the bowl.
3. Mix salt and shortening in another side of the bowl.
4. Then put water on the mixture.
5. Blend the ingredients very well.
6. Mix until stiff dough is formed. On a slightly floured surface, knead
dough until soft.
7. Let rise for at least two hours or until double its size. Punch it down.
8. Cut and roll in bread crumbs and arrange on a slightly greased baking
sheet or tray with the cut side facing up. Let rise again for 30 minutes.
9. When the cut-up pieces of dough reaches it’s doubled size, bake in
pre-heated oven at 400°F until done.

Materials needed: Lard for greasing baking pan
1/3 cup softened butter
3 cups Bread Flour/ First Class Flour
¼ cup brown sugar
1 – 1 ½ cups all purpose flour
1/3 cups bread crumbs
1 tbsp. Yeast
¼ tsp vanilla
½ cup white sugar
3 egg yolks
½ cup melted butter
1 tsp. salt
¾ cups Evap. Milk
½ cup water
Extra flour for kneading


1. Dissolve yeast in warm water. Stir to dissolve and let it stand for 5-10
minutes until bubbly. Set aside.
2. In a large bowl, combine the milk, sugar, butter, egg yolks and salt.
3. Blend well then add the yeast mixture.
4. Add flour to make moderate stiff dough. Note** check the consistency
of the dough before putting all the remaining flour. (use of flour
depends on the type of flour, milk and the size of the eggs). Dough
must be must be moderate stiff and elastic.
5. Knead the dough in a lightly floured surface for about 10 minutes or
until the dough is smooth and elastic.
6. Transfer the dough to a greased bowl, cover with a damp cloth and let
it rise in a warm place for at least an hour.
7. After rising, transfer the dough into a lightly floured surface
8. Use a dough slicer to divide the dough into 4 equal parts
9. Roll each part until it forms into a log. Cut each log into equal pieces
10. Flatten the dough with a rolling pin until it stretches into a triangular
11. Spread some filling then roll up.
12. Cover the dough with bread crumbs and place on lightly greased
baking sheet or tray with the end at the bottom
13. Cover the tray with damp cloth and let it rise for 20-30 minutes.
14. Pre heat oven to 325 degrees F.
15. Bake for 20-25 minutes.

Materials needed: mixing bowl, rolling pin, utility bowls, damp cloth, dough
cutter, baking sheet
½ cup of creamed butter
3 ½ cups all purpose flour ¼ - ½ cup of sugar
2 tsp. Yeast Shredded cheddar cheese *optional
1/3 cup white sugar
3 eggs
½ cup melted butter (divided, ¼ cup mixed
in the dough and ¼ cup for brushing)
1/2 tsp. Salt
¼ cup Evap. Milk
2/3 cup lukewarm water
½ cup water


1. In a small bowl, dissolve instant yeast in 1/3 cup of lukewarm water.

Set aside.
2. Whisk together flour, sugar and salt in a mixing bowl.
3. Add dissolved yeast mixture, eggs, evaporated milk, ¼ cup of melted
butter and the remaining 1/3 cup of water. Using a dough hook, mix on
low speed for about 2 minutes, then at medium speed for an additional 5
to 7 minutes until soft sticky dough has formed. Remember the dough
should be soft and sticky, do not over knead.
4. Transfer dough in greased bowl and cover with plastic wrap. Allow
dough to rest for 15 minutes.
5. Prepare ensaymada molder.
6. Divide the dough into equal parts and put it in the molder. Loosely
cover the dough with plastic wrap and allow the dough to rest for 15
7. In a small bowl, melt ¼ cup butter and set aside.
8. On a floured surface, roll out or using the palms of your hands.
Flatten each dough into a rectangle.
9. Brush a little melted butter over the top of the dough. Roll dough into
a log, pinch ends together to seal.
10. Then turn dough seam side down or seam side facing inwards, in the
direction where you’ll start twirling.
11. Gently start rolling the dough inwards into a swirl or a roll.
12. Place it back onto the lined pan. Loosely cover buns with plastic wrap
and let it rise until it doubles in size, about 1 ½ hour.
13. Pre heat oven to 325 degrees F.
14. Bake for 15-17 minutes until lightly golden. Allow rolls to cool for 30
minutes to an hour before topping with creamed butter and sugar.

Materials needed: mixing bowl, rolling pin, utility bowls, damp cloth/plastic
wrap, dough cutter, baking sheet/ensaymada molder, electric mixer,
spatula, rubber scrapper.
Cookies are small, flat, sweet cakes baked in a variety of shapes and flavor. There are hard
cookies and there are tender ones. People, especially children, love to it cookies. Cookies are a
welcome gift during occasions like birthday and Christmas. Therefore, it is worthwhile to learn how
to make cookies. There are different types of cookies. Each type has its distinct features and method
of preparation. The different types of cookies include the following:

1. Drop Cookies are irregular and uneven in shaped and are prepared by dropping the dough or
cookie mix from a teaspoon into the baking sheet to produce design.

2. Rolled Cookies are made by rolling out the dough and cutting this using a cookie cutter to form
fancy shapes for special occasions such as Christmas and Easter Sunday.

3. Pressed Cookies are also called the most festive type cookies are prepared by passing the dough
through a cookie press or pastry bag into the baking sheets to form the desired shapes. The dough
contains most shortening for easily pressing.

4. Bar Type Cookies are similar to cakes. They usually bake in the square pans and cut into square or
bars. For variety, some are prepared with fudge or fondant icing and cut into slices. This cookies look
and taste better when they are made small. Example: Brownies

5. Molded Cookies are usually round in shape. The formed round shape cookies are prepared by
rolling the dough with the hands and baking the cookies on a cookie sheet.

6. Refrigerated Cookies are prepared by molding and forming the cookies dough into long rolls,
wrapped and chilled. The chill dough is then sliced and baked.

To store cookies, bake or unbaked, wrap them in plastic bags or wrapping sheet and freeze.
Cool baked cookies well before freezing. Do not wrap together cookies of different flavor, as
flavoring transfer during storage. Frozen cookies keep as long as 6 months and thaw very quickly
when needed.


1. Creaming- cookies need sufficient creaming in order that the sugar, shortening and other
ingredients are creamed well but lightly. Creaming incorporates air into the cookies. Eggs are
gradually added and creamed well after each addition.

2. Mixing- flour should be mixed lightly to prevent over mixing. Over mixing makes the cookie dough
over tough.

3. Blending is used in mixing shortening, sugar and liquid for better formation of the dough and
absorption of the flour.
4. Rolling the dough- this is usually done with refrigerated cookies to flatten and smoothen the
dough before rolling and cutting.


Insufficient baking causes cookie spoilage. Hence, it is important to follow correct

temperature and time for each type of cookies in order to produce quality products. Cookies rich in
sugar are baked at lower oven temperature than those that are rich in fat but less in sugar contents.
It is also important to check if the recipe calls for the use of greased and ungreased baking sheets.

Loosen the cookies carefully while still warm and remove from baking sheets or pans
immediately to prevent breaking.

Crisp cookies are keep frozen or kept in covered containers such as cookie jars. They are
placed at room temperature to refresh on baking sheet at 300°F for 3-5 minutes.

Faults and Remedies of Cookies

Problem Characteristics Faults Remedies

1. Cookies lack spread Dough over mixed Follow directions for proper
mixing time.
Oven temperature too hot Follow directions for proper oven
temperature. Have oven
temperature checked for
2. Cookies have too much spread Oven temperature too cold Follow directions for proper oven
temperature. Have oven
temperature checked for
Pans greased too heavily Grease lightly pans that will be
used for baking cookies.
3. Cookies stick to the pan Dirty pans Use pan that are clean and free
of baked-on crumbs. Parchment
paper is ideal.
Pans not properly greased Grease entire surface of pans.
Cookies under baked Follow directions for proper oven
temperature. Have oven
temperature checked for


1. Drop cookies leaving about 2’ in between to allow spreading.

2. Make cookies of the same size and thickness so they will bake at the same time.
3. For uniformity in size and shape, drop cookies can be made using a small ice cream
scoop or for molded cookies, dough can be weighed.
4. If you only have 1 or 2 baking sheets, you can use it repeatedly for one batch of
cookies but make sure you cool it first. Otherwise, the cookie dough will start
melting before it reaches the oven and it will spread too much.
5. Remove cookies from the baking sheet while hot, don’t wait for them to cool and
become crisp in the pan.
6. To prevent from over spreading of drop cookies, chill the dough for a few minutes.



Shortening (butter or margarine) 127 grams

White Sugar 251 grams
Salt 5 grams
Glucose 50 grams (chewy)
Corn Syrup 34 grams (moist)
Eggs 134 grams (approx. 2-3 pieces)
Baking Soda 5 grams


APF* 335 grams

Baking Powder 13 grams
Cocoa Powder 100 grams

Confectioners/ Powdered Sugar

*All-Purpose Flour


1. Sift flour and cocoa powder separately before measuring.

2. After sifting and measuring, mix flour, cocoa powder and baking powder in
one bowl, set aside.
3. Measure all the other ingredients separately and place in different bowl.
4. Cream butter and sugar first until light and fluffy then add all the other
ingredients gradually beat after each addition.
5. Form into balls or any desired shape then roll into sifted Powdered Sugar
then put into greased baking sheets.
6. Bake at 180° C for about 6 to 8 minutes.
7. When cookies cracked, remove pans from oven and let cool.

Materials needed: Wax Paper or Lard for greasing pans, Cookie Jar/ Sealed



Sifted APF* 300 grams
Sifted Dutch Cocoa Powder 90 grams

White Sugar 540 grams
Glucose 90 grams
Baking Soda 4 grams
Baking Powder 2 grams
Butter/Margarine 180 grams
Eggs 300 grams (approx. 5-6 pcs.)
Water 30 grams
Vanilla 5 grams
Any kind of nuts for toppings


1. Sift separately then blend APF and cocoa powder. Set aside.
2. Cream sugar, glucose and butter/margarine. Add eggs one at a time.
3. Add baking powder and baking soda then add the flour mixture and mix smooth.
4. Deposit on wax paper lined jellyroll pan.
5. Bake at 160° C top heat and 170° C bottom heat for 30-35 minutes.

Materials needed: Wax Paper, Sealed Containers/ Cake Box

1/4 cup butter or margarine ½ tsp. salt ¼ cup glucose

1- ¼ cup white sugar ½ cup cocoa powder
2 pieces eggs 1 tsp. vanilla
2 cups All-Purpose Flour 1/3 cup water
½ tsp. baking soda ½ cup chopped nuts


1. Pre-heat oven to 350°F. Grease and line a 9-inch square pan. Set
2. In a bowl, cream butter and sugar until fluffy.
3. Add the eggs one at a time while beating continuously.
4. Add the rest of the ingredients except half of the nuts. Mix thoroughly.
5. Pour into prepared pan. Spread evenly. Sprinkle remaining nuts on
6. Bake for 25 to 30 minutes. Cool then cuts into squares. Yield: 16

Materials needed: Any sealed containers/ box, wax paper,


½ cup butter/ margarine (1 stick)

¾ cup white sugar
200 grams Desiccated Coconut
¼ cup sifted All-Purpose Flour
1 can condensed milk
4 eggs

1. Melt butter in low heat. Stirring constantly then put the sugar and
continue stirring until dissolved. Turn off the heat.
2. Add all the other ingredients and mix well.
3. Drop a spoonful of the mixture into the papers cups and bake for 30
minutes at 300°F or until light brown.

NOTE: Materials Needed: Macaroon paper cups, Disposable Pastry Bag,

Sealed containers
Pastry is dough made with flour and shortening and used for the crust of pies,
tarts and the like. Includes a variety of products made from dough containing
medium to large amounts of fat.


1. TART- the same method is used as in one crust pie except that tarts are small
and served individually. Boat tarts such as ube, macapuno and cheese tarts are
examples of tarts.
2. TURNOVERS- these are pies that are large for individual servings. Uncooked
filling is placed on half of the dough while the other half of the dough is folded over
it. Edges are fluted carefully together to seal the turnover before baking.
3. PIE is a pastry consisting of a sweet filling in a pastry crust baked in a slope-
sided pan, it may have a bottom crust only or a top and bottom crust. Paté (pah-
TAY) - French for PIE.
4. PHYLLO – layered dough.
5. PATE A CHOUX-like the pastry dough in cream puffs and éclairs.


1. One- Crust Pie (Single) - the pie is lined with a thin layer of dough which is
baked first if the filling added to pie shell is cooked. The pie can be baked without
any topping. If desired, the filling can be topped with soft or hard meringue or
whipped cream.
2. Two-Crust Pie (Double) - the recipe for single crust is doubled and divided into
two dough. The first dough is used to line the bottom of the pan and the other is
rolled to cover the filling which are baked together at the same time.

Pizza is an Italian dish consisting of a flat pie or tart made from bread dough
topped with any of a variety of foods but principally tomato sauce and cheese (often
mozzarella) and baked.
Pizza Dough is a yeast dough used as the crust for pizzas, it may be thick and
bready or thin and crisp.


1. A well-made crust is characterized by tenderness and flakiness.

2. A good crust has even thinness all over.
3. Has a well-formed shape.
4. It should fit the pan well; the edges are well fluted and neatly done.
5. The color of the crust should be light golden brown.
6. The texture should be flaky not compact or soggy.
7. It should be easily cut but not crumbly.

The following TIPS will help ensure success in baking pies and pastries:
1. Handle the dough lightly to incorporate as much air as possible and to inhibit
the development of gluten.
2. Avoid using too much flour which toughens pastry.
3. Avoid using too much liquid which make it soggy.
4. Avoid using too much shortening which makes dough greasy and crumbly.
5. Chill pastry dough after mixing to make it soft, make it easier to handle and
keep it from shrinking during baking.
6. Start the baking in a very hot temperature after the pastry has risen until it is


1. Flour- pastry flour is ideally recommended because it has less gluten. All-
purpose flour may also be used but with less mixing so as not to develop gluten.
2. Shortening- hydrogenated shortening, lard and butter or margarine are better to
use than liquid oil.
3. Liquid (milk or water) - Milk contribute to the desirable color of the crust. Cold
water is used for proper hydration of the flour. Liquid is also essential to make the
dough cohesive for rolling.
4. Leavening Agent- steam and air serves as leaveners for the pastry crust.
5. Salt- it enhances the flavor of pastry crust.

1. Crust
2. Filing
The secret of a delightful pastry is the pie-crust. Two outstanding
characteristics of a good pie crust are flakiness and tenderness. These
characteristics are best achieved by restricting gluten development to minimal and
this is done by:
1. Using hydrogenated fat or shortening such as lard. Shortenings are plastic and
pliable with a greater ability to coat the flour particles when cut into the
2. Mixing the ingredients as quickly as possible. However, some gluten development
is essential for a flaky pie crust. Mix the ingredients just enough to make the fat
molecules coat the flour particles to form small lumps.
3. Using a little liquid as possible. The presence of moisture aids in the
development of gluten.
4. Having all ingredients at room temperature.

Ingredients: Procedure:
1 can 8 oz. pizza sauce Mix the ingredients in a bowl. Set aside.
1 small chopped onion
1 tbsp. Worcestershire sauce/ Oyster sauce
Dash of ground pepper
Pinch of salt

 You can also use the store-bought Pizza Sauce or Italian Sauce only
instead of using the above ingredients.

1 medium chopped onion Sauté the ingredients.
1 small chopped green pepper
1 kilo ground pork/ chicken

 You can also make or prepare your own desired toppings.



1000 g. All-Purpose Flour

560 g. water/ evap. milk
15 g. yeast
20 g. salt
10 g. sugar
10 g. lard/butter/margarine

1. Sift flour before measuring then put it in the mixing bowl.
2. Mix together the yeast and sugar on one side of the bowl.
3. Mix salt and shortening in another side of the bowl.
4. Then put the milk in yeast mixture.
5. Knead altogether all the ingredients until smooth, elastic and sating.
6. Proof or rest for 1 hour or until double the size.
7. Punch down. Cut into desired size and form.
8. Flatten dough with a rolling pin, then transfer on your flat sheet or
pizza pan.
9. Bake for 7 minutes at 425°F. Then put out pan and arrange filling on
the half-baked crust.
10. Return to oven and continue baking for 12 minutes.


2 cups all purpose flour 2 cups shredded buko

1 tsp salt ¼ cup buko juice
2/3 cup shortening ¼ cup evaporated milk
3-4 tbsp water 2 tbsp cornstarch
¾ cup sugar
1 egg yolk
Procedure: 1 tbsp butter

1. Make the pie crust. In a bowl, mix the flour and salt. Cut the
shortening with 2 knives or a pastry blender until texture resembles
coarse crumbs.
2. Add 1 tbsp cold water to a portion of the flour mixture. Push to one
side. Sprinkle another tablespoon of water to another dry portion.
Push to one side.
3. Repeat until all flour mixture has been sprinkled with water. Make
certain that you don’t add more than a total of 4 tbsp water.
4. Sprinkle flour on a flour board and rolling pin. Place half of the flour
mixture on the flour board and shape into a ball. Cover the mixture
with plastic sheet
5. Roll the dough from center to edges, releasing the pressure near the
edge to make the thickness of the dough even.
6. Roll in all directions to maintain the circular shape. Transfer the
dough to a pie plate.
7. Fit the dough snugly on the pan fold excess crust against the edge of
the pie plate.
8. Prick liberally with the tines of the fork. Bake at 300 degrees to 5
minutes. Roll remaining flour mixture for the top crust, following the
same procedure above. Set aside.
9. Make the filling, in a saucepan, place shredded buko, buko juice, evap
milk, cornstarch, sugar, egg yolk and butter.
10. Cook in a low heat until thick.
11. Put the hot filling over the baked crust. Put the remaining
dough prepared earlier on top of the filling. Tuck the edge of the top
crust or dough under the edge of the bottom crust.
12. Bake at 425 degrees F for 20-35 minutes. Brush with milk
during last 5 minutes of cooking

Materials needed: measuring cups and spoons, wooden spoon, mixing

bowl, 2 knives or pastry blender, utility bowls, rolling pin

2 cup sifted APF
1 tsp. salt
½ cup veg. shortening lard/ butter
Ice water as needed

Egg Filling Yema Filling

4 egg yolks 1 can condensed milk

¼ cup condensed milk 2 pcs. Egg yolks
¼ cup all-purpose cream ½ cup Sugar
¼ cup evap. Milk ¼ cup APF
1/3 cup sugar 1 cup chopped nuts
1 tsp. vanilla extract 1 tbsp. vanilla
1 tsp. butter

1. Sift flour and salt together. Cut in shortening with pastry blender
until mixture is size of small peas.
2. Toss and stir mixture with a fork while adding the ice water gradually.
3. Form into a ball and rollout. Fit loosely into oiled tart pan, prick
4. Fold edges to form a fluted standing rim.
5. Baked at 450°F for 10-12 minutes.

Egg Filling
1. Combine all the ingredients in a separate bowl and whisk until well
combined, then strain.
2. Put a spoonful in cooled tarts about 80 percent full and bake again for
a minute or until the filling has set and has turned golden brown.

Yema Filling
1. Combine all the ingredients in a saucepan and cooked for a very low
2. Stir constantly until thick. Remove from heat.
3. Put a spoonful in cooled tarts and baked again for a minute.



- It depends upon the differences due to batter appearance or character.
1. Butter Type Cake
Depend upon eggs, flour and milk for structure and contain reasonably high
percentages of fat. Much of the volume of the finished cake is achieved by
the use of baking powder.
- Most common mixing methods employed:
a. Creaming
- Shortening and sugar are creamed to varying degrees of lightness or
- Egg products are gradually added.
- Liquid is added alternately with flour to mix until smooth without
b. Blending
c. Single Stage Method
- All ingredients are introduced into mixing bowl together.
- Mixing time is chief means controlling characteristics of mix.
- Advantages are labor and time saved.
 If the volume is prime requisite, the creaming method should be used.
 If tenderness is the prime requisite, the blending method would be better.
2. Foam Type Cakes- “Cakes without Shortening”.
Foam type cakes are divided into 3 depending upon the egg material used:
a. Meringue or Angel Food Cake Types
- Cakes using the egg white protein of eggs
b. Sponge Type Cake
- Uses either whole eggs or a combination of both
c. Chiffon Type Cakes
- Are a combination of a batter and a foam and the resulting cake has a
modified foam type- grain texture.

Cakes have also been classified according to their ingredient contents:

a. Shortened Cake (with fat)- butter type cakes like Butter Cake and Pound
b. Un-shortened Cakes (no fat)- foam type cakes like Angel Food Cake and
true Sponge Cake


1. Conventional Method- cream the butter, add sugar, eggs then alternately
add flour mixture and milk.
2. Muffin Method- Mix all dry ingredients in one bowl and make a well in the
center. Mix all liquid ingredients in separate bowl and then pour them in the
dry ingredient bowl.
3. One Bowl Method- mix all then use emulsifier


1. White Cake- uses only one or more egg whites

2. Yellow Cake- uses only more egg yolks
3. Chocolate Cake- plain cake with chocolate or cocoa added
4. Spice Cake- moisten cinnamon and ½ teaspoon cloves with ½ tbsp. water
and mix with the creamed butter and sugar or the ordinary butter cake.
Proceed as in butter cake.
To check, turn your whisk or the mixer’s beaters upside down and observe the
peaks formed.

a. Soft Peak Stage- the peak is still soft and droops after a few seconds.

b. Firm Stage- the peek has more body and keeps its shape more easily. The peak
will hold but the tip still bends.

c. Stiff Stage- the mixture is thick and the peak holds up straight without
collapsing. Stop when you’ve reached this stage to prevent the eggs from breaking
apart. Overbeaten eggs will leave a dull and watery mixture with grainy clumps of

d. Dry Stage- the glossiness is lost. The foam is white but dull and the volume
lessens. When it is left to stand, liquid separates at the bottom. At this stage, the
egg whites have been overbeaten and should not be used anymore.


1. Egg whites beat best at room temperature rather than when cold.
2. Make sure egg whites are free from any yolk or any oil/fat or else it won’t
form a good foam.
3. Take care when separating egg because yolks contain fat and can hinder in
the beating of the egg whites.
4. Do not overbeat egg whites. Instead of increasing volume, the air will be lost
and water will accumulate at the bottom.
5. When baking meringue, bake it in a slow oven so it won’t brown before the
egg whites are sufficiently dried out.
 How can you test if the egg whites are already beaten enough?

If the egg whites are already stiff or thick, when it stand on its own and when you
invert the mixing bowl, the egg whites doesn’t flow or drop.

 How to separate egg yolks from egg whites?

Do it one at a time and use three bowls, one for the whole egg, one for egg whites
and one for egg yolk.

FRENCH MERINGUE- the easiest and simplest to do. Egg whites are beaten until
soft-peaks stage then sugar is added gradually while beating continuously until
ITALIAN MERINGUE- a syrup of water and sugar is made to boil and then poured
in a steady stream into egg whites which have been beaten until soft peaks stage.
Beating is continued until the meringue is stiff and glossy.
SWISS MERINGUE- the egg whites and sugar are placed in a bowl that is put over
a pan of boiling water then beaten until stiff peaks form.

Mocha Flavor Pineapple Flavor

2 ¼ cup Cake Flour

1 tbsp. Baking powder
1 tsp. salt
2 tbsp. Coffee --------------------
1 cup refined sugar
½ cup oil
8 pieces eggs
½ cup water pineapple juice
1 tsp. cream of tartar
1 cup sugar
1 tbsp. Vanilla pineapple extract

1. Sift cake flour twice.
2. Mix together the first three dry ingredients, add sugar and make a
3. Dissolve the coffee in water then set aside.
4. Separate egg yolks from egg whites, then set aside.
5. Add egg yolks, vanilla and coffee mixture in the well, mix but do not
over beat.
6. Prepare the egg whites, sugar and cream of tartar to make a meringue
or egg white mixture and blend with the batter mixture.
7. Bake at 10 inches tube pan greased and line with lard and wax paper
for 30-45 minutes at 350°F.

Materials needed: Cake box (10 inches), wax paper, lard



CAKE Meringue
2 cups cake flour 6 egg whites
3 tsp baking powder 1 cup sugar
1 tsp salt 1 tsp cream of tartar
½ cup vegetable oil
6 egg yolks
1 cup sugar Yema frosting
¾ cup evap filled milk 3 egg yolks
1 tsp lemon extract 1 big can condensed milk
½ cup grated cheese 3 tbsp evap milk
2 tbsp vanilla
2 tbsp butter

1. Line the round pan lard and wax paper. Set aside.
2. Combine the first three ingredients in a mixing bowl.
3. Make a well then add the remaining three ingredients. Mix well.
4. In another mixing bowl, put the egg whites and cream of tartar, then
beat using hand or electric mixer.
5. Add sugar and vanilla until stiff peak is reached.
6. Put the egg white mixture in the flour mixture and do the cut and fold.
7. Put the cake mixture in the round cake pan.
8. Bake for 20 – 25 minutes at 325 degrees F.

Yema frosting

In a shallow pan, combine the condensed milk, evap milk and eggyolks.
Cook the mixture in low fire, while continuously stirring until the texture
becomes thick.

Cake decoration:

Slice the cake in half horizontally, to make two cakes.

Spread part of yema frosting at the top of first half of cake. Put back the half
of the cake and cover the whole cake with yema.
Garnish with grated cheese.




625g. Bread Flour/ First Class Flour

1 tbsp. Yeast
100 g. white sugar
2 pieces eggs
75 g. butter (1/3 cup)
5g. salt
300g. Evap. milk

1. Sift flour before measuring then put it in the mixing bowl.
2. Mix together the yeast and sugar on one side of the bowl.
3. Mix salt and butter in another side of the bowl.
4. Then put the eggs one at a time on yeast and sugar.
5. Then put the milk in yeast mixture.
6. Knead altogether all the ingredients until smooth, elastic and sating.
7. Proof or rest for 1 hour or until double the size.
8. Punch down. Cut into desired size and form into desired design.
9. Proof for 1 hour or until double in size.
10. Bake for 10-15 minutes.

Materials needed: any sealed containers, lard for greasing pan


170 g. Cake Flour 6 pieces egg whites

100g. white Sugar 1 tsp. cream of tartar
5 g. baking powder 100 g. white sugar
50 g. corn oil
6 pieces egg yolk
100 g. water
5 g. salt
5 g. vanilla

Materials needed: Cake box (round small), 6 inches cake border (small),
wax paper, cake roll box (whole and styro foam), powdered food color or
paste food color


1. Line the round cake pan and jelly roll pan with lard and wax paper. Set aside.
2. Combine the first three ingredients in a mixing bowl.
3. Make a well then add the remaining three ingredients. Mix well.
4. In another mixing bowl, put the egg whites and cream of tartar, then beat using
electric mixer.
5. Add sugar and vanilla until stiff peak is reached.
6. Put the egg white mixture in the flour mixture and do the cut and fold.
7. Put the cake mixture in the jelly roll pan and round cake pan then bake.



2 egg whites
150 g. white sugar
225 g. cold butter
100 g. Lard
5 g. vanilla


1. Put the egg whites and sugar in clean, grease-free mixing bowl and
stir together until the sugar is blended into the egg whites.
2. Place the bowl over a saucepan of simmering water and stir frequently
until the sugar is dissolve and the mixture reaches 140- 150 ° F (2
3. Transfer the egg white mixture into the mixer and beat on high speed
until the meringue and the bowl are cool to touch.
4. Add the cubed butter followed with lard gradually mixing after each
addition until they fully incorporated and scraping down the sides of
the bowl as necessary.
5. Blend in the vanilla. The butter cream is ready to use or maybe tightly
covered and stored in the refrigerator for up to 1 week.

How to compute?

1. Compute cost per unit for each ingredients

Formula: (Cost per unit/ 1000) x quantity used= total cost



APF P 47/ kilo 300 g. P 14.10

Cocoa Powder P 200/kilo 90 g. P 18.00
Sugar P 40/kilo 540 g. P 21.6
BS P 5/sachet 4 g. P 0.02
BP P 5/sachet 2 g. P 0.01
Butter P 36/1 bar 180 g. P 6.48
Eggs P 20 300 g. P6
Water P5 30 g. P 0.15
Vanilla P 5/sachet 5 g. P 0.025
TOTAL: P 66.385 or
P 67.00
Wax Paper P 3.00

2. Add total cost of ingredients and packaging for the grand total of
Direct Cost.

Total Direct Cost: P 67.00 + 3.00= P 70.00

3. Add transportation cost up to contingency cost for the grand total of

Indirect Cost.
Transportation Cost P 8.00
Contingency Cost P 4.00
Labor Cost P 5.00
Water P 4.00
Electricity P 4.00
LPG P 5.00
Total Indirect Cost: P 30.00 (Savings)

4. To compute for the Total Production Cost (TPC) = Direct Cost +

Indirect Cost

TPC: P67.00 + P 30.00= P 100.00

5. To compute for the mark-up:
TPC- P 100.00
x 10%
= 10+ 100= P110.00
6. To compute for the Selling Price:

P 100.00/ 25 slices = P 4.00 each slices





III. Total cost
production (I + II)
IV. Number of
finished products
V. Price of the
product (per piece)

Price of the product per piece =

Cost of Production ÷ Number of Finished Products x 100

Selling Price =
Price of the product per piece x 20%

Possible/ Sample Questions on Bread and Pastry

Production NC II
1. Prepare and produce bakery products (breads).
2. Prepare and produce pastry products (cakes/ pastries).
3. Prepare and present gateaux (a rich or fancy cake), tortes (rich cake in which all or part of the flour
is replaced with finely chopped nuts or bread crumbs) and cakes (pastry which is baked, tender,
sweet and sometimes frosted).
4. Prepare and display petit fours (any bite-sized cake, pastry or cookie or confection served after a
meal or with coffee or tea or a French confection consisting of a small piece of filled sponge cake
coated with fondant icing and elaborately decorated).
5. Present dessert.

 What is Baking?
Baking is a process of cooking by dry indirect heat usually in an oven or related equipment.
 What is the difference between Tart and Pie?
Tart is a small or bite size pie while Pie is a big slice/for large serving.
 What is the difference between Butter, Margarine and Lard?
Butter is from milk or cream while Lard is rendered from hog (pig) fat and Margarine is made
from vegetable oils.
 How to separate four egg yolks from four egg whites?
Do it one at a time and use three bowls, one for the whole egg, one for egg whites and one for
egg yolk (Three Bowl Method)
 Sugar is the food of the Yeast.
 Three Methods of Mixing Dough
1. Straight Dough Method- mix all the ingredients at one time to make the dough. The dough is
kneaded and set aside to rise (this is the method we use in Loaf Bread)
2. Sponge Dough Method- mix the yeast, flour, and water to make as oft mixture which is set
aside to rise until bubbly. Then add flour, water, sugar, butter and the remaining ingredients and the
mixture is treated as straight dough.
3. No Knead Method- this method uses batter instead of dough. This makes bread making faster
because one does not have to knead and shape the dough. However, the texture of the finished
products is not as fine as that of kneaded dough.
 What is the difference between Batter and Dough?
Batter is a pourable mixture of combined ingredients such as flour, sugar, eggs, shortening, milk
and etc while Dough is an uncooked mass of combined ingredients used to make bread, rolls,
cookies, etc.
 What is the proper way of getting/carrying or handling heavy equipment in Baking?
Bend your Knee.
 What is Extract? Extracts are solution of the flavors in ethyl alcohol or other solvent (Alcohol base)
 What is an Emulsion? An emulsion can use some particles of the real thing or it can be a mixture
artificially manufactured, kind of a chemical combination used to make a certain flavor. It
can be oil based or water based or have components of both which will give it certain
characteristics when you mix it into things. (Acid base)
 What is Flavorings? Flavorings are flavors which use either propylene glycol or glycerin. (Oil Base)
 What is 5S Methodology or Workplace Organization?
It describes how to organize a work space for efficiency and effectiveness by identifying and
storing the items used, maintaining the area and items and sustaining the new order.
1. SORTING (SEIRI) - Eliminate all unnecessary tools and equipment. Keep only essential items and
eliminate what is not required and keep them in easily-accessible places.
work, workers, equipment, parts and instructions in such a way that a work flow free of waste
through the value added tasks with a division of labor necessary to meet demand.
3. SHINING (SEISO) - Clean the workplace and all equipment and keep it clean, tidy and organized.
At the end of each shift, clean the work area and be sure everything is restored to its place. This
step ensures that the workstation is ready for the next user and that order is sustained.
4. STANDARDIZE (SEIKETSU) - ensure uniform procedures and set ups throughout the operation
to promote interchangeability.
5. SUSTAIN (SHITSUKE) - Make it a way of life. This means commitment. Ensure disciplined
adherence to rules and procedures of 5S to prevent backsliding.
 How will you know or test if the baked products are already cooked?
By inserting a toothpick at the middle of the baked product, if the toothpick comes out clean or
dry, then the baked product is already cooked.
 Three Stages of Egg Whites
To check, turn your whisk or the mixer’s beaters upside down and observe the peaks formed.
a. Soft Peak Stage- the peak is still soft and droops after a few seconds.
b.Firm Stage- the peek has more body and keeps its shape more easily. The peak will hold but
the tip still bends.
c.Stiff Stage- the mixture is thick and the peak holds up straight without collapsing. Stop when
you’ve reached this stage to prevent the eggs from breaking apart. Overbeaten eggs will leave
a dull and watery mixture with grainy clumps of foam.
 How can you test if the egg whites are already beaten enough?
If the egg whites are already stiff or thick, when it stands on its own and when you invert the
mixing bowl, the egg whites doesn’t flow or drop.
 Occupational Health and Safety Act (OHSA) is responsible for enforcing its standards on regulated
entities. OHSA issue workplace health and safety regulations. These regulations include limits on
chemical exposure, employee access to information, requirements for the use of personal
protective equipment (PPE) and requirements for safety procedures.
 Why do we pre-heat oven? We pre-heat oven to reach the required temperature for baking
before putting the products to be baked.


Windowpane test


1. How would you know if you have creamed the butter well enough?
- The butter is lighter in color.
2. What is the role of each ingredient- flour, shortening, yeast, and sugar?
- Flour for gluten development, fat for shortening the gluten strands, yeast for rising the
dough and sugar is the food of the yeast.
3. How are you going to measure ¾ cups?
- Use ½ cup and ¼ cup.
4. What is the difference between extract and flavor emulsion? Cake flour and all- purpose
- Flavor extract is alcohol base while flavor emulsion is oil base. Cake flour has the least
amount of gluten and can be used only for cakes and other delicate products while all-
purpose flour has more gluten content than cake flour and cake be used for bread,
cookies and cakes.
5. How do you know that you have beaten the egg whites to thick peaks?
- The peaks of the egg whites stay up even when you inverted the bowl or is of thick
6. What is the difference between butter and margarine?
- Butter is from animals and more expensive while margarine is from vegetable and more
7. What fat substitute can you use for breads?
- Margarine, mixture of margarine and butter, and other fat substitute.
8. Why do you pre-heat the oven?
- To reach the desired temperature before putting the product to the oven.
9. Why is it important to select the right pan size for baking products?
- If pan is too big, batter will spread over a large area, it will cause the cake to be small or
thin. If pan is too short, the batter will over flow.
10. How long pre-heating should be done?
- 15 to 30 minutes or until desired temperature is reached.
11. Why do you let the dough rest after kneading?
- To undergo fermentation to double the size.
12. How should you portion the dough?
- By weight, by scoop/ ladle or by count.
13. How do you check for doneness in any baked products?
- By checking the internal temperature of the product or by inserting a toothpick or cake
tester in the middle of the products and checking if the batter will still stick to the tester.
14. Where do you stock breads that will be used 2 days from now?
- Put breads that will not be used immediately in a tightly sealed bag in the freezer.
15. What’s the difference between pie and tartlet?
- A pie is for multiple serving while a tartlet is for a single serving.
16. How should you portion a product in making petit fours?
- By weight, by scoop/ ladle or by count.
17. How can you plate a selection of petit fours to a guest?
- Put in a plate (depending on enterprise standards) and add garnishes.