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Activity # 1:

Instruction. Please answer the following questions in your own words.

1. What is the difference between architecture of a computer and organization of a


Answer: Computer Architecture is a functional description of requirements and

design implementation for the various parts of computer. It deals with
functional behavior of computer system. It comes before the computer
organization while designing computer. Computer Organization is how
operational attribute linked together and contribute to realize the
architectural specification. Computer Organization deals with structural

2. What are five main components of computer? Explain.

Answer: The five main components of computer are Input Unit, Central Processing
Unit, Memory Unit Arithmetic and Logical Unit, Control Unit, and Output

a. Input Unit. This component helps the user enter data or instructions to the
computer. Input units are the keyboard, microphone, mouse, etc.
b. Central Processing Unit. The CPU is the brain of the computer. It is
responsible for all that is happening inside it. It controls all internal and
external devices, performs Arithmetic and Logical Operations. The Control
Unit and the Arithmetic and Logic Unit of a Computer are known as CPU.
c. Memory Unit. This unit is responsible for storing all the data within the
computer. The two types of storage devices used with computers are
Primary and Secondary Storage. The primary storage is volatile since it
can only store data given by the input unit and will be lost if the computer
shuts down. The secondary storage is a non-volatile memory since it can
store data for lone-term basis.
d. Arithmetic and Logical Unit. This unit is responsible in performing the
arithmetic operations. It consists of circuits that perform arithmetic
operations like addition, subtraction, multiplication, division over data
received from the memory and capable to compare numbers such as less
than, equal to, or greater than. This is where the actual execution of
instructions take place during the processing operations.
e. Control Unit. This unit is the backbone of computers. It is responsible for
coordinating tasks between all components of a computer system. The
control unit selects, interprets, and sees the execution of program
instructions and is able to maintain order and directs the operation of the
entire system. It acts as the central nervous system for the other
components of the computer although it does not perform the actual
processing on the data.
f. Output Unit. This is the final component of a computer system. The
output units displays the processed data in a format that humans can
understand. The examples of these units are monitor for softcopy display,
printer for hardcopies, speakers for music or sounds, etc.

3. Describe the relationships between the different main components of a computer.

Answer: The relationships between the different main components of a computer is

simple. Data enters the computer using the input unit by the user and it will
be stored inside the primary memory (memory unit). Inside the Central
Processing Unit, the Control unit will now take the data from the primary
unit and interprets them. It will now send the instructions to the Arithmetic
and Logic Unit if it needs to be calculated/compared and the data that is
not needed in the instructions will go back to the memory unit. Once the
data has been processed, the Control unit will send back the data to the
Memory Unit and the Output Unit will show the user the processed data.