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LESSON 1-Mass Communication, Culture and Mass Media

A. Mass Communication is the process of creating shared meaning between the mass media and their audiences.

B. Communication is the transmission of a message from a source to a receiver.

C. Culture is the learned behavior of members of a given social group.

D. Mass Media refers to a diverse array of media technologies that reach a large audience via mass communication

E. Media Literacy encompasses the practices that allow people to access, critically evaluate, and create or manipulate

F. Society is a group of individuals involved in persistent social interaction, or a large social group sharing the same
spatial or social territory, typically subject to the same political authority and dominant cultural expectations.

G. Technology is the sum of techniques, skills, methods, and processes used in the production of goods or services or in
the accomplishment of objectives, such as scientific investigation.

Mass communication influences both society and culture. Different societies have different media systems, and the way
they are set up by law influences how the society works.

Different forms of communication, including messages in the mass media, give shape and structure to society.

Mass media plays an important role in the society by providing entertainment, information and acting as the
government’s overseer.

The influence of mass media has an effect on many aspects of human life, which can include voting a certain way,
individual views and beliefs, or skewing a person's knowledge of a specific topic due to being provided false information
but not all effects result in change; some media messages reinforce an existing belief.

Media literacy, put simply, is the ability to identify different types of media and the messages they are sending.
Therefore, we as the readers or viewers need to view the media objectively, with the goal to find out or analyze what is
being presented.

The benefits of media literacy are:

 teach people how to verify information and recognize other points of view
 encourage critical thinking
 encourage to share other sources of media responsibly
 inform readers how the media affect our culture.

Culture and society are intricately related. A culture consists of the “objects” of a society, whereas a society consists of
the people who share a common culture.

When the terms culture and society first acquired their current meanings, most people in the world worked and lived in
small groups in the same locale.


Negative Impact-Experts have found that in addition to making our lives more convenient, but there's a negative side to
technology — it can be addicting and it can hurt our communication skills. Extended screen time can result in health
ramifications like insomnia, eyestrain, and increased anxiety and depression

Positive Impacts - Organizations use electronic communication in day-to-day operations, and individuals use it for
personal tasks, like banking, paying bills and socializing. Communication technology has also made long-distance
communication and mass communication easy and convenient.

b. Money -alters or improve communication

Negative Impact-when audiences are considered products through advertising.

Positive Impact- when audiences are considered consumers of information.

c. Writing

Negative Impact- the primary function of written communication is to facilitate slavery

Positive Impact- Writing exists only in a civilization and a civilization cannot exist without writing

d. Gutenburg Revolution

Negative Impact- the cost of printing caused the information and knowledge to be expensive.

Positive Impact- key to modern consciousness.

The characteristics of culture are:

a. Culture is learned, it means the absorption of any habit, value, knowledge, skill, and the taste of the group reflects the
uniquely elaborate capacity of humans to learn.

b. Culture is transmitted by oral or in writing.

c. Culture is shared, it means the result from living and interacting with one another and emerge out of the social life of

d. Culture is patterned and integrated, it means the core values of the people are the basis for unity.

e. Culture is adaptive and maladaptive, this means that people can make some adjustments whether minor or major.

f. Culture is compulsory, this means that members of a society have to follow the culture in their dealings with others if
they wish to get along successfully.

g. Culture is essential for social life, this means that mechanisms for solving problems of life because no man was born
yet with his own life but through interactions with others.

Functions of Culture:
a. it serves a purpose
b. it helps categorize and classify human experiences
c. helps define the world

Effects of culture:
a.it limits options and provides useful guidelines for behavior-with positive or negative effects
b.it has liberating effects since because cultural values can be contested
c.it has defining effect
d.it has differentiating effect
e.it has dividing effect
f.it has uniting effect

The elements of media literary are:

a. A critical thinking skill enabling audience members to develop independent judgments about media content.
b. An understanding of the process of mass communication
c. An awareness of the impact of media on the individual and society.
d. Strategies for analyzing and discussing media messages.
e. An understanding of media content as a text that provides insight into culture.
f. The ability to enjoy, understand, and appreciate media content.
g. Development and effective responsible production skills.
h. An understanding of the ethical and moral obligations of media practitioners.

The media literacy skills are:

A. The ability and willingness to make an effort to understand content, to pay attention, and to filter out noise.
b. An understanding of and respect for the power of media messages.
c. The ability to distinguish emotional from reasoned reaction when responding to content and to act accordingly.
d. Development of heightened expectations of media content.
e. The knowledge of genre conventions and the ability to recognize when they are being mixed.
f. The ability to think critically about media messages.
g. A knowledge of the internal language of various media and ability to understand its effects no matter how complex
LESSON 2 - Convergence and Reshaping of Mass Communication

Ownership of mass media is a process whereby progressively fewer individuals or organizations control increasing
shares of the mass media.

A. Sec 11 of Philippine Constitution

> ownership and management of mass media shall be limited to citizens of the Philippines, or to corporations,
cooperatives or associations, wholly-owned and managed by such citizens. The Congress shall regulate or prohibit
monopolies in commercial mass media when the public interest so requires.

B. Corporation Code of the Philippines

Conglomeration describes the process by which a conglomerate is created, as when a parent company begins to acquire

Globalization means the speedup of movements and exchanges (of human beings, goods, and services, capital,
technologies or cultural practices) all over the planet.

Audience fragmentation is used to describe the transition of a population from one comprised of few large audiences
for any one media product to another comprised of more numerous smaller audiences.

Hyper commercialization is a situation that can be examined both at a micro and macro level, but refers to the fact that
the media are becoming increasingly subservient to the advertisers' desires to alter the awareness, attitudes, and
behaviors of consumers in the media marketplace.

Convergence is a phenomenon involving the interconnection of information and communications technologies,

computer networks, and media content.

Trends in the ownership and control of the media

The mass media are generally defined as those agencies of communication that transmit information, education, news
and entertainment to mass audiences.

There are broadly three types of media:

 The print media,
 Audio visual media,
 Cybermedia or digital media.

Ownership and control

Some sociologist has expressed concerns about recent trends in media ownership and control.
The number of media outlets available to the general public has increased dramatically (increased in the TV choice and
the birth of the internet).
All these changes in the in the availability of media seem to imply a greater degree of choice however some sociologist
argue that this might just an illusion.

Concentration of media ownership

4 distinct features:
Ownership within a single medium e.g. Company owning several newspapers,
Owners have an interest in a range of media such as newspapers, magazines, book publishing, the film industry,
Ownership is international: owners have media interest in many different countries,
Media conglomerates: companies that have a range of interest in a wide range of interest in a wide variety of products
besides the media. For example, Virgin also has an airline, train company, soft drinks, mobiles phones etc...

Global conglomerations
Media companies have taken advantage of the erosion of traditional boundaries surrounding media markets.
Globalization has opened up national markets and has created international competitions between media companies.

Media companies are using different interest to package their products in several different ways

Technological Convergence

A fairly new concept which refers to the trend of putting several technologies into one media product for example
through the personal computer, mobile phones, digital television.
LESSON 3- Media, Media Industries and Media Audiences on Books

1. Timeline of the history and development of books. (Evolution of Books)

The Evolution of the book

3500 BC - Symbols onto

2400 BC - Papyrus Scrolls.


600 BC - Standardized Left to right writing in Europe except for Hindu-

Arabic that used right to left…
writing system
developed. ...

500 - 200 BC -
Parchment. ...made from
calfskin, goatskin or

200 BC - Wax Tablets

developed. ... Greeks and
Romans made of wood
105 AD - The Paper
Revolution. ...by the
Chinese Eunuch

400 - 600 AD - Illustrations

added. ...popularized in

868 AD - The First Printed

Book…printed on paper in

1041 AD -1230 AD THE

FIRST Moveable Type.
….still in China

1250 AD –Block printing in

Egypt….called Tarsh in
1439-1450 AD-Moveable
type in Europe by
Johannes Gutenberg

1455 AD –The Gutenberg


1490 AD-1500 AD The Created the printing press and produced best
Printing Revolution

1501 AD The Precursor of

the Modern Paperback …in
1639 AD-1640 AD
America’s First Book
brought by Puritans in
North America

17 44 AD-Discovery of By Carl Wilhelm Scheele a Swedish Chemist…

chlorine is used for bleaching the paper

1832 AD- Book Sleeves Detachable paper jackets for keepsake


1832 AD -1860 AD –Birth of

the Cheap Novel in Britain
1920 AD-1938 AD –The rise
and fall of the Paperback
in America

1933 ad Nazis began

Burning Books

1935 AD -1945 AD The

March of the Penguin-the
Pelican books …educate

1971 AD The first

microprocessor invented
..Intel 4004
1985 AD First Books on CD

1989 AD Internet and

HTML arrive for public use

1995 AD Books sold online

1996 Google is born

2000 AD-2006 AD The star
of e-books market

2007 AD The Kindle

becomes the first E-book

2008 AD Speeding up the

scanning of e-books such
as booksnaps

2014 AD and beyond …

audible …allowing digital
download onto tablet..

Book censorship is the act of some authority taking measures to suppress ideas and information within a book.

Censorship is "the regulation of free speech and other forms of entrenched authority". Books are most often
censored for age appropriateness, offensive language, sexual content, amongst other reasons.

It is considered a threat to democracy since it curtails free press and freedom of expression which is expressly provided
in the constitution.

But if the censorship if for the exercise of police power of the state, then the censorship is justified.
The major factors affecting the local and global production, marketing and distribution of books, magazines and
electronic publications have a huge impact in political, social and economic conditions, technological changes, and
changing industry practices.

The critical understanding of professional practices and current issues in various sectors of the industry in the
context of global developments roles and have gained insights of what to publish.

In other words, if the standard of general practices across book, magazine and online publishing; and the
responsibilities of editors, agents, designers and marketing and distribution will serve as guides as what “content or
ideas are to be printed”.

Media literacy is an important skill, especially in the modern age of digital information. Facebook posts, online
articles, and traditional news media can all be persuasive, even when they're not accurate.

Being able to think critically is the best way to avoid being misinformed.