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ACTIVEAND

15
PASSIVE VOICE

Read the following sentences carefully.


(a) The magician took his hat.
(b) He kept it on the table.
(c) He pulled out a rabbit.
(d) The children clapped loudly
the subjects and aocO
(c), the magician and he
are
(a), (b) and
action and also tne
Sentences

action. In sentence (d), the children are the


doer of the the
cvery are in the active volce
as ue

Subject ot the verb clapped. All the above


sentences

subject is the doer of action.


be in the active voice.
ofa verb is the doer of an action, the verb is said to
when the subject
Nina typed the application.
Examples: (a) The elephant ate the bananas. (b)
Here the elephant and Nina are the subjects.
Now, let us consider the sentences given below.
(b) It was kept on
the table by him.
Examples: (a) A hat was taken by the magician.
n
(c) A rabbit was pulled out.
each of the above sentences, the subject is not the doer of the action, i.e., a hat, it, a rabbit. These
Sentences are in the passive voice. The verbs here are was taken, was kept and was pulled.
A verb is in the passive voice when it tells us what is done to a person or thing. The subject is the

receiver of the action in the passive voice.


- AARECAP - s44Sss444ss44ss 334

In all the above examples, the action is passed on to an object. Usually, verbs that require direct objectsto
complete their meaning are called transitive verbs and only these can be changed into the passive form.
I n sentence (d), there is no object. The children clapped loudly This sentence can't be changedinto
passive voice.

A Read the following sentences and write whether they are in the active or passive roic.
Underline the verb in each sentence.
1. The king crowned the prince as his successor.. .
2. Your mother teaches Science. .
3. People elected him as their representative... **********°*****°.***°**
4. The sheep was chased by the wolf..**°*°*°°°°°'****"°*°°**°°**
5. Grandma narrated a story...*************************
6. The children loved Jawaharlal Nehru..
7. Penicillin was discovered by Alexander Fleming.
8. The song was composed by AR Rehman. ....

114 Candana Peannina Series Grammar-7


FEATURES
hile changing a sentence froin the
active to passive voice, the nind:
object of the verb in the active voice becomes the following points
have to be Kept iu
the
Examples: (a) The subject in
the passive volCe
chinmpanzec is cating a banana. (active voicCC)
subject
(b) A banana is
object
being eaten by the chimpanzec. (passive volce)
subject verb
object
the active subject in sentence (a) (the chimpanzec) has bccome the passive subject in sentence (0)
the object in the active voice (a banana) has become the subject in the
passive voice
the preposition by is used before 'the chimpanzec
the verb is eating changes to is
being eaten
i t is appropriate auxiliary (is being) + past participle of verb (eaten)
an

the subject of the verb in the active voice is


It becomes a prepositional
expressed as by + agent in the passive voice
phrase in the passive voice.
Example: Raman drew a picture. (active voice)
subject
A picture was drawn by Raman. (passive voice)
by + the agent
the verb in the active voice is changed to an appropriate auxiliary + past participle form of the verb
If the subject or object in a sentence in the active voice is a pronoun, it changes its form as shown in
the table here except you and it. The personal pronouns change and one has to be careful about it.

Active Voice (subject form) Passive Voice (object form)


I me

we us

he him
she her

they them

you you
it t

Examples: (a) He gave away the prizes. (active voice)


The prizes were given away by him. (passive voice)
Here the pronoun 'he' changes to him in the passive voice.

(b) I baked delicious cookies. (active voice)


Delicious cookies were baked by me. (passive voice)

to m e in the passive voice.


n
example (b), I changes
We should always remember that it is the verb thatuncdergoes a change in the active or passive voice. But when
the verb is changed to the passive voice, the form of the complete sentence is changed as explained above.

Cordova Leanning Sexies Grammar-7


115
i n t
Ce,
s e n t e n c e s

following
the
and change
(B erer to the table on pronouns

1. He sold the house.


2. She caug1t the butterly.
3. You packed the bag
4. They are constructing a new bridge.
5. She is washing clothes.
6. They are painting the fence.
7. She broke the vase.
8. 1 embroidcred a sarce.
FEATURE
then e i t h e r of the obiccte
ransitive verb has two objcts direct and indirect object- vero.
"Decome the Such verb with two obiects is called
a ditransitive
subject. a

Example: Suman gave her a book. (active voice)

subject indirect direct


object object
In passive voice, this sentence can be re-written in two ways:
(a) She was given a book by Suman.
(b) A book was given to her by Suman.
In these examples, both the direct object (book) or indirect object (her) can act as a subject int
passive voice. Passive form as given in (b) is more commonly used.

C Change these sentences into the passive voice and give two passive forms for sentences 2 and
1. They compelled Raman to leave the house.
2. Mother presented a purse to me.
3. Ms Nalini teaches us English.
4. Rama has drawn this cartoon for me.
5. He compelled her to attend the function.
Note We generally use the active voice but when the
doer of the action is
very clear, we use the passive voice. unknown, not important or ne
Example: Someone stole her purse. (active-the doer
of the action is not specified)
Her purse was stolen.
(passive)
SUBJECT-VERB AGREEMENT IN ACTIVE AND PASSVE
It is FORMS
important to note that the subject must agree with the
verb in all
Examples: (a) The gown was stitched by the tailor. sentences in the passive voice too.
(b) The gowns were stitched by the
In sentence (a), the
tailor.
subject the gown is Sngular so the verb
active voice is singular is / was is used. was is used.
When the subiect in pasivr
In sentence (b),
the subject the gowns is plural so the verb were
is uscd,

116 Cordova Leauning Sevies Grammar-7


he
when th number of the passive subject is
the object plural the verb are/were is
imes, or the
subject may be a long phrase (a use
euch scntence in
a
When s u c i the activC voice is ewritten group of words) in a givcn sentence
changes.
* rewritten in the
passive voice, the position ofthc cntire phrase

Cwatples
E (a) All thechildren planted trecs. (active)
subject
Trees were
planted by all the children. (passivc)
object
(b) Nitish ate a lot of cookies.
(active)
object
A lot of cookies were
eaten by Nitish. (passive)
subject
VERBS AND PREPOSITIONs
ertbs in the active voice that are followed by prepositions retain them when they are changed into the passive voice.

Example: They laughed at the clown. (active)


The clowm was laughed at by them. (passive)
The form of the verb is changed in accordance with the tense.
Example: Grandma bakes a chocolate truffle cake everyweek. (active)
A chocolate truffle cake is baked by grandma every week. (passive)
The verb bake' has been written in the active and passive forms in all the tenses.

Active Voice Passive Voice

Simple Present bake/bakes is/are baked

Present Continuous is/are baking is/are being baked

has/have baked has/have been baked


Present Perfect
Present Perfect Continuous has been baking (no passive form)
baked was/were baked
Simple Past
was/were baking was/were being baked
Past Continuous
had baked had been baked
Past Perfect
Past Perfect Continuous
had been baking (no passive form)
will bake will be baked
Simple Future
will be baking (no passive form)
Future Continuous
will have baked will have been baked
Future Perfect
will have been baking (no passive form)
Future Perfect Continuous

and the future


continuous tense cannot be changed into passive voice.
Note that verbs in the perfect continuous
the telescope. (active voice)
Galileo invented
Example:
Example:
was
invented by Galileo. (passive voice)
The telescope

Cardoua Leanning Series Grammar-7117


In the above sentences Inventcd' changed to 'was inven vero.
of the
The verb changes the pastparticiple
be (is, are, was, were) +
to

Example: The guests brought bouquets.


verb
Bouqucts werc brought by the gucst5.

were +brought
(be) (past participle) vo1ce in various tensç
O W iet us discuss in detail the changes in verbs from the active to passive

SIMPLE PRESENT
(a) She decorates the house during festivals. (active)
The house is decorated by her during festivals. (pasive)
(b) Does he wish you on your birthday? (active)
Are you wished on your
birthday by him? (pasive)
()Who sings devotional songs? (active)
By whom are the devotional songs sung? (passive)
Who
the devotional songs sung by?
are (passive)
The second pattern is much in use these days.
Active voice : root form of the verb, sometimes with-s or es (decorates, does, sing)
Passive voice: is/are/am+past participle of the verb (is decorated, are wished, are sung)

Fill in the blanks with the passive form of verbs given in brackets.
1. Students areinformed about the change in time table. (intorm)

2 The patient, .. to the ICU after the doctor's recommendation. (admit


***********************

3. The guests . ***********~o. LO Teach the venue on time. (expect)


4. All the doors. *****

a t night. (lock)
5. By whom . the vegetable biryani . . (prepare)
Change these sentences from the active topassive voice.
1. Derek O'Brien conducts a quiz for the children of our school once every month.
2. Does the doctor give you strong medicines?
3. Who plays the casio?
4 The chef cooks exotic dishes everyday
5. The teacher encourages children to perform wel.

PRESENT CONTINUOUS
Children are reading books in the library. (active)
(a)
Books are being read by children in the library. (passive)

b) Why is she plucking flowers? (active)


(b)
Why are flowers being plucked by her? (passive)

118 Cadeua Leauning Series Grammar-7


Are you readin a novel? (activc)

novel being read by you? (passive)


te a

e Voice: is/are/am t-ing form of the verb (are


Active

reading, is plucking)
e voice: 1s/are/am + being + past participle form of thc verb (are bcing rcad, arc being plucked)
assive

Change the following sentences from the active to passive voice.

1. The company is launching a new


project.
2. Are you preparing vegetable soup for dinner?
3. Why is she hitting the dog?
4. The Principal is explaining the new rules to the students.
5. She is checking the papers.

PRESENT PERFECT|

) He has written many novels in the past. (active)


Many novels have been written by him in the past. (passive)
b)Who has broken the glass? (active)
By whom has the glass been broken? (passive)
has been broken)
Active voice: has/have + past participle form of the verb (has written,
been written, has been broken)
Passive voice: has/have + been + past participle form of the verb (have
G Change the following sentences from the active to passive voice.
1. That car has hit an old man.
2. The Principal has appointed him the head boy.
3. Has he told you the real story?
4. The gardener has pruned the bushes.
5. Who scattered the garbage here?

SIMPLEPAST
(a) The pilot flew the aircraft at a great height. (active)
The aircraft was flown by the pilot at a great height. (passive)

(b) Did he post the letter? (active)


Was the letter posted by him? (passive)
the class? (active)
) Who created confusion in
confusion created in
the class? (passive)
By whom was
verb (flew, did post, created)
Active voice: past tense of the
torm of the verb (was tlown, was posted, was created)
+ participle
Passive voice:was/were past tense.

in the blanks with


the passive form
of verbs in the simple past
Fill fast food. (sponsor)
by a popular brand of
. . .

1. The event..... *
house properly. (tell)
to clean the
2. She ...

Cordoua Leaning Series Grammar-7 119


(present)
singer.
3. A classical song . . .
by the (teach) (honour)
teacher. function.

4. The formula. 4 * 4 ****''*°°". b ythe in a


public
minister
the
5. The players. . .
*a**°**'°°*
by assive voice.

from the
active to passive
1. Change these sentend
at the art gallery
1. The artists showcased the paintings man.
s u s p i c i o u s - l o o k i n g

the
2. The policeman qucstioned
3. Who declared the result of the competition
Did he take your permission
before he lett:
4.
iPod for a day
5. My brother gave me an
PASTCONTINUOUS road. (active)
when it skidded off the
was driving the car very fast road. (passive)
(a) e
him when it skidded off the
n e car was being driven
verv fast by

? (active)
(b) carrying all the required things
Were you

Were all the required things being


carried by you? (pa51ive
were carrying)
Active voice : was/were + -ing form
of the verb (was driving, driven, were being cari
the verb (was being
4SSIVe volce : was/were + being+ past
participle form of
voice.
the active to passive
Change these sentences from
1. The audience laughing at the clown.
was

the discussion.
2. She was supporting the villagers during
3. Was he writing the biography of Lata Mangeshkar?
4. The teacher was demonstrating an experiment.

5. Were you painting the door?

PAST PERFECT
house last year. (active)
(a) My uncle had sold the
by my uncle last year. (passive)
The house had been sold

(b) Had you boiled all vegetables? (active)


the
Had all the vegetables been boiled by you? (passive)
Active voice: had + past participle form ofthe verb (had sold, had boiled)
Passive voice : had been + past participle form of the verb (had been sold, had been boiled)

Rewrite these sentences in thepassive voice.


K
trees in the forest.
1. The woodcutter had felled many
to a torch as it was dark outside.
2. Father had advised me carry
woollens to the hill station?
3. Had you taken many
4. explained the theorem clearly.
His friend had

5. I had polished the shoes night.


at

Condoua Leaming Senies Grammar-7


120
SIMPLE FUTURE

I lhall
shallmake sandwiches
the evenmng.
im

Sandwiches
es shall be made by me in (active)
the evening.
Vhen
Vhen will they construct the (pavsive)
bridge? (active)
Vhen will the bridge constructed tlhem?
be
by (passive)
ive voice: shalUwill
Actv
+ root form of the verb
(shall make, will constrct)
passive voice : Sal berwIll be + past participle form of the verb (shall be made, will be constructca)
Pass
Rewrite these sentences in the passive voice.
People will follow the leader in the ycars to coe.
2. How will they cross the desert in this hot summer?
3. When will she throw
party for her fricnds?
a

4. The loud music will disturb


my neighbour.
5. I will borrow your pen later.

FUTURE CONTINUOUSTENSE
Verbs in the future continuous tense cannot be changed to the passive voice.

FUTUREPERFECT TENSE
(a) He will have consulteddoctor before 8 pm. (active)
a

A doctor will have been consulted by him before 8


pm. (passive)
(b) Will they have opened a new account before the end of the month? (active)
will a new account have been opened by them before the end of the month? (passive)
Active voice: willshall + have + past participle form ofthe verb (wil have consulted, will have opened)
Passive voice : wil/shall + have been + past participle form of the verb (will have been consulted, will have
been opened)

(M Change these sentences from the active to passive voice.


1. They will have distributed the forms by Saturday.
2. She will have washed the dishes before evening.
3. Will they have closed the gates before 9 pm?
4. The birds will have built the nest in the next few days.
5. The train will have carried many passengers before it reaches its final destination.

Verbs in the perfect continuous tenses can never be expressed in the passive voice.

Modal Auxiliaries (can, could, may, might, should, would, must, ought to)
When we have sentences with modal auxi1haries in the active voice, the sentences can be rewritten in the

passive voice as follows:


Examples: (a) We ought to pay our taxes on time. (active)
Our taxes ought to be paid on time. (passive)

Cordova Leauuing Seies Grammar-7


121
more
happincss. (CI
with
God bless you (passive)
(b) May blessed with
more
happiness.
be
May you (active)
this hcavy bag?
you? (passivc)
Can you carry
(c) carried by
Can this hcavy bag be (active)
c o m m i t such
a crime?
he
(d) How can

be
committed by him? can
con
such a crime blcss, can carry,
How to pay, may
can

form ofthe verb (ought to be paid, Inay


be bles5
The auxiliary +
root verb (ought
Active voice:
participle form of the
auxiliary + be + past
voice: The
Passive
be carried, can be committed) voice.
sentences
from the active to passive
these
(NChange
tax on time.
the house
1. She ought to pay
success!
with great
2. May God bless you
3. Can you prepare
a detailed map of theregion?
the clothes today?
4. Can you iron
to the child?
5. Can you n a r r a t e story
a

Let:
Sentences beginning with
tickets. (active)
(a) Let him book the
Let the tickets be
booked by him. (passive)
recollect old memories.(active)
(b) Let us
recollected. (passive)
Let old memories be

Commands
window. (active)
(a) Close the closed. (passive)
Let the window be
in the dustbin. (active)
Throw the garbage
(b) (passive)
thrown in the dustbin.
Let the garbage be the tense form of the veri.
voice and change
s e n t e n c e s in the passive
Re-write the following
accordingly.
this institute last year.
1. He founded
1985.
this hospital in
2. They built
distributed food packets
to the flood victims
3. The minister
the thieves.
4. The policeman caught
has baked cookies.
5. The baker
was making
kites.
6. The old man
7. She will
make greeting card.
a

tools.
has been making iron
8. The ironsmith

9. The boy had eaten


an
egg
had followed Mary.
10. A little amb

audau Peauaica Series Grammar-7


11. Mother was knitting swcater a
yesterday.
12. John Keats wrote Ode To A
Nightingale.
RANSFORMATION OF INTERROGATIVE SENTENCES INTO PASSIVE VOICE
TRA

ad the interrogative sentences


Reac
given here.
When interrogative Sentences are
changed into the passive voice, their interrogative form does not
(a) Did you eat the chang
apples? (active voice)
Were the apples eaten by
you? (passive voice)
(b) Have you washed the dishes?
(active voice)
Have the dishes been washed
by you? (passive voice)
In the above sentence (a), the verb did eat changes to were eaten. Auxiliary verbs do, does, did (in
active voice) change to 1s, are, was, were (in passive voice) in interrogative sentences. Again auxil1ary
verbs like have, has (in active voice) change to has/have been + past participle of the verTb.

Examples: (a) Did you use the set


of binoculars?(active voice)
Was the set of binoculars used
by you? (passive voice)
(6) Does she make garlands? (active voice)
Are garlands made by her?
(passive voice)
When a question begins with who, what or which and is changed from the active to passive voice the
question word is retained and a preposition usually by' is used.
Examples: (a) Who broke the cup? (active voice)
By whom was the cup broken? (passive voice)
(b) When did you complete your work? (active voice)
When was the work completed by you? (passive voice)

P Change the following into the passive voice.


1. Which house did they paint?
2. When did you eat breakfast?
3. Who threw the ball at Nita?
4. Did you post the letter?
5. Does he like movies?
6. Did Kirit take all the books?
7. Does he recite poems?
8. Who composed this song?

Read the following passage and


fill in the blanks with the passive form of verbs given in
sandwiches at homne.
brackets and make delicious
Butter ****************** (spread) on the slices. Cucumber andd
Fresh slices of bread are taken (take).
... (wash) before they ************°***** (peel). The slices
tomatoes ****

The edges of the bread slices (cut) after salt and pepper
the buttered slices. **
.

(Placed) on

on the slices vegetables.


of The sandwiches .. (eat) fresh
(sprinkle) s****.

or .... (pack) to be taken along.


Cerdeua Leaning Series Grammar-7
123
Revision Exercise2
A.
A. State whether the words printed in bold are phrascs or clauses.

1. APJ Abdul Kalam is a man of integrity. 2. He cnjoys long walks.


3. I saw the girl who makes clay pots. 4. The boy stood quietly in a corner.
5. Silver is a metal of great value. 6. These toys are made in China.
B. Fill in the blanks with onght to, must, may, can or could.
1. Rohit : Ma'am . I go to the accounts office to pay my fees.
..
2. Teacher: You. iention the details
******
of your
class at the back ot the
cheque carei
3. Mother to Sakshi: You ....

go and play after you complete your Geography assignme


4. Sakshi: Mothe.. you bake cake for me tomorrow.
... a

5. Traffic policeman to the scooterist:You ... follow traffic rules.


C. Fill in the blanks with appropriate form of verbs given in brackets in various forms of the present ter
The Delhi police .
(catch) today
want) drivers to
and fined. The Delhi Police say it
use
dipper while driving. As manyand 1.200 motorists.
as

.. (be) dangerous they will fine drivers :


.. (use) blinding sharp lights while on the wheel. Many motorists . . (tine) in the past i-
hours. Police... (warm) others to face the consequences if they do not.
tollow) instructo
D. Fill in the blanks with verbs in various forms of the
past tense and fiuture tense as required in th
sentences.
1. The doctor . ... (examine) the patient and . . (prescribe) some medicines vesterdr
2. Mother.. . . . ... (visit) the clinic tomorrow for a blood test.
3. Two bullet trains ..

. (collide) in China killing many and the


government . .

(provide) immediate medical assistance to the injured. People (face) any such risk
future as more safety measures . (adopt).
4. He. (sing) for two hours by the time other performers reach the venue.
E. Rewrite the following in the passive voice.
1. Mr Navin Gupta teaches us Science. 2. Close the door.
3. May God bless you with success and fame! 4. Sell this car of.
F. Fill in the blanks with
appropriate verbs from brackets.
1. The scissors ... . blunt and I needed a new pair yesterday. (were, will be)
2. One of the deer. . .

missing from the cage yesterday. (is, was)


3. Three aircraft
. waiting to take off last evening. (were, are)
..

4. The sheepe******************* led by the shepherd tomorrow. (will be, are)


G. Fill in the with appropriate passive forms of verhs in all forms
tenses as required.
blanks ofpresent, past and jurur
1. The Sports Meet .. (begin) and thetorch.. Ministet
(light) by the Sports
2. The athletes. ... (tell) to follow the rules.
3. Various events .... .. (hold) all through the day.
4. The prize distribution ceremony... . (take) place n the evening