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Nature-is the biological make-up (genetic structure) that pre-determines attitude and behavior. Innate
behavior and genetic influence are inherited from our biological parents, occurs no matter where we
grow up. Genetic traits are extremely difficult and more often impossible to change.[e.g. handedness]

Nurture-is the learning behavior from growing up in a specific environment. Learned behaviors can
passed down through generations. The environment can teach us how to behave, influences how we
think and how we see ourselves (shape our socializationed hence &behavior) (E.g. fashion)
Twins & isolates:
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Twins:
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Concordance- is the similarity between the twins.

Isolates: please refer to the case study


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0ehavioral: the belief that virtually all behavior is the result of prior learning (e.g. it is oneǯs life
experience that determines behavior, thinking and personality)

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Socio-cultural: the study of how individual behavior is affected by the behavior of others (E,g, how
social roles and norms of a culture affects an individual Ǯs behavior)

Humanistic: the theory that each individual strives of Dzselfdz actualization based on the way he/she
perceives the world (E.g. their behavior is determined by the future)

Eclectic: the theory draws from and integrates parts of every other psychological theory
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Sex (male and female) Gender (masculine and feminine)
-refers to biological differences; chromosomes, -describes the characteristics that a society or
hormonal profiles, internal and external sex culture delineates as masculine or feminine
organs.
*you can change your gender but you cannot change your gender

Sigmund Freud:Ê
3Ê oounder of psycho analysis- the study of human thought patterns
3Ê ëonscious VS unconscious mind
3Ê åream analysis to understand personality Iå (pleasure seeking), EGO (positive benefit), super
EGO (strive for perfection)
3Ê Theory that sexuality was a key to understanding personality

lfred lder:
3Ê eed for power, not sexual fulfillment motivated people
3Ê åeveloped a theory of Dzindividual psychologydz belief that all people were assume of the goals &
always that guided them
3Ê The concept of Dzinferiority complexdz (All people at some point in life feel inferior, thus they try
to compensate by seeking experience that give them power)
3Ê 0roaden the field of psychology beyond the sexual influence sphere

Carl Jung:
3Ê åevelop the concept of extroversion ( is characteristically the active person who is most content
when surrounded by people) and introversion (is normally a contemplative individual who enjoys
solitude and the inner life of ideas and the imagination) for the study of personality types
3Ê Originated the concept of 4 psychological functions: sensation, intuition, thinking and feeling
3Ê 0elieved human mind was made up of 2 unconscious:
1)Ê Personal unconscious- unique to individuals
2)Ê ëollective unconscious-common to all, contained memories of our ancestors

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ositive reinforcement-When a behavior is followed by a favorable outcome, the behavior is likely to
strengthened in the future

Negative reinforcement-When a person is trapped in a bad situation, he or she performs a behavior to


escape the bad situation. The escape is a favorable outcome and is likely to be strengthened in the
future.
Jean iaget: 4 stages of learning
1)Ê Sensory-motor period (birth Ȃ 2yrs)
2)Ê Pre-operational thought period (3-7yrs)
3)Ê ëoncrete operational thought (7-11yrs)
4)Ê oormal operational thought (11+yrs)

Erik Erikson:
3Ê invented the term DzIdentity ërisisdz to describe the conflict within us as we struggle to achieve
our unique identity
3Ê oamous in his theory Dzeight stages of human developmentdz

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Classical conditioning (Ivan Pavlov): behavior and learning can be formed with the right kind of
stimulus (involuntary)
Experiment Dzthe digestive patterns of dogs dz
*Unconditioned stimulus (UëS)
*Unconditioned response (Uë )

Operant conditioning (Edward L. Thorndike


& 0.o. Skinner):
„Ê ositive reinforcement: occurs when a behavior is followed by a favorable stimulus that
increases the likehood that the behavior will be repeated. (E.g. tell a dog to sit down and give it
treats, they dog learned that it can earn treats when sitting down)

„Ê Negative reinforcement: occurs when a behavior is followed by the removal of an unpleasant


stimulus, thereby increasing that behaviorǯs frequency. (E.g. when singing to a crying baby, the
baby is followed by an unpleasant stimulus, resulting in a decreasing that behaviorǯs frequency)

„Ê ositive punishment: occurs when a behavior is followed by an unpleasant stimulus, resulting


in a decrease in that behavior (E.g. when you donǯt do your homework, your teacher give you an
detention, you will do your homework every day after that)

„Ê Negative punishment: occurs when a behavior is followed by the removal of a favorable


stimulus (removal of something unpleasant to reduce that behavior), resulting in a decrease in
that behavior. (E.g. when a child who is misbehaving has his toy taken away his toy from him)

„Ê Extinction: occurs when a behavior (response) that has previously been reinforced is no longer
effective

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‰aslowǯs Hierarchy of eed

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Sensation and perception are stages of processing of the senses in human and animal systems.

Sensation- the function of the low-level biochemical and neurological events that begin with the
impinging(r ) of a stimulus upon the receptor cells of a sensory organ.

erception- is the selection, organization and interpretation of the sensory signal (stimulation cues
picked by our various senses (sight, smell, taste, touch and hearing) in the human brain.
3Ê Everyone perceive differently (E.g. everyone have different opinion movie )
3Ê Perception may also be affected by oneǯs mood and the local environmental conditions among
their thins
3Ê Human perceptions are influenced by 3 major factors 
1)Ê The object itself
2)Ê The background of the object
3)Ê The experiences and feelings of the person

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  (oamily, ëulture, School, oriends, ‰edia & Work)
Family:
1)Ê orms (the behavior the social expect from it members)
2)Ê ëommunication skills (E.g. interact with sibling and parents)
3)Ê åevelop personalities (E.g. gender roles)
4)Ê 0asic techniques for looking after ourselves
School:
1)Ê ‰anifest function- the academic skills we need to prosper in society
2)Ê Latent function- socialize us to understand and cooperate with strangers
3)Ê Gender roles (E.g. separate washroom)
eer group: (a social group whose members are about the same age and share interests and social
positions)
1)Ê Influence the shot-term concerns
2)Ê einforce gender role
3)Ê åo and talk about things that are discouraged in the family
‰edia:
1)Ê ëreate and reinforce the gender role, whether realistic or not
2)Ê Influence our expectations of life, value and how we see ourselves
Culture:
1)Ê ëommunicates beliefs about gender roles and appropriate sexual conduct
2)Ê esponsibility for one another in society (E.g. the rich are responsible for the poor)
Work:
1)Ê Specialized language, procedures, rules, and codes as they related to our job
2)Ê Proper ways of dealing with colleagues, customer and competitors

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rimary groups: members have strong personal/environmental attachment to each other; members of
this group care about each other and are interested in the whole personality of each member of the
group, not just one aspect it. (E.g. family, friends)

Secondary groups: few personal relationships but more formal relationships, members can assume a
variety of roles; the individuals judge each other more by what they can do, and what they can offer to
organization, than by who they are (E.g. work, school)
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Norms: behaviors that society expects from its members (E.g. as an older sister, I protect & share)
Rules: specific Dzjobsdz a person plays in the society (E.g. Iǯm a student, a volunteer, a sister)

Sanctions: consequences for our behavior that are approved by society (E.g. a child misbehaves, result
in physical punishment)

Cliques: Is an exclusive group that includes a small number of chosen members, where people find
others who share their values, ideas and activities

Gangs: is a clique that has developed into an organization that encourages unlawful or anti-social
behavior, can engage in hostile and violent behavior

Crowd: is a collection of people who have come together for a specific purpose (E.g. people tarpped in
an elevator together)
Category: a category of people have one thing in common but people are unaware of each other in
personal sense (E.g. teens, single parents, doctors)

Social group: are two or more people who interact with each other and are aware of having something
in common (E.g. family, friends, schools and work groups)

Dyad: is a two member social group; difficult to maintain over a lifetime (E.g. going to lunch with a
friend)

Network: connect people who normally would have little interaction with each other

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Cults: is a type of organized group that usually has extreme religious or spiritual beliefs, generally
centered around an authoritarian leader.
ëoncerted efforts at influence and control lie at the core of cultic groups, programs and relationships.
‰any members, former members, and supporters of cults are not fully aware of the extents to which
members may have been manipulated, exploited, even abuses.

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