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UNIT 1 i

Overview of network applications

Unit 1

TSN 304/05
Network Applications

Overview of Network
Applications
ii WAWASAN OPEN UNIVERSITY
TSN 304/05 Network Applications

COURSE TEAM
Course Team Coordinator: Dr. Karen Khor Ean Teng
Content Writer: Dr. Choo Peng Yin
Instructional Designer: Ms. Michelle Loh Woon Har
Academic Member: Ms. Azrina Jamal

COURSE COORDINATOR
Dr. Karen Khor Ean Teng

EXTERNAL COURSE ASSESSOR


Associate Professor Dr. Lau Hing Keung

PRODUCTION
Editor: Penerbitan Pelangi Sdn. Bhd.
In-house Editor: Ms. Michelle Loh Woon Har
Graphic Designers: Ms. Valerie Ooi and Ms. Audrey Yeong

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UNIT 1 iii
Overview of network applications

Contents
Unit 1 Overview of Network
Applications
Course overview 1

Unit overview 3

Unit objectives 3

1.1 Introduction to network applications and 5


network services

Objectives 5

Introduction 5

The network impact in our daily life 5

Common network applications 7

Network services and servers 13

Suggested answers to activity 20

1.2 Introduction to network devices and addressing 23


schemes

Objectives 23

Introduction 23

Elements of a network 23

Introduction to network devices 26

Rules of network: Introduction to addressing scheme 28

Suggested answer to activities 38


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1.3 Introduction to networking commands and 41


software

Objectives 41

Introduction 41

Networking application, network software 41

Windows XP or Windows 7 network configuration/ 44


commands/software

Windows network commands software 48

Summary of Unit 1 75

Suggested answers to self-tests 77

References 81

Glossary 83
UNIT 1 1
Overview of network applications

Course Overview

W elcome to TSN 304/05 Network Applications. This is a 5-credit core course


offered in the Bachelor of Technology programmes in Networks & Data
Communication and Computer Systems & Networks. The following are brief
descriptions of the units in this course:

Unit 1 introduces network applications as part of network software. The network


software covers client, server, networking, troubleshooting, and monitoring. It
helps you to understand these network applications and software from the users’
perspective. You will learn how to utilise these network applications in different
scenarios.

Unit 2 focuses on network analysis with an open source packet sniffer: Wireshark.
You will learn how to use Wireshark to examine the packets in the network traffic.

Unit 3 covers extra issues on IPv6 in relation to network applications.

Unit 4 focuses on construction and configuration of campus/enterprise network


infrastructure that supports these network applications. You will learn how to
connect network devices and end devices to form simple LAN (local area network)
and eventually campus network. You will be introduced to activities related to how
to configure routers, and design IP addresses.

Unit 5 deals with intermediate configuration of campus networks such as routing,


VLAN, firewall and NAT.

There are activities and self-tests that you need to attempt in each unit. The
suggested answers to many of these activities and tests are provided at the end
of each section or unit, but you are encouraged to attempt the questions before
looking at the answers.

Before you begin this course, a basic understanding of the 7 OSI layers of data
communication is required.

By the end of this course, you should be able to:

1. Describe network applications principles and identify client software and


network services.

2. Illustrate the functions of network applications in a LAN

3. Manage IP addresses and subnet masks.

4. Manage the relationship of protocols, layered model and network applications


as well as collect and analyse real network data.

5. Apply IP Subnet design rules, principles of packet analysis and IPv6 subnets
design.
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UNIT 1 3
Overview of network applications

Unit Overview

N etwork applications are executable programs in our PCs, smartphones, laptops and
PDAs that require access to the network, in order to locate remote information
resources. Network applications are loosely known as network clients. Network
clients have to communicate with the corresponding services in the network. The
last group of network software is networking software, which has the functions to
configure, troubleshoot and monitor the network.

This unit introduces the fundamentals of network applications from the perspective
of data and computer networking. It starts with a general overview of network
applications, followed by related topics on campus network infrastructure. The
interaction between network applications and network infrastructure involves
network devices, network addressing schemes, protocols and the types of media
used to carry data across the networks. The issues of transition from IPv4 to IPv6
will be discussed in the context of network applications.

You will be guided on designing and testing IP subnets for connectivity, setting up
and configuring basic servers, routers, and switches in the context of services, routes
and VLAN. The pertinent technical issues of network applications with related data
link, network, transport and application layers are also explored, with the use of
network sniffing applications to analyse the capture network data traffic.

Unit Objectives
By the end of Unit 1, you should be able to:

1. Define network applications.

2. Identify client software and network services.

3. Describe network applications activities and principles.

4. Discuss the importance of network applications.


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Overview of network applications

1.1 Introduction to Network


Applications and Network Services
Objectives
By the end of this section, you should be able to:

1. Describe the various types of network applications.

2. Describe the characteristics of network services.

3. Explain the functions of servers and clients.

Introduction
In this section, the key concept of “network application”, “network clients” and
“network services” will be defined, described and explained. Other highlights of
the section include: the impact of network applications on our life, the role of
network applications in client-server communication, and the characteristics of
client applications and network services.

The network impact on our daily life


For those of us who are using PCs, laptops and smartphones in our daily life, it
is hard to imagine how our life would be without the Internet. Communication
over the network has changed the way we work, study, socialise, do business and
entertain ourselves.
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Online banking

Traffic conditions

World news

Weather forecast

Figure 1.1 Impact of networks on our life

From the users’ perspective, the interface of these interactions with the networks is
the executable programs or applications that have been installed in our PCs, smart
phones, laptops and PDAs. Since these applications require access to the Internet
or network, these applications are commonly referred to as network applications.
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Overview of network applications

According to Computer Technology Solutions (http://ctspros.com/Glossary.php),


network application is defined as “the network version of a program; any program
that lets more than one user open the same data file (the file that the program
creates) at the same time.”

Common network applications


When you access the Internet, do you use the following applications?

1. Google Chrome, Firefox, etc.

2. Google Mail, Hotmail, Yahoo Mail, etc.

3. Yahoo Messenger, MSN Messenger, Skype, etc.

4. Facebook

5. Online games

Among the above-mentioned network applications, the most frequently used network
application in our daily life would probably be Google Chrome, because Google
Chrome is used, among other functions, to:

1. Check emails, such as Google Mail

2. Read news and articles

3. Access to Facebook

4. Download movies, games, etc.

In fact, Google Chrome is categorised as a web browser. By definition, a web browser


is a type of network application that is used for retrieving, presenting, and traversing
information resources on the World Wide Web. Figure 1.2 shows the screenshot of
Google Chrome (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Web_browser).
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Figure 1.2 Screenshot of Google Chrome

The following network applications basically perform the same functions as Google
Chrome: Mozilla Firefox, Netscape, Opera, Safari, Camino, Konqueror and others.
All of the above network applications are web browsers too. The main difference
among these web browsers is that, they are products of different companies.

Figure 1.3 Screenshot of Safari


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Overview of network applications

Besides web browsers, another popular network application is Instant Messaging.


Instant Messaging (IM) is a form of real-time direct text-based communication
between two or more people using personal computers (PCs) or other end devices.
More advanced instant messaging software allows live voice or video conference.
Some of the popular instant messaging software includes: ICQ, Skype, Windows
Live Messenger, Yahoo! Messenger, Google Talk, Facebook, eBuddy, etc.

Screenshot of ICQ Screenshot of eBuddy

Figure 1.4

For all business activities via the Internet, most network managers will tell you that
the email is the most important network application. Email remains the oldest
and still one of the most frequently used network communications in the Internet.
Nowadays, email applications come in two forms: web mail and installed mail
application. Web mail such as Gmail and Hotmail is accessed via a web browser.
Installed mail applications such as Microsoft Outlook and Mozilla Thunderbird are
“stand-alone” applications that manage and edit emails in the PC.
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Figure 1.5 (a) Screenshot of Microsoft Outlook

Figure 1.5 (b) Screenshot of Mozilla Thunderbird


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Overview of network applications

Besides web browser, instant messaging and email, there are other network
applications that perform:

1. File transfer (Ws_FTP, Free Download Manager)

2. Remote login (PuTTY, Terra Term)

3. Remote database access (SQuirreL SQL Client)

4. Internet Relay Chat (mIRC)

5. Etc.

Figure 1.6 (a) Screenshot of WsFTP

Figure 1.6 (b) Screenshot of Free Download Manager


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Screenshot of PuTTY Screenshot of Tera Term

Figure 1.7

In general, these network applications share a common feature, which is accessing


some form of remote information or resources. “Remote” means located physically
away from the users’ PC, smartphones and laptops. For example:

1. Firefox accesses a website for web pages.

2. Outlook retrieves emails from an “inbox”.

3. Skype gives access to your “list of friends” via login.

4. Download Managers download movies from some “file sites”.

5. Play online games “World of Warcraft” via a “networked game world”.

These network applications can be technically categorised as network client


software. The main function of network client software is to access the resource/
information in the network/Internet known as network services. All these “network
services” are located “somewhere” in the network or Internet.

Hence, network client software cannot function without network service. In other
words, network client software cannot exist without network services. Client-
server have to work in pairs, which is known as client-server communication, that
contributes 99% of today’s Internet traffic.

There are certain characteristics of network client software. First, specific network
client software can only communicate with specific type of network services. For
example, web browser has to communicate with web services, and not remote
login services. Second, client software can’t communicate directly with other client
software. For example, you can’t use web browser to communicate directly with
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Overview of network applications

another web browser. Instant messaging between clients has to communicate via a
server. Like all software applications, all network client software comes in two forms:
Command-line and GUI (graphic-user interface).

Activity 1.1

Identify and list all network client software in your desktop PC


(or laptop).

Network services and servers


As described previously, network services provide remote software resources support
to the network clients. Network services normally reside in network servers. Network
services normally refer to the software, while network servers are the hardware (e.g.,
PC) in which the network services reside.

Client software of different operating systems (e.g., Apple, Linux, Windows) access
the same services of the same server (PC or MAC) that accesses the same data or
information. Network services are “platform-independent” (Linux or Windows or
Sun). For example, a web service provides the same web page to clients in Linux,
Windows, or MAC OS. Network is the “middleman” that gives communication
links between servers and clients.

Client-Server Network
Internet
Access
Network Switch

Server Services
and
Computer Peripherals

Collection of Small Form Factor Computers (Thin Clients)

Figure 1.8 Client-server communications via network


Source: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:SimplifiedClientServerNetwork.png
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Data and information servers in your life

When you read www.cnn.com, you’re communicating with a web server. When you
read your email, you’re communicating with a mail. When you download files from
the Internet, you’re communicating with a file server. When you’re using Skype to
communicate with your friends or loved ones, there is a server behind “coordinating”
your communication. Through the server, your message is then relayed to your
friend who is online. When you’re playing multiplayer online role-playing games,
MMORPG (e.g., WarCraft, Counter Strike) you’re communicating with a game
server. When you are watching online video (Youtube), you’re communicating with
a video streaming server.

Review of server and client

In general, server is a computer on the network that manages shared network


resources. A server is usually a more powerful computer with more RAM, disk space
and processing (than clients computer) that can handle concurrent communication
with multiple clients. One server (or PC) can provide or host multiple network
services. However, it is not necessary that network services have to be run on
powerful machines.

Client is a computer, smartphone, PDA or laptop on the network that requests


services on a network. Client requires users to interact with it. Since servers provide
services and clients request services, servers run on a different set of software than the
clients. The main task of client software is to “request” service from server. Clients
(web browser) get services (web pages) from servers (websites). A server can be a
client in the same machine.

Email client software communicates with other email client software via servers, e.g.,
Mail server and Instant Messenger server. These types of servers act as “middlemen”
between the clients. User of PC1 sends a mail to user of PC0 (stored in mail server).
User of PC0 reads the mail at the mail server.

Server-PT
Mail Server
PC-PT
PC2 Cloud-PT
Internet DSL-Modem-PT
2950-24 1841
Switch0 Router0 DSL Modem0
Linksys-WRT300N PC-PT
PC-PT Wireless Router0 PC0
PC1

Figure 1.9 Server acting as a “middleman”


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Overview of network applications

Differences between server and client

1. Servers normally run 24 hours/7 days. Clients are “normally” switched off
once the users are gone.

2. Servers run “independently” without “users” once it is configured. Clients


run dependently with human users.

3. Server software always “listens” to requests. Client software sends “request”


to server on demand. Lastly, servers and clients run on different set of
software. Server’s software normally runs in the “background”.

Categories of servers

Servers can be categorised into three groups based on their functionalities. They are:

1. data and information server

2. middleman server

3. networking server

Data and information server, as indicated in the name, provides information and
data for users to upload and download. Examples of data servers include web server
and file server.

Middleman server assists in communication among peers or clients. Examples of


this category of servers include bittorrent tracker, and instant messenger servers.

Networking server, unlike the previous two types, does not interact directly with the
users. Networking server exists to provide assistance to the proper operation of the
network. The clients of this type of server are the operating system of the network
devices such as PCs and routers. Examples of these types of servers include DNS
server, DHCP server, print server and NTP server.

The following examples further illustrate the above concept:

1. Web server (data) — Providing web pages

2. Mail server (data and middle-man) — Storing and send emails

3. File server (data) — Downloading and uploading files

4. Print server (networking) — Managing print queue jobs

5. Database server (data) — Providing necessary data to clients


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6. DNS server [domain name server] (networking) — Managing corresponding


network address with domain name.

7. DHCP server [dynamic hosts control protocol] (networking) — Supply IP


addresses to PCs with dynamic IP option.

8. NTP server [network time protocol] (networking) — Synchronising


computer systems to within a few milliseconds over the networks.

9. Proxy server (data and networking) — Acts as an intermediary between


external and internal networks, screening all incoming and outgoing data
traffic.

10. Newsgroup server (data and middleman) — Managing newsgroup

Server software example: Apache

One of the good examples of server software is Apache web server package (http://
httpd.apache.org/). A web browser is the software at the client side. Computers
installed with Apache software provide web services to the clients. Apache stores
the web pages in assigned directory. Once the web service is started, Apache will
run in the “background”, listen to the incoming requests and send the data across
the network to the clients.

Figure 1.10 Apache screenshot


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Overview of network applications

Server software example: Filezilla

Similar to web service, there are many examples of software that can provide file
transfer service. Filezilla is one of these file service software (https://filezilla-project.
org/download.php?type=server). There are two types of Filezilla software. One is
used as file transfer client while the other is used for file transfer server. Make sure
that you download the correct software. Once you start the service, Filezilla runs
in the “background”.

Figure 1.11 Screenshots of Filezilla server software

Some notes on server and client

First, a server can be a client at the same time. If Apache Web package is installed
in a computer and is configured to store and provide web services, the same
computer can be installed with web browser to surf the web. Remote clients
access the web page at the “background” of this computer (meaning without your
knowledge unless you check for it).

Second, different services can run simultaneously on the same computer. A client
PC can communicate with different servers (or services) at the same time. A user can
open Firefox, Outlook and Skype, while playing MMORPG, all at the same time.

Clients in a simple network

Visually, clients are PCs/workstations, linked to a connectivity device which forms


a network, accessing to remote resources or information in a server, as shown in
Figure 1.12. Client-server communications can also function well in a complex
network as shown in Figure 1.13.
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Workstation
(client)
Server

Workstation
Connectivity (client)
device
Printer
(client)

Figure 1.12 Client-server communications in a simple network

Servers

Fax machine Printer

Switch

Internet Workstations
Workstations
Server Workstation (clients)
(clients)
(client)
WAN link

Router WAN link Router Switch Hub

Telephones Printer Printer Telephones


Workstations
(clients)

Switch

Workstations
Plotter (clients)

Figure 1.13 Client-server communications in a complex network

Other terms in client-server network

1. Host — A computer that enables resource-sharing by other computers on


the same network.

2. Node — A client, server, or other device that can communicate over a network
and that is identified by a unique number, known as its network address.

3. Segment — A part of a network. Usually, a segment is composed of a group


of nodes that use the same communications channel for all their traffic.
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Overview of network applications

4. Client — A computer on the network that requests resources or services from


another computer on a network. The term client may also refer to the user of
a client workstation or a client software application installed on the
workstation.

5. Client/server architecture — A network design whereby clients (typically


desktop or laptop computers) use a centrally administered server to share
data, data storage space, and devices.

6. Client/server network — A network that uses centrally administered


computers, known as servers, to enable resource-sharing for and to facilitate
communication between the other computers on the network.

7. Workstation — A computer that runs a desktop operating system and


connects to a network.

8. Network — A group of computers and other devices (such as printers) that


are connected by and can exchange data via some type of transmission media,
such as a cable, a wire, or the atmosphere.

9. LAN (local area network) — A network of computers and other devices that
is confined to a relatively small space, such as one building or even one
office.

10. WAN (wide area network) — A network that spans a long distance and
connects two or more LANs.

11. Internet — A complex WAN that connects LANs and clients around the
globe.

Summary

In this section, the definition and the key concept of “network


application”, “network clients” and “network services” have been
presented. Network applications essentially come in two forms:
clients and services. The key characteristics of both client and
services have also been described and explained. Client-server
communication is the most dominant form of data traffic in
Internet, and client-services are fundamentally working “in
pairs”. A particular service has to be accessed by a matching client
application. Understanding these network applications is the first
step to understanding the inner working of the TCP/IP network
architecture.
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Self-test 1.1

Answer True or False.

1. Server must run on better PC than client.

2. Client always listens to request.

3. A pure client PC can provide network services.

4. A Windows XP PC can be configured as both client and server.

5. Client program has to be run at the “foreground” interfacing


with human.

6. A web server can’t be a print server at the PC.

7. A client program can talk to multiple network services


simultaneously.

8. Client program can’t communicate with another similar client


program directly.

9. Server program normally runs in the background without much


interaction with user.

10. A DNS server and a DHCP server have to be on different


machines/PCs.

Suggested answers to activity

Feedback

Activity 1.1

1. Web browsing: Firefox, Google Chrome, Opera

2. Email: Outlook, Thunderbird

3. Instant messaging: Skype

4. Video and audio streaming: Real player, Windows Media Player,


iTunes
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Overview of network applications

5. Internet telephone: Skype

6. Real-time video conference: Skype, Live messenger


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Overview of network applications

1.2 Introduction to Network Devices


and Addressing Schemes
Objectives
By the end of this section, you should be able to:

1. Differentiate the various network devices and end devices.

2. Recognise IP address, port number, and MAC address.

3. Explain the functions of the addressing scheme.

Introduction
In this section, “network” will be the focus. The section begins with the introduction
to the key components of a typical data network, followed by a more detailed
explanation on devices, medium and addressing schemes. The highlights of the
section are: identification of end devices and network devices, and addressing scheme
in the form of IP address and port number. The understanding of the relationship
between the devices and addressing scheme is crucial to the understanding of the
inner workings of TCP/IP network infrastructure.

Elements of a network
The function of a network is to serve as a platform for communications between
end users (with network applications). End users can be in the form of: Servers and
clients; smartphones and other mobile devices; PCs and webcam.

Data networks

Figure 1.14 A more complex client-server network


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All networks have four basic elements in two categories:

1. Hardware: Devices and medium

2. Software: Message and rules/agreement

Message Rules

Computer Rule
Medium networks Agreement
Standard

Message Rules

Telephone Rule
Medium networks Agreement
Standard

Message Rules

Broadcast Rule
Medium networks Agreement
Standard

Figure 1.15 Elements of a network

Devices are the hardware that makes up the network.

Medium is the channel over which network data travels. The following diagram
shows some examples of network medium. The most prominent examples of
medium are the cables (such as coaxial cable, Ethernet cable and fibre optics), and
air (wireless). Medium plays the role of connecting the devices.
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Overview of network applications

(a) Copper

(b) Fibre optics

(c) Wireless

This file is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported license.

Figure 1.16 Various network medium


Sources: (a) http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Category:Copper_wire
(b) http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Optical_fiber
(c) http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Category:Wireless_modems

Message is a generic term that encompasses the information content of web pages,
emails, instant messages, telephone calls, video, multimedia streaming, etc.

Rules describes how communication in a network is being governed from the


perspective of software. There are two important components of “rules”, the
addressing schemes and protocols. Addressing scheme will be explained later in this
section, but protocols will be explained in Unit 2.
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Previously, broadcast networks (TV and radio), telephone networks, and computer
networks are separate network entities governed by different technologies, rules
and devices. The ongoing trend now is to merge all these networks into one single
converged network so that PC can interact with TV stations, and telephones can
communicate with laptops.

Video
conferencing
around the
world.

This file is licensed under the Creative Commons


Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 2.0
Unported license.

Online
gaming
connects
thousands
of people
effortlessly.

This file is licensed under the Creative Commons


Attribution-ShareAlike 2.0 Unported license.

Handheld devices Phones are


can now receive used worldwide
news, emails and to share text,
send texts. voice and
images.

This file is licensed under the Creative Commons This file is licensed under the Creative Commons
Attribution-NoDerivs 2.0 Unported license. Attribution 2.0 Unported license.

Figure 1.17 Network convergence

Introduction to network devices


There are two classifications of devices in the Internet/network: End devices and
Networking devices.

End devices: Devices that a person can use for communication purposes. End devices
are normally attached to a network.

Printer-PT
PC-PT Laptop-PT Server-PT Printer 7960 PDA-PT TablePC-PT
PC Laptop Server IP Phone Pda Table PC

Figure 1.18 Examples of end devices


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Overview of network applications

Networking devices: Equipment that forms the network and helps to mediate and
transfer data between end devices.

Router-PT 2950-24 3560-24PS Bridge-PT Hub-PT Repeater-PT


Router Switch Multilayer Switch Bridge Hub Repeater

CoAxialSplitter-PT Linksys-WRT300N AccessPoint-PT DSL-Modem-PT


CoAxialSplitter Wireless Router Wireless Access Point DSL Modem

Figure 1.19 Examples of networking devices

A person uses an end device to communicate with another person with an end device
via the network formed by networking devices. A person does not use networking
device to communicate with another end device or networking devices. Servers and
clients are end devices.

A basic network should be able to perform the following:

1. Physical connectivity (cables, hub, wireless access point, repeater, etc.)

2. Switching (switches)

3. Routing (routers)

As the network gets more complex due to convergence, new networking devices have
emerged in the market to cater for security, storage, traffic management, quality of
service, efficiency and speed.

This file is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported license.

Figure 1.20 An example of a complex networking device


Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gateway_%28telecommunications%29#mediav
iewer/File:Juniper_srx210_front_view.jpg
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Activity 1.2

Which of the following are end devices (or networking devices)?

1. Workstations

2. Application Server

3. Wireless access point

4. iPhone

5. ADSL router

Rules of network: Introduction to addressing scheme


Questions:

1. When you use your client software, how do you know where (or which
website) you should access?

2. How does the network (or Internet) know where it should direct the data
to?

3. How does the network know which server or services that it should locate?

Answers:

1. We need some form of addressing scheme to find our way in the network.

2. We need some form of addressing scheme to identify the PCs, servers and
services in the Internet.

There are three sets of addresses that help the data and you to find your way in the
network. “Address” highlights the location of network elements (both software and
hardware) in the network. Address in the context of networking, works similarly in
concept as the address of our home or house. An address is a way to locate a house
or building within a country.

These are the three sets of addresses that are very important to the network, end
devices, and network applications:

1. Network “location” address => IP Address

2. Network “application” address => Port Number


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Overview of network applications

3. Network “hardware” address => Physical Address (MAC address for Ethernet)

These addresses are operating system or platform-independent. They are used in


Windows XP, Linux, Solaris, Unix and Apple computers

Locating the end devices in the network

Question: How does the network identify and differentiate the left PC from other
PCs?
Answer: By giving each PC a unique yet standardised number called IP address.

192.168.1.2 192.168.1.3

192.168.1.1 192.168.1.4

192.168.1.6 192.168.1.5

Figure 1.21 IP address in a simple network

There are two types of IP address: IPv4 (32 bits) and IPv6 (128 bits). IP address has
a standardised format that is recognised throughout the world.

This file is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported license.

Figure 1.22 The format of IP address


Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/IP_address#mediaviewer/File:Ipv4_address.svg
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The size of an IP address is 4 bytes, which is equal to 32 bits. It is written in a


“dotted-decimal notation” that consists of 4 decimal numbers with 3 dots. Each
of these 4 numbers is 1 byte. The value range of the decimal number is 0 to 255.
Hence a valid IP address could be 199.200.45.78. However, 800.354.7.432 is an
invalid IP address.

Activity 1.3

Which of the following are valid IP addresses?

1. 0.0.0.0

2. 100.2.300.3

3. 255.255.255.1

4. 1.12.0.256

5. 7.7.7.69

6. 192.0.1.1.1

7. 200.245.80

8. 6.260.80.6

9. 1.2.3.4

Within a network, the IP address has to be unique. There is only one such IP
address in the network. You cannot have duplicate IP addresses in the network.
The end devices with the same IP addresses cannot communicate properly with
other end devices.

The global Internet is “addressed” with IP address, also known as public IP address.
The concept of IP address is similar to your phone number (both mobile phone and
land line). Internet IP address is unique throughout the world. Internet IP address
can be traced to its geo-location. Public IP addresses are managed and maintained
by the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA).
UNIT 1 31
Overview of network applications

Figure 1.23 The value of global IP address is geographically related

There are two sides of the IP address: source IP (you), destination IP (where you
want to go). Any network application (both services and clients) MUST have both
the source IP and destination IP before these network applications can communicate
with each other.

Figure 1.24 Source IP and destination IP

IP address in end devices: The following are some of the end devices that require
IP address in order to communicate via the network. Almost all of the end devices
require IP address.
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PDA-PT TabletPC-PT Printer-PT


Pda0 Tablet PC0 Printer0

PC-PT Laptop-PT Server-PT


PC0 Laptop0 Server0

Figure 1.25 End devices require IP address

However, not all networking devices require IP address. Networking devices such as
switches, hubs, modems and repeaters do not require IP address. Routers (including
wireless router) requires IP address in order to function in the network.

Require IP address DOES NOT require


IP address
2950-24 Hub-PT
Switch0 Hub0 DSL-Modem-PT
Linksys-WRT300N 1841 DSL-Modem0
Wireless Router0 Router0
AccessPoint-PT Repeater-PT
Access Point0 Repeater0

Figure 1.26 IP address and networking devices

Identifying network application

Based on Figure 1.27, if the server sends data back to PC1 (using IP address), and
PC1 is running a few network applications (in the same machine), how does PC1
know which network client application it should direct this data to? How does PC1
know that the data should be directed to the web browser, or Tera Term or Instant
Messaging?
UNIT 1 33
Overview of network applications

Server-PT
Web Server
(cnn.com)
PC-PT
PC2 Cloud-PT
Internet
2950-24 1841
Switch0 Router0
PC-PT
PC1
PC1 is running these network applications

Figure 1.27 Identifying network applications within a PC

Network application address

We can identify and locate the end-devices in the network with IP address.

Question: How do we identify the network applications within these end-devices?


Question: How do we identify the network services within the servers?
Answer: Through a network applications/service addressing scheme called port
numbers.

What is a port number?

A port number is a way to identify a specific process that a network data is to be


forwarded to, when it arrives at an end device. (Note: Treat process = program =
application). Port number is unique within an end device. The size of a port number
is 2 bytes, so the range is from 0 to 65535. Typically (and at this level of your study),
the port numbers are categorised into:

1. Server port numbers: 0 to 1023

2. Client port numbers: 1024 to 65535

Same as IP address, port number is also divided into source port number and
destination port number.
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Server port numbers

Server port numbers are the standardised 2-byte numbers that identify the well-
known network services such as HTTP, FTP, DNS, etc. IANA (Internet Assigned
Numbers Authority) is responsible for assigning these server port numbers (they are
standardised for network services since the 1980s).

These server port numbers have been assigned with a dedicated fixed value to describe
a network service, e.g., port number = 80 (HTTP), port number = 53 (DNS), port
number = 23 (telnet).

Again, network services are identified via port numbers inside the servers. In the
range of 0–1023, a particular value has already been assigned and associated with a
particular network service. Server ports are also called listening ports.

The following lists some of the well-known port numbers:


20 (FTP data), 21 (FTP control), 22 (SSH), 23 (telnet), 25 (SMTP, email), 53
(DNS),
67 (BOOTP, DHCP server), 68 (BOOTP, DHCP client),
69 (TFTP), 80 (HTTP, web), 109 (POP2, email), 110 (POP3, email)

Port number = 80 is always a web (HTTP) service. You may need to memorise
some of these port numbers.

Figure 1.28 Port numbers


UNIT 1 35
Overview of network applications

Web References

You can check the rest of the server port numbers in the following
links:

1. http://www.iana.org/assignments/port-numbers

2. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Port_number

Client port numbers

Client port numbers are not fixed. The value of client port number is not standardised
by IANA. It is normally larger than 1023 and randomly the assigned by the operating
system randomly. Client ports are sometimes called connection ports.

Socket

The notation [IP:port_number] is called a socket. Socket can identify any network
application/service in the Internet. For example, 157.166.255.18:80 identifies the
web service of www.cnn.com.

Network connection example

In Figure 1.29, three PCs are accessing the web server at the same time. At the
server, three connections are detected. 192.168.1.1:80 (IP: port number) which
means the server IP is 192.168.1.1 and the port number is 80 (source port number).
Same service (web server application) is connected to three other applications (web
browser). For example, 192.168.1.2 is having a browser application with a port
number of 1029. Notice that the servers’ web service will always have a port number
of 80. However, the clients’ port numbers are rather random.

192.168.1.2 192.168.1.1

PC-PT
PC0 Server-PT
Web Server
192.168.1.3
2950-24
Switch0
PC-PT
PC1
192.168.1.4

PC-PT
PC2

Figure 1.29 Network connection example with socket illustration


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Activity 1.4

In this web server:

1. What is/are the source IP address(es)?

2. What is/are the destination IP address(es)?

3. What is/are the source port number(s)?

4. What is/are the destination port number(s)?

Hardware address: MAC address

Media Access Control address (MAC address) is a unique identifier attached to


most network adapters or network interface cards (NICs) that are based on Ethernet
technology. Used in both wired and wireless, the MAC addresses of NICs are unique
throughout the world.

No two NICs will have the same MAC address. The MAC address is burned into
the NIC chips and can’t be changed.

The size of an MAC address is 6 bytes (48 bits).


First 3 bytes identify the manufacturer (OUI).

00-00-00 XEROX CORPORATION


00-00-0B MATRIX CORPORATION
00-00-0C CISCO SYSTEMS, INC.

Also known as Hardware Address or Physical Address, MAC address is usually shown
in hexadecimal format, with each octet separated by a dash or colon. An example
of an MAC address would be “00-08-74-4C-7F-1D”.
UNIT 1 37
Overview of network applications

Web Reference

Read the following web page for the MAC OUI:

http://standards.ieee.org/regauth/oui/oui.txt

Summary

In this section, four essential elements of network are introduced:


devices, medium, message, and rules/agreement. However, the
focus is more on devices, medium and addressing scheme, which
is a subcategory of rules/agreement. Devices are subcategorised
into end devices and network devices. Recognising the functions
of network devices and network addressing schemes is the key to
understanding the interactions between network applications and
network communication platforms. In addressing schemes, IP
address and port number have been highlighted.

Self-test 1.2

Answer the following True or False questions.

1. Client port number is assigned by IANA.

2. MAC address is 36 bits.

3. MAC address is maintained by IANA.

4. Port number = 266 is a server port number.

5. Each socket is unique in the Internet.

6. You can run a network service with a port number of 5091.

7. You only need the IP address to locate the program of a remote


host.

8. Window XP can use port number 1024 for three client programs
within a PC at the same time.

9. You can use more than one of the same destination port numbers
in a PC.
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Suggested answers to activities

Feedback

Activity 1.2

1. Workstations (End)

2. Application Server (End)

3. Wireless access point (Network)

4. iPhone (End)

5. ADSL router (Network)

Activity 1.3

Which of the following are valid IP addresses?

1. 0.0.0.0 (valid)

2. 100.2.300.3 (invalid => value 300 exceeds 255)

3. 255.255.255.1 (valid)

4. 1.12.0.256 (invalid => value 256 exceeds 255)

5. 7.7.7.69 (valid)

6. 192.0.1.1.1 (invalid => 5 numbers with 4 dots)

7. 200.245.80 (invalid => 3 numbers with 2 dots)

8. 6.260.80.6 (invalid => value 260 exceeds 255)

9. 1.2.3.4 (valid)
UNIT 1 39
Overview of network applications

Activity 1.4

1. 192.168.1.1

2. 192.168.1.2; 192.168.1.3; 192.168.1.4

3. 80

4. 1026, 1029 (Note: There are two destination port numbers of


1026, but they belong to a different PC.)
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UNIT 1 41
Overview of network applications

1.3 Introduction to Networking


Commands and Software
Objectives
By the end of this section, you should be able to:

1. Apply networking commands to examine the status and statistics of network.

2. Apply network commands to access data.

3. Configure IP address in end devices on Windows or Linux platforms.

Introduction
In this section, a new category of network software, “networking software” will be
introduced, apart from network clients and network services. The primary function
of networking software is to examine the status and statistics of the network, and
to perform testing and troubleshooting. The section starts with the definition of
networking software in the context of network application and network software.
Highlights of the section include the configuration of static IP and dynamic IP in
Windows platform, and various illustration of the networking software in the form
of commands and GUI.

Network applications, network software and networking software


As defined in the first section, network applications refer to applications operated
by users that utilise the Internet or network infrastructure to perform communication
functions. It has to be emphasised that there is no standardised definition of network
applications within the network community. However, in the context of this unit,
network applications refer principally to the network client software that involves
a human user.

According to www.webopedia.com, “network software is a general phrase for software


that is designed to set up, manage and/or monitor computer networks”.

Networking software is loosely defined as the software that facilitates, enhances


or interacts with a computer network. Networking software differs from software
applications in that the software does not perform tasks that end users can see in
the way word processors and spreadsheets do. Instead, networking software operates
invisibly in the background, allowing the user to access network resources without
the user even knowing the software is operating.
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In other literature, the terms “network software” and “networking software” are
often used interchangeably. However, in the context of this unit, network software
encompasses network client, network services and networking software.

Clients-networks-servers

PCs (or hosts, workstations, end devices, and printers) communicate with other
PCs (servers or other clients) via the network (or Internet).

However, most network users do not know (or even care) how the network/Internet
is being run, but they do care which network services they can communicate or
access. For example, when a user types www.google.com in a web browser, the user
just hopes to go to a website (hosted in a server) and read the content of www.google.
com. When a user writes email to abc@wou.edu.my, the user just hopes that the
person who owns the email address will read his or her email.

While using the client programs, the network client users only “see” the network
services, the client users don’t “see” the network which acts as the middleman that
delivers the information from the network services.

“Transparency” of the network

A typical network user won’t realise what network devices are in the network/
Internet. Users don’t know whether they communicate via a switch or two switches,
or through a series of routers and switches. A source computer only knows the
destination computers.

All these examples are to illustrate the effect of the “transparency” of the network.
Again, for a typical user, PC-to-PC communication via a single switch is almost
the same as passing through a hundred switches and routers (maybe just seems a
little slower).

Unless a user uses networking software to explore the network, otherwise the user
won’t know the details or the status of the network.
UNIT 1 43
Overview of network applications

Client-Server
PoP#3 Transit Tier 1 Networks
Client Model Tier 2 Networks
Transit
Server Peering

PoP#2 PoP#1 IXP Tier 2 ISP

Transit Transit

Network
Tier 3 Network Tier 3 Network
(multi-homed ISP) (single homed ISP)

Internet users
(business, consumers, etc)

This file is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported license.

Figure 1.30 Transparency of network from user’s perspective


Source: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Client-Server_Model.jpg
Source: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Internet_Connectivity_Distribution
_%26_Core_mk.svg#mediaviewer/File:Internet_Connectivity_Distribution_%26_Core.
svg

Four categories of network software

In the context of this unit, there are four different types of network software that
deal with the model of “servers-network-clients”:

1. Network clients software: What we use the most (acquiring information or


data)

Web browser (Firefox), email reader (Outlook), etc.

2. Server software: Turn a PC (or end device) into a server

Apache web server

3. Networking software/commands: Help to explore and troubleshoot the


network

a. Command line form

tracert, ipconfig, ping, etc.

b. GUI (graphic user interface) form

Wireshark, Net Tools 5, Free IP Tools, AxenceNettools Pro

4. Protocols (we will discuss it in Unit 2)


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Networking software/commands

At the beginning of this section, we have defined network client software and
networking software. The following highlights some differences between network
client software and networking software:

Network clients software Networking software


Helps you to access network Helps you to:
services 1. explore the network
2. configure network devices
3. troubleshoot the network
4. collect network statistics
5. polling and testing the network
6. manage the network
7. access certain network status and parameters

As in network client software, networking software also comes in the form of


command line and GUI (graphic user interface).

Windows XP or Windows 7 network configuration/commands/software


Configuration of source IP address

The computer of a typical user normally comes with a network interface card (NIC)
and is connected to the Internet (either through Streamyx, Green Packet) (Figure
1.31).

Figure 1.31 Computer with an NIC connecting to a network


Source: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:RJ-45-Stecker-und-Buechse.jpg

After the network cable has been plugged in, and before a user begins to explore
the network in Windows XP (or Windows 7 or Linux or Sun or Apple), a user is
required to configure the following for his or her PC (or end device):

1. Source IP address

2. Subnet mask
UNIT 1 45
Overview of network applications

3. Default gateway

4. DNS (domain name service) IP address

Typical steps to arrive at the IP address configuration dialog box in Windows XP:

1. Click on start → Control Panel → Network Connections.

2. “Network Connections” window appears.

3. Right click on “Local Area Connection” and select “Properties”.

4. “Local Area Connection Properties” window appears (General Tab).

5. Scroll down to look for “Internet Protocol (TCP/IP)”.

6. Double click on “Internet Protocol (TCP/IP)” or select (single click)


“Internet Protocol (TCP/IP)” and left click on “Properties”.

Figure 1.32 Local Area Connection Properties dialog box


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7. “Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) Properties” dialog box appears.

a. This is the IP configuration dialog box to set the source IP address for
PC.

b. There are two ways to configure IP: (i) Dynamic IP (ii) Static IP.

Figure 1.33 Option of dynamic IP (Obtain an IP address automatically)

Dynamic IP

If the dynamic IP option is selected, this PC will require the help of a DHCP service
in the network. DHCP stands for Dynamic Host Control Protocol. To have this
option, a user is required to select “obtain an IP address automatically”, as shown
in Figure 1.33. DHCP service will supply the IP address, subnet mask, default
gateway, and DNS IP to the PC automatically. Port numbers related to DHCP are
67 (server) and 68 (client). Note: Port number 68 is a client port number that is
below the value of 1024. Port numbers of DHCP for IPv6 are 546 (client) and
547 (server).

Static IP

If the IP configuration option is static IP, a user is required to key in the four
parameters manually (as shown in Figure 1.34). Default gateway is IP address of the
immediate router in the local area network. (The design of the static IP configuration
will be presented in Unit 2).
UNIT 1 47
Overview of network applications

Figure 1.34 Static IP configuration

In the configuration of IP, an IP address of a functioning Domain Name Service


(DNS) is required. DNS server converts the domain name into destination IP
address. Typical users do not need to know how this conversion is being done, since
it is all handled by the OS (operating system). However, the OS (Windows XP or
Windows 7) does require users to provide a valid DNS IP to the OS. Two valid
DNS IP addresses are allowed in Windows XP and Windows 7.

If PCs do not have proper DNS IP

If a PC does not have a proper DNS IP, a user will have to type in the IP
address (64.233.181.104) of the Google website instead of www.google.com in
order to access the website. (Similarly, IP address 209.131.36.159 for the case
of www.yahoo.com). Otherwise, the browser will prompt the user an error of
“domain name unresolved” in the web page. Without a valid DNS IP, all the
“yahoo.com”, “cnn.com”, “wou.edu.my”, “facebook.com” will not work in the
browser.
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Figure 1.35 Without proper DNS IP

Figure 1.36 Access web page with IP address

Hence, it is of utmost importance to have the correct IP configuration. Otherwise,


none of the network software or network applications is able to function.

Windows networking commands/software


In this remaining section, various useful networking commands (or software) will be
presented. A typical user is able to use these commands or software to troubleshoot,
monitor and examine the status of the network.
UNIT 1 49
Overview of network applications

ipconfig

The first useful networking command that a typical user needs to learn. ipconfig
is used to check the source IP configuration setting of every network interface card
(NIC) of a PC (all physical and virtual network adapters).

If a PC has two wired NICs and one wireless NIC, ipconfig will list three sets
of IP addresses, subnet masks and default gateways.

(Note: Please reconsider the concept of IP address now since IP address is a network
interface address, not a host or PC address).

If there are four NICs in a PC, there will be four sets IP addresses for the PC.

Figure 1.37 Output of ipconfig shows two NICs, one with IP and the other is
disconnected

ipconfig /all

This command gives a more detailed status of the NICs that includes (Figure 1.38
shows the output of the command ipconfig /all):

1. DNS server IP

2. DHCP server IP

3. Dynamic or static IP (DHCP enabled?)

4. MAC addresses/Physical address

5. Lease of the DHCP service (when will the dynamic IP expire?)


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Figure 1.38 Output of ipconfig /all

DHCP service

As compared to the services that we have studied, such as HTTP, FTP, Telnet and
SMTP which are more of a data providing service, DHCP service is a networking
service which deals with network issues and not data resources. Normally, users do
not actively access the DHCP service. DHCP is “transparent” to the user unless a
particular user explores the service specifically. More often, it is the operating system
(OS) that deals with DHCP service.

ipconfig /release

This command releases the IP address, subnet mask, default gateway, and DNS IP
back to DHCP service (from which it had previously obtained the dynamic IP).
(Note: In Figure 1.39, IP address of 0.0.0.0 is equivalent to no source ip address,
subnet mask)
UNIT 1 51
Overview of network applications

Figure 1.39 Output of ipconfig /release (in the middle of the figure)

ipconfig /renew

This command requests the DHCP service to renew dynamic IP configuration. It


works similarly to “Obtain an IP address automatically” in TCP/IP property dialog
box. (Note: In a typical Malaysia home, DHCP service is provided by wireless router.)

DNS cache

Please be reminded that the function of DNS is to convert the domain name to
an IP address (destination IP). When a user visits a website, Windows XP tries to
speed up the DNS conversion by placing the DNS information into a DNS cache
in the PC. Without the DNS cache, the PC has to constantly communicate with
a remote DNS server. If a user has visited some websites, the IP address of the web
sites will most likely be stored in the DNS cache in the PC.

ipconfig /displaydns

A user can check the IP address of the websites (domain name) that the user has
previously visited with the command “ipconfig /displaydns”.
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Figure 1.40 Output of ipconfig /displaydns

ping

The function of the ping command is to check connectivity between a remote IP


and the end device of a user. A successful ping means that communication between
PC of the user and the remote IP is established. Accessing a remote service provided
by this remote IP should not be a problem.

The remote IP can be a server, router, printer, or another client PC. Ping comes
in the form of Windows command, or GUI net tools. The ping command can be
used with destination IP or domain_name . For example:

c:\>ping 192.168.1.1
c:\>ping www.google.com.my
UNIT 1 53
Overview of network applications

Figure 1.41 Successful ping with IP address

Figure 1.42 Unsuccessful ping with IP address

Figure 1.43 Successful ping with domain name


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Explanation of ping result

Time = Round Trip Time (RTT), the time that the ping packet travels to the remote
IP and back Time = 349 ms means, ping takes 349 ms to travel from a user’s PC
to 203.84.202.10 and then back to the user’s PC. The time includes minimum,
maximum and average RTT.

TTL = time-to-live, the number of routers that the ping packet can pass before it
is dropped by the router. TTL = 51 means the ping packet can still travel through
51 more routers. Network packets with TTL = 0 will be dropped by the network.

Free IP Tools — Ping (Successful)

The ping performed by Free IP Tools and Axence is similar to the ping performed
by the ping command. Ping performed by Axence gives a more appealing graphical
presentation and a friendlier user interface, as compared to the text output of a
ping command. However, the ping command takes a lower level of resources (e.g.,
memory) than the GUI counterparts.

Figure 1.44 Successful ping (GUI) in Free IP Tools


UNIT 1 55
Overview of network applications

Free IP Tools — Ping (Unsuccessful)

Figure 1.45 Unsuccessful ping (GUI) in Free IP Tools

AxenceNetTools — Ping (Successful)

Figure 1.46 Successful ping (GUI) in AxenceNetTools with live RTT Graph plotting
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Comments on ping

Ping is one of the best yet simple testing and troubleshooting networking tools. It
is advised to use ping to ensure the connectivity to a remote IP first, before a user
tries to access a particular network service of that remote IP. (Note: Ping 192.168.1.1
before you access http://192.168.1.1). If you are very sure that your network is
working fine, and yet you can’t ping a particular PC, check the firewall (or the
Symantec setting) of that PC. The firewall or Symantec may block the ping reply.

Overview of trace route

Trace route is an “advanced” form of ping. Trace route lists the IP addresses that the
data packet has travelled between a user’s PC and the destination IP. One can imagine
that these IP addresses form a route between the user’s PC and the destination IP.
Trace route can be in the form of command and software package. The better trace
route software can draw the route (listed with all the IP) on the world map between
a user’s PC and the destination IP.

pathping

Pathping lists all the IP that the data travel through from source to destination and
then compute some network statistics of the route.

Figure 1.47 Output of a pathping command


UNIT 1 57
Overview of network applications

Figure 1.48 Output of a pathping command

tracert

Tracert has a function similar to pathping.

Figure 1.49 Output of a tracert command


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AxenceNetTools Pro — Trace

Figure 1.50 Output of trace route in AxenceNetTool

Free IP Tools — Trace route

Figure 1.51 Output of trace route in Free IP Tools


UNIT 1 59
Overview of network applications

AxenceNetTools Pro — Trace with world map route visualisation

Figure 1.52 Output of a visualised route with a world map

Overview of nslookup

Nslookup is both a client and a networking software. Before this command is used,
a PC must have a valid DNS IP, otherwise this command won’t work. Nslookup
communicates with a DNS so that it can check the IP address of a valid domain
name.

nslookup

Figure 1.53 Output of nslookup command


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Public DNS IP Addresses

The following list shows some of the public DNS IP around the world, including
Malaysia:

1. 199.166.24.253 (PS0.NS1.VRX.NET)

Toronto, ON, Canada

2. 199.166.27.253 (PS0.NS3.VRX.NET)

Richmond Hill, ON, Canada

3. 199.166.28.10 (PS0.NS2.VRX.NET)

Apopka, Fl

4. 199.166.29.3 (NL.PUBLIC.BASESERVERS.NET)

Nederlands

5. 199.166.31.3 (NS1.QUASAR.NET)

Orlando, FL, USA

6. 195.117.6.25 (ZOLIBORZ.ELEKTRON.PL)

Poland

7. 38.113.2.100 (NS1.JERKY.NET)

Boston, MA, USA

8. 213.196.2.97 (PAN.BIJT.NET)

The Netherlands

9. 199.5.157.128

Detroit
UNIT 1 61
Overview of network applications

10. Malaysia’s Public DNS IP – Schoolnet (ADSL)

a. 202.75.44.18

b. 203.106.3.171

c. 202.75.44.20

11. Malaysia’s Public DNS IP – TmnetStreamyx (ADSL)

a. 202.188.0.132

b. 202.188.0.133

c. 202.188.0.147

d. 202.188.0.161

e. 202.188.0.181

f. 202.188.0.182

g. 202.188.1.4

h. 202.188.1.5

i. 202.188.1.23

j. 202.188.1.25

nslookup — interactive mode

Nslookup interactive mode enables a user to select a valid DNS server IP to work
with. If a selected DNS IP is located too “far” from a user’s PC, it will always be
prompted with an error of timed-out.
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Figure 1.54 Output of nslookup command (interactive mode)

Free IP Tools

Figure 1.55 Output of nslookup in Free IP Tools


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Overview of network applications

AxenceNetTools Pro — Lookup

Figure 1.56 Output of nslookup in AxenceNetTools

Overview of netstat

netstat (network statistics) is a command-line tool that displays network connections


(both incoming and outgoing), routing tables, and a number of network interface
statistics. One possible use for netstat is to determine if spyware or Trojans have
established connections that you do not know about. The command netstat -a
will display all network connections of a PC. The command netstat -b will show
the executable files involved in creating a connection.

netstat –a

List all the connection ports and listening ports in the system

Figure 1.57 Output of netstat -a


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State of the connection

1. CLOSED — Indicates that the server has received an ACK signal from the
client and the connection is closed.

2. CLOSE_WAIT — Indicates that the server has received the first FIN signal
from the client and the connection is in the process of being closed.

3. ESTABLISHED — Indicates that the server has received the SYN signal
from the client and the session is now established.

4. FIN_WAIT_1 — Indicates that the connection is still active but not currently
being used.

5. FIN_WAIT_2 — Indicates that the client has just received acknowledgement


of the first FIN signal from the server.

6. LAST_ACK — Indicates that the server is in the process of sending its own
FIN signal.

7. LISTENING — Indicates that the server is ready to accept a connection.

8. SYN_RECEIVED — Indicates that the server has just received a SYN signal
from the client.

9. SYN_SEND — Indicates that this particular connection is open and active.

10. TIME_WAIT – Indicates that the client recognises the connection as still
active but not currently being used.

netstat –b

List the programs that are making network connections and their port numbers.

Figure 1.58 Output of netstat -b


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Overview of network applications

netstat –e, netstat –n, netstat –o

1. -e Displays Ethernet statistics. This may be combined with the -s option.

2. -n Displays addresses and port numbers in numerical form.

3. -o Displays the owning process ID associated with each connection.

Figure 1.59 Output of netstat -e , netstat -n and netstat -o

netstat –s

Figure 1.60 Output of netstat -s


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The function of netstat -s is to display statistics of the protocols. By default,


statistics are shown for IP, IPv6, ICMP, ICMPv6, TCP, TCPv6, UDP and UDPv6.

Hostname

This command is used to display the computer name shown in the network. Special
IP for local host is 127.0.0.1.

Figure 1.61 Demonstration of hostname

getmac, getmac /v

This command displays MAC addresses of the local system and network adapter
name.

Figure 1.62 Output of getmac


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Overview of network applications

arp

Figure 1.63 Demonstration of ARP

ARP stands for Address Resolution Protocol. It is used to link IP address to an MAC
address in a lookup table. ARP table is important since the destination MAC address
is found in this table. The host requires the destination MAC address in order to
communicate with other hosts in the same local area network.

The command arp –a shows all cache. The command arp –d deletes entries in
the ARP table.

Overview of port scanning

Port scanning is a term that describes the probing of services of a remote IP. Port
scanning identifies the network services offered by a remote IP. A port scanner is
software designed to probe a network host for open ports. However, port scanning
can be blocked by firewall or Symantec intrusion detection. Port scanning has
legitimate uses in managing networks, but port scanning can also be malicious in
nature if someone is looking for a weakened access point to break into your computer.
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Nmap

Figure 1.64 Demonstration of Nmap

Nmap is a software that can be used to check the “open ports” (services offered) in
a particular server. In Figure 1.64, “scanme.nmap.org” offers four network services:
SSH, DNS, gopher and HTTP.

AxenceNetTools Pro — Scan Host

Figure 1.65 Demonstration of Scan Host in AxenceNetTools


UNIT 1 69
Overview of network applications

Free IP Tools – PortScan

Figure 1.66 Demonstration of PortScan in Free IP Tools

Telnet

Telnet is used for remote login to a particular server to perform remote configuration
(powerful command). A user can telnet to router, modem, and server as long as
these machines provide the telnet service. Do note that telnet is a client software
command, not a networking command.

Figure 1.67 Example of telnet 192.168.207.160, login name and password have to be
provided in order to continue
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ftp

The ftp command works similarly as the GUI version shown in section 1.1. Again,
this is a client software command. As in telnet, a user normally will need a valid
login name and password in order to access to the ftp server. There is another suite
of commands to upload and download files after a user has successfully logged into
the file server.

Figure 1.68 Demonstration of ftp command

Comments on networking commands

There are many other networking commands. It will take some time to learn how
to use these commands/software.

Some of the network commands are common in different operating systems (e.g.,
ping and netstat). Both commands exist in Linux, Unix and Windows. However,
the command option and output may be different. For example:

1. ping –i (Linux) => delay in sending out ping packets

2. ping –i (Windows) => Time to live

Other network commands may have different names but basically perform similar
functions, for example, ipconfig (Windows), ifconfig (Linux).
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Overview of network applications

Summary

In this section, “networking software” is presented. Networking


software comes in two forms: command-line and GUI. Both forms
of networking software perform the same functions: explore the
network, configure network devices, collect network statistics,
polling and testing the network. The IP configuration of Windows
platform is also presented together with static IP or dynamic IP.
A number of popular networking software in both command and
GUI form, such as ping, trace route, netstat and ftp, have also
been demonstrated.

Self-test 1.3

Answer the following True or False questions.

1. The delay between hosts can be checked by using the “ping”


command.

2. A web site can be accessed without using a domain name such


as www.msnbc.com.

3. The IP address of the DHCP server in the network (that provides


dynamic IP to your host) can be shown with the command
ipconfig /all.

4. netstat –a shows all active port numbers and MAC address.

5. A single domain name can be shared by three IP addresses.

6. A single IP address can be shared by three domain names.

7. Selecting a DNS IP that is located far away from your host is


better than choosing a DNS IP that is located near your host.

8. tracert shows the list of IP address travelled through between


source and destination.

9. The same IP address can be shared by a wired NIC and a wireless


NIC on the same host.
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Self-test 1.4

Select all that apply.

1. Which server(s) do/ you need to resolve domain name to


network address?

A. Web server
B. DNS server
C. Email server
D. DHCP server
E. File server
F. Database server
G. Game server

2. Which of the following is/are not a network service?

A. firewall
B. newsgroup
C. audio streaming
D. email
E. connectivity
F. trace route
G. messaging
H. printing job

3. Which server(s) is/are networking servers?

A. Web server
B. DNS server
C. Email server
D. DHCP server
E. File server
F. Database server
G. Game server

4. Which command(s) is/are used to check the status of the ports


in a host?

A. ping
B. tracert
C. netstat
D. ipconfig
E. pathping
F. arp
G. nslookup
H. getmac
UNIT 1 73
Overview of network applications

5. Which command(s) is/are used to check the connection delay


between hosts?

A. ping
B. tracert
C. netstat
D. ipconfig
E. pathping
F. arp
G. nslookup
H. getmac

6. Which command(s) is/are used to check the MAC address in


your PC?

A. ping
B. tracert
C. netstat
D. ipconfig
E. pathping
F. arp
G. nslookup
H. getmac

7. Which command(s) is/are used to check the connectivity of the


DNS to your host?

A. ping
B. tracert
C. netstat
D. ipconfig
E. pathping
F. arp
G. nslookup
H. getmac

8. Which two commands should first be used when you can’t access
the network (or lose communication)?

A. ping
B. tracert
C. netstat
D. ipconfig
E. pathping
F. arp
G. nslookup
H. getmac
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9. Which commands require login name and password in order


to proceed?

A. ping
B. tracert
C. netstat
D. ipconfig
E. pathping
F. arp
G. nslookup
H. getmac

Self-test 1.5

Which of the following software belongs to:

1. nmap
2. ftp
3. netstat
4. ping
5. ipconfig /all
6. ipconfig /renew
7. apache
8. telnet
9. ssh
10. arp
11. nslookup
12. tracert
13. Thunderbird
14. FreeNAS

A. server software
B. client software
C. networking software
UNIT 1 75
Overview of network applications

Summary of Unit 1

Summary

In this unit, the following categories of network software and


elements have been introduced:

1. Client software (network application)

2. Server software (network services or domains)

3. Networking software (network tools)

4. Network devices and end devices

5. Addressing schemes in networks

In the first section, network clients and network services have


been presented as the source and destination of end-to-end
communication in our present day data network. Most network
users have ample experience in using client software such as browser,
email, and instant messaging. However, server software requires a
little bit of skills and network infrastructure to be set up.

In the second section, the basic concept of network devices, end


devices and network addressing schemes has been presented.

In the third section, various networking software that probes,


troubleshoots and monitors the network is presented.
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Overview of network applications

Suggested Answers to Self-tests

Feedback

Self-test 1.1

1. False

2. False

3. False

4. True

5. True

6. False

7. False

8. True

9. True

10. False

Self-test 1.2

1. False, by OS

2. False, 48 bits or 6 bytes

3. False, by IEEE and manufacturers

4. True

5. True

6. True

7. False, you need both the IP and port number

8. False, port number is unique at any given time

9. True
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Self-test 1.3

1. True

2. True

3. True

4. False

5. True

6. True

7. False

8. True

9. False

Self-test 1.4

1. B

2. A, E, F

3. B, D

4. C

5. A, B, E

6. D, H

7. A, B, E

8. A, D

9. None
UNIT 1 79
Overview of network applications

Self-test 1.5

1. nmap (C)

2. ftp (B)

3. netstat (C)

4. ping (C)

5. ipconfig /all (C)

6. ipconfig /renew (B, C)

7. Apache (A)

8. telnet (B)

9. ssh (B)

10. arp (C)

11. Nslookup (B, C)

12. tracert (C)

13. Thunderbird (B)

14. FreeNAS (A)


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Overview of network applications

References
Dye, M, McDonald, R and Rufi, A (2012) Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration
Companion Guide, Cisco Press.

Paul William Browning (2014), Cisco CCNA in 60 days, Reality Press Ltd.

“Help with ping, winipcfg, and other network commands” http://www.


computerhope.com/issues/ch000444.htm

“Useful commands for Windows administrators”, http://technet.microsoft.com/


en-us/magazine/ee924647.aspx

Additional references

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Web_browser
http://standards.ieee.org/regauth/oui/oui.txt
http://www.iana.org/assignments/port-numbers
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Port_number
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Web_browser
http://www.webopedia.com/TERM/N/network_software.html
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Glossary
Adapter Hardware card that allows a computing device
to have physical access to a network.

Address A numerical (or alphanumerical) designation


that uniquely identifies a specific communication
entity, such as a hardware, computing host,
device, software, program, or process.

Communication Sending and receiving of information.

Connectivity The ability of a device to communicate with


other devices.

Destination Address Address of a data-receiving network device.

Dynamic Addressing An addressing system whereby the computer is


automatically assigned an address without the
involvement of a user.

Enterprise network A network that allows communication and


data sharing among all of a company’s business
functions and workers.

Ethernet A local area network (LAN) architecture


developed by Xerox Corporation in cooperation
with DEC and Intel in 1976. It is one of the
most widely implemented LAN standards.

Fast Ethernet An Ethernet standard with a speed of 100 MB.

Fibre optic A “cable” that transmits light.

File Transfer A network application that allows files to be


moved from one network device to another.

Full Mesh A topology whereby all devices have a connection


to each other.

GUI Graphical User Interface with buttons, icons,


and windows. Many actions are performed
using a pointing device (such as a mouse).

Hardware Address An address that is fixed at the time of


manufacturing, which identifies a network
device such as an Ethernet card.
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IANA Stands for Internet Assigned Numbers


Authority. IANA delegates authority for IP
address-space allocation and domain-name
assignment to the NIC and other organisations.
IANA also maintains a database of assigned
protocol identifiers used in the TCP/IP stack,
including autonomous system numbers.

IEEE The Institute of Electrical and Electronic


Engineers, a non-profit organisation that,
among many other activities, endeavours
to coordinate, synthesise and promote data
networking standards.

MAC address MAC addresses are 6 bytes long and are


managed by the IEEE. Also known as a
hardware address, or a physical address.

Media The environment in which the transmission


signal is carried.

Network Address Network layer address referring to a logical,


rather than a physical, network device. Network
address is typically not fixed as in hardware
address, and it is reconfigurable. It is also known
as protocol address.

Network Architecture A set of specifications that defines every aspect


of a data network’s communication system,
including but not limited to the types of user
interfaces employed, the networking protocols
used and the structure and types of network
cabling that may be used.

Network Interface Physical device or adapter that provides a media


connection, both wired and wireless.

Node A networked device that takes a protocol address


and can initiate and respond to communication
from other networked devices that employ
similar protocols.

Packet A discrete chunk of data for communication in


a pre-defined format.
UNIT 1 85
Overview of network applications

Process A set of instructions, as in a computer program


or application that is currently active, e.g.,
consuming CPU time and memory resources.

Session An ongoing communication between two


networked devices that involve the allocation
of resources and sustained data flow.

Terminal Simple device by which data can be entered or


retrieved from a network. Generally, terminals
have a monitor and a keyboard, but no
processor or local disk drive.