0 оценок0% нашли этот документ полезным (0 голосов)

1 просмотров50 страницOct 08, 2020

1920_CourseGuide_MAIHL.pdf

© © All Rights Reserved

PDF, TXT или читайте онлайн в Scribd

© All Rights Reserved

0 оценок0% нашли этот документ полезным (0 голосов)

1 просмотров50 страниц1920_CourseGuide_MAIHL.pdf

© All Rights Reserved

Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 50

IB DP Mathematics:

Applications and

Interpretation HL

Course Guide

UCSI SPRINGHILL

Hello DP1!

Welcome to the Diploma Programme at UCSI Springhill and welcome to your new math class!

Congratulations on making it to Math HL! (You’re only a step away from some of the greatest pick-up lines

ever: “I did my EE in Math!” “I got a 7 for Math HL!”)

You’re now officially the top priority in my professional life (well, along with DP2), and as such, I’d love for us

to get to know each other! So here’s almost all you need to know about me:

(Educational Leadership) as a postgraduate2. My professional training, however, has included interior

design3 and ESL, too.

d To quench my thirst for learning (read: getting certified in) random things, I have used Brainbench

and Coursera, can say I’m ‘certified in random things’ and highly recommend these two to support

your CAS and to strengthen your HL subjects. (I think beyond my undergrad + postgrad years I’ve at

least gained a new certification a year, and I’d like to keep it steady for the rest of my days. Lifelong

learning ftw.)

d Other than IB DP + MYP here and in two other IB schools, IGCSE4, and Western Australian

mathematics, throughout the decades I’ve also taught Indonesian, science5 (only Checkpoint level,

though), and ESL6. I spent most of my twenties coaching high school78 and varsity debaters9. I was the

designated librarian at my last TESL job, and on odd days I miss my part-time Excel expert10 and

database migrating11 days. In 2014 I learned about the World Scholar’s Cup12 and OH BOY now I’m a

WSC evangelist/volunteer (and my son13 is a cria)!

d I believe education should be about liberating people – providing them with intellectual choices of

(and freedom to choose) ways to survive and thrive, including how to negotiate with life, other people,

events, and circumstances. I’d say that my (professional) life mission is to drag all Dorothys out of

Kansas14! And on that note, I believe anyone interested in education should read Paolo Freire’s

Pedagogy of the Oppressed15.

d Math has been a combination of natural tendency and fate to me. It was a subject I liked and aced

growing up, and when it was time to start my varsity life, voila – the first undergraduate double

degree programmes in the country were offered, and IT (my main interest back then) was paired with

mathematics. I ended up loving math way more than IT, needless to say. By the time I graduated, I’d

been getting referrals from my two of my favorite lecturers to tutor their high school students, and to

my delight and amusement, I’d developed a rather shameless view of the world…16 (a milder version is

available, too)17.

d Yes without a doubt I would have taken DP myself and would have chosen English A: Language and

Literature SL, Spanish Ab Initio SL, Information Technology in a Global Society HL, Computer Science

HL, Mathematics: Application and Interpretation HL, and Design Technology SL.

d Just because random former students have asked: Yes, I’d

be an IB DP Math teacher all over again in my next life/in a

different universe/if I could time travel. No, I wouldn’t force

my son to be a math person, but yes, I hope he’ll take

whatever (RIP) Further Mathematics HL’s reincarnation will

be.

OK. Now that you know me better

than my mother does,

let’s turn the attention to you! Me & my cria

Anita Wijaya, SSi, SKom, PGDipEd

watching WSC The

Hague 2019 Global

Round rehearsal

1

Surviving and thriving in class

At the end of the day, what I wish to see is an intact group of content and successful students. By successful, I

mean those who embody the IBO’s ‘Group 5 aims’ (from MAI guide, Aug 18, p20), i.e.

1 develop a curiosity and enjoyment of mathematics, and appreciate its elegance and power

2 develop an understanding of the concepts, principles and nature of mathematics

3 communicate mathematics clearly, concisely and confidently in a variety of contexts

4 develop logical and creative thinking, and patience and persistence in problem solving to instil confidence

in using mathematics

5 employ and refine their powers of abstraction and generalization

6 take action to apply and transfer skills to alternative situations, to other areas of knowledge and to future

developments in their local and global communities

7 appreciate how developments in technology and mathematics influence each other

8 appreciate the moral, social and ethical questions arising from the work of mathematicians and the

applications of mathematics

9 appreciate the universality of mathematics and its multicultural, international and historical perspectives

10 appreciate the contribution of mathematics to other disciplines, and as a particular “area of knowledge” in

the TOK course

11 develop the ability to reflect critically upon their own work and the work of others

12 independently and collaboratively extend their understanding of mathematics.

For all these to materialize, I believe there are non-negotiable ingredients of a functional math class – my very

own, if you will:

Eight commandments!

1 Be physically present and reasonably punctual – always aiming to use school hours effectively.

2 Always bring the holy trinity with you: laptop, GDC, formula booklet.

3 Since your success is your responsibility as well as mine, participate in class and let me know how I can

best assist you in your learning. Help me help you. I’m always only a ManageBac message, an e-mail

(anitaw@sh.ucsiinternationalschool.edu.my), or a WhatsApp line (0149277808) away.

4 Keep record of your own learning. Have a big, fat folder to keep everything.

5 Try your best to keep a positive attitude towards everyone in class even on a bad hair day. This includes

staying focused and refraining from distracting yourself and others in class – e.g. when no electronics are

needed, no electronics are needed.

6 Know yourself – What keeps you motivated? What are your targets?

7 Abide by school rules.

8 Offer others help when you can, and seek help from others when you need it.

2

The courses and their topics

There are two math courses that the IB currently has: Mathematics: Analysis and Approaches (MAA) and

Mathematics: Applications and Interpretation (MAI). Each course is offered at the Higher Level and the

Standard Level. Sure you know and have chosen or been assigned one, but there’s no harm in knowing this

(from MAI guide, Aug 19, p8, emphases added):

SL HL

MAA This course recognizes the need for analytical Students who choose MAA at SL or HL should be

expertise in a world where innovation is comfortable in the manipulation of algebraic

increasingly dependent on a deep expressions and enjoy the recognition of

understanding of mathematics. This course patterns and understand the mathematical

includes topics that are both traditionally part of a generalization of these patterns. Students who

pre-university mathematics course (for example, wish to take MAA at HL will have strong

functions, trigonometry, calculus) as well as algebraic skills and the ability to understand

topics that are amenable to investigation, simple proof. They will be students who enjoy

conjecture and proof, for instance the study of spending time with problems and get pleasure

sequences and series at both SL and HL, and and satisfaction from solving challenging

proof by induction at HL. problems.

The course allows the use of technology, as

fluency in relevant mathematical software and

hand-held technology is important regardless of

choice of course. However, MAA has a strong

emphasis on the ability to construct,

communicate and justify correct mathematical

arguments.

MAI This course recognizes the increasing role that Students who choose MAI at SL or HL should

mathematics and technology play in a diverse enjoy seeing mathematics used in real-world

range of fields in a data-rich world. As such, it contexts and to solve real-world problems.

emphasizes the meaning of mathematics in Students who wish to take MAI at HL will have

context by focusing on topics that are often used good algebraic skills and experience of solving

as applications or in mathematical modelling. To real-world problems. They will be students who

give this understanding a firm base, this course get pleasure and satisfaction when exploring

also includes topics that are traditionally part of a challenging problems and who are comfortable

pre-university mathematics course such as to undertake this exploration using technology.

calculus and statistics.

The course makes extensive use of technology to

allow students to explore and construct

mathematical models. MAI will develop

mathematical thinking, often in the context of a

practical problem and using technology to justify

conjectures.

3

Mathematics: Applications and Interpretation HL

(from MAI guide, Aug 19, pp26-71) Bold subtopics = Additional Higher Level (AHL)

# Content Guidance, clarification & syllabus links TOK Enrichment

1.1 Operations with numbers in the for Calculator or computer notation is not acceptable. Do names that we give

× 10 where 1 < + < 10 and is an For example, 52E30 is not acceptable and should be written as things impact how we

integer 5.2 × 10 . understand them?

For instance, what is the

impact of the fact that

some large numbers are

named,

such as the googol and

the googolplex, while

others are represented in

this form?

1.2 Arithmetic sequences & series. Spreadsheets, GDCs and graphing software may be used to Is all knowledge

Use of the formulae for the nth term and generate and display sequences in several ways. concerned with

the sum of the first n terms of the If technology is used in examinations, students will be expected identification and use of

sequence. to identify the first term and the common difference. patterns? Consider

Fibonacci numbers and

Use of sigma notation for sums of

connections with the

arithmetic sequences.

golden ratio.

Applications. Examples include simple interest over a number of years.

Analysis, interpretation and prediction Students will need to approximate common differences.

where a model is not perfectly arithmetic

in real life.

4

# Content Guidance, clarification & syllabus links TOK Enrichment

1.3 Geometric sequences and series. Spreadsheets, GDCs and graphing software may be used to How do mathematicians

Use of the formulae for the nth term and generate and display sequences in several ways. reconcile the fact that

the sum of the first n terms of the some conclusions seem to

sequence. conflict with our

intuitions? Consider for

Applications. Examples include the spread of disease, salary increase and instance that a finite area

decrease and population growth. can be bounded by an

infinite perimeter.

1.4 Financial applications of geometric Examination questions may require the use of technology, How have technological The concept of

sequences and series: including built-in financial packages. advances affected the can be introduced

• compound interest The concept of simple interest may be used as an introduction nature and practice of to continuous

mathematics? Consider compounding,

• annual depreciation. to compound interest.

the use of financial 1 + → , as

Calculate the real value of an investment with an interest rate

→ ∞, however

packages for instance.

and an inflation rate.

In examinations, questions that ask students to derive the this will not be

formula will not be set. examined.

Compound interest can be calculated yearly, half-yearly,

quarterly or monthly.

Link to: exponential models/functions in topic 2.

1.5 Laws of exponents with integer Examples: Is mathematics invented

exponents. 5 × 5 = 5 , 6 ÷ 6 = 6, or discovered? For

2 = 2 , 2 = 16 , instance, consider the

2 = ! number e or logarithms–

did they already exist

Introduction to logarithms with base 10

that " > 0, and log ( = ln .

before man defined

and e. them?

Numerical evaluation of logarithms using

technology.

1.6 Approximation: decimal places, Students should be able to choose an appropriate degree of Is mathematical reasoning

significant figures. accuracy based on given data. different from scientific

5

# Content Guidance, clarification & syllabus links TOK Enrichment

Upper and lower bounds of rounded If = 4.1 to one decimal place, 4.05 ≤ < 4.15. reasoning, or reasoning in

numbers. other areas of

knowledge?

Percentage errors. Students should be aware of, and able to calculate,

measurement errors (such as rounding errors or measurement

limitations). For example finding the maximum percentage error

in the area of a circle if the radius measured is 2.5 cm to one

decimal place.

Estimation. Students should be able to recognize whether the results of

calculations are reasonable. For example lengths cannot be

negative.

1.7 Amortization and annuities using Technology includes the built-in financial packages of graphic

technology. display calculators, spreadsheets.

In examinations the payments will be made at the end of the

period.

Knowledge of the annuity formula will enhance understanding

but will not be examined.

Link to: exponential models (SL 2.5).

1.8 Use technology to solve: In examinations, no specific method of solution will be required. What role does language

• Systems of linear equations in up to 3 In examinations, there will always be a unique solution to a play in the accumulation

variables system of equations. and sharing of knowledge

• Polynomial equations in mathematics? Consider

Standard terminology, such as zeros or roots, should be taught.

for example that when

Link to: quadratic models (SL 2.5) mathematicians talk

about “imaginary” or

“real” solutions they are

using precise technical

terms that do not have

the same meaning as the

everyday terms.

6

# Content Guidance, clarification & syllabus links TOK Enrichment

1.9 Laws of logarithms: In examinations, a will equal 10 or . What is meant by the

log & = log & − log & ,

terms “law” and “theory”

,

Link to: scaling large and small numbers (AHL 2.10).

in mathematics. How does

log & . = / log & this compare to how

for , , , > 0 these terms are used in

different areas of

knowledge?

1.10 Simplifying expressions, both numerically Examples:

1 1 3 ! 1 1

52 × 5! = 54 , 65 ÷ 62 = 65 ,

and algebraically, involving rational

2 1

323 = 8, 2 =

exponents.

√

1.11 The sum of infinite geometric sequences. Link to: the concept of a limit (SL 5.1), fractals (AHL 3.9), and Is it possible to know

Markov chains (AHL 4.19). about things of which we

can have no experience,

such as infinity?

1.12 Complex numbers: the number 9 such How does language

that 9 = −1. shape knowledge? For

Cartesian form: : = + "9; the terms real example do the words

part, imaginary part, conjugate, modulus “imaginary” and

and argument. “complex” make the

concepts more difficult

Calculate sums, differences, products,

than if they had different

quotients, by hand and with technology.

names?

Calculating powers of complex numbers,

in Cartesian form, with technology.

The complex plane. Use and draw Argand diagrams.

Complex numbers as solutions to Quadratic formula and the link with the graph of

quadratic equations of the form

+ " + ; = 0, ≠ 0

with real coefficients where " − 4; < 0.

7

# Content Guidance, clarification & syllabus links TOK Enrichment

1.13 Modulus-argument (polar) form: Why might it be said that Solution of

: = =cos @ + 9 sin @ = = ;9C @ DE + 1 = 0 is beautiful? differential

Exponential form: Exponential form is sometimes called the Euler form. What is the place of equations by

: = =^9@ beauty and elegance in separation of

mathematics? What about variables

Conversion between Cartesian, polar and the place of creativity? (AHL5.15), as both

exponential forms, by hand and with polar and

technology. exponential forms

Calculate products, quotients and integer In examinations students will not be required to find the roots are solutions of

FG

= 9,.

powers in polar or exponential forms. of complex numbers. FH

Adding sinusoidal functions with the Phase shift and voltage in circuits as complex quantities.

same frequencies but different phase Example: Two AC voltages sources are connected in a circuit. If

shift angles. J = 10;KC40L and J = 20;KC40L + 10 find an expression

for the total voltage in the form

J = M cos40L + N.

Geometric interpretation of complex Addition and subtraction of complex numbers can be

numbers. represented as vector addition and subtraction. Multiplication

of complex numbers can be represented as a rotation and a

stretch in the Argand diagram.

1.14 Definition of a matrix: the terms element, Given the many

row, column and order for / × applications of matrices in

matrices. this course, consider the

fact that mathematicians

Algebra of matrices: equality; addition; Including use of technology.

marvel at some of the

subtraction; multiplication by a scalar for

/ × matrices.

deep connections

between disparate parts

Multiplication of matrices. Multiplying matrices to solve practical problems. of their subject. Is this

Properties of matrix multiplication: evidence for a simple

underlying mathematical

associativity, distributivity and non-

reality? Mathematics,

commutativity.

8

# Content Guidance, clarification & syllabus links TOK Enrichment

Identity and zero matrices. Students should be familiar with the notation O and 0. sense, perception and

Determinants and inverses of ×

reason–if we can find

solutions of higher

matrices with technology, and by hand

for 2 × 2 matrices.

dimensions, can we

reason that these spaces

Awareness that a system of linear In examinations M will always be an invertible matrix, except exist beyond our sense

equations can be written in the form when solving for eigenvectors. perception?

M = ".

Solution of the systems of equations Model and solve real-life problems including:

using inverse matrix. Coding and decoding messages

Solving systems of equations.

Link to: Markov chains (AHL 4.19), transition matrices (AHL

4.19) and phase portrait (AHL 5.17).

1.15 Eigenvalues and eigenvectors. Students will only be expected to perform calculations by hand Mathematics can be used Principal

Characteristic polynomial of 2 × 2 and with technology for 2 × 2 matrices. successfully to model component and

matrices. real-world processes. Is factor analysis.

Diagonalization of 2 × 2 matrices

this because mathematics Link between

was created to mirror the discrete change

(restricted to the case where there are

world or because the and continuous

distinct real eigenvalues).

world is intrinsically change in

Applications to powers of 2 × 2 matrices. Applications, for example movement of population between mathematical? dynamical systems

two towns, predator/prey models. (including why e is

PQ = RSQ R , where R is a matrix of eigenvectors, and S is a such an important

diagonal matrix of eigenvalues. number).

Link to: coupled differential equations (AHL 5.17).

9

Topic 2: Functions (31 + 11 hours)

# Content Guidance, clarification & syllabus links TOK Enrichment

2.1 Different forms of the equation of a , = / + ; (gradient-intercept form). Descartes showed that

straight line. + ", + T = 0 (general form). geometric problems could

, − , = / − (point-gradient form).

Gradient; intercepts. be solved algebraically

Lines with gradients / and /

and vice versa. What does

Calculate gradients of inclines such as mountain roads, bridges,

Parallel lines / = / .

this tell us about

etc. mathematical

Perpendicular lines / × / = −1. representation and

mathematical knowledge?

2.2 Concept of a function, domain, range Example: U = √2 − , the domain is ≤ 2, range is U ≥ 0. Do you think mathematics

and graph. A graph is helpful in visualizing the range. or logic should be

Function notation, for example U, VL, classified as a language?

W.

The concept of a function as a

mathematical model.

Informal concept that an inverse function Example: Solving U = 10 is equivalent to finding U − 110.

reverses or undoes the effect of a

Students should be aware that inverse functions exist for one to

one functions; the domain of U is equal to the range of

function.

U.

Inverse function as a reflection in the line

, = , and the notation U .

2.3 The graph of a function; its equation Students should be aware of the difference between the Does studying the graph

, = U. command terms “draw” and “sketch”. of a function contain the

10

# Content Guidance, clarification & syllabus links TOK Enrichment

Creating a sketch from information given All axes and key features should be labelled. same level of

or a context, including transferring a mathematical rigour as

This may include functions not specifically mentioned in topic 2.

graph from screen to paper. studying the function

algebraically? What are

Using technology to graph functions

the advantages and

including their sums and differences.

disadvantages of having

different forms and

symbolic language in

mathematics?

2.4 Determine key features of graphs. Maximum and minimum values; intercepts; symmetry; vertex;

zeros of functions or roots of equations; vertical and horizontal

asymptotes using graphing technology.

Finding the point of intersection of two

curves or lines using technology.

2.5 Modelling with the following functions: What role do models play Conics–how can a

in mathematics? Do they parabola be

Linear models. Including piecewise linear models, for example horizontal

U = / + ;

play a different role in created by cutting

distances of an object to a wall, depth of a swimming pool,

mathematics compared to a cone?

mobile phone charges.

their role in other areas of

Link to: equation of a straight line (SL 2.1) and arithmetic knowledge?

sequences (SL 1.2).

Quadratic models. Technology can be used to find roots.

U = + " + ;; ≠ 0 Link to: use of technology to solve quadratic equations (SL 1.8).

Axis of symmetry, vertex, zeros and roots,

intercepts on the -axis and ,-axis.

Exponential growth and decay models. Link to: compound interest (SL 1.4), geometric sequences and

U = + ; series (SL 1.3) and amortization (SL 1.7).

U = − + ;; > 0

U = Z + ;

Equation of a horizontal asymptote.

11

# Content Guidance, clarification & syllabus links TOK Enrichment

Direct/inverse variation:

U = , ∈ ℤ

The ,-axis as a vertical asymptote when

< 0.

Cubic models:

U = + " + ; + T

Sinusoidal models: Students will not be expected to translate between sin and

U = C9" + T cos , and will only be required to predict or find amplitude (),

°

U = ;KC" + T period ( ), or equation of the principal axis (, = T).

^

2.6 Modelling skills: Fitting models using regression is covered in topic 4. What is it about models in

Use the modelling process described in Link to: theoretical models (SL 2.5) to be used to develop the mathematics that makes

the “mathematical modelling” section to modelling skills and, for HL students, (AHL 2.9). them effective? Is

create, fit and use the theoretical models simplicity a desirable

in section SL2.5 and their graphs. characteristic in models?

Given a context recognize and choose an

appropriate model and possible

parameters.

Determine a reasonable domain for a

model.

Find the parameters of a model. By setting up and solving equations simultaneously (using

technology), by consideration of initial conditions or by

substitution of points into a given function.

At SL, students will not be expected to perform non-linear

regressions, but will be expected to set up and solve up to three

linear equations in three variables using technology.

12

# Content Guidance, clarification & syllabus links TOK Enrichment

Test and reflect upon the model:

Comment on the appropriateness and

reasonableness of a model.

Justify the choice of a particular model,

based on the shape of the data,

properties of the curve and/or on the

context of the situation.

Use the model: Students should be aware of the dangers of extrapolation.

Reading, interpreting and making

predictions based on the model.

2.7 Composite functions in context. U ∘ U = U ∘ U = .

The notation U ∘ ` = U`. Example: U = − 3 − 2 has an inverse if the domain is

Inverse function U , including domain restricted to ≥ 3 or to ≤ 3.

restriction.

Finding an inverse function.

2.8 Transformations of graphs. Students will be expected to be able to perform transformations Is mathematics

on all functions from the SL and AHL section of this topic, and independent of culture?

others in the context of modelling real-life situations. To what extent are we

3

Translation by the vector denotes horizontal translation of

aware of the impact of

−2

Translations:

, = U + "; , = U −

culture on what we

3 units to the right, and vertical translation of 2 units down. believe or know?

Reflections: in the axis , = −U, and

in the , axis , = U−.

Vertical stretch with scale factor a: and , axes are invariant.

, = aU.

Horizontal stretch with scale factor :

b

, = Uc.

13

# Content Guidance, clarification & syllabus links TOK Enrichment

Composite transformations. Students should be made aware of the significance of the order

of transformations.

Example: , = used to obtain , = 3 + 2 by a vertical

0

stretch of scale factor 3 followed by a translation of .

2

Example: , = sin used to obtain , = 4 sin 2 by a vertical

stretch of scale factor 4 and a horizontal stretch of scale factor

½.

2.9 In addition to the models covered in the Link to: modelling skills (SL2.6). Is there a hierarchy of For the population

SL content the AHL content extends this areas of knowledge in equation

Fe e

to include modelling with the following terms of their usefulness = g1 −

Ff h

with g = g
when

functions: in solving problems?

Exponential models to calculate half-life. L = 0, the solution

Natural logarithmic models: is the logistic

U = + " ln equation:

h

g=

ijk lmn

, with

h

Sinusoidal models: Radian measure should be assumed unless otherwise indicated

U = sin " − ; + T by the use of the degree symbol, for example with U = C9°. W= − 1.

e

E

In radians, period is .

^

Students should be aware that a horizontal translation of c can

be referred to as a phase shift.

Link to: radian measure (AHL 3.7)

Logistic models: The logistic function is used in situations where there is a

o

U = ; o, W, > 0

restriction on the growth. For example population on an island,

1 + W bacteria in a petri dish or the increase in height of a person or

seedling.

Horizontal asymptote at U = o is often referred to as the

carrying capacity.

14

# Content Guidance, clarification & syllabus links TOK Enrichment

Piecewise models. In some cases, parameters may need to be found that ensure

continuity of the function, for example find to make

1 + , 0 ≤ < 2

U =

+ x≥2

, continuous. The formal definition of

continuity is not required.

In examinations, students may be expected to interpret and use

other models that are introduced in the question.

2.10 Scaling very large or small numbers using Choosing a manageable scale, for example for data with a wide Does the applicability of

logarithms. range of values in one, or both variables and/or where the knowledge vary across

Linearizing data using logarithms to emphasis of a graph is the rate of growth, rather than the the different areas of

determine if the data has an exponential absolute value. knowledge? What would

or a power relationship using best-fit Link to: laws of logarithms (AHL 1.9) and Pearson’s product the implications be if the

straight lines to determine parameters moment correlation coefficient (SL 4.4). value of all knowledge

was measured solely in

Interpretation of log-log and semi-log In examinations, students will not be expected to draw or sketch terms of its applicability?

graphs. these graphs.

# Content Guidance, clarification & syllabus links TOK Enrichment

3.1 The distance between two points in three- In SL examinations, only right-angled trigonometry What is an axiomatic

dimensional space, and their midpoint. questions will be set in reference to three-dimensional system? Are axioms self

Volume and surface area of three-dimensional shapes. evident to everybody?

solids including right-pyramid, right cone, In problems related to these topics, students should be

sphere, hemisphere and combinations of these able to identify relevant right-angled triangles in three-

solids. dimensional objects and use them to find unknown

The size of an angle between two intersecting lengths and angles.

lines or between a line and a plane.

3.2 Use of sine, cosine and tangent ratios to find In all areas of this topic, students should be encouraged to Is it ethical that

the sides and angles of right-angled triangles. sketch well-labelled diagrams to support their solutions. Pythagoras gave his name

Link to: inverse functions (SL2.2) when finding angles. to a theorem that may

15

# Content Guidance, clarification & syllabus links TOK Enrichment

The sine rule: This section does not include the ambiguous case of the not have been his own

" ; creation? What criteria

= =

sine rule.

sin M sin N sin W might we use to make

such a judgment?

The cosine rule:

; = + " − 2" cos W

+ " − ;

cos W =

2"

Area of a triangle as

1

" sin W

2

3.3 Applications of right and non-right angled Contexts may include use of bearings. If the angles of a triangle

trigonometry, including Pythagoras’ theorem. can add up to less than

Angles of elevation and depression. 180°, 180° or more than

180°, what does this tell

Construction of labelled diagrams from written

us about the nature of

statements.

mathematical knowledge?

3.4 The circle: length of an arc; area of a sector. Radians are not required at SL. Does personal experience

play a role in the

formation of knowledge

claims in mathematics?

Does it play a different

role in mathematics

compared to other areas

of knowledge?

3.5 Equations of perpendicular bisectors. Given either two points, or the equation of a line segment

and its midpoint.

Link to: equations of straight lines (SL 2.1).

16

# Content Guidance, clarification & syllabus links TOK Enrichment

3.6 Voronoi diagrams: sites, vertices, edges, cells. In examinations, coordinates of sites for calculating the Is the division of Delaunay

Addition of a site to an existing Voronoi perpendicular bisector equations will be given. Students knowledge into triangulations as

diagram. will not be required to construct perpendicular bisectors. disciplines or areas of the duals of

Questions may include finding the equation of a knowledge artificial? Voronoi

Nearest neighbour interpolation.

boundary, identifying the site closest to a given point, or triangulations;

Applications of the “toxic waste dump” calculating the area of a region. self-driving cars;

problem. the art gallery

All points within a cell can be estimated to have the same

value (e.g. rainfall) as the value of the site. problem. Natural

neighbour

In examinations, the solution point will always be at an

interpolation.

intersection of three edges.

Manhattan metric.

Contexts: Urban planning, spread of diseases, ecology,

meteorology, resource management.

3.7 The definition of a radian and conversion Radian measure may be expressed as exact multiples of π, Which is the better

between degrees and radians. or decimals. measure of an angle,

Using radians to calculate area of sector, Link to: trigonometric functions (AHL 2.9). degrees or radians? What

length of arc. criteria can/do/should

mathematicians use to

make such judgments?

3.8 The definitions of cos @ and sin @ in terms of Students should understand how the graphs of To what extent is

the unit circle. U = sin and U = cos can be constructed from the mathematical knowledge

The Pythagorean identity: unit circle. embedded in particular

cos @ + sin @ = 1 Knowledge of exact values of cos @, sin @, and tan @ will not traditions or bound to

stu H

Definition of tan @ as

be assessed on examinations, but may aid student particular cultures? How

vws H understanding of trigonometric functions. have key events in the

Extension of the sine rule to the ambiguous history of mathematics

case. shaped its current form

and methods?

Graphical methods of solving trigonometric Link to: sinusoidal models (SL2.5 and AHL2.9).

equations in a finite interval.

17

# Content Guidance, clarification & syllabus links TOK Enrichment

3.9 Geometric transformations of points in two Matrix transformations of the form: When mathematicians Affine

"

+ U

dimensions using matrices: reflections, and historians say that transformations

horizontal and vertical stretches, ; T , they have explained and digital image

enlargements, translations and rotations. b: matrices (AHL 1.14) something, are they using processing.

the word “explain” in the

Compositions of the above transformations. Iterative techniques to generate fractals.

same way?

Link to: infinite geometric series (AHL 1.11) and Markov

chains (AHL 4.19).

Geometric interpretation of the determinant of Area of image =|det {| × = KU K"|;L.

a transformation matrix.

3.10 Concept of a vector and a scalar. Use algebraic and geometric approaches to calculate the Vectors are used to solve

Representation of vectors using directed line sum and difference of two vectors, multiplication by a many problems in

segments. scalar, kv (parallel vectors), magnitude of a vector |v| from position location. This can

Unit vectors; base vectors 9, |, .

components. be used to save a lost

The resultant as the sum of two or more vectors. sailor or destroy a

Components of a vector; column building with a laser-

representation;

V

guided bomb. To what

V

V = } ~ = V + V + V

extent does possession of

V knowledge carry with it an

ethical obligation?

⃗ = .

Position vectors M

Rescaling and normalizing vectors. ||

, the unit normal vector.

in the direction 39 + 4|.

18

# Content Guidance, clarification & syllabus links TOK Enrichment

3.11 Vector equation of a line in two and three Convert to parametric form: Mathematics and the

dimensions: = + , , = , + /, : = : + .

knower: Why are symbolic

= + , where is a direction vector of the representations of three-

line. dimensional objects easier

to deal with than visual

representations? What

does this tell us about our

knowledge of

mathematics in other

dimensions?

3.12 Vector applications to kinematics. Finding positions, intersections, describing paths, finding

Modelling linear motion with constant velocity times and distances when two objects are closest to each

in two and three dimensions. other.

=
+ VL

Relative position of N from M is
⃗

MN .

V 7

For example: V = .

6 − 4L

Motion with variable velocity in two

G

dimensions.

Projectile motion and circular motion are special cases.

UL − to indicate a time-shift of .

Link to: kinematics (AHL 5.13) and phase shift (AHL 1.13).

3.13 Definition and calculation of the scalar product Calculate the angle between two vectors using What counts as

of two vectors. · = |||| cos @, where @ is the angle between two understanding in

The angle between two vectors; the acute non-zero vectors and , and ascertain whether the mathematics? Is it more

angle between two lines. vectors are perpendicular · = 0. than just getting the right

answer?

Definition and calculation of the vector

product of two vectors. and Q is the unit normal vector whose direction is given

by the right-hand screw rule.

Not required: generalized properties and proofs of scalar

and cross product.

19

# Content Guidance, clarification & syllabus links TOK Enrichment

Geometric interpretation of | × |. Use of | × | to find the area of a parallelogram (and

hence a triangle).

Components of vectors. The component of vector acting in the direction of

·

vector is || = || cos @.

The component of a vector acting perpendicular to

vector ", in the plane formed by the two vectors, is

|×|

||

= || sin @.

3.14 Graph theory: Graphs, vertices, edges, adjacent Students should be able to represent real-world structures Mathematics and

vertices, adjacent edges. Degree of a vertex. (circuits, maps, etc) as graphs (weighted and unweighted). knowledge claims. Proof

of the four-colour

Simple graphs; complete graphs; weighted Knowledge of the terms connected and strongly

theorem. If a theorem is

graphs. connected.

proved by computer, how

Directed graphs; in degree and out degree of Link to: matrices (AHL 1.14). can we claim to know that

a directed graph. it is true?

Subgraphs; trees.

3.15 Adjacency matrices. Given an adjacency matrix {, the 9, V|th entry of { gives

Walks. the number of length walks connecting 9 and |.

Number of -length walks (or less than k -

length walks) between two vertices.

Weighted adjacency tables. Weights could be costs, distances, lengths of time for

Construction of the transition matrix for a example.

strongly-connected, undirected or directed Consideration of simple graphs, including the Google

graph. PageRank algorithm as an example of this.

Link to: transition matrices and Markov chains (AHL 4.19).

3.16 Tree and cycle algorithms with undirected What practical problems

graphs. can or does mathematics

Walks, trails, paths, circuits, cycles. try to solve? Why are

20

# Content Guidance, clarification & syllabus links TOK Enrichment

Eulerian trails and circuits. Determine whether an Eulerian trail or circuit exists. problems such as the

travelling salesman

Hamiltonian paths and cycles. Use of matrix method for Prim’s algorithm.

problem so enduring?

Minimum spanning tree (MST) graph What does it mean to say

algorithms: the travelling salesman

Kruskal’s and Prim’s algorithms for finding problem is “NP hard”?

minimum spanning trees.

Chinese postman problem and algorithm for Students should be able to explain why the algorithm for

solution, to determine the shortest route constructing the Chinese postman problem works, apply

around a weighted graph with up to four odd the algorithm and justify their choice of algorithm.

vertices, going along each edge at least once.

Travelling salesman problem to determine the Practical problems should be converted to the classical

Hamiltonian cycle of least weight in a problem by completion of a table of least distances where

weighted complete graph. necessary.

Nearest neighbour algorithm for determining

an upper bound for the travelling salesman

problem.

Deleted vertex algorithm for determining a

lower bound for the travelling salesman

problem.

# Content Guidance, clarification & syllabus links TOK Enrichment

4.1 Concepts of population, sample, random This is designed to cover the key questions that students What is an axiomatic

sample, discrete and continuous data. should ask when they see a data set/analysis. system? Are axioms self

evident to everybody?

Reliability of data sources and bias in Dealing with missing data, errors in the recording of data.

sampling.

21

# Content Guidance, clarification & syllabus links TOK Enrichment

Interpretation of outliers. Outlier is defined as a data item which is more than 1.5 ×

interquartile range (IQR) from the nearest quartile.

Awareness that, in context, some outliers are a valid part

of the sample but some outlying data items may be an

error in the sample.

Link to: box and whisker diagrams (SL4.2) and measures

of dispersion (SL4.3).

Sampling techniques and their effectiveness. Simple random, convenience, systematic, quota and

stratified sampling methods.

4.2 Presentation of data (discrete and continuous): Class intervals will be given as inequalities, without gaps. What is the difference

frequency distributions (tables). between information and

data? Does “data” mean

Histograms. Frequency histograms with equal class intervals.

the same thing in

Cumulative frequency; cumulative frequency Not required: Frequency density histograms. different areas of

graphs; use to find median, quartiles, knowledge?

percentiles, range and interquartile range

(IQR).

Production and understanding of box and Use of box and whisker diagrams to compare two

whisker diagrams. distributions, using symmetry, median, interquartile range

or range. Outliers should be indicated with a cross.

Determining whether the data may be normally

distributed by consideration of the symmetry of the box

and whiskers.

4.3 Measures of central tendency (mean, median Calculation of mean using formula and technology. Could mathematics make

and mode). Students should use mid-interval values to estimate the alternative, equally true,

Estimation of mean from grouped data. mean of grouped data. formulae? What does this

tell us about

Modal class. For equal class intervals only.

22

# Content Guidance, clarification & syllabus links TOK Enrichment

Measures of dispersion (interquartile range, Calculation of standard deviation and variance of the mathematical truths?

standard deviation and variance). sample using only technology, however hand calculations Does the use of statistics

may enhance understanding. lead to an over-emphasis

on attributes that can be

Variance is the square of the standard deviation.

easily measured over

Effect of constant changes on the original Examples: If three is subtracted from the data items, then those that cannot?

data. the mean is decreased by three, but the standard

deviation is unchanged.

If all the data items are doubled, the mean is doubled and

the standard deviation is also doubled.

Quartiles of discrete data. Using technology. Awareness that different methods for

finding quartiles exist and therefore the values obtained

using technology and by hand may differ.

4.4 Linear correlation of bivariate data. Technology should be used to calculate =. However, hand Correlation and

Pearson’s product-moment correlation calculations of = may enhance understanding. causation–can we have

coefficient, =. Critical values of r will be given where appropriate. knowledge of cause and

effect relationships given

Students should be aware that Pearson’s product moment

that we can only observe

correlation coefficient (=) is only meaningful for linear

correlation? What factors

relationships.

affect the reliability and

Scatter diagrams; lines of best fit, by eye, Positive, zero, negative; strong, weak, no correlation. validity of mathematical

passing through the mean point. Students should be able to make the distinction between models in describing real-

correlation and causation and know that correlation does life phenomena?

not imply causation.

Equation of the regression line of , on . Technology should be used to find the equation.

Use of the equation of the regression line for Students should be aware:

prediction purposes. • of the dangers of extrapolation

Interpret the meaning of the parameters, • that they cannot always reliably make a prediction of

and ", in a linear regression , = + ". from a value of ,, when using a , on line.

23

# Content Guidance, clarification & syllabus links TOK Enrichment

4.5 Concepts of trial, outcome, equally likely Sample spaces can be represented in many ways, for To what extent are

outcomes, relative frequency, sample space example as a table or a list. theoretical and

and event. Experiments using coins, dice, cards and so on, can experimental probabilities

The probability of an event M is enhance understanding of the distinction between linked? What is the role of

gM = M. experimental (relative frequency) and theoretical emotion in our perception

The complementary events M and M′ (not M). probability. of risk, for example in

business, medicine and

Simulations may be used to enhance this topic.

travel safety?

Expected number of occurrences. Example: If there are 128 students in a class and the

probability of being absent is 0.1, the expected number of

absent students is 12.8.

4.6 Use of Venn diagrams, tree diagrams, sample Can calculation of

space diagrams and tables of outcomes to gambling probabilities be

calculate probabilities. considered an ethical

application of

Combined events: The non-exclusivity of “or”.

gM ∪ N = gM + gN − gM ∩ N

mathematics? Should

mathematicians be held

Mutually exclusive events: gM ∩ N = 0 responsible for unethical

Conditional probability An alternate form of this is: applications of their work?

gM ∩ N = gNgM|N

Independent events: Problems can be solved with the aid of a Venn diagram,

gM ∩ N = gMgN tree diagram, sample space diagram or table of outcomes

without explicit use of formulae.

Probabilities with and without replacement.

24

# Content Guidance, clarification & syllabus links TOK Enrichment

4.7 Concept of discrete random variables and their Probability distributions will be given in the following What do we mean by a

probability distributions. ways: “fair” game? Is it fair that

Expected value (mean), for discrete data. 1 2 3 4 5

casinos should make a

profit?

Applications. g = 0.1 0.2 0.15 0.05 0.5

g = = 4 + for ∈ 1, 2, 3

= 0 indicates a fair game where represents the

gain of a player.

4.8 Binomial distribution. Situations where the binomial distribution is an What criteria can we use Hypothesis testing

Mean and variance of the binomial appropriate model. to decide between using the binomial

distribution. In examinations, binomial probabilities should be found different models? distribution.

using available technology.

Not required: Formal proof of mean and variance.

Link to: expected number of occurrences (SL4.5).

4.9 The normal distribution and curve. Awareness of the natural occurrence of the normal

Properties of the normal distribution. distribution.

Diagrammatic representation. Students should be aware that approximately 68% of the

data lies between ± , 95% lies between ± 2 and

99.7% of the data lies between ± 3.

Normal probability calculations. Probabilities and values of the variable must be found

using technology.

Inverse normal calculations For inverse normal calculations mean and standard

deviation will be given.

This does not involve transformation to the standardized

normal variable :.

4.10 Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient, = . In examinations Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient, = , Does correlation imply

should be found using technology. causation? Mathematics

If data items are equal, ranks should be averaged. and the world. Given that

25

# Content Guidance, clarification & syllabus links TOK Enrichment

Awareness of the appropriateness and Students should be aware that Pearson’s product moment a set of data may be

limitations of Pearson’s product moment correlation coefficient is useful when testing for only approximately fitted by a

correlation coefficient and Spearman’s rank linearity and Spearman’s correlation coefficient for any range of curves, where

correlation coefficient, and the effect of monotonic relationship. would a mathematician

outliers on each. seek for knowledge of

Spearman’s correlation coefficient is less sensitive to

which equation is the

outliers than Pearson’s product moment correlation

“true” model?

coefficient.

Not required: Derivation/proof of Pearson’s product

moment correlation coefficient and Spearman’s rank

correlation coefficient.

4.11 Formulation of null and alternative Students should express
and as an equation or Why have some research When performing

hypotheses,
and . inequality, or in words as appropriate. journals “banned” p - a test Yates

Significance levels. values from their articles continuity

a -values.

because they deem them correction is often

26

# Content Guidance, clarification & syllabus links TOK Enrichment

Expected and observed frequencies. In examinations: too misleading? In applied to small

The test for independence: contingency

practical terms, is saying samples. Is it

• the maximum number of rows or columns in a

that a result is significant universally

tables, degrees of freedom, critical value. contingency table will be 4

The goodness of fit test.

the same as saying it is accepted as a valid

• the degrees of freedom will always be greater than

true? How is the term method? In what

one. At SL the degrees of freedom for the goodness of

fit test will always be − 1

“significant” used situations would

• the critical value will be given if appropriate

differently in different you use Yates and

• students will be expected to use technology to find a a

areas of knowledge? why? Are there

-value and the statistic

other ways to deal

with small sample

• only questions on upper tail tests with commonly-used

sizes?

significance levels (1%, 5%, 10%) will be set

• students will be expected to either compare a p -value

to the given significance level or compare the

statistic to a given critical value

• expected frequencies will be greater than 5.

Hand calculations of the expected values or the statistic

may enhance understanding.

If using tests in the IA, students should be aware of the

limitations of the test for expected frequencies of 5 or less.

The L -test. In examinations calculations will be made using

Use of the a -value to compare the means of technology.

two populations. At SL, samples will be unpaired, and population variance

Using one-tailed and two-tailed tests. will always be unknown.

Students will be asked to interpret the results of a test.

Students should know that the underlying distribution of

the variables must be normal for the L -test to be applied.

In examinations, students should assume that variance of

the two groups is equal and therefore the pooled two-

sample L -test should be used.

27

# Content Guidance, clarification & syllabus links TOK Enrichment

4.12 Design of valid data collection methods, such Biased and unbiased, personal, unstructured and What are the strengths

as surveys and questionnaires. structured (with consistent answer choices), and precise and limitations of

Selecting relevant variables from many questioning. different methods of data

variables. collection, such as

questionnaires?

Choosing relevant and appropriate data to

analyse.

Categorizing numerical data in a table and Appropriate categories should be chosen with expected

justifying the choice of categorisation. frequencies greater than 5.

Choosing an appropriate number of degrees

of freedom when estimating parameters from

data when carrying out the goodness of fit

test.

Definition of reliability and validity. Students should understand the difference between

Reliability tests. reliability and validity and be familiar with the following

methods:

Validity tests.

Reliability: Test-retest, parallel forms.

Validity: Content, criterion-related.

4.13 Non-linear regression. Link to: geometric sequences and series (SL1.3).

Evaluation of least squares regression curves In examinations, questions may be asked on linear,

using technology. quadratic, cubic, exponential, power and sine regression.

Sum of square residuals (Zk as a measure

of fit for a model.

28

# Content Guidance, clarification & syllabus links TOK Enrichment

The coefficient of determination ( ). gives the proportion of variability in the second

Evaluation of using technology. variable accounted for by the chosen model.

¡¢£

Awareness that = 1 − and hence = 1 if Zk = 0,

n¤n

may enhance understanding but will not be examined.

Awareness that many factors affect the validity of a model

and the coefficient of determination, by itself, is not a

good way to decide between different models.

The connection between the coefficient of determination

and the Pearson’s product moment correlation coefficient

for linear models.

4.14 Linear transformation of a single random J= is the expected variance of the random variable . Mathematics and the

variable. Variance formula will not be required in examinations. world: In the absence of

+ " = + ". knowing the value of a

J= + " = J=.

parameter, will an

unbiased estimator always

Expected value of linear combinations of be better than a biased

random variables. one?

Variance of linear combinations of

independent random variables.

̅ as an unbiased estimate of . D

̅ = ¦

D§

C

as an unbiased estimate of .

UD D − ̅

C

= C = ¦

−1 −1

D§

where = ∑D§ UD .

Demonstration that © = and C

= will not

be examined, but may help understanding.

29

# Content Guidance, clarification & syllabus links TOK Enrichment

4.15 A linear combination of independent normal The central limit theorem For a normally

random variables is normally distributed. In can be proved distributed

particular, mathematically population of size

~«, ⇒ ©~« , ®

(formalism), but its truth N, how many

can be confirmed by its random samples

applications (empiricism). of size n do you

Central limit theorem. What does this suggest need to take in

depends upon the distribution from which the sample is

taken. In examinations, > 30 will be considered

about the nature and order to verify the

methods of mathematics? central limit

sufficient. theorem?

Online simulations are useful for visualisation.

4.16 Confidence intervals for the mean of a normal Students should be able to interpret the meaning of their Mathematics and the

population. results in context. world. Claiming brand A is

Use of the normal distribution when σ is known and the L- “better” on average than

distribution when is unknown, regardless of sample size. brand B can mean very

little if there is a large

overlap between the

confidence intervals of

the two means.

4.17 Poisson distribution, its mean and variance. Situations in which it is appropriate to use a Poisson To what extent can

Sum of two independent Poisson distributions distribution as a model: mathematical models

has a Poisson distribution. 1. Events are independent such as the Poisson

distribution be trusted?

2. Events occur at a uniform average rate (during the

What role do

period of interest).

mathematical models play

Given a context, students should be able to select between in other areas of

the normal, the binomial and the Poisson distributions, knowledge?

recognizing where a particular distribution is appropriate.

Not required: Formal proof of means and variances for

probability distributions.

30

# Content Guidance, clarification & syllabus links TOK Enrichment

4.18 Critical values and critical regions. Use of the normal distribution when is known and the L- Mathematics and the

Test for population mean for normal distribution when is unknown, regardless of sample size. world. In practical terms,

distribution. Samples may be paired or unpaired. is saying that a result is

significant the same as

The case of matched pairs is to be treated as an example

saying that it is true?

of a single sample technique.

Mathematics and the

Students will not be expected to calculate critical regions

for L-tests.

world. Does the ability to

test only certain

Test for proportion using binomial parameters in a

distribution. population affect the way

knowledge claims in the

Test for population mean using Poisson Poisson and binomial tests will be one-tailed only. human sciences are

distribution. valued? When is it more

Use of technology to test the hypothesis that In examinations the data will be given. important not to make a

the population product moment correlation Type I error and when is it

coefficient (¯) is 0 for bivariate normal more important not to

distributions. make a Type II error?

Type I and II errors including calculations of Applied to normal with known variance, Poisson and

their probabilities. binomial distributions.

For discrete random variables, hypothesis tests and critical

regions will only be required for one-tailed tests. The

critical region will maximize the probability of a Type I

error while keeping it less than the stated significance

level.

4.19 Transition matrices. In general, the column state matrix (° ) after ntransitions is Leslie matrices are

Powers of transition matrices. given by ° = ± °
, where ± is the transition matrix, with used extensively in

±D² representing the probability of moving from state | to biology.

state 9, and °
is the initial state matrix.

Use of transition diagrams to represent transitions in

discrete dynamical systems.

31

# Content Guidance, clarification & syllabus links TOK Enrichment

Regular Markov chains.

Initial state probability matrices.

Calculation of steady state and long-term Examination questions will state when exact solutions

probabilities by repeated multiplication of the obtained from solving equations are required.

transition matrix or by solving a system of

linear equations. Awareness that the solution is the eigenvector

corresponding to the eigenvalue equal to 1.

Link to: matrices (AHL1.14), eigenvalues (AHL1.15) and

adjacency matrices (AHL3.15).

# Content Guidance, clarification & syllabus links TOK Enrichment

5.1 Introduction to the concept of a limit. Estimation of the value of a limit from a table or graph. What value does the

Not required: Formal analytic methods of calculating knowledge of limits have?

limits. Is infinitesimal behaviour

FG F³ F

applicable to real life? Is

Derivative interpreted as gradient function and Forms of notation: , U′, or for the first derivative.

F FZ Ff intuition a valid way of

as rate of change. knowing in mathematics?

Informal understanding of the gradient of a curve as a

limit.

5.2 Increasing and decreasing functions. Identifying intervals on which functions are increasing

Graphical interpretation of (U′ > 0) or decreasing (U′ < 0).

U′ > 0

U ´ = 0

U ´ < 0

32

# Content Guidance, clarification & syllabus links TOK Enrichment

5.3 Derivative of U = is U ´ = , The seemingly abstract

∈ℤ concept of calculus allows

The derivative of functions of the form us to create mathematical

U = + " + ⋯ where all exponents models that permit

are integers. human feats such as

getting a man on the

Moon. What does this tell

us about the links

between mathematical

models and reality?

5.4 Tangents and normals at a given point, and Use of both analytic approaches and technology. In what ways has

their equations. technology impacted how

knowledge is produced

and shared in

mathematics? Does

technology simply allow

us to arrange existing

knowledge in new and

different ways, or should

this arrangement itself be

considered knowledge?

5.5 Introduction to integration as anti- Students should be aware of the link between anti- Is it possible for an area

differentiation of functions of the form derivatives, definite integrals and area. of knowledge to describe

U = + " + ⋯ the world without

where ∈ ℤ, ≠-1. transforming it?

FG

Anti-differentiation with a boundary condition Example: If = 3 + and , = 0 when = 1, then , =

F

to determine the constant term. + + 8.5.

33

# Content Guidance, clarification & syllabus links TOK Enrichment

Definite integrals using technology. Students are expected to first write a correct expression

Area of a region enclosed by a curve , = U before calculating the area, for example ¶ 2632 + 4T .

and the -axis, where U > 0. The use of dynamic geometry or graphing software is

encouraged in the development of this concept.

5.6 Values of where the gradient of a curve is Students should be able to use technology to

zero. generate U′ given U, and find the solutions of

Solution of U′ = 0. U′ = 0.

Local maximum and minimum points. Awareness that the local maximum/minimum will not

necessarily be the greatest/least value of the function in

the given domain.

5.7 Optimisation problems in context. Examples: Maximizing profit, minimizing cost, maximizing How can the rise in tax for

volume for a given surface area. plastic containers, for

In SL examinations, questions on kinematics will not be example plastic bags,

set. plastic bottles etc be

justified using

optimization?

5.8 Approximating areas using the trapezoidal Given a table of data or a function, make an estimate for Exploring other

rule. the value of an area using the trapezoidal rule, with numerical

intervals of equal width. integration

Link to: upper and lower bounds (SL1.6) and areas under techniques such as

curves (SL5.5). Simpson’s rule.

34

# Content Guidance, clarification & syllabus links TOK Enrichment

5.9 The derivatives of sin , cos , tan , , ln , Link to: maximum and minimum points (SL5.6) and Euler was able to make

where ∈ ℚ. optimisation (SL5.7). important advances in

The chain rule, product rule and quotient rules. mathematical analysis

before calculus had been

Related rates of change.

put on a solid theoretical

foundation by Cauchy and

others. However, some

work was not possible

until after Cauchy’s work.

What does this suggest

about the nature of

progress and

development in

mathematics? How might

this be similar/different to

the nature of progress

and development in other

areas of knowledge?

F2 G

5.10 The second derivative. and U′′ for the second Music can be expressed

F 2

Both forms of notation,

using mathematics. Does

derivative.

this mean that music is

Use of second derivative test to distinguish Awareness that a point of inflexion is a point at which the mathematical/that

between a maximum and a minimum point. concavity changes and interpretation of this in context. mathematics is musical?

Use of the terms “concave-up” for U′′ > 0, and “concave-

down” for U′′ < 0.

Link to: kinematics (AHL5.13) and second order

differential equations (AHL5.18).

5.11 Definite and indefinite integration of where

∈ ℚ, including = −1 , sin , cos , 2 and

vws

.

35

# Content Guidance, clarification & syllabus links TOK Enrichment

Integration by inspection, or substitution of Examples:

the form ¶ sin2 + 5 T, ¶ i

T,

¸ U¹`º`′T stu

¶ 4 sin T, ¶ vws T

5.12 Area of the region enclosed by a curve and the Including negative integrals.

or ,-axes in a given interval.

Volumes of revolution about the - axis or ,- ^

J = ¸ », T

axis. &

or

^

J = ¸ » T,

&

V=

5.13 What is the role of

velocity V and acceleration . TL convention in

TV T C TV

= = =V

mathematics? Is this

TL TL TC similar or different to the

Displacement = role of convention in

f2 other areas of

¸ VLTL knowledge?

f1

f2

¸ |VL|TL

f1

F F2

Use of ¼ = and ½ =

Ff 2

.

Ff

5.14 Setting up a model/differential equation from Example: The growth of an algae ¾, at time L, is

a context. proportional to √¾.

36

# Content Guidance, clarification & syllabus links TOK Enrichment

FG

Solving by separation of variables. Example: An exponential model as a solution of = ,. In what ways do values

F

affect our representations

The term “general solution”.

of the world, for example

in statistics, maps, visual

images or diagrams?

5.15 Slope fields and their diagrams. Students will be required to use and interpret slope fields. In what ways do values

affect our representations

of the world, for example

in statistics, maps, visual

images or diagrams?

5.16 Euler’s method for finding the approximate Spreadsheets should be used to find approximate To what extent is certainty Runge-Kutta

solution to first order differential equations. solutions to differential equations. attainable in methods.

FG

Numerical solution of = U, ,. In examinations, values will be generated using mathematics? Is certainty

F

permissible technology. attainable, or desirable, in

other areas of

Numerical solution of the coupled system Contexts could include predator-prey models. knowledge?

T

= U , ,, L

TL

and

T,

= U , ,, L

TL

37

# Content Guidance, clarification & syllabus links TOK Enrichment

5.17 Phase portrait for the solutions of coupled Systems will have distinct, non-zero, eigenvalues.

differential equations of the form: If the eigenvalues are:

T

= + ",

TL

• Positive or complex with positive real part, all solutions

T,

move away from the origin

= ; + T,

TL

• Negative or complex with negative real part, all

solutions move towards the origin

Qualitative analysis of future paths for distinct, • Complex, the solutions form a spiral

real, complex and imaginary eigenvalues. • Imaginary, the solutions form a circle or ellipse

Sketching trajectories and using phase • Real with different signs (one positive, one negative)

portraits to identify key features such as the origin is a saddle point.

equilibrium points, stable populations and Calculation of exact solutions is only required for the case

saddle points. of real distinct eigenvalues.

Link to: eigenvectors and eigenvalues (AHL1.15).

F

5.18 F2

= U,

F

, L by Euler’s Write as coupled first order equations = , and How have notable

Solutions of

Ff 2 Ff Ff

FG

= U, ,, L.

individuals such as Euler

method. Ff shaped the development

F2 F

+ + " = 0, can also be investigated

Ff 2

Solutions of of mathematics as an area

Ff

using the phase portrait method in AHL 5.17 above. of knowledge?

Understanding the occurrence of simple second order

differential equations in physical phenomena would aid

understanding but in examinations the equation will be

given.

38

The assessments at a glance

During your MAI HL journey, we will be doing many activities in class that will help me assess your progress in

all of the contents of the syllabus above. At the end of every unit, a class quiz will be administered.

Examinations end most of the quarters, and contribute significantly to your quarter grades.

Marks Minutes % Marks Minutes % Marks Minutes % % %

Q1 55 60 60 - - - - - - 40 -

(in class)

Q2 55 60 30 55 60 30 - - - 40 -

Q3 83 90 30 55 60 30 - - - 20 20

Q4 83 90 30 83 90 30 28 30 10 20 10

Q5 110 120 30 83 90 30 28 30 10 20 10

Q6 - - - - - - - - - 20 80

Q7 110 120 30 110 120 30 55 60 20 20 -

(Note: A Graphic Display Calculator is required for this course; to succeed you need to develop your GDC skills

as much as your mathematical knowledge and skills. The main models normally used, and two ‘families’ I’m

familiar with, are Texas Instrument TI-83 or TI-84 and the Casio CFX-9850 or FX-9860 series. The best strategy

has always been to have a unanimous vote on which make to use as a whole class.)

Paper 1 = GDC, compulsory short-response questions

Paper 2 = GDC, compulsory extended-response questions

Paper 3 = GDC, two compulsory extended-response problem-solving questions

Number of quizzes per quarter = not fixed

Coursework = homework, projects, done in your own time = not in class

Paper 1 Paper 2 Paper 3 Exploration

Marks Minutes % Marks Minutes % Marks Minutes % %

May 21 110 120 30 110 120 30 55 60 20 20

Exploration is your Internal Assessment, marked by your teacher and moderated externally, and due way, way

earlier than May 2021.

An IA Google folder will be shared with you to serve as the main reference for IA.

39

Internal Assessment criteria

From MAI guide, Aug 19, pp85-89

mark band

descriptor

A 4 The The “presentation” criterion assesses the organization and

Presentation exploration is coherence of the exploration.

coherent, well A coherent exploration is logically developed, easy to follow and

organized, and meets its aim. This refers to the overall structure or framework,

concise. including introduction, body, conclusion and how well the

different parts link to each other.

A well-organized exploration includes an introduction, describes

the aim of the exploration and has a conclusion. Relevant graphs,

tables and diagrams should accompany the work in the

appropriate place and not be attached as appendices to the

document. Appendices should be used to include information on

large data sets, additional graphs, diagrams and tables.

A concise exploration does not show irrelevant or unnecessary

repetitive calculations, graphs or descriptions.

The use of technology is not required but encouraged where

appropriate. However, the use of analytic approaches rather than

technological ones does not necessarily mean lack of conciseness,

and should not be penalized. This does not mean that repetitive

calculations are condoned.

B 4 The The “mathematical communication” criterion assesses to what

Mathematical mathematical extent the student has:

communication communication • used appropriate mathematical language (notation, symbols,

is relevant, terminology). Calculator and computer notation is acceptable

appropriate only if it is software generated. Otherwise it is expected that

and consistent students use appropriate mathematical notation in their work

throughout. • defined key terms and variables, where required

• used multiple forms of mathematical representation, such

as formulae, diagrams, tables, charts, graphs and models,

where appropriate

• used a deductive method and set out proofs logically where

appropriate

Examples of level 1 can include graphs not being labelled,

consistent use of computer notation with no other forms of

correct mathematical communication.

Level 4 can be achieved by using only one form of mathematical

representation as long as this is appropriate to the topic being

explored. For level 4, any minor errors that do not impair clear

communication should not be penalized.

C 3 There is The “personal engagement” criterion assesses the extent to which

Personal evidence of the student engages with the topic by exploring the mathematics

engagement outstanding and making it their own. It is not a measure of effort.

personal Personal engagement may be recognized in different ways. These

engagement. include thinking independently or creatively, presenting

40

mathematical ideas in their own way, exploring the topic from

different perspectives, making and testing predictions.

There must be evidence of personal engagement demonstrated in

the student’s work. It is not sufficient that a teacher comments

that a student was highly engaged.

Textbook style explorations or reproduction of readily available

mathematics without the candidate’s own perspective are unlikely

to achieve the higher levels.

Significant: The student demonstrates authentic personal

engagement in the exploration on a few occasions and it is

evident that these drive the exploration forward and help the

reader to better understand the writer’s intentions.

Outstanding: The student demonstrates authentic personal

engagement in the exploration in numerous instances and they

are of a high quality. It is evident that these drive the exploration

forward in a creative way. It leaves the impression that the student

has developed, through their approach, a complete understanding

of the context of the exploration topic and the reader better

understands the writer’s intentions.

D 3 There is The “reflection” criterion assesses how the student reviews,

Reflection substantial analyses and evaluates the expl

evidence of oration. Although reflection may be seen in the conclusion to the

critical exploration, it may also be found throughout the exploration.

reflection.

Simply describing results represents limited reflection. Further

consideration is required to achieve the higher levels.

Some ways of showing meaningful reflection are: linking to the

aims of the exploration, commenting on what they have learned,

considering some limitation or comparing different mathematical

approaches.

Critical reflection is reflection that is crucial, deciding or deeply

insightful. It will often develop the exploration by addressing the

mathematical results and their impact on the student’s

understanding of the topic. Some ways of showing critical

reflection are: considering what next, discussing implications of

results, discussing strengths and weaknesses of approaches, and

considering different perspectives.

Substantial evidence means that the critical reflection is present

throughout the exploration. If it appears at the end of the

exploration it must be of high quality and demonstrate how it

developed the exploration in order to achieve a level 3.

E 6 Relevant The “Use of mathematics” HL criterion assesses to what extent

Use of mathematics students use relevant mathematics in the exploration.

mathematics commensurate Students are expected to produce work that is commensurate

with the level with the level of the course, which means it should not be

of the course is completely based on mathematics listed in the prior learning. The

used. The mathematics explored should either be part of the syllabus, at a

mathematics similar level or slightly beyond. However, mathematics of a level

explored is slightly beyond the syllabus is not required to achieve the highest

precise and levels.

demonstrates

A key word in the descriptor is demonstrated. The command

41

sophistication term demonstrate means to make clear by reasoning or evidence,

and rigour. illustrating with examples or practical application. Obtaining the

Thorough correct answer is not sufficient to demonstrate understanding

knowledge and (even some understanding) in order to achieve level 2 or higher.

understanding For knowledge and understanding to be thorough it must be

are demonstrated throughout. Lines of reasoning must be shown to

demonstrated. justify steps in the mathematical development of the exploration.

Relevant refers to mathematics that supports the development of

the exploration towards the completion of its aim. Overly

complicated mathematics where simple mathematics would

suffice is not relevant.

The mathematics can be regarded as correct even if there are

occasional minor errors as long as they do not detract from the

flow of the mathematics or lead to an unreasonable outcome.

Precise mathematics is error-free and uses an appropriate level of

accuracy at all times.

Sophistication: To be considered as sophisticated the

mathematics used should be commensurate with the HL syllabus

or, if contained in the SL syllabus, the mathematics has been used

in a complex way that is beyond what could reasonably be

expected of an SL student. Sophistication in mathematics may

include understanding and using challenging mathematical

concepts, looking at a problem from different perspectives and

seeing underlying structures to link different areas of

mathematics.

Rigour involves clarity of logic and language when making

mathematical arguments and calculations. Mathematical claims

relevant to the development of the exploration must be justified

or proven.

Students are encouraged to use technology to obtain results

where appropriate, but understanding must be demonstrated in

order for the student to achieve level 1 or higher, for example

merely substituting values into a formula does not necessarily

demonstrate understanding of the results.

The mathematics only needs to be what is required to support the

development of the exploration. This could be a few small

elements of mathematics or even a single topic (or sub-topic)

from the syllabus. It is better to do a few things well than a lot of

things not so well. If the mathematics used is relevant to the topic

being explored, commensurate with the level of the course and

understood by the student, then it can achieve a high level in this

criterion.

42

IA FAQ

Extracted from MAI Teacher Support Material, Aug 19, pp45-48.

How long should it be? The exploration should be reviewing policies and procedures,

accessible to fellow students. explaining the assessment criteria,

It is difficult to be prescriptive

reviewing progress, developing

about mathematical writing. Can the students use

topics). Time spent on the

However, the Mathematics: mathematics other than that

exploration outside of class time

analysis and approaches and the which they have done in class?

should be in line with the normal

Mathematics: applications and

Yes, but this must be clearly homework expectation for 10 to

interpretation guides state that 12

explained and referenced, and 15 hours of class time.

to 20 pages should be

teacher comments should clarify

appropriate. An exploration may Can all students from one class

this.

be less than 12 pages, however. A submit explorations on exactly

more common failing of Can students use mathematics the same topic?

mathematical writing is excessive that is outside the syllabus?

No. In fact, no two students

repetition, and this should be It is not necessary to do this to should submit explorations that

avoided as such explorations will obtain full or high marks. If are exactly the same

be penalized for lack of students decide to explore mathematically (they can,

conciseness. It is recognized mathematics outside the syllabus however, be from the same area

however that some explorations it is recommended that the level is or topic of mathematics, for

will require the use of several commensurate with the syllabus. instance "vectors"). The

diagrams, which may extend them

Can a student use data for an exploration is intended to be the

beyond the recommended page

exploration that has already sole work of an individual student.

limit.

been used for other Diploma Whole class discussion can be

Are there any particular topics Programme internally assessed used when generating ideas,

to be avoided? work (for example, the extended selecting the topics for

essay, fieldwork or experiments)? exploration, sharing research

A topic must be chosen so that

sources, acquiring the necessary

the assessment criteria can be This is to be discouraged, since it knowledge, skills and

applied to it. Purely descriptive is unlikely that data collected for understanding, and seeking peer-

historical topics, for example, are one particular use will lend feedback on writing. However, the

not appropriate. themselves to being treated in a final exploration submitted must

Is any particular format for the different manner. It may well be be the work of the individual

exploration to be used? possible that students could use student.

the data collected from work

No particular format is required. Can students in the same

completed in other subjects,

Students may write both the text class/school use the same title

provided that it is analysed in a

of explorations and draw graphs for the exploration?

totally different manner. However,

and/or tables by hand, or

it is the student’s responsibility to Yes, but the explorations must be

explorations may be fully or

inform the teacher that these data different, based on the avenues

partially word-processed. Either

have been collected for a different followed by the student. As noted

form is acceptable as long as the

subject. The teacher must then above, the title should give an

exploration is clearly legible. In

ensure that no overlap occurs. idea of what the exploration is

recent years, students have used

How much time should a about.

various forms of technology (for

example, spreadsheets) to present student be spending on the Can SL and HL students use the

data, construct tables and graphs, exploration? same stimulus?

and perform calculations. A total of 10 to 15 hours should Yes, there is no reason to restrict

What should the target be set aside for the exploration any stimulus to a particular level,

audience be for a student when work in class. A portion of these although the assessment of

writing the exploration? hours can be spent on general criterion E will be different.

class business (for example,

43

Your final grades

While your papers earn percentage points and your final percentage score gets processed (a fixed grade

boundary will be applied to it), the IB states that he final grade (the one printed on your IB transcript) is

allocated according to IB grade descriptors (from Grade descriptors, Dec 17, pp16-17, emphases added).

Grade 7

Demonstrates a thorough knowledge and comprehensive understanding of the syllabus;

successfully constructs and applies mathematical arguments at a sophisticated level in a wide variety of

contexts;

successfully uses problem solving techniques in challenging situations;

recognizes patterns and structures, makes generalizations and justifies conclusions;

understands and explains the significance and validity of results, and draws full and relevant conclusions;

communicates mathematics in a clear, effective and concise manner, using correct techniques, notation and

terminology;

demonstrates the ability to integrate knowledge, understanding and skills from different areas of the

course;

uses technology correctly in challenging situations—makes efficient

use of calculator’s functionality when required.

aka life goal

Grade 6

Demonstrates a broad knowledge and comprehensive understanding of the syllabus; successfully constructs

and applies mathematical arguments in a variety of contexts; uses problem solving techniques in challenging

situations; recognizes patterns and structures, and makes some generalizations; understands and explains the

significance and validity of results, and draws relevant conclusions; communicates mathematics in a clear and

effective manner, using correct techniques, notation and terminology; demonstrates some ability to integrate

knowledge, understanding and skills from different areas of the course; uses technology correctly in routine

situations—makes efficient use of calculator’s functionality when required.

Grade 5

Demonstrates a broad knowledge and good understanding of the syllabus; applies mathematical arguments in

performing routine tasks; successfully uses problem solving techniques in routine situations; successfully

carries out mathematical processes in a variety of contexts, and recognizes patterns and structures;

understands the significance of results and draws some conclusions; communicates mathematics effectively,

using appropriate techniques, notation and terminology; demonstrates an awareness of the links between

different areas of the course; makes use of calculator’s functionality when required (this use may occasionally

be inefficient).

Grade 4

Demonstrates a satisfactory knowledge of the syllabus; applies mathematical arguments in performing some

routine tasks; uses problem solving techniques in routine situations; successfully carries out mathematical

processes in straightforward contexts; shows some ability to recognize patterns and structures; has limited

understanding of the significance of results and attempts to draw some conclusions; communicates

mathematics adequately, using some appropriate techniques, notation and terminology; makes some use of

calculator’s functionality, but perhaps not always when required (this use may occasionally be inefficient).

44

Grade 3

Demonstrates partial knowledge of the syllabus and limited understanding of mathematical arguments in

performing some routine tasks; attempts to carry out mathematical processes in straightforward contexts;

makes an attempt to use problem solving techniques in routine situations; communicates some mathematics,

using some appropriate techniques, notation or terminology; occasionally uses calculator’s functionality, but

often inefficiently—does not always use it when required and may use an inefficient analytic approach.

Grade 2

Demonstrates limited knowledge of the syllabus; attempts to carry out mathematical processes at a basic level;

communicates some mathematics, but often uses inappropriate techniques, notation or terminology; unable

to use calculator correctly when required—questions exclusively requiring the use of the GDC are generally

not attempted.

Grade 1

Demonstrates minimal knowledge of the syllabus; demonstrates little or no ability to use mathematical

processes, even when attempting routine tasks; communicates only minimal mathematics and consistently

uses inappropriate techniques, notation or terminology; is unable to make effective use of technology.

The plan

An overview of when we need to get what done by. Slight shifts may happen depending on how fast we

actually do things. Highlighted subtopic = AHL.

Q1 {1} Number & algebra (1.1 – 1.11) Q5 {3} Circular functions & trig: Vectors

{3} Circular functions & trig (3.9 – 3.13)

(3.1 – 3.4, 3.7 – 3.8) Toolkit

9w In-class exam 7w Quarter Exam = Mock 1

Q2 {3} Circular functions & trig (3.5, 3.6) Q6 {1} Number & algebra: Complex numbers

{2} Functions (2.1 – 2.6) (1.12 – 1.13)

Toolkit

5w Quarter Exam 7w IA

{4} Stats & probs (all)

Toolkit = IA preparation

10 w Quarter Exam 10 w Quarter Exam = Mock 2

(3.14 – 3.16)

{1} Number & algebra: Matrices (1.14 – 1.15)

Toolkit

9w Quarter Exam 3w FINAL EXAMS

45

Results

People taking Math HL should either NEED it for future studies or LOVE math. Speaking of needs:

University requirements

Snapshots of what some top universities require (accessed Sep 19):

University of Waterloo, Canada18 King College, UK19

46

Credits

Purdue University, USA22

Depending on how far you are from ‘there’, a number of scenarios may happen. Rest assured that the school

and I want the best for you.

47

Resources

Best textbook so far:

1 Mathematics for the IB Diploma: Applications and Interpretation HL.

London: Hodder Education.

Optional; some available in the library:

2 Mathematics (three separate volumes)

Adelaide Airport, South Australia: Haese & Harris Publications.

3 Mathematics Applications and Interpretations HL.

Melton, Victoria: IBID Press.

4 Oxford IB Diploma Programme: IB Mathematics: applications and interpretation, Higher Level.

Oxford: Oxford University Press.

5 Mathematics Applications and Interpretation Text Higher Level.

Harlow, Essex: Pearson Education.

(More level- and need- or interest-specific references, e.g. for remedial or IA purposes, are given as and when

needed)

GeoGebra25 Revision Village29 Cambridge Brain Sciences30

Graph26 For IA: fivethirtyeight’s The Riddler31

Legally free (although mostly old) For IA: Haese & Harris’ Challenge

books!27 Question32

Wolfram Alpha28 Kenken33

Lumosity34

QuizUp35

Anything by Martin Gardner36

References

1 Mathematics: applications and interpretation guide (First assessment 2021)

Cardiff, Wales: IB.

2 Mathematics: applications and interpretation teacher support material (First assessment 2021)

Cardiff, Wales: IB.

3 Grade descriptors (for use from December 2017)

Cardiff, Wales: IB.

48

1

http://curriculum.binus.ac.id/program/computer-science-mathematics

2

Sad to see they no longer offer PGDipEd (Educational Leadership)!

https://www.aut.ac.nz/study/study-options/education

3

Formerly Sheffield School of Interior Design!

https://www.nyiad.edu/courses/interior-design

4

https://www.stella-maris.sch.id/about-stella-maris-gs/

5

http://jubilee-jkt.sch.id/

6

https://www.facebook.com/LELItimor/about

7

http://www.smaksangtimur-jkt.sch.id/

8

https://smak5.bpkpenaburjakarta.or.id

9

https://mybnec.org/

10

https://www.tripadvisor.com.my/Restaurant_Review-g255106-d726449-Reviews-Urban_Cafe-

Auckland_North_Island.html

11

https://www.mainland.co.nz/

12

http://scholarscup.org/

13

http://scholarscup.org/team/

14

http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0032138/

15

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pedagogy_of_the_Oppressed

16

https://xkcd.com/435/

17

https://www.ted.com/talks/cedric_villani_what_s_so_sexy_about_math

18

https://uwaterloo.ca/future-students/admissions/admission-requirements/mathematics/international-

system/ib

19

http://www.kings.cam.ac.uk/study/undergraduate/applying-to-kings/entrance-requirements

20

https://study.unimelb.edu.au/find/courses/undergraduate/bachelor-of-science/entry-requirements/

21

https://cdn.auckland.ac.nz/assets/auckland/engineering/study-with-us/docs/prospectuses-and-

guides/engineering-ug-prospectus-2020.pdf

22

https://www.admissions.purdue.edu/transfercredit/ibcredit.php

23

https://testingservices.utexas.edu/ib-exam-mathematics-hl

24

https://creditevaluation.unl.edu/credit-types/ib

25

https://www.geogebra.org/download

26

https://www.padowan.dk/download/

27

http://archive.org/details/texts

28

https://www.wolframalpha.com/

29

https://www.revisionvillage.com/

30

https://www.cambridgebrainsciences.com/

31

https://fivethirtyeight.com/

32

https://www.haesemathematics.com.au/pages/challenge-question

33

http://www.nytimes.com/ref/crosswords/kenken.html

34

https://www.lumosity.com/

35

https://www.quizup.com/en

36

http://martin-gardner.org/

49