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<h1 id="firstHeading" class="firstHeading" lang="en">Area</h1>
<div id="bodyContent" class="mw-body-content">
<div id="siteSub" class="noprint">From Wikipedia, the free
encyclopedia</div>
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<div id="contentSub2"></div>

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<div id="mw-content-text" lang="en" dir="ltr" class="mw-content-
ltr"><div class="mw-parser-output"><div class="shortdescription nomobile noexcerpt
noprint searchaux" style="display:none">Extent of a two-dimensional surface</div>
<div role="note" class="hatnote navigation-not-searchable">This article is about
the geometric quantity. For other uses, see <a href="/wiki/Area_(disambiguation)"
class="mw-disambig" title="Area (disambiguation)">Area (disambiguation)</a>.</div>
<table class="infobox" style="width:22em"><tbody><tr><th colspan="2" style="text-
align:center;font-size:125%;font-weight:bold;font-
style:italic;">Area</th></tr><tr><th scope="row"><div style="display:inline-block;
padding:0.1em 0;line-height:1.2em;">Common
symbols</div></th><td><i>A</i></td></tr><tr><th scope="row"><a href="/wiki/SI_unit"
class="mw-redirect" title="SI unit">SI&#160;unit</a></th><td><a
href="/wiki/Square_metre" title="Square metre">Square metre</a>
[m<sup>2</sup>]</td></tr><tr><th scope="row">In <a href="/wiki/SI_base_unit"
title="SI base unit"><span class="wrap">SI&#160;base
units</span></a></th><td>1&#160;<a href="/wiki/Metre"
title="Metre">m</a><sup>2</sup></td></tr><tr><th scope="row"><a
href="/wiki/Dimensional_analysis#Definition" title="Dimensional
analysis">Dimension</a></th><td><span class="mwe-math-element"><span class="mwe-
math-mathml-inline mwe-math-mathml-a11y" style="display: none;"><math
xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" alttext="{\displaystyle {\mathsf
{L}}^{2}}">
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<msup>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mi mathvariant="sans-serif">L</mi>
</mrow>
</mrow>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mn>2</mn>
</mrow>
</msup>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle {\mathsf
{L}}^{2}}</annotation>
</semantics>
</math></span><img
src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/e315c7dc801b08df18f46f
1069d4ecbb7760be35" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline" aria-hidden="true"
style="vertical-align: -0.338ex; width:2.314ex; height:2.676ex;"
alt="{\displaystyle {\mathsf {L}}^{2}}"/></span></td></tr></tbody></table>
<div class="thumb tright"><div class="thumbinner" style="width:222px;"><a
href="/wiki/File:Area.svg" class="image"><img alt="Three shapes on a square grid"
src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/b/b9/Area.svg/220px-
Area.svg.png" decoding="async" width="220" height="220" class="thumbimage"
srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/b/b9/Area.svg/330px-
Area.svg.png 1.5x,
//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/b/b9/Area.svg/440px-Area.svg.png 2x"
data-file-width="428" data-file-height="428" /></a> <div class="thumbcaption"><div
class="magnify"><a href="/wiki/File:Area.svg" class="internal"
title="Enlarge"></a></div>The combined area of these three <a href="/wiki/Shapes"
class="mw-redirect" title="Shapes">shapes</a> is <a href="/wiki/Approximation"
title="Approximation">approximately</a> 15.57 <a href="/wiki/Square"
title="Square">squares</a>.</div></div></div>
<p><b>Area</b> is the <a href="/wiki/Quantity" title="Quantity">quantity</a> that
expresses the extent of a <a href="/wiki/Two-dimensional" class="mw-redirect"
title="Two-dimensional">two-dimensional</a> figure or <a href="/wiki/Shape"
title="Shape">shape</a> or <a href="/wiki/Planar_lamina" title="Planar
lamina">planar lamina</a>, in the <a href="/wiki/Plane_(geometry)" title="Plane
(geometry)">plane</a>. <a href="/wiki/Surface_area" title="Surface area">Surface
area</a> is its analog on the two-dimensional <a href="/wiki/Surface_(topology)"
title="Surface (topology)">surface</a> of a <a href="/wiki/Solid_geometry"
title="Solid geometry">three-dimensional object</a>. Area can be understood as the
amount of material with a given thickness that would be necessary to fashion a
model of the shape, or the amount of <a href="/wiki/Paint" title="Paint">paint</a>
necessary to cover the surface with a single coat.<sup id="cite_ref-MathWorld_1-0"
class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-MathWorld-1">&#91;1&#93;</a></sup> It is the
two-dimensional analog of the <a href="/wiki/Length" title="Length">length</a> of a
<a href="/wiki/Plane_curve" title="Plane curve">curve</a> (a one-dimensional
concept) or the <a href="/wiki/Volume" title="Volume">volume</a> of a solid (a
three-dimensional concept).
</p><p>The area of a shape can be measured by comparing the shape to <a
href="/wiki/Square" title="Square">squares</a> of a fixed size.<sup id="cite_ref-
AF_2-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-AF-2">&#91;2&#93;</a></sup> In the <a
href="/wiki/International_System_of_Units" title="International System of
Units">International System of Units</a> (SI), the standard unit of area is the <a
href="/wiki/Square_metre" title="Square metre">square metre</a> (written as
m<sup>2</sup>), which is the area of a square whose sides are one <a
href="/wiki/Metre" title="Metre">metre</a> long.<sup id="cite_ref-B_3-0"
class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-B-3">&#91;3&#93;</a></sup> A shape with an
area of three square metres would have the same area as three such squares. In <a
href="/wiki/Mathematics" title="Mathematics">mathematics</a>, the <a
href="/wiki/Unit_square" title="Unit square">unit square</a> is defined to have
area one, and the area of any other shape or surface is a <a
href="/wiki/Dimensionless_quantity" title="Dimensionless
quantity">dimensionless</a> <a href="/wiki/Real_number" title="Real number">real
number</a>.
</p><p>There are several well-known <a href="/wiki/Formula"
title="Formula">formulas</a> for the areas of simple shapes such as <a
href="/wiki/Triangle" title="Triangle">triangles</a>, <a href="/wiki/Rectangle"
title="Rectangle">rectangles</a>, and <a href="/wiki/Circle"
title="Circle">circles</a>. Using these formulas, the area of any <a
href="/wiki/Polygon" title="Polygon">polygon</a> can be found by <a
href="/wiki/Polygon_triangulation" title="Polygon triangulation">dividing the
polygon into triangles</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-bkos_4-0" class="reference"><a
href="#cite_note-bkos-4">&#91;4&#93;</a></sup> For shapes with curved boundary, <a
href="/wiki/Calculus" title="Calculus">calculus</a> is usually required to compute
the area. Indeed, the problem of determining the area of plane figures was a major
motivation for the <a href="/wiki/History_of_calculus" title="History of
calculus">historical development of calculus</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-5"
class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-5">&#91;5&#93;</a></sup>
</p><p>For a solid shape such as a <a href="/wiki/Sphere"
title="Sphere">sphere</a>, cone, or cylinder, the area of its boundary surface is
called the <a href="/wiki/Surface_area" title="Surface area">surface area</a>.<sup
id="cite_ref-MathWorld_1-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-MathWorld-
1">&#91;1&#93;</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-MathWorldSurfaceArea_6-0"
class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-MathWorldSurfaceArea-
6">&#91;6&#93;</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-7" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-
7">&#91;7&#93;</a></sup> Formulas for the surface areas of simple shapes were
computed by the <a href="/wiki/Greek_mathematics" title="Greek mathematics">ancient
Greeks</a>, but computing the surface area of a more complicated shape usually
requires <a href="/wiki/Multivariable_calculus" title="Multivariable
calculus">multivariable calculus</a>.
</p><p>Area plays an important role in modern mathematics. In addition to its
obvious importance in <a href="/wiki/Geometry" title="Geometry">geometry</a> and
calculus, area is related to the definition of <a href="/wiki/Determinant"
title="Determinant">determinants</a> in <a href="/wiki/Linear_algebra"
title="Linear algebra">linear algebra</a>, and is a basic property of surfaces in
<a href="/wiki/Differential_geometry" title="Differential geometry">differential
geometry</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-doCarmo_8-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-
doCarmo-8">&#91;8&#93;</a></sup> In <a href="/wiki/Analysis"
title="Analysis">analysis</a>, the area of a subset of the plane is defined using
<a href="/wiki/Lebesgue_measure" title="Lebesgue measure">Lebesgue measure</a>,<sup
id="cite_ref-Rudin_9-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Rudin-
9">&#91;9&#93;</a></sup> though not every subset is measurable.<sup id="cite_ref-
10" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-10">&#91;10&#93;</a></sup> In general,
area in higher mathematics is seen as a special case of volume for two-dimensional
regions.<sup id="cite_ref-MathWorld_1-2" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-
MathWorld-1">&#91;1&#93;</a></sup>
</p><p>Area can be defined through the use of axioms, defining it as a function of
a collection of certain plane figures to the set of real numbers. It can be proved
that such a function exists.
</p>
<div id="toc" class="toc" role="navigation" aria-labelledby="mw-toc-heading"><input
type="checkbox" role="button" id="toctogglecheckbox" class="toctogglecheckbox"
style="display:none" /><div class="toctitle" lang="en" dir="ltr"><h2 id="mw-toc-
heading">Contents</h2><span class="toctogglespan"><label class="toctogglelabel"
for="toctogglecheckbox"></label></span></div>
<ul>
<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-1"><a href="#Formal_definition"><span
class="tocnumber">1</span> <span class="toctext">Formal definition</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-2"><a href="#Units"><span
class="tocnumber">2</span> <span class="toctext">Units</span></a>
<ul>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-3"><a href="#Conversions"><span
class="tocnumber">2.1</span> <span class="toctext">Conversions</span></a>
<ul>
<li class="toclevel-3 tocsection-4"><a href="#Non-metric_units"><span
class="tocnumber">2.1.1</span> <span class="toctext">Non-metric
units</span></a></li>
</ul>
</li>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-5"><a
href="#Other_units_including_historical"><span class="tocnumber">2.2</span> <span
class="toctext">Other units including historical</span></a></li>
</ul>
</li>
<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-6"><a href="#History"><span
class="tocnumber">3</span> <span class="toctext">History</span></a>
<ul>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-7"><a href="#Circle_area"><span
class="tocnumber">3.1</span> <span class="toctext">Circle area</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-8"><a href="#Triangle_area"><span
class="tocnumber">3.2</span> <span class="toctext">Triangle area</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-9"><a href="#Quadrilateral_area"><span
class="tocnumber">3.3</span> <span class="toctext">Quadrilateral
area</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-10"><a href="#General_polygon_area"><span
class="tocnumber">3.4</span> <span class="toctext">General polygon
area</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-11"><a
href="#Areas_determined_using_calculus"><span class="tocnumber">3.5</span> <span
class="toctext">Areas determined using calculus</span></a></li>
</ul>
</li>
<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-12"><a href="#Area_formulas"><span
class="tocnumber">4</span> <span class="toctext">Area formulas</span></a>
<ul>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-13"><a href="#Polygon_formulas"><span
class="tocnumber">4.1</span> <span class="toctext">Polygon formulas</span></a>
<ul>
<li class="toclevel-3 tocsection-14"><a href="#Rectangles"><span
class="tocnumber">4.1.1</span> <span class="toctext">Rectangles</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-3 tocsection-15"><a
href="#Dissection,_parallelograms,_and_triangles"><span
class="tocnumber">4.1.2</span> <span class="toctext">Dissection, parallelograms,
and triangles</span></a></li>
</ul>
</li>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-16"><a href="#Area_of_curved_shapes"><span
class="tocnumber">4.2</span> <span class="toctext">Area of curved shapes</span></a>
<ul>
<li class="toclevel-3 tocsection-17"><a href="#Circles"><span
class="tocnumber">4.2.1</span> <span class="toctext">Circles</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-3 tocsection-18"><a href="#Ellipses"><span
class="tocnumber">4.2.2</span> <span class="toctext">Ellipses</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-3 tocsection-19"><a href="#Surface_area"><span
class="tocnumber">4.2.3</span> <span class="toctext">Surface area</span></a></li>
</ul>
</li>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-20"><a href="#General_formulas"><span
class="tocnumber">4.3</span> <span class="toctext">General formulas</span></a>
<ul>
<li class="toclevel-3 tocsection-21"><a href="#Areas_of_2-
dimensional_figures"><span class="tocnumber">4.3.1</span> <span
class="toctext">Areas of 2-dimensional figures</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-3 tocsection-22"><a href="#Area_in_calculus"><span
class="tocnumber">4.3.2</span> <span class="toctext">Area in
calculus</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-3 tocsection-23"><a
href="#Bounded_area_between_two_quadratic_functions"><span
class="tocnumber">4.3.3</span> <span class="toctext">Bounded area between two
quadratic functions</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-3 tocsection-24"><a href="#Surface_area_of_3-
dimensional_figures"><span class="tocnumber">4.3.4</span> <span
class="toctext">Surface area of 3-dimensional figures</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-3 tocsection-25"><a
href="#General_formula_for_surface_area"><span class="tocnumber">4.3.5</span> <span
class="toctext">General formula for surface area</span></a></li>
</ul>
</li>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-26"><a href="#List_of_formulas"><span
class="tocnumber">4.4</span> <span class="toctext">List of formulas</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-27"><a href="#Relation_of_area_to_perimeter"><span
class="tocnumber">4.5</span> <span class="toctext">Relation of area to
perimeter</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-28"><a href="#Fractals"><span
class="tocnumber">4.6</span> <span class="toctext">Fractals</span></a></li>
</ul>
</li>
<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-29"><a href="#Area_bisectors"><span
class="tocnumber">5</span> <span class="toctext">Area bisectors</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-30"><a href="#Optimization"><span
class="tocnumber">6</span> <span class="toctext">Optimization</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-31"><a href="#See_also"><span
class="tocnumber">7</span> <span class="toctext">See also</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-32"><a href="#References"><span
class="tocnumber">8</span> <span class="toctext">References</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-33"><a href="#External_links"><span
class="tocnumber">9</span> <span class="toctext">External links</span></a></li>
</ul>
</div>

<h2><span class="mw-headline" id="Formal_definition">Formal definition</span><span


class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a
href="/w/index.php?title=Area&amp;action=edit&amp;section=1" title="Edit section:
Formal definition">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-
bracket">]</span></span></h2>
<div role="note" class="hatnote navigation-not-searchable">See also: <a
href="/wiki/Jordan_measure" title="Jordan measure">Jordan measure</a></div>
<p>An approach to defining what is meant by "area" is through <a href="/wiki/Axiom"
title="Axiom">axioms</a>. "Area" can be defined as a function from a collection M
of special kind of plane figures (termed measurable sets) to the set of real
numbers, which satisfies the following properties:
</p>
<ul><li>For all <i>S</i> in <i>M</i>, <i>a</i>(<i>S</i>) ≥ 0.</li>
<li>If <i>S</i> and <i>T</i> are in <i>M</i> then so are <i>S</i> ∪ <i>T</i> and
<i>S</i> ∩ <i>T</i>, and also <i>a</i>(<i>S</i>∪<i>T</i>) = <i>a</i>(<i>S</i>) +
<i>a</i>(<i>T</i>) − <i>a</i>(<i>S</i>∩<i>T</i>).</li>
<li>If <i>S</i> and <i>T</i> are in <i>M</i> with <i>S</i> ⊆ <i>T</i> then <i>T</i>
− <i>S</i> is in <i>M</i> and <i>a</i>(<i>T</i>−<i>S</i>) = <i>a</i>(<i>T</i>) −
<i>a</i>(<i>S</i>).</li>
<li>If a set <i>S</i> is in <i>M</i> and <i>S</i> is congruent to <i>T</i> then
<i>T</i> is also in <i>M</i> and <i>a</i>(<i>S</i>) = <i>a</i>(<i>T</i>).</li>
<li>Every rectangle <i>R</i> is in <i>M</i>. If the rectangle has length <i>h</i>
and breadth <i>k</i> then <i>a</i>(<i>R</i>) = <i>hk</i>.</li>
<li>Let <i>Q</i> be a set enclosed between two step regions <i>S</i> and <i>T</i>.
A step region is formed from a finite union of adjacent rectangles resting on a
common base, i.e. <i>S</i> ⊆ <i>Q</i> ⊆ <i>T</i>. If there is a unique number
<i>c</i> such that <i>a</i>(<i>S</i>) ≤ c ≤ <i>a</i>(<i>T</i>) for all such step
regions <i>S</i> and <i>T</i>, then <i>a</i>(<i>Q</i>) = <i>c</i>.</li></ul>
<p>It can be proved that such an area function actually exists.<sup id="cite_ref-
Moise_11-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Moise-11">&#91;11&#93;</a></sup>
</p>
<h2><span class="mw-headline" id="Units">Units</span><span class="mw-
editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a href="/w/index.php?
title=Area&amp;action=edit&amp;section=2" title="Edit section: Units">edit</a><span
class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h2>
<div class="thumb tright"><div class="thumbinner" style="width:222px;"><a
href="/wiki/File:SquareMeterQuadrat.JPG" class="image"><img alt="A square made of
PVC pipe on grass"
src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/e/ef/SquareMeterQuadrat.JPG/220
px-SquareMeterQuadrat.JPG" decoding="async" width="220" height="165"
class="thumbimage"
srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/e/ef/SquareMeterQuadrat.JPG/
330px-SquareMeterQuadrat.JPG 1.5x,
//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/e/ef/SquareMeterQuadrat.JPG/440px-
SquareMeterQuadrat.JPG 2x" data-file-width="2048" data-file-height="1536" /></a>
<div class="thumbcaption"><div class="magnify"><a
href="/wiki/File:SquareMeterQuadrat.JPG" class="internal"
title="Enlarge"></a></div>A square metre <a href="/wiki/Quadrat"
title="Quadrat">quadrat</a> made of PVC pipe.</div></div></div>
<p>Every <a href="/wiki/Unit_of_length" title="Unit of length">unit of length</a>
has a corresponding unit of area, namely the area of a square with the given side
length. Thus areas can be measured in <a href="/wiki/Square_metre" title="Square
metre">square metres</a> (m<sup>2</sup>), square centimetres (cm<sup>2</sup>),
square millimetres (mm<sup>2</sup>), <a href="/wiki/Square_kilometre" title="Square
kilometre">square kilometres</a> (km<sup>2</sup>), <a href="/wiki/Square_foot"
title="Square foot">square feet</a> (ft<sup>2</sup>), <a href="/wiki/Square_yard"
title="Square yard">square yards</a> (yd<sup>2</sup>), <a href="/wiki/Square_mile"
title="Square mile">square miles</a> (mi<sup>2</sup>), and so forth.<sup
id="cite_ref-BIPM2006Ch5_12-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-BIPM2006Ch5-
12">&#91;12&#93;</a></sup> Algebraically, these units can be thought of as the <a
href="/wiki/Square_(algebra)" title="Square (algebra)">squares</a> of the
corresponding length units.
</p><p>The SI unit of area is the square metre, which is considered an <a
href="/wiki/SI_derived_unit" title="SI derived unit">SI derived unit</a>.<sup
id="cite_ref-B_3-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-B-
3">&#91;3&#93;</a></sup>
</p>
<h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Conversions">Conversions</span><span class="mw-
editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a href="/w/index.php?
title=Area&amp;action=edit&amp;section=3" title="Edit section:
Conversions">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h3>
<div class="thumb tright"><div class="thumbinner" style="width:222px;"><a
href="/wiki/File:Area_conversion_-_square_mm_in_a_square_cm.png" class="image"><img
alt="A diagram showing the conversion factor between different areas"
src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/8/81/Area_conversion_-
_square_mm_in_a_square_cm.png/220px-Area_conversion_-_square_mm_in_a_square_cm.png"
decoding="async" width="220" height="185" class="thumbimage"
srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/8/81/Area_conversion_-
_square_mm_in_a_square_cm.png/330px-Area_conversion_-_square_mm_in_a_square_cm.png
1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/8/81/Area_conversion_-
_square_mm_in_a_square_cm.png/440px-Area_conversion_-_square_mm_in_a_square_cm.png
2x" data-file-width="831" data-file-height="699" /></a> <div
class="thumbcaption"><div class="magnify"><a href="/wiki/File:Area_conversion_-
_square_mm_in_a_square_cm.png" class="internal" title="Enlarge"></a></div>Although
there are 10 mm in 1 cm, there are 100 mm<sup>2</sup> in 1
cm<sup>2</sup>.</div></div></div>
<p>Calculation of the area of a square whose length and width are 1 metre would be:
</p><p>1 metre × 1 metre = 1&#160;m<sup>2</sup>
</p><p>and so, a rectangle with different sides (say length of 3 metres and width
of 2 metres) would have an area in square units that can be calculated as:
</p><p>3 metres × 2 metres = 6&#160;m<sup>2</sup>. This is equivalent to 6 million
square millimetres. Other useful conversions are:
</p>
<ul><li>1 square kilometre = <a href="/wiki/Million" class="mw-redirect"
title="Million">1,000,000</a> square metres</li>
<li>1 square metre = <a href="/wiki/10000_(number)" class="mw-redirect"
title="10000 (number)">10,000</a> square centimetres = 1,000,000 square
millimetres</li>
<li>1 square centimetre = <a href="/wiki/100_(number)" class="mw-redirect"
title="100 (number)">100</a> square millimetres.</li></ul>
<h4><span class="mw-headline" id="Non-metric_units">Non-metric units</span><span
class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a
href="/w/index.php?title=Area&amp;action=edit&amp;section=4" title="Edit section:
Non-metric units">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h4>
<p>In non-metric units, the conversion between two square units is the <a
href="/wiki/Square_(algebra)" title="Square (algebra)">square</a> of the conversion
between the corresponding length units.
</p>
<dl><dd>1 <a href="/wiki/Foot_(unit)" title="Foot (unit)">foot</a> = 12 <a
href="/wiki/Inch" title="Inch">inches</a>,</dd></dl>
<p>the relationship between square feet and square inches is
</p>
<dl><dd>1 square foot = 144 square inches,</dd></dl>
<p>where 144 = 12<sup>2</sup> = 12 × 12. Similarly:
</p>
<ul><li>1 square yard = <a href="/wiki/9_(number)" class="mw-redirect" title="9
(number)">9</a> square feet</li>
<li>1 square mile = 3,097,600 square yards = 27,878,400 square feet</li></ul>
<p>In addition, conversion factors include:
</p>
<ul><li>1 square inch = 6.4516 square centimetres</li>
<li>1 square foot = <span style="white-space:nowrap">0.092<span style="margin-
left:0.25em">903</span><span style="margin-left:0.25em">04</span></span> square
metres</li>
<li>1 square yard = <span style="white-space:nowrap">0.836<span style="margin-
left:0.25em">127</span><span style="margin-left:0.25em">36</span></span> square
metres</li>
<li>1 square mile = <span style="white-space:nowrap">2.589<span style="margin-
left:0.25em">988</span><span style="margin-left:0.25em">110</span><span
style="margin-left:0.25em">336</span></span> square kilometres</li></ul>
<h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Other_units_including_historical">Other units
including historical</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-
editsection-bracket">[</span><a href="/w/index.php?
title=Area&amp;action=edit&amp;section=5" title="Edit section: Other units
including historical">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-
bracket">]</span></span></h3>
<div role="note" class="hatnote navigation-not-searchable">See also: <a
href="/wiki/Category:Units_of_area" title="Category:Units of area">Category:Units
of area</a></div>
<p>There are several other common units for area. The <a href="/wiki/Are_(unit)"
class="mw-redirect" title="Are (unit)">are</a> was the original unit of area in the
<a href="/wiki/Metric_system" title="Metric system">metric system</a>, with:
</p>
<ul><li>1 are = 100 square metres</li></ul>
<p>Though the are has fallen out of use, the <a href="/wiki/Hectare"
title="Hectare">hectare</a> is still commonly used to measure land:<sup
id="cite_ref-BIPM2006Ch5_12-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-BIPM2006Ch5-
12">&#91;12&#93;</a></sup>
</p>
<ul><li>1 hectare = 100 ares = 10,000 square metres = 0.01 square
kilometres</li></ul>
<p>Other uncommon metric units of area include the <a
href="/wiki/Tetrad_(unit_of_area)" class="mw-redirect" title="Tetrad (unit of
area)">tetrad</a>, the <a href="/wiki/Hectad" title="Hectad">hectad</a>, and the <a
href="/wiki/Myriad_(area)" title="Myriad (area)">myriad</a>.
</p><p>The <a href="/wiki/Acre" title="Acre">acre</a> is also commonly used to
measure land areas, where
</p>
<ul><li>1 acre = 4,840 square yards = 43,560 square feet.</li></ul>
<p>An acre is approximately 40% of a hectare.
</p><p>On the atomic scale, area is measured in units of <a
href="/wiki/Barn_(unit)" title="Barn (unit)">barns</a>, such that:<sup
id="cite_ref-BIPM2006Ch5_12-2" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-BIPM2006Ch5-
12">&#91;12&#93;</a></sup>
</p>
<ul><li>1 barn = 10<sup>−28</sup> square meters.</li></ul>
<p>The barn is commonly used in describing the cross-sectional area of interaction
in <a href="/wiki/Nuclear_physics" title="Nuclear physics">nuclear physics</a>.<sup
id="cite_ref-BIPM2006Ch5_12-3" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-BIPM2006Ch5-
12">&#91;12&#93;</a></sup>
</p><p>In India,
</p>
<ul><li>20 dhurki = 1 dhur</li>
<li>20 dhur = 1 khatha</li>
<li>20 khata = 1 bigha</li>
<li>32 khata = 1 acre</li></ul>
<h2><span class="mw-headline" id="History">History</span><span class="mw-
editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a href="/w/index.php?
title=Area&amp;action=edit&amp;section=6" title="Edit section:
History">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h2>
<h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Circle_area">Circle area</span><span class="mw-
editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a href="/w/index.php?
title=Area&amp;action=edit&amp;section=7" title="Edit section: Circle
area">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h3>
<p>In the 5th century BCE, <a href="/wiki/Hippocrates_of_Chios" title="Hippocrates
of Chios">Hippocrates of Chios</a> was the first to show that the area of a disk
(the region enclosed by a circle) is proportional to the square of its diameter, as
part of his <a href="/wiki/Quadrature_(mathematics)" title="Quadrature
(mathematics)">quadrature</a> of the <a href="/wiki/Lune_of_Hippocrates"
title="Lune of Hippocrates">lune of Hippocrates</a>,<sup id="cite_ref-heath_13-0"
class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-heath-13">&#91;13&#93;</a></sup> but did not
identify the <a href="/wiki/Constant_of_proportionality" class="mw-redirect"
title="Constant of proportionality">constant of proportionality</a>. <a
href="/wiki/Eudoxus_of_Cnidus" title="Eudoxus of Cnidus">Eudoxus of Cnidus</a>,
also in the 5th century BCE, also found that the area of a disk is proportional to
its radius squared.<sup id="cite_ref-14" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-
14">&#91;14&#93;</a></sup>
</p><p>Subsequently, Book I of <a href="/wiki/Euclid%27s_Elements"
title="Euclid&#39;s Elements">Euclid's <i>Elements</i></a> dealt with equality of
areas between two-dimensional figures. The mathematician <a href="/wiki/Archimedes"
title="Archimedes">Archimedes</a> used the tools of <a
href="/wiki/Euclidean_geometry" title="Euclidean geometry">Euclidean geometry</a>
to show that the area inside a circle is equal to that of a <a
href="/wiki/Right_triangle" title="Right triangle">right triangle</a> whose base
has the length of the circle's circumference and whose height equals the circle's
radius, in his book <i><a href="/wiki/Measurement_of_a_Circle" title="Measurement
of a Circle">Measurement of a Circle</a></i>. (The circumference is 2<span
class="texhtml mvar" style="font-style:italic;">π</span><i>r</i>, and the area of a
triangle is half the base times the height, yielding the area <span class="texhtml
mvar" style="font-style:italic;">π</span><i>r</i><sup>2</sup> for the disk.)
Archimedes approximated the value of π (and hence the area of a unit-radius circle)
with <a href="/wiki/Area_of_a_disk#Archimedes&#39;_doubling_method" class="mw-
redirect" title="Area of a disk">his doubling method</a>, in which he inscribed a
regular triangle in a circle and noted its area, then doubled the number of sides
to give a regular <a href="/wiki/Hexagon" title="Hexagon">hexagon</a>, then
repeatedly doubled the number of sides as the polygon's area got closer and closer
to that of the circle (and did the same with <a href="/wiki/Circumscribed_polygon"
class="mw-redirect" title="Circumscribed polygon">circumscribed polygons</a>).
</p><p>Swiss scientist <a href="/wiki/Johann_Heinrich_Lambert" title="Johann
Heinrich Lambert">Johann Heinrich Lambert</a> in 1761 proved that <a
href="/wiki/Pi" title="Pi">π</a>, the ratio of a circle's area to its squared
radius, is <a href="/wiki/Irrational_number" title="Irrational
number">irrational</a>, meaning it is not equal to the quotient of any two whole
numbers.<sup id="cite_ref-Arndt_15-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Arndt-
15">&#91;15&#93;</a></sup> In 1794 French mathematician <a href="/wiki/Adrien-
Marie_Legendre" title="Adrien-Marie Legendre">Adrien-Marie Legendre</a> proved that
π<sup>2</sup> is irrational; this also proves that π is irrational.<sup
id="cite_ref-16" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-16">&#91;16&#93;</a></sup>
In 1882, German mathematician <a href="/wiki/Ferdinand_von_Lindemann"
title="Ferdinand von Lindemann">Ferdinand von Lindemann</a> proved that π is <a
href="/wiki/Transcendental_number" title="Transcendental number">transcendental</a>
(not the solution of any <a href="/wiki/Polynomial_equation" class="mw-redirect"
title="Polynomial equation">polynomial equation</a> with rational coefficients),
confirming a conjecture made by both <a href="/wiki/Adrien-Marie_Legendre"
title="Adrien-Marie Legendre">Legendre</a> and Euler.<sup id="cite_ref-Arndt_15-1"
class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Arndt-15">&#91;15&#93;</a></sup><sup
class="reference" style="white-space:nowrap;">:<span>p. 196</span></sup>
</p>
<h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Triangle_area">Triangle area</span><span
class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a
href="/w/index.php?title=Area&amp;action=edit&amp;section=8" title="Edit section:
Triangle area">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h3>
<p><a href="/wiki/Hero_of_Alexandria" title="Hero of Alexandria">Heron (or Hero) of
Alexandria</a> found what is known as <a href="/wiki/Heron%27s_formula"
title="Heron&#39;s formula">Heron's formula</a> for the area of a triangle in terms
of its sides, and a proof can be found in his book, <i>Metrica</i>, written around
60 CE. It has been suggested that <a href="/wiki/Archimedes"
title="Archimedes">Archimedes</a> knew the formula over two centuries earlier,<sup
id="cite_ref-17" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-17">&#91;17&#93;</a></sup>
and since <i>Metrica</i> is a collection of the mathematical knowledge available in
the ancient world, it is possible that the formula predates the reference given in
that work.<sup id="cite_ref-18" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-
18">&#91;18&#93;</a></sup>
</p><p>In 499 <a href="/wiki/Aryabhata" title="Aryabhata">Aryabhata</a>, a great <a
href="/wiki/Mathematician" title="Mathematician">mathematician</a>-<a
href="/wiki/Astronomer" title="Astronomer">astronomer</a> from the classical age of
<a href="/wiki/Indian_mathematics" title="Indian mathematics">Indian
mathematics</a> and <a href="/wiki/Indian_astronomy" title="Indian
astronomy">Indian astronomy</a>, expressed the area of a triangle as one-half the
base times the height in the <i><a href="/wiki/Aryabhatiya"
title="Aryabhatiya">Aryabhatiya</a></i> (section 2.6).
</p><p>A formula equivalent to Heron's was discovered by the Chinese independently
of the Greeks. It was published in 1247 in <i>Shushu Jiuzhang</i> ("<a
href="/wiki/Mathematical_Treatise_in_Nine_Sections" title="Mathematical Treatise in
Nine Sections">Mathematical Treatise in Nine Sections</a>"), written by <a
href="/wiki/Qin_Jiushao" title="Qin Jiushao">Qin Jiushao</a>.
</p>
<h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Quadrilateral_area">Quadrilateral
area</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-
bracket">[</span><a href="/w/index.php?title=Area&amp;action=edit&amp;section=9"
title="Edit section: Quadrilateral area">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-
bracket">]</span></span></h3>
<p>In the 7th century CE, <a href="/wiki/Brahmagupta"
title="Brahmagupta">Brahmagupta</a> developed a formula, now known as <a
href="/wiki/Brahmagupta%27s_formula" title="Brahmagupta&#39;s
formula">Brahmagupta's formula</a>, for the area of a <a
href="/wiki/Cyclic_quadrilateral" title="Cyclic quadrilateral">cyclic
quadrilateral</a> (a <a href="/wiki/Quadrilateral"
title="Quadrilateral">quadrilateral</a> <a href="/wiki/Inscribed_figure"
title="Inscribed figure">inscribed</a> in a circle) in terms of its sides. In 1842
the German mathematicians <a href="/wiki/Carl_Anton_Bretschneider" title="Carl
Anton Bretschneider">Carl Anton Bretschneider</a> and <a
href="/wiki/Karl_Georg_Christian_von_Staudt" title="Karl Georg Christian von
Staudt">Karl Georg Christian von Staudt</a> independently found a formula, known as
<a href="/wiki/Bretschneider%27s_formula" title="Bretschneider&#39;s
formula">Bretschneider's formula</a>, for the area of any quadrilateral.
</p>
<h3><span class="mw-headline" id="General_polygon_area">General polygon
area</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-
bracket">[</span><a href="/w/index.php?title=Area&amp;action=edit&amp;section=10"
title="Edit section: General polygon area">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-
bracket">]</span></span></h3>
<p>The development of <a href="/wiki/Cartesian_coordinate_system" title="Cartesian
coordinate system">Cartesian coordinates</a> by <a href="/wiki/Ren%C3%A9_Descartes"
title="René Descartes">René Descartes</a> in the 17th century allowed the
development of the <a href="/wiki/Shoelace_formula" title="Shoelace
formula">surveyor's formula</a> for the area of any polygon with known <a
href="/wiki/Vertex_(geometry)" title="Vertex (geometry)">vertex</a> locations by <a
href="/wiki/Gauss" class="mw-redirect" title="Gauss">Gauss</a> in the 19th century.
</p>
<h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Areas_determined_using_calculus">Areas determined
using calculus</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-
bracket">[</span><a href="/w/index.php?title=Area&amp;action=edit&amp;section=11"
title="Edit section: Areas determined using calculus">edit</a><span class="mw-
editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h3>
<p>The development of <a href="/wiki/Integral_calculus" class="mw-redirect"
title="Integral calculus">integral calculus</a> in the late 17th century provided
tools that could subsequently be used for computing more complicated areas, such as
the area of an <a href="/wiki/Ellipse#Area" title="Ellipse">ellipse</a> and the <a
href="/wiki/Surface_area" title="Surface area">surface areas</a> of various curved
three-dimensional objects.
</p>
<h2><span class="mw-headline" id="Area_formulas">Area formulas</span><span
class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a
href="/w/index.php?title=Area&amp;action=edit&amp;section=12" title="Edit section:
Area formulas">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h2>
<h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Polygon_formulas">Polygon formulas</span><span
class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a
href="/w/index.php?title=Area&amp;action=edit&amp;section=13" title="Edit section:
Polygon formulas">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h3>
<div role="note" class="hatnote navigation-not-searchable">Main article: <a
href="/wiki/Polygon#Area_and_centroid" title="Polygon">Polygon §&#160;Area and
centroid</a></div>
<p>For a non-self-intersecting (<a href="/wiki/Simple_polygon" title="Simple
polygon">simple</a>) polygon, the <a href="/wiki/Cartesian_coordinate_system"
title="Cartesian coordinate system">Cartesian coordinates</a> <span class="mwe-
math-element"><span class="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-math-mathml-a11y"
style="display: none;"><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"
alttext="{\displaystyle (x_{i},y_{i})}">
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mo stretchy="false">(</mo>
<msub>
<mi>x</mi>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mi>i</mi>
</mrow>
</msub>
<mo>,</mo>
<msub>
<mi>y</mi>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mi>i</mi>
</mrow>
</msub>
<mo stretchy="false">)</mo>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle
(x_{i},y_{i})}</annotation>
</semantics>
</math></span><img
src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/d6dbb919b91ccacf17ed47
898048428a1baf9703" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline" aria-hidden="true"
style="vertical-align: -0.838ex; width:6.912ex; height:2.843ex;"
alt="(x_{i},y_{i})"/></span> (<i>i</i>=0, 1, ..., <i>n</i>-1) of whose <i>n</i> <a
href="/wiki/Vertex_(geometry)" title="Vertex (geometry)">vertices</a> are known,
the area is given by the <a href="/wiki/Shoelace_formula" title="Shoelace
formula">surveyor's formula</a>:<sup id="cite_ref-19" class="reference"><a
href="#cite_note-19">&#91;19&#93;</a></sup>
</p>
<dl><dd><span class="mwe-math-element"><span class="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-
math-mathml-a11y" style="display: none;"><math
xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" alttext="{\displaystyle A={\frac {1}
{2}}|\sum _{i=0}^{n-1}(x_{i}y_{i+1}-x_{i+1}y_{i})|}">
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mi>A</mi>
<mo>=</mo>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mfrac>
<mn>1</mn>
<mn>2</mn>
</mfrac>
</mrow>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mo stretchy="false">|</mo>
</mrow>
<munderover>
<mo>&#x2211;<!-- ∑ --></mo>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mi>i</mi>
<mo>=</mo>
<mn>0</mn>
</mrow>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mi>n</mi>
<mo>&#x2212;<!-- − --></mo>
<mn>1</mn>
</mrow>
</munderover>
<mo stretchy="false">(</mo>
<msub>
<mi>x</mi>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mi>i</mi>
</mrow>
</msub>
<msub>
<mi>y</mi>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mi>i</mi>
<mo>+</mo>
<mn>1</mn>
</mrow>
</msub>
<mo>&#x2212;<!-- − --></mo>
<msub>
<mi>x</mi>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mi>i</mi>
<mo>+</mo>
<mn>1</mn>
</mrow>
</msub>
<msub>
<mi>y</mi>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mi>i</mi>
</mrow>
</msub>
<mo stretchy="false">)</mo>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mo stretchy="false">|</mo>
</mrow>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle A={\frac {1}{2}}|\sum
_{i=0}^{n-1}(x_{i}y_{i+1}-x_{i+1}y_{i})|}</annotation>
</semantics>
</math></span><img
src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/6794da3013ec7cca89fc52
e0a59830c4e3976527" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline" aria-hidden="true"
style="vertical-align: -3.005ex; width:28.863ex; height:7.343ex;" alt="A={\frac
{1}{2}}|\sum _{{i=0}}^{{n-1}}(x_{i}y_{{i+1}}-x_{{i+1}}y_{i})|"/></span></dd></dl>
<p>where when <i>i</i>=<i>n</i>-1, then <i>i</i>+1 is expressed as <a
href="/wiki/Modular_arithmetic" title="Modular arithmetic">modulus</a> <i>n</i> and
so refers to 0.
</p>
<h4><span class="mw-headline" id="Rectangles">Rectangles</span><span class="mw-
editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a href="/w/index.php?
title=Area&amp;action=edit&amp;section=14" title="Edit section:
Rectangles">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h4>
<div class="thumb tright"><div class="thumbinner" style="width:172px;"><a
href="/wiki/File:RectangleLengthWidth.svg" class="image"><img alt="A rectangle with
length and width labelled"
src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/8/8d/RectangleLengthWidth.svg/1
70px-RectangleLengthWidth.svg.png" decoding="async" width="170" height="131"
class="thumbimage"
srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/8/8d/RectangleLengthWidth.sv
g/255px-RectangleLengthWidth.svg.png 1.5x,
//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/8/8d/RectangleLengthWidth.svg/340px-
RectangleLengthWidth.svg.png 2x" data-file-width="220" data-file-height="170"
/></a> <div class="thumbcaption"><div class="magnify"><a
href="/wiki/File:RectangleLengthWidth.svg" class="internal"
title="Enlarge"></a></div>The area of this rectangle is&#160;<span class="texhtml
mvar" style="font-style:italic;">lw</span>.</div></div></div>
<p>The most basic area formula is the formula for the area of a <a
href="/wiki/Rectangle" title="Rectangle">rectangle</a>. Given a rectangle with
length <span class="texhtml mvar" style="font-style:italic;">l</span> and width
<span class="texhtml mvar" style="font-style:italic;">w</span>, the formula for the
area is:<sup id="cite_ref-AF_2-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-AF-
2">&#91;2&#93;</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-20" class="reference"><a
href="#cite_note-20">&#91;20&#93;</a></sup>
</p>
<dl><dd><span class="texhtml texhtml-big" style="font-size:165%;"><i>A</i> =
<i>lw</i></span> &#160;(rectangle).</dd></dl>
<p>That is, the area of the rectangle is the length multiplied by the width. As a
special case, as <span class="texhtml"><i>l</i> = <i>w</i></span> in the case of a
square, the area of a square with side length <span class="texhtml mvar"
style="font-style:italic;">s</span> is given by the formula:<sup id="cite_ref-
MathWorld_1-3" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-MathWorld-
1">&#91;1&#93;</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-AF_2-2" class="reference"><a
href="#cite_note-AF-2">&#91;2&#93;</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-21"
class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-21">&#91;21&#93;</a></sup>
</p>
<dl><dd><span class="texhtml texhtml-big" style="font-size:165%;"><i>A</i> =
<i>s</i><sup>2</sup></span> &#160;(square).</dd></dl>
<p>The formula for the area of a rectangle follows directly from the basic
properties of area, and is sometimes taken as a <a href="/wiki/Definition"
title="Definition">definition</a> or <a href="/wiki/Axiom" title="Axiom">axiom</a>.
On the other hand, if <a href="/wiki/Geometry" title="Geometry">geometry</a> is
developed before <a href="/wiki/Arithmetic" title="Arithmetic">arithmetic</a>, this
formula can be used to define <a href="/wiki/Multiplication"
title="Multiplication">multiplication</a> of <a href="/wiki/Real_number"
title="Real number">real numbers</a>.
</p>
<h4><span id="Dissection.2C_parallelograms.2C_and_triangles"></span><span
class="mw-headline" id="Dissection,_parallelograms,_and_triangles">Dissection,
parallelograms, and triangles</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-
editsection-bracket">[</span><a href="/w/index.php?
title=Area&amp;action=edit&amp;section=15" title="Edit section: Dissection,
parallelograms, and triangles">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-
bracket">]</span></span></h4>
<div role="note" class="hatnote navigation-not-searchable">Main articles: <a
href="/wiki/Triangle#Computing_the_area_of_a_triangle" title="Triangle">Triangle
§&#160;Computing the area of a triangle</a>, and <a
href="/wiki/Parallelogram#Area_formula" title="Parallelogram">Parallelogram
§&#160;Area formula</a></div>
<p>Most other simple formulas for area follow from the method of <a
href="/wiki/Dissection_(geometry)" class="mw-redirect" title="Dissection
(geometry)">dissection</a>.
This involves cutting a shape into pieces, whose areas must <a
href="/wiki/Addition" title="Addition">sum</a> to the area of the original shape.
</p>
<div class="thumb tleft"><div class="thumbinner" style="width:172px;"><a
href="/wiki/File:ParallelogramArea.svg" class="image"><img alt=""
src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/1/1c/ParallelogramArea.svg/170p
x-ParallelogramArea.svg.png" decoding="async" width="170" height="232"
class="thumbimage"
srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/1/1c/ParallelogramArea.svg/2
55px-ParallelogramArea.svg.png 1.5x,
//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/1/1c/ParallelogramArea.svg/340px-
ParallelogramArea.svg.png 2x" data-file-width="220" data-file-height="300" /></a>
<div class="thumbcaption"><div class="magnify"><a
href="/wiki/File:ParallelogramArea.svg" class="internal"
title="Enlarge"></a></div>A diagram showing how a parallelogram can be re-arranged
into the shape of a rectangle.</div></div></div>
<p>For an example, any <a href="/wiki/Parallelogram"
title="Parallelogram">parallelogram</a> can be subdivided into a <a
href="/wiki/Trapezoid" title="Trapezoid">trapezoid</a> and a <a
href="/wiki/Right_triangle" title="Right triangle">right triangle</a>, as shown in
figure to the left. If the triangle is moved to the other side of the trapezoid,
then the resulting figure is a rectangle. It follows that the area of the
parallelogram is the same as the area of the rectangle:<sup id="cite_ref-AF_2-3"
class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-AF-2">&#91;2&#93;</a></sup>
</p>
<dl><dd><span class="texhtml texhtml-big" style="font-size:165%;"><i>A</i> =
<i>bh</i></span> &#160;(parallelogram).</dd></dl>
<div class="thumb tright"><div class="thumbinner" style="width:172px;"><a
href="/wiki/File:TriangleArea.svg" class="image"><img alt=""
src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/7/7c/TriangleArea.svg/170px-
TriangleArea.svg.png" decoding="async" width="170" height="124" class="thumbimage"
srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/7/7c/TriangleArea.svg/255px-
TriangleArea.svg.png 1.5x,
//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/7/7c/TriangleArea.svg/340px-
TriangleArea.svg.png 2x" data-file-width="220" data-file-height="160" /></a> <div
class="thumbcaption"><div class="magnify"><a href="/wiki/File:TriangleArea.svg"
class="internal" title="Enlarge"></a></div>A parallelogram split into two equal
triangles.</div></div></div>
<p>However, the same parallelogram can also be cut along a <a href="/wiki/Diagonal"
title="Diagonal">diagonal</a> into two <a href="/wiki/Congruence_(geometry)"
title="Congruence (geometry)">congruent</a> triangles, as shown in the figure to
the right. It follows that the area of each <a href="/wiki/Triangle"
title="Triangle">triangle</a> is half the area of the parallelogram:<sup
id="cite_ref-AF_2-4" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-AF-
2">&#91;2&#93;</a></sup>
</p>
<dl><dd><span class="mwe-math-element"><span class="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-
math-mathml-a11y" style="display: none;"><math
xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" alttext="{\displaystyle A={\frac {1}
{2}}bh}">
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mi>A</mi>
<mo>=</mo>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mfrac>
<mn>1</mn>
<mn>2</mn>
</mfrac>
</mrow>
<mi>b</mi>
<mi>h</mi>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle A={\frac {1}
{2}}bh}</annotation>
</semantics>
</math></span><img
src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/78bb1af1b9493a6b26955f
711ae9b95a68f671be" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline" aria-hidden="true"
style="vertical-align: -1.838ex; width:9.177ex; height:5.176ex;" alt="A={\frac {1}
{2}}bh"/></span> &#160;(triangle).</dd></dl>
<p>Similar arguments can be used to find area formulas for the <a
href="/wiki/Trapezoid" title="Trapezoid">trapezoid</a><sup id="cite_ref-22"
class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-22">&#91;22&#93;</a></sup> as well as more
complicated <a href="/wiki/Polygon" title="Polygon">polygons</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-
23" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-23">&#91;23&#93;</a></sup>
</p>
<h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Area_of_curved_shapes">Area of curved
shapes</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-
bracket">[</span><a href="/w/index.php?title=Area&amp;action=edit&amp;section=16"
title="Edit section: Area of curved shapes">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-
bracket">]</span></span></h3>
<h4><span class="mw-headline" id="Circles">Circles</span><span class="mw-
editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a href="/w/index.php?
title=Area&amp;action=edit&amp;section=17" title="Edit section:
Circles">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h4>
<div class="thumb tright"><div class="thumbinner" style="width:222px;"><a
href="/wiki/File:CircleArea.svg" class="image"><img alt="A circle divided into many
sectors can be re-arranged roughly to form a parallelogram"
src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/fb/CircleArea.svg/220px-
CircleArea.svg.png" decoding="async" width="220" height="238" class="thumbimage"
srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/fb/CircleArea.svg/330px-
CircleArea.svg.png 1.5x,
//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/fb/CircleArea.svg/440px-
CircleArea.svg.png 2x" data-file-width="240" data-file-height="260" /></a> <div
class="thumbcaption"><div class="magnify"><a href="/wiki/File:CircleArea.svg"
class="internal" title="Enlarge"></a></div>A circle can be divided into <a
href="/wiki/Circular_sector" title="Circular sector">sectors</a> which rearrange to
form an approximate <a href="/wiki/Parallelogram"
title="Parallelogram">parallelogram</a>.</div></div></div>
<div role="note" class="hatnote navigation-not-searchable">Main article: <a
href="/wiki/Area_of_a_circle" title="Area of a circle">Area of a circle</a></div>
<p>The formula for the area of a <a href="/wiki/Circle" title="Circle">circle</a>
(more properly called the area enclosed by a circle or the area of a <a
href="/wiki/Disk_(mathematics)" title="Disk (mathematics)">disk</a>) is based on a
similar method. Given a circle of radius <span class="texhtml"><i>r</i></span>, it
is possible to partition the circle into <a href="/wiki/Circular_sector"
title="Circular sector">sectors</a>, as shown in the figure to the right. Each
sector is approximately triangular in shape, and the sectors can be rearranged to
form an approximate parallelogram. The height of this parallelogram is <span
class="texhtml"><i>r</i></span>, and the width is half the <a
href="/wiki/Circumference" title="Circumference">circumference</a> of the circle,
or <span class="texhtml">π<i>r</i></span>. Thus, the total area of the circle is
<span class="texhtml">π<i>r</i><sup>2</sup></span>:<sup id="cite_ref-AF_2-5"
class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-AF-2">&#91;2&#93;</a></sup>
</p>
<dl><dd><span class="texhtml texhtml-big" style="font-size:165%;"><i>A</i> =
π<i>r</i><sup>2</sup></span> &#160;(circle).</dd></dl>
<p>Though the dissection used in this formula is only approximate, the error
becomes smaller and smaller as the circle is partitioned into more and more
sectors. The <a href="/wiki/Limit_(mathematics)" title="Limit
(mathematics)">limit</a> of the areas of the approximate parallelograms is exactly
<span class="texhtml">π<i>r</i><sup>2</sup></span>, which is the area of the
circle.<sup id="cite_ref-Surveyor_24-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-
Surveyor-24">&#91;24&#93;</a></sup>
</p><p>This argument is actually a simple application of the ideas of <a
href="/wiki/Calculus" title="Calculus">calculus</a>. In ancient times, the <a
href="/wiki/Method_of_exhaustion" title="Method of exhaustion">method of
exhaustion</a> was used in a similar way to find the area of the circle, and this
method is now recognized as a precursor to <a href="/wiki/Integral_calculus"
class="mw-redirect" title="Integral calculus">integral calculus</a>. Using modern
methods, the area of a circle can be computed using a <a
href="/wiki/Definite_integral" class="mw-redirect" title="Definite
integral">definite integral</a>:
</p>
<dl><dd><span class="mwe-math-element"><span class="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-
math-mathml-a11y" style="display: none;"><math
xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" alttext="{\displaystyle A\;=\;2\int _{-
r}^{r}{\sqrt {r^{2}-x^{2}}}\,dx\;=\;\pi r^{2}.}">
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mi>A</mi>
<mspace width="thickmathspace" />
<mo>=</mo>
<mspace width="thickmathspace" />
<mn>2</mn>
<msubsup>
<mo>&#x222B;<!-- ∫ --></mo>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mo>&#x2212;<!-- − --></mo>
<mi>r</mi>
</mrow>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mi>r</mi>
</mrow>
</msubsup>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<msqrt>
<msup>
<mi>r</mi>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mn>2</mn>
</mrow>
</msup>
<mo>&#x2212;<!-- − --></mo>
<msup>
<mi>x</mi>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mn>2</mn>
</mrow>
</msup>
</msqrt>
</mrow>
<mspace width="thinmathspace" />
<mi>d</mi>
<mi>x</mi>
<mspace width="thickmathspace" />
<mo>=</mo>
<mspace width="thickmathspace" />
<mi>&#x03C0;<!-- π --></mi>
<msup>
<mi>r</mi>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mn>2</mn>
</mrow>
</msup>
<mo>.</mo>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle A\;=\;2\int _{-r}^{r}
{\sqrt {r^{2}-x^{2}}}\,dx\;=\;\pi r^{2}.}</annotation>
</semantics>
</math></span><img
src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/e6b8d5ed507b330b0f07bf
4310d64c8b687ea2ac" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline" aria-hidden="true"
style="vertical-align: -2.505ex; width:32.668ex; height:6.009ex;"
alt="{\displaystyle A\;=\;2\int _{-r}^{r}{\sqrt {r^{2}-x^{2}}}\,dx\;=\;\pi
r^{2}.}"/></span></dd></dl>
<h4><span class="mw-headline" id="Ellipses">Ellipses</span><span class="mw-
editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a href="/w/index.php?
title=Area&amp;action=edit&amp;section=18" title="Edit section:
Ellipses">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h4>
<div role="note" class="hatnote navigation-not-searchable">Main article: <a
href="/wiki/Ellipse#Area" title="Ellipse">Ellipse §&#160;Area</a></div>
<p>The formula for the area enclosed by an <a href="/wiki/Ellipse"
title="Ellipse">ellipse</a> is related to the formula of a circle; for an ellipse
with <a href="/wiki/Semi-major_axis" class="mw-redirect" title="Semi-major
axis">semi-major</a> and <a href="/wiki/Semi-minor_axis" class="mw-redirect"
title="Semi-minor axis">semi-minor</a> axes <span class="texhtml"><i>x</i></span>
and <span class="texhtml"><i>y</i></span> the formula is:<sup id="cite_ref-AF_2-6"
class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-AF-2">&#91;2&#93;</a></sup>
</p>
<dl><dd><span class="mwe-math-element"><span class="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-
math-mathml-a11y" style="display: none;"><math
xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" alttext="{\displaystyle A=\pi xy.}">
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mi>A</mi>
<mo>=</mo>
<mi>&#x03C0;<!-- π --></mi>
<mi>x</mi>
<mi>y</mi>
<mo>.</mo>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle A=\pi xy.}</annotation>
</semantics>
</math></span><img
src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/a81da558d3d525f9ff7688
980d2788087713390f" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline" aria-hidden="true"
style="vertical-align: -0.671ex; width:9.306ex; height:2.509ex;"
alt="{\displaystyle A=\pi xy.}"/></span></dd></dl>
<h4><span class="mw-headline" id="Surface_area">Surface area</span><span class="mw-
editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a href="/w/index.php?
title=Area&amp;action=edit&amp;section=19" title="Edit section: Surface
area">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h4>
<div role="note" class="hatnote navigation-not-searchable">Main article: <a
href="/wiki/Surface_area" title="Surface area">Surface area</a></div>
<div class="thumb tright"><div class="thumbinner" style="width:222px;"><a
href="/wiki/File:Archimedes_sphere_and_cylinder.svg" class="image"><img alt="A blue
sphere inside a cylinder of the same height and radius"
src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/7/70/Archimedes_sphere_and_cyli
nder.svg/220px-Archimedes_sphere_and_cylinder.svg.png" decoding="async" width="220"
height="238" class="thumbimage"
srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/7/70/Archimedes_sphere_and_c
ylinder.svg/330px-Archimedes_sphere_and_cylinder.svg.png 1.5x,
//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/7/70/Archimedes_sphere_and_cylinder.
svg/440px-Archimedes_sphere_and_cylinder.svg.png 2x" data-file-width="426" data-
file-height="461" /></a> <div class="thumbcaption"><div class="magnify"><a
href="/wiki/File:Archimedes_sphere_and_cylinder.svg" class="internal"
title="Enlarge"></a></div><a href="/wiki/Archimedes"
title="Archimedes">Archimedes</a> showed that the surface area of a <a
href="/wiki/Sphere" title="Sphere">sphere</a> is exactly four times the area of a
flat <a href="/wiki/Disk_(mathematics)" title="Disk (mathematics)">disk</a> of the
same radius, and the volume enclosed by the sphere is exactly 2/3 of the volume of
a <a href="/wiki/Cylinder_(geometry)" class="mw-redirect" title="Cylinder
(geometry)">cylinder</a> of the same height and radius.</div></div></div>
<p>Most basic formulas for <a href="/wiki/Surface_area" title="Surface
area">surface area</a> can be obtained by cutting surfaces and flattening them out.
For example, if the side surface of a <a href="/wiki/Cylinder_(geometry)"
class="mw-redirect" title="Cylinder (geometry)">cylinder</a> (or any <a
href="/wiki/Prism_(geometry)" title="Prism (geometry)">prism</a>) is cut
lengthwise, the surface can be flattened out into a rectangle. Similarly, if a cut
is made along the side of a <a href="/wiki/Cone_(geometry)" class="mw-redirect"
title="Cone (geometry)">cone</a>, the side surface can be flattened out into a
sector of a circle, and the resulting area computed.
</p><p>The formula for the surface area of a <a href="/wiki/Sphere"
title="Sphere">sphere</a> is more difficult to derive: because a sphere has nonzero
<a href="/wiki/Gaussian_curvature" title="Gaussian curvature">Gaussian
curvature</a>, it cannot be flattened out. The formula for the surface area of a
sphere was first obtained by <a href="/wiki/Archimedes"
title="Archimedes">Archimedes</a> in his work <i><a
href="/wiki/On_the_Sphere_and_Cylinder" title="On the Sphere and Cylinder">On the
Sphere and Cylinder</a></i>. The formula is:<sup id="cite_ref-
MathWorldSurfaceArea_6-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-
MathWorldSurfaceArea-6">&#91;6&#93;</a></sup>
</p>
<dl><dd><span class="texhtml texhtml-big" style="font-size:165%;"><i>A</i> =
4<i>πr</i><sup>2</sup></span> &#160;(sphere), where <span
class="texhtml"><i>r</i></span> is the radius of the sphere. As with the formula
for the area of a circle, any derivation of this formula inherently uses methods
similar to <a href="/wiki/Calculus" title="Calculus">calculus</a>.</dd></dl>
<h3><span class="mw-headline" id="General_formulas">General formulas</span><span
class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a
href="/w/index.php?title=Area&amp;action=edit&amp;section=20" title="Edit section:
General formulas">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h3>
<h4><span class="mw-headline" id="Areas_of_2-dimensional_figures">Areas of 2-
dimensional figures</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-
bracket">[</span><a href="/w/index.php?title=Area&amp;action=edit&amp;section=21"
title="Edit section: Areas of 2-dimensional figures">edit</a><span class="mw-
editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h4>
<div class="thumb tright"><div class="thumbinner" style="width:222px;"><a
href="/wiki/File:Triangle_GeometryArea.svg" class="image"><img alt=""
src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/e/ec/Triangle_GeometryArea.svg/
220px-Triangle_GeometryArea.svg.png" decoding="async" width="220" height="55"
class="thumbimage"
srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/e/ec/Triangle_GeometryArea.s
vg/330px-Triangle_GeometryArea.svg.png 1.5x,
//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/e/ec/Triangle_GeometryArea.svg/440px
-Triangle_GeometryArea.svg.png 2x" data-file-width="473" data-file-height="119"
/></a> <div class="thumbcaption"><div class="magnify"><a
href="/wiki/File:Triangle_GeometryArea.svg" class="internal"
title="Enlarge"></a></div>Triangle area <span class="mwe-math-element"><span
class="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-math-mathml-a11y" style="display: none;"><math
xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" alttext="{\displaystyle A={\tfrac
{b\cdot h}{2}}}">
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mi>A</mi>
<mo>=</mo>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="false" scriptlevel="0">
<mfrac>
<mrow>
<mi>b</mi>
<mo>&#x22C5;<!-- ⋅ --></mo>
<mi>h</mi>
</mrow>
<mn>2</mn>
</mfrac>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle A={\tfrac {b\cdot h}
{2}}}</annotation>
</semantics>
</math></span><img
src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/3d4d00ca1155c1418f0f6d
cef9bdc0c9e4bb6236" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline" aria-hidden="true"
style="vertical-align: -1.171ex; width:7.787ex; height:3.676ex;"
alt="{\displaystyle A={\tfrac {b\cdot h}{2}}}"/></span></div></div></div>
<ul><li>A <a href="/wiki/Triangle" title="Triangle">triangle</a>: <span class="mwe-
math-element"><span class="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-math-mathml-a11y"
style="display: none;"><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"
alttext="{\displaystyle {\tfrac {1}{2}}Bh}">
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="false" scriptlevel="0">
<mfrac>
<mn>1</mn>
<mn>2</mn>
</mfrac>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<mi>B</mi>
<mi>h</mi>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle {\tfrac {1}
{2}}Bh}</annotation>
</semantics>
</math></span><img
src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/f09dd787bfe06fe8b0eb87
d06b87f8d2c05b91ea" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline" aria-hidden="true"
style="vertical-align: -1.171ex; width:4.761ex; height:3.509ex;" alt="{\tfrac
12}Bh"/></span> (where <i>B</i> is any side, and <i>h</i> is the distance from the
line on which <i>B</i> lies to the other vertex of the triangle). This formula can
be used if the height <i>h</i> is known. If the lengths of the three sides are
known then <i><a href="/wiki/Heron%27s_formula" title="Heron&#39;s formula">Heron's
formula</a></i> can be used: <span class="mwe-math-element"><span class="mwe-math-
mathml-inline mwe-math-mathml-a11y" style="display: none;"><math
xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" alttext="{\displaystyle {\sqrt {s(s-a)
(s-b)(s-c)}}}">
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<msqrt>
<mi>s</mi>
<mo stretchy="false">(</mo>
<mi>s</mi>
<mo>&#x2212;<!-- − --></mo>
<mi>a</mi>
<mo stretchy="false">)</mo>
<mo stretchy="false">(</mo>
<mi>s</mi>
<mo>&#x2212;<!-- − --></mo>
<mi>b</mi>
<mo stretchy="false">)</mo>
<mo stretchy="false">(</mo>
<mi>s</mi>
<mo>&#x2212;<!-- − --></mo>
<mi>c</mi>
<mo stretchy="false">)</mo>
</msqrt>
</mrow>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle {\sqrt {s(s-a)(s-b)(s-
c)}}}</annotation>
</semantics>
</math></span><img
src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/fd7e3feb227eeda3c19b05
2c797ee19a01a6c467" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline" aria-hidden="true"
style="vertical-align: -1.838ex; width:23.869ex; height:4.843ex;" alt="{\sqrt
{s(s-a)(s-b)(s-c)}}"/></span> where <i>a</i>, <i>b</i>, <i>c</i> are the sides of
the triangle, and <span class="mwe-math-element"><span class="mwe-math-mathml-
inline mwe-math-mathml-a11y" style="display: none;"><math
xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" alttext="{\displaystyle s={\tfrac {1}
{2}}(a+b+c)}">
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mi>s</mi>
<mo>=</mo>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="false" scriptlevel="0">
<mfrac>
<mn>1</mn>
<mn>2</mn>
</mfrac>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<mo stretchy="false">(</mo>
<mi>a</mi>
<mo>+</mo>
<mi>b</mi>
<mo>+</mo>
<mi>c</mi>
<mo stretchy="false">)</mo>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle s={\tfrac {1}{2}}
(a+b+c)}</annotation>
</semantics>
</math></span><img
src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/ed2c4193212526a5058518
2f301e85e2f1cdfde8" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline" aria-hidden="true"
style="vertical-align: -1.171ex; width:16.571ex; height:3.509ex;" alt="s={\tfrac
12}(a+b+c)"/></span> is half of its perimeter.<sup id="cite_ref-AF_2-7"
class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-AF-2">&#91;2&#93;</a></sup> If an angle and
its two included sides are given, the area is <span class="mwe-math-element"><span
class="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-math-mathml-a11y" style="display: none;"><math
xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" alttext="{\displaystyle {\tfrac {1}
{2}}ab\sin(C)}">
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="false" scriptlevel="0">
<mfrac>
<mn>1</mn>
<mn>2</mn>
</mfrac>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<mi>a</mi>
<mi>b</mi>
<mi>sin</mi>
<mo>&#x2061;<!-- ⁡--></mo>
<mo stretchy="false">(</mo>
<mi>C</mi>
<mo stretchy="false">)</mo>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle {\tfrac {1}
{2}}ab\sin(C)}</annotation>
</semantics>
</math></span><img
src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/f3719986bc49ddbdd159b5
920e995f1c79f0b6c6" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline" aria-hidden="true"
style="vertical-align: -1.171ex; width:10.704ex; height:3.509ex;" alt="{\tfrac
12}ab\sin(C)"/></span> where <span class="texhtml"><i>C</i></span> is the given
angle and <span class="texhtml"><i>a</i></span> and <span
class="texhtml"><i>b</i></span> are its included sides.<sup id="cite_ref-AF_2-8"
class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-AF-2">&#91;2&#93;</a></sup> If the triangle
is graphed on a coordinate plane, a matrix can be used and is simplified to the
absolute value of <span class="mwe-math-element"><span class="mwe-math-mathml-
inline mwe-math-mathml-a11y" style="display: none;"><math
xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" alttext="{\displaystyle {\tfrac {1}{2}}
(x_{1}y_{2}+x_{2}y_{3}+x_{3}y_{1}-x_{2}y_{1}-x_{3}y_{2}-x_{1}y_{3})}">
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="false" scriptlevel="0">
<mfrac>
<mn>1</mn>
<mn>2</mn>
</mfrac>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<mo stretchy="false">(</mo>
<msub>
<mi>x</mi>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mn>1</mn>
</mrow>
</msub>
<msub>
<mi>y</mi>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mn>2</mn>
</mrow>
</msub>
<mo>+</mo>
<msub>
<mi>x</mi>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mn>2</mn>
</mrow>
</msub>
<msub>
<mi>y</mi>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mn>3</mn>
</mrow>
</msub>
<mo>+</mo>
<msub>
<mi>x</mi>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mn>3</mn>
</mrow>
</msub>
<msub>
<mi>y</mi>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mn>1</mn>
</mrow>
</msub>
<mo>&#x2212;<!-- − --></mo>
<msub>
<mi>x</mi>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mn>2</mn>
</mrow>
</msub>
<msub>
<mi>y</mi>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mn>1</mn>
</mrow>
</msub>
<mo>&#x2212;<!-- − --></mo>
<msub>
<mi>x</mi>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mn>3</mn>
</mrow>
</msub>
<msub>
<mi>y</mi>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mn>2</mn>
</mrow>
</msub>
<mo>&#x2212;<!-- − --></mo>
<msub>
<mi>x</mi>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mn>1</mn>
</mrow>
</msub>
<msub>
<mi>y</mi>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mn>3</mn>
</mrow>
</msub>
<mo stretchy="false">)</mo>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle {\tfrac {1}{2}}
(x_{1}y_{2}+x_{2}y_{3}+x_{3}y_{1}-x_{2}y_{1}-x_{3}y_{2}-x_{1}y_{3})}</annotation>
</semantics>
</math></span><img
src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/5bc87b3de461b79f0fc4f5
fde09a0cb00ced460e" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline" aria-hidden="true"
style="vertical-align: -1.171ex; width:45.134ex; height:3.509ex;" alt="{\tfrac 12}
(x_{1}y_{2}+x_{2}y_{3}+x_{3}y_{1}-x_{2}y_{1}-x_{3}y_{2}-x_{1}y_{3})"/></span>. This
formula is also known as the <a href="/wiki/Shoelace_formula" title="Shoelace
formula">shoelace formula</a> and is an easy way to solve for the area of a
coordinate triangle by substituting the 3 points
<i>(x<sub>1</sub>,y<sub>1</sub>)</i>, <i>(x<sub>2</sub>,y<sub>2</sub>)</i>, and
<i>(x<sub>3</sub>,y<sub>3</sub>)</i>. The shoelace formula can also be used to find
the areas of other polygons when their vertices are known. Another approach for a
coordinate triangle is to use <a href="/wiki/Calculus"
title="Calculus">calculus</a> to find the area.</li>
<li>A <a href="/wiki/Simple_polygon" title="Simple polygon">simple polygon</a>
constructed on a grid of equal-distanced points (i.e., points with <a
href="/wiki/Integer" title="Integer">integer</a> coordinates) such that all the
polygon's vertices are grid points: <span class="mwe-math-element"><span
class="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-math-mathml-a11y" style="display: none;"><math
xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" alttext="{\displaystyle i+{\frac {b}
{2}}-1}">
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mi>i</mi>
<mo>+</mo>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mfrac>
<mi>b</mi>
<mn>2</mn>
</mfrac>
</mrow>
<mo>&#x2212;<!-- − --></mo>
<mn>1</mn>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle i+{\frac {b}{2}}-
1}</annotation>
</semantics>
</math></span><img
src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/f6f6bf0fc9eaa8a4693b7d
acc2a9e1a420dcedc6" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline" aria-hidden="true"
style="vertical-align: -1.838ex; width:9.644ex; height:5.343ex;" alt="i+{\frac {b}
{2}}-1"/></span>, where <i>i</i> is the number of grid points inside the polygon
and <i>b</i> is the number of boundary points. This result is known as <a
href="/wiki/Pick%27s_theorem" title="Pick&#39;s theorem">Pick's theorem</a>.<sup
id="cite_ref-Pick_25-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Pick-
25">&#91;25&#93;</a></sup></li></ul>
<h4><span class="mw-headline" id="Area_in_calculus">Area in calculus</span><span
class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a
href="/w/index.php?title=Area&amp;action=edit&amp;section=22" title="Edit section:
Area in calculus">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h4>
<div class="thumb tright"><div class="thumbinner" style="width:222px;"><a
href="/wiki/File:Integral_as_region_under_curve.svg" class="image"><img alt="A
diagram showing the area between a given curve and the x-axis"
src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/f2/Integral_as_region_under_c
urve.svg/220px-Integral_as_region_under_curve.svg.png" decoding="async" width="220"
height="205" class="thumbimage"
srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/f2/Integral_as_region_unde
r_curve.svg/330px-Integral_as_region_under_curve.svg.png 1.5x,
//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/f2/Integral_as_region_under_curve.
svg/440px-Integral_as_region_under_curve.svg.png 2x" data-file-width="750" data-
file-height="700" /></a> <div class="thumbcaption"><div class="magnify"><a
href="/wiki/File:Integral_as_region_under_curve.svg" class="internal"
title="Enlarge"></a></div>Integration can be thought of as measuring the area under
a curve, defined by <i>f</i>(<i>x</i>), between two points (here <i>a</i> and
<i>b</i>).</div></div></div>
<div class="thumb tright"><div class="thumbinner" style="width:222px;"><a
href="/wiki/File:Areabetweentwographs.svg" class="image"><img alt="A diagram
showing the area between two functions"
src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/f9/Areabetweentwographs.svg/2
20px-Areabetweentwographs.svg.png" decoding="async" width="220" height="198"
class="thumbimage"
srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/f9/Areabetweentwographs.sv
g/330px-Areabetweentwographs.svg.png 1.5x,
//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/f9/Areabetweentwographs.svg/440px-
Areabetweentwographs.svg.png 2x" data-file-width="1000" data-file-height="900"
/></a> <div class="thumbcaption"><div class="magnify"><a
href="/wiki/File:Areabetweentwographs.svg" class="internal"
title="Enlarge"></a></div>The area between two graphs can be evaluated by
calculating the difference between the integrals of the two
functions</div></div></div>
<ul><li>The area between a positive-valued curve and the horizontal axis, measured
between two values <i>a</i> and <i>b</i> (b is defined as the larger of the two
values) on the horizontal axis, is given by the integral from <i>a</i> to <i>b</i>
of the function that represents the curve:<sup id="cite_ref-MathWorld_1-4"
class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-MathWorld-1">&#91;1&#93;</a></sup></li></ul>
<dl><dd><span class="mwe-math-element"><span class="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-
math-mathml-a11y" style="display: none;"><math
xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" alttext="{\displaystyle A=\int
_{a}^{b}f(x)\,dx.}">
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mi>A</mi>
<mo>=</mo>
<msubsup>
<mo>&#x222B;<!-- ∫ --></mo>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mi>a</mi>
</mrow>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mi>b</mi>
</mrow>
</msubsup>
<mi>f</mi>
<mo stretchy="false">(</mo>
<mi>x</mi>
<mo stretchy="false">)</mo>
<mspace width="thinmathspace" />
<mi>d</mi>
<mi>x</mi>
<mo>.</mo>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle A=\int
_{a}^{b}f(x)\,dx.}</annotation>
</semantics>
</math></span><img
src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/7c7fde7f01e5a0537613d1
4280b7811329b3c383" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline" aria-hidden="true"
style="vertical-align: -2.338ex; width:16.628ex; height:6.343ex;"
alt="{\displaystyle A=\int _{a}^{b}f(x)\,dx.}"/></span></dd></dl>
<ul><li>The area between the <a href="/wiki/Graph_of_a_function" title="Graph of a
function">graphs</a> of two functions is <a href="/wiki/Equality_(mathematics)"
title="Equality (mathematics)">equal</a> to the <a href="/wiki/Integral"
title="Integral">integral</a> of one <a href="/wiki/Function_(mathematics)"
title="Function (mathematics)">function</a>, <i>f</i>(<i>x</i>), <a
href="/wiki/Subtraction" title="Subtraction">minus</a> the integral of the other
function, <i>g</i>(<i>x</i>):</li></ul>
<dl><dd><span class="mwe-math-element"><span class="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-
math-mathml-a11y" style="display: none;"><math
xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" alttext="{\displaystyle A=\int _{a}^{b}
(f(x)-g(x))\,dx,}">
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mi>A</mi>
<mo>=</mo>
<msubsup>
<mo>&#x222B;<!-- ∫ --></mo>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mi>a</mi>
</mrow>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mi>b</mi>
</mrow>
</msubsup>
<mo stretchy="false">(</mo>
<mi>f</mi>
<mo stretchy="false">(</mo>
<mi>x</mi>
<mo stretchy="false">)</mo>
<mo>&#x2212;<!-- − --></mo>
<mi>g</mi>
<mo stretchy="false">(</mo>
<mi>x</mi>
<mo stretchy="false">)</mo>
<mo stretchy="false">)</mo>
<mspace width="thinmathspace" />
<mi>d</mi>
<mi>x</mi>
<mo>,</mo>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle A=\int _{a}^{b}(f(x)-
g(x))\,dx,}</annotation>
</semantics>
</math></span><img
src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/f7ba0f682fd365a15c175a
3e2752970178d09edb" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline" aria-hidden="true"
style="vertical-align: -2.338ex; width:25.145ex; height:6.343ex;"
alt="{\displaystyle A=\int _{a}^{b}(f(x)-g(x))\,dx,}"/></span> where <span
class="mwe-math-element"><span class="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-math-mathml-a11y"
style="display: none;"><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"
alttext="{\displaystyle f(x)}">
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mi>f</mi>
<mo stretchy="false">(</mo>
<mi>x</mi>
<mo stretchy="false">)</mo>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle f(x)}</annotation>
</semantics>
</math></span><img
src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/202945cce41ecebb6f643f
31d119c514bec7a074" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline" aria-hidden="true"
style="vertical-align: -0.838ex; width:4.418ex; height:2.843ex;"
alt="f(x)"/></span> is the curve with the greater y-value.</dd></dl>
<ul><li>An area bounded by a function <i>r</i> = <i>r</i>(θ) expressed in <a
href="/wiki/Polar_coordinates" class="mw-redirect" title="Polar coordinates">polar
coordinates</a> is:<sup id="cite_ref-MathWorld_1-5" class="reference"><a
href="#cite_note-MathWorld-1">&#91;1&#93;</a></sup></li></ul>
<dl><dd><span class="mwe-math-element"><span class="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-
math-mathml-a11y" style="display: none;"><math
xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" alttext="{\displaystyle A={1 \over
2}\int r^{2}\,d\theta .}">
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mi>A</mi>
<mo>=</mo>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mfrac>
<mn>1</mn>
<mn>2</mn>
</mfrac>
</mrow>
<mo>&#x222B;<!-- ∫ --></mo>
<msup>
<mi>r</mi>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mn>2</mn>
</mrow>
</msup>
<mspace width="thinmathspace" />
<mi>d</mi>
<mi>&#x03B8;<!-- θ --></mi>
<mo>.</mo>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle A={1 \over 2}\int
r^{2}\,d\theta .}</annotation>
</semantics>
</math></span><img
src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/e9ceec9961f3bfb4a2e5ed
fe77b4465adff35c37" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline" aria-hidden="true"
style="vertical-align: -2.338ex; width:15.251ex; height:5.676ex;"
alt="{\displaystyle A={1 \over 2}\int r^{2}\,d\theta .}"/></span></dd></dl>
<ul><li>The area enclosed by a <a href="/wiki/Parametric_curve" class="mw-redirect"
title="Parametric curve">parametric curve</a> <span class="mwe-math-element"><span
class="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-math-mathml-a11y" style="display: none;"><math
xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" alttext="{\displaystyle {\vec {u}}
(t)=(x(t),y(t))}">
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mover>
<mi>u</mi>
<mo stretchy="false">&#x2192;<!-- → --></mo>
</mover>
</mrow>
</mrow>
<mo stretchy="false">(</mo>
<mi>t</mi>
<mo stretchy="false">)</mo>
<mo>=</mo>
<mo stretchy="false">(</mo>
<mi>x</mi>
<mo stretchy="false">(</mo>
<mi>t</mi>
<mo stretchy="false">)</mo>
<mo>,</mo>
<mi>y</mi>
<mo stretchy="false">(</mo>
<mi>t</mi>
<mo stretchy="false">)</mo>
<mo stretchy="false">)</mo>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle {\vec {u}}
(t)=(x(t),y(t))}</annotation>
</semantics>
</math></span><img
src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/60fca3145cbdd2d5c7ecfe
fa8e07a8041e39c449" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline" aria-hidden="true"
style="vertical-align: -0.838ex; width:17.703ex; height:2.843ex;" alt="{\vec u}
(t)=(x(t),y(t))"/></span> with endpoints <span class="mwe-math-element"><span
class="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-math-mathml-a11y" style="display: none;"><math
xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" alttext="{\displaystyle {\vec {u}}
(t_{0})={\vec {u}}(t_{1})}">
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mover>
<mi>u</mi>
<mo stretchy="false">&#x2192;<!-- → --></mo>
</mover>
</mrow>
</mrow>
<mo stretchy="false">(</mo>
<msub>
<mi>t</mi>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mn>0</mn>
</mrow>
</msub>
<mo stretchy="false">)</mo>
<mo>=</mo>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mover>
<mi>u</mi>
<mo stretchy="false">&#x2192;<!-- → --></mo>
</mover>
</mrow>
</mrow>
<mo stretchy="false">(</mo>
<msub>
<mi>t</mi>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mn>1</mn>
</mrow>
</msub>
<mo stretchy="false">)</mo>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle {\vec {u}}(t_{0})={\vec
{u}}(t_{1})}</annotation>
</semantics>
</math></span><img
src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/eb8b51a1236ada19d3e70d
976b6d617158edfadb" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline" aria-hidden="true"
style="vertical-align: -0.838ex; width:13.164ex; height:2.843ex;" alt="{\vec u}
(t_{0})={\vec u}(t_{1})"/></span> is given by the <a href="/wiki/Line_integral"
title="Line integral">line integrals</a>:</li></ul>
<dl><dd><dl><dd><span class="mwe-math-element"><span class="mwe-math-mathml-inline
mwe-math-mathml-a11y" style="display: none;"><math
xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" alttext="{\displaystyle \oint
_{t_{0}}^{t_{1}}x{\dot {y}}\,dt=-\oint _{t_{0}}^{t_{1}}y{\dot {x}}\,dt={1 \over
2}\oint _{t_{0}}^{t_{1}}(x{\dot {y}}-y{\dot {x}})\,dt}">
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<msubsup>
<mo>&#x222E;<!-- ∮ --></mo>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<msub>
<mi>t</mi>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mn>0</mn>
</mrow>
</msub>
</mrow>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<msub>
<mi>t</mi>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mn>1</mn>
</mrow>
</msub>
</mrow>
</msubsup>
<mi>x</mi>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mover>
<mi>y</mi>
<mo>&#x02D9;<!-- ˙ --></mo>
</mover>
</mrow>
</mrow>
<mspace width="thinmathspace" />
<mi>d</mi>
<mi>t</mi>
<mo>=</mo>
<mo>&#x2212;<!-- − --></mo>
<msubsup>
<mo>&#x222E;<!-- ∮ --></mo>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<msub>
<mi>t</mi>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mn>0</mn>
</mrow>
</msub>
</mrow>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<msub>
<mi>t</mi>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mn>1</mn>
</mrow>
</msub>
</mrow>
</msubsup>
<mi>y</mi>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mover>
<mi>x</mi>
<mo>&#x02D9;<!-- ˙ --></mo>
</mover>
</mrow>
</mrow>
<mspace width="thinmathspace" />
<mi>d</mi>
<mi>t</mi>
<mo>=</mo>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mfrac>
<mn>1</mn>
<mn>2</mn>
</mfrac>
</mrow>
<msubsup>
<mo>&#x222E;<!-- ∮ --></mo>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<msub>
<mi>t</mi>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mn>0</mn>
</mrow>
</msub>
</mrow>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<msub>
<mi>t</mi>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mn>1</mn>
</mrow>
</msub>
</mrow>
</msubsup>
<mo stretchy="false">(</mo>
<mi>x</mi>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mover>
<mi>y</mi>
<mo>&#x02D9;<!-- ˙ --></mo>
</mover>
</mrow>
</mrow>
<mo>&#x2212;<!-- − --></mo>
<mi>y</mi>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mover>
<mi>x</mi>
<mo>&#x02D9;<!-- ˙ --></mo>
</mover>
</mrow>
</mrow>
<mo stretchy="false">)</mo>
<mspace width="thinmathspace" />
<mi>d</mi>
<mi>t</mi>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle \oint
_{t_{0}}^{t_{1}}x{\dot {y}}\,dt=-\oint _{t_{0}}^{t_{1}}y{\dot {x}}\,dt={1 \over
2}\oint _{t_{0}}^{t_{1}}(x{\dot {y}}-y{\dot {x}})\,dt}</annotation>
</semantics>
</math></span><img
src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/940fad5094a1ce067667a1
5559feac98c0f02d5a" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline" aria-hidden="true"
style="vertical-align: -2.671ex; width:46.129ex; height:6.509ex;" alt="\oint
_{{t_{0}}}^{{t_{1}}}x{\dot y}\,dt=-\oint _{{t_{0}}}^{{t_{1}}}y{\dot x}\,dt={1
\over 2}\oint _{{t_{0}}}^{{t_{1}}}(x{\dot y}-y{\dot
x})\,dt"/></span></dd></dl></dd></dl>
<p>(see <a href="/wiki/Green%27s_theorem" title="Green&#39;s theorem">Green's
theorem</a>) or the <i>z</i>-component of
</p>
<dl><dd><span class="mwe-math-element"><span class="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-
math-mathml-a11y" style="display: none;"><math
xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" alttext="{\displaystyle {1 \over
2}\oint _{t_{0}}^{t_{1}}{\vec {u}}\times {\dot {\vec {u}}}\,dt.}">
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mfrac>
<mn>1</mn>
<mn>2</mn>
</mfrac>
</mrow>
<msubsup>
<mo>&#x222E;<!-- ∮ --></mo>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<msub>
<mi>t</mi>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mn>0</mn>
</mrow>
</msub>
</mrow>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<msub>
<mi>t</mi>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mn>1</mn>
</mrow>
</msub>
</mrow>
</msubsup>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mover>
<mi>u</mi>
<mo stretchy="false">&#x2192;<!-- → --></mo>
</mover>
</mrow>
</mrow>
<mo>&#x00D7;<!-- × --></mo>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mover>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mover>
<mi>u</mi>
<mo stretchy="false">&#x2192;<!-- → --></mo>
</mover>
</mrow>
<mo>&#x02D9;<!-- ˙ --></mo>
</mover>
</mrow>
</mrow>
<mspace width="thinmathspace" />
<mi>d</mi>
<mi>t</mi>
<mo>.</mo>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle {1 \over 2}\oint
_{t_{0}}^{t_{1}}{\vec {u}}\times {\dot {\vec {u}}}\,dt.}</annotation>
</semantics>
</math></span><img
src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/ce6bf91b1745a4a27fe07a
8b76f66324fb212233" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline" aria-hidden="true"
style="vertical-align: -2.671ex; width:15.484ex; height:6.509ex;" alt="{1 \over
2}\oint _{{t_{0}}}^{{t_{1}}}{\vec u}\times {\dot {{\vec
u}}}\,dt."/></span></dd></dl>
<h4><span class="mw-headline"
id="Bounded_area_between_two_quadratic_functions">Bounded area between two
quadratic functions</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-
bracket">[</span><a href="/w/index.php?title=Area&amp;action=edit&amp;section=23"
title="Edit section: Bounded area between two quadratic functions">edit</a><span
class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h4>
<p>To find the bounded area between two <a href="/wiki/Quadratic_function"
title="Quadratic function">quadratic functions</a>, we subtract one from the other
to write the difference as
</p>
<dl><dd><span class="mwe-math-element"><span class="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-
math-mathml-a11y" style="display: none;"><math
xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" alttext="{\displaystyle f(x)-
g(x)=ax^{2}+bx+c=a(x-\alpha )(x-\beta )}">
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mi>f</mi>
<mo stretchy="false">(</mo>
<mi>x</mi>
<mo stretchy="false">)</mo>
<mo>&#x2212;<!-- − --></mo>
<mi>g</mi>
<mo stretchy="false">(</mo>
<mi>x</mi>
<mo stretchy="false">)</mo>
<mo>=</mo>
<mi>a</mi>
<msup>
<mi>x</mi>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mn>2</mn>
</mrow>
</msup>
<mo>+</mo>
<mi>b</mi>
<mi>x</mi>
<mo>+</mo>
<mi>c</mi>
<mo>=</mo>
<mi>a</mi>
<mo stretchy="false">(</mo>
<mi>x</mi>
<mo>&#x2212;<!-- − --></mo>
<mi>&#x03B1;<!-- α --></mi>
<mo stretchy="false">)</mo>
<mo stretchy="false">(</mo>
<mi>x</mi>
<mo>&#x2212;<!-- − --></mo>
<mi>&#x03B2;<!-- β --></mi>
<mo stretchy="false">)</mo>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle f(x)-
g(x)=ax^{2}+bx+c=a(x-\alpha )(x-\beta )}</annotation>
</semantics>
</math></span><img
src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/0db282d248f9398e0a6fbe
c8fe342148ba41a4a6" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline" aria-hidden="true"
style="vertical-align: -0.838ex; width:46.347ex; height:3.176ex;"
alt="{\displaystyle f(x)-g(x)=ax^{2}+bx+c=a(x-\alpha )
(x-\beta )}"/></span></dd></dl>
<p>where <i>f</i>(<i>x</i>) is the quadratic upper bound and <i>g</i>(<i>x</i>) is
the quadratic lower bound. Define the <a href="/wiki/Discriminant"
title="Discriminant">discriminant</a> of <i>f</i>(<i>x</i>)-<i>g</i>(<i>x</i>) as
</p>
<dl><dd><span class="mwe-math-element"><span class="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-
math-mathml-a11y" style="display: none;"><math
xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" alttext="{\displaystyle \Delta =b^{2}-
4ac.}">
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mi mathvariant="normal">&#x0394;<!-- Δ --></mi>
<mo>=</mo>
<msup>
<mi>b</mi>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mn>2</mn>
</mrow>
</msup>
<mo>&#x2212;<!-- − --></mo>
<mn>4</mn>
<mi>a</mi>
<mi>c</mi>
<mo>.</mo>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle \Delta =b^{2}-
4ac.}</annotation>
</semantics>
</math></span><img
src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/1edcf6fef18bec26bcc798
8626af5fa4cea3b0f8" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline" aria-hidden="true"
style="vertical-align: -0.505ex; width:13.972ex; height:2.843ex;" alt="\Delta
=b^{2}-4ac."/></span></dd></dl>
<p>By simplifying the integral formula between the graphs of two functions (as
given in the section above) and using <a href="/wiki/Vieta%27s_formulas"
title="Vieta&#39;s formulas">Vieta's formula</a>, we can obtain<sup id="cite_ref-
26" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-26">&#91;26&#93;</a></sup><sup
id="cite_ref-27" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-27">&#91;27&#93;</a></sup>
</p>
<dl><dd><span class="mwe-math-element"><span class="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-
math-mathml-a11y" style="display: none;"><math
xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" alttext="{\displaystyle A={\frac
{\Delta {\sqrt {\Delta }}}{6a^{2}}}={\frac {a}{6}}(\beta -\alpha )^{3},\qquad a\neq
0.}">
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mi>A</mi>
<mo>=</mo>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mfrac>
<mrow>
<mi mathvariant="normal">&#x0394;<!-- Δ --></mi>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<msqrt>
<mi mathvariant="normal">&#x0394;<!-- Δ --></mi>
</msqrt>
</mrow>
</mrow>
<mrow>
<mn>6</mn>
<msup>
<mi>a</mi>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mn>2</mn>
</mrow>
</msup>
</mrow>
</mfrac>
</mrow>
<mo>=</mo>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mfrac>
<mi>a</mi>
<mn>6</mn>
</mfrac>
</mrow>
<mo stretchy="false">(</mo>
<mi>&#x03B2;<!-- β --></mi>
<mo>&#x2212;<!-- − --></mo>
<mi>&#x03B1;<!-- α --></mi>
<msup>
<mo stretchy="false">)</mo>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mn>3</mn>
</mrow>
</msup>
<mo>,</mo>
<mspace width="2em" />
<mi>a</mi>
<mo>&#x2260;<!-- ≠ --></mo>
<mn>0.</mn>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle A={\frac {\Delta {\sqrt
{\Delta }}}{6a^{2}}}={\frac {a}{6}}(\beta -\alpha )^{3},\qquad a\neq
0.}</annotation>
</semantics>
</math></span><img
src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/62dd13d3748046208ecf48
8d908e9976dd5204fa" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline" aria-hidden="true"
style="vertical-align: -2.171ex; width:36.99ex; height:6.176ex;"
alt="{\displaystyle A={\frac {\Delta {\sqrt {\Delta }}}{6a^{2}}}={\frac {a}{6}}
(\beta -\alpha )^{3},\qquad a\neq 0.}"/></span></dd></dl>
<p>The above remains valid if one of the bounding functions is linear instead of
quadratic.
</p>
<h4><span class="mw-headline" id="Surface_area_of_3-dimensional_figures">Surface
area of 3-dimensional figures</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-
editsection-bracket">[</span><a href="/w/index.php?
title=Area&amp;action=edit&amp;section=24" title="Edit section: Surface area of 3-
dimensional figures">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-
bracket">]</span></span></h4>
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Cone" title="Cone">Cone</a>:<sup id="cite_ref-
MathWorldCone_28-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-MathWorldCone-
28">&#91;28&#93;</a></sup> <span class="mwe-math-element"><span class="mwe-math-
mathml-inline mwe-math-mathml-a11y" style="display: none;"><math
xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" alttext="{\displaystyle \pi r\left(r+
{\sqrt {r^{2}+h^{2}}}\right)}">
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mi>&#x03C0;<!-- π --></mi>
<mi>r</mi>
<mrow>
<mo>(</mo>
<mrow>
<mi>r</mi>
<mo>+</mo>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<msqrt>
<msup>
<mi>r</mi>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mn>2</mn>
</mrow>
</msup>
<mo>+</mo>
<msup>
<mi>h</mi>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mn>2</mn>
</mrow>
</msup>
</msqrt>
</mrow>
</mrow>
<mo>)</mo>
</mrow>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle \pi r\left(r+{\sqrt
{r^{2}+h^{2}}}\right)}</annotation>
</semantics>
</math></span><img
src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/41aca8f13a1e2996128c0a
e640d7261682edf793" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline" aria-hidden="true"
style="vertical-align: -1.838ex; width:19.093ex; height:4.843ex;" alt="\pi
r\left(r+{\sqrt {r^{2}+h^{2}}}\right)"/></span>, where <i>r</i> is the radius of
the circular base, and <i>h</i> is the height. That can also be rewritten as <span
class="mwe-math-element"><span class="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-math-mathml-a11y"
style="display: none;"><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"
alttext="{\displaystyle \pi r^{2}+\pi rl}">
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mi>&#x03C0;<!-- π --></mi>
<msup>
<mi>r</mi>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mn>2</mn>
</mrow>
</msup>
<mo>+</mo>
<mi>&#x03C0;<!-- π --></mi>
<mi>r</mi>
<mi>l</mi>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle \pi r^{2}+\pi
rl}</annotation>
</semantics>
</math></span><img
src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/9939e45942874b1579592e
41aacbe316226bad99" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline" aria-hidden="true"
style="vertical-align: -0.505ex; width:9.349ex; height:2.843ex;" alt="\pi r^{2}+\pi
rl"/></span><sup id="cite_ref-MathWorldCone_28-1" class="reference"><a
href="#cite_note-MathWorldCone-28">&#91;28&#93;</a></sup> or <span class="mwe-math-
element"><span class="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-math-mathml-a11y" style="display:
none;"><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" alttext="{\displaystyle
\pi r(r+l)\,\!}">
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mi>&#x03C0;<!-- π --></mi>
<mi>r</mi>
<mo stretchy="false">(</mo>
<mi>r</mi>
<mo>+</mo>
<mi>l</mi>
<mo stretchy="false">)</mo>
<mspace width="thinmathspace" />
<mspace width="negativethinmathspace" />
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle \pi
r(r+l)\,\!}</annotation>
</semantics>
</math></span><img
src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/0eda1165be2830dc4647cd
6d3ce53b7aa6d345ab" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline" aria-hidden="true"
style="vertical-align: -0.838ex; margin-right: -0.387ex; width:9.159ex;
height:2.843ex;" alt="\pi r(r+l)\,\!"/></span> where <i>r</i> is the radius and
<i>l</i> is the slant height of the cone. <span class="mwe-math-element"><span
class="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-math-mathml-a11y" style="display: none;"><math
xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" alttext="{\displaystyle \pi r^{2}}">
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mi>&#x03C0;<!-- π --></mi>
<msup>
<mi>r</mi>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mn>2</mn>
</mrow>
</msup>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle \pi r^{2}}</annotation>
</semantics>
</math></span><img
src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/cd37db3982ad4e1157dcf8
ddbfb280e7bae3b192" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline" aria-hidden="true"
style="vertical-align: -0.338ex; width:3.435ex; height:2.676ex;" alt="\pi
r^{2}"/></span> is the base area while <span class="mwe-math-element"><span
class="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-math-mathml-a11y" style="display: none;"><math
xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" alttext="{\displaystyle \pi rl}">
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mi>&#x03C0;<!-- π --></mi>
<mi>r</mi>
<mi>l</mi>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle \pi rl}</annotation>
</semantics>
</math></span><img
src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/150bc25be0060c8e640e92
4e29242b9a1a8af64c" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline" aria-hidden="true"
style="vertical-align: -0.338ex; width:3.074ex; height:2.176ex;" alt="\pi
rl"/></span> is the lateral surface area of the cone.<sup id="cite_ref-
MathWorldCone_28-2" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-MathWorldCone-
28">&#91;28&#93;</a></sup></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Cube" title="Cube">cube</a>: <span class="mwe-math-
element"><span class="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-math-mathml-a11y" style="display:
none;"><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" alttext="{\displaystyle
6s^{2}}">
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mn>6</mn>
<msup>
<mi>s</mi>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mn>2</mn>
</mrow>
</msup>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle 6s^{2}}</annotation>
</semantics>
</math></span><img
src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/14c8686e0f2659ed3e4278
83b9863e411b8832d0" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline" aria-hidden="true"
style="vertical-align: -0.338ex; width:3.307ex; height:2.676ex;"
alt="6s^2"/></span>, where <i>s</i> is the length of an edge.<sup id="cite_ref-
MathWorldSurfaceArea_6-2" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-
MathWorldSurfaceArea-6">&#91;6&#93;</a></sup></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Cylinder" title="Cylinder">cylinder</a>: <span class="mwe-math-
element"><span class="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-math-mathml-a11y" style="display:
none;"><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" alttext="{\displaystyle
2\pi r(r+h)}">
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mn>2</mn>
<mi>&#x03C0;<!-- π --></mi>
<mi>r</mi>
<mo stretchy="false">(</mo>
<mi>r</mi>
<mo>+</mo>
<mi>h</mi>
<mo stretchy="false">)</mo>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle 2\pi
r(r+h)}</annotation>
</semantics>
</math></span><img
src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/540fd341370c845484ed38
751872e27df0219682" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline" aria-hidden="true"
style="vertical-align: -0.838ex; width:10.58ex; height:2.843ex;" alt="2\pi
r(r+h)"/></span>, where <i>r</i> is the radius of a base and <i>h</i> is the
height. The <i>2<span class="mwe-math-element"><span class="mwe-math-mathml-inline
mwe-math-mathml-a11y" style="display: none;"><math
xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" alttext="{\displaystyle \pi }">
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mi>&#x03C0;<!-- π --></mi>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle \pi }</annotation>
</semantics>
</math></span><img
src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/9be4ba0bb8df3af72e90a0
535fabcc17431e540a" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline" aria-hidden="true"
style="vertical-align: -0.338ex; width:1.332ex; height:1.676ex;" alt="\pi
"/></span>r</i> can also be rewritten as <i><span class="mwe-math-element"><span
class="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-math-mathml-a11y" style="display: none;"><math
xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" alttext="{\displaystyle \pi }">
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mi>&#x03C0;<!-- π --></mi>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle \pi }</annotation>
</semantics>
</math></span><img
src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/9be4ba0bb8df3af72e90a0
535fabcc17431e540a" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline" aria-hidden="true"
style="vertical-align: -0.338ex; width:1.332ex; height:1.676ex;" alt="\pi
"/></span> d</i>, where <i>d</i> is the diameter.</li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Prism_(geometry)" title="Prism (geometry)">prism</a>: 2B + Ph,
where <i>B</i> is the area of a base, <i>P</i> is the perimeter of a base, and
<i>h</i> is the height of the prism.</li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Pyramid_(geometry)" title="Pyramid (geometry)">pyramid</a>:
<span class="mwe-math-element"><span class="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-math-mathml-
a11y" style="display: none;"><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"
alttext="{\displaystyle B+{\frac {PL}{2}}}">
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mi>B</mi>
<mo>+</mo>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mfrac>
<mrow>
<mi>P</mi>
<mi>L</mi>
</mrow>
<mn>2</mn>
</mfrac>
</mrow>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle B+{\frac {PL}
{2}}}</annotation>
</semantics>
</math></span><img
src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/f3d5cac9cbaea2d315ce42
caf71d241056c043b1" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline" aria-hidden="true"
style="vertical-align: -1.838ex; width:8.769ex; height:5.176ex;" alt="B + \frac{PL}
{2}"/></span>, where <i>B</i> is the area of the base, <i>P</i> is the perimeter of
the base, and <i>L</i> is the length of the slant.</li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Rectangular_prism" class="mw-redirect" title="Rectangular
prism">rectangular prism</a>: <span class="mwe-math-element"><span class="mwe-math-
mathml-inline mwe-math-mathml-a11y" style="display: none;"><math
xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" alttext="{\displaystyle 2(\ell w+\ell
h+wh)}">
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mn>2</mn>
<mo stretchy="false">(</mo>
<mi>&#x2113;<!-- ℓ --></mi>
<mi>w</mi>
<mo>+</mo>
<mi>&#x2113;<!-- ℓ --></mi>
<mi>h</mi>
<mo>+</mo>
<mi>w</mi>
<mi>h</mi>
<mo stretchy="false">)</mo>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle 2(\ell w+\ell
h+wh)}</annotation>
</semantics>
</math></span><img
src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/d7db04a449659be887d57e
8c8d175a0bc6f720e2" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline" aria-hidden="true"
style="vertical-align: -0.838ex; width:16.598ex; height:2.843ex;" alt="2(\ell
w+\ell h+wh)"/></span>, where <span class="mwe-math-element"><span class="mwe-math-
mathml-inline mwe-math-mathml-a11y" style="display: none;"><math
xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" alttext="{\displaystyle \ell }">
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mi>&#x2113;<!-- ℓ --></mi>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle \ell }</annotation>
</semantics>
</math></span><img
src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/f066e981e530bacc07efc6
a10fa82deee985929e" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline" aria-hidden="true"
style="vertical-align: -0.338ex; width:0.97ex; height:2.176ex;" alt="\ell
"/></span> is the length, <i>w</i> is the width, and <i>h</i> is the
height.</li></ul>
<h4><span class="mw-headline" id="General_formula_for_surface_area">General formula
for surface area</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-
bracket">[</span><a href="/w/index.php?title=Area&amp;action=edit&amp;section=25"
title="Edit section: General formula for surface area">edit</a><span class="mw-
editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h4>
<p>The general formula for the surface area of the graph of a continuously
differentiable function <span class="mwe-math-element"><span class="mwe-math-
mathml-inline mwe-math-mathml-a11y" style="display: none;"><math
xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" alttext="{\displaystyle z=f(x,y),}">
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mi>z</mi>
<mo>=</mo>
<mi>f</mi>
<mo stretchy="false">(</mo>
<mi>x</mi>
<mo>,</mo>
<mi>y</mi>
<mo stretchy="false">)</mo>
<mo>,</mo>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle z=f(x,y),}</annotation>
</semantics>
</math></span><img
src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/1269bfd7a8dbf5a109363c
e2a7992efdf8e406a9" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline" aria-hidden="true"
style="vertical-align: -0.838ex; width:11.44ex; height:2.843ex;"
alt="z=f(x,y),"/></span> where <span class="mwe-math-element"><span class="mwe-
math-mathml-inline mwe-math-mathml-a11y" style="display: none;"><math
xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" alttext="{\displaystyle (x,y)\in
D\subset \mathbb {R} ^{2}}">
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mo stretchy="false">(</mo>
<mi>x</mi>
<mo>,</mo>
<mi>y</mi>
<mo stretchy="false">)</mo>
<mo>&#x2208;<!-- ∈ --></mo>
<mi>D</mi>
<mo>&#x2282;<!-- ⊂ --></mo>
<msup>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mi mathvariant="double-struck">R</mi>
</mrow>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mn>2</mn>
</mrow>
</msup>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle (x,y)\in D\subset
\mathbb {R} ^{2}}</annotation>
</semantics>
</math></span><img
src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/889ab97d6b3f931120e277
a925164d57cda96072" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline" aria-hidden="true"
style="vertical-align: -0.838ex; width:15.924ex; height:3.176ex;" alt="(x,y)\in
D\subset {\mathbb {R}}^{2}"/></span> and <span class="mwe-math-element"><span
class="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-math-mathml-a11y" style="display: none;"><math
xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" alttext="{\displaystyle D}">
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mi>D</mi>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle D}</annotation>
</semantics>
</math></span><img
src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/f34a0c600395e5d4345287
e21fb26efd386990e6" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline" aria-hidden="true"
style="vertical-align: -0.338ex; width:1.924ex; height:2.176ex;" alt="D"/></span>
is a region in the xy-plane with the smooth boundary:
</p>
<dl><dd><span class="mwe-math-element"><span class="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-
math-mathml-a11y" style="display: none;"><math
xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" alttext="{\displaystyle A=\iint _{D}
{\sqrt {\left({\frac {\partial f}{\partial x}}\right)^{2}+\left({\frac {\partial f}
{\partial y}}\right)^{2}+1}}\,dx\,dy.}">
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mi>A</mi>
<mo>=</mo>
<msub>
<mo>&#x222C;<!-- ∬ --></mo>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mi>D</mi>
</mrow>
</msub>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<msqrt>
<msup>
<mrow>
<mo>(</mo>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mfrac>
<mrow>
<mi mathvariant="normal">&#x2202;<!-- ∂ --></mi>
<mi>f</mi>
</mrow>
<mrow>
<mi mathvariant="normal">&#x2202;<!-- ∂ --></mi>
<mi>x</mi>
</mrow>
</mfrac>
</mrow>
<mo>)</mo>
</mrow>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mn>2</mn>
</mrow>
</msup>
<mo>+</mo>
<msup>
<mrow>
<mo>(</mo>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mfrac>
<mrow>
<mi mathvariant="normal">&#x2202;<!-- ∂ --></mi>
<mi>f</mi>
</mrow>
<mrow>
<mi mathvariant="normal">&#x2202;<!-- ∂ --></mi>
<mi>y</mi>
</mrow>
</mfrac>
</mrow>
<mo>)</mo>
</mrow>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mn>2</mn>
</mrow>
</msup>
<mo>+</mo>
<mn>1</mn>
</msqrt>
</mrow>
<mspace width="thinmathspace" />
<mi>d</mi>
<mi>x</mi>
<mspace width="thinmathspace" />
<mi>d</mi>
<mi>y</mi>
<mo>.</mo>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle A=\iint _{D}{\sqrt
{\left({\frac {\partial f}{\partial x}}\right)^{2}+\left({\frac {\partial f}
{\partial y}}\right)^{2}+1}}\,dx\,dy.}</annotation>
</semantics>
</math></span><img
src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/8c1ccc930568eb5c289a5a
2e6a29c774b6138e28" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline" aria-hidden="true"
style="vertical-align: -3.005ex; width:40.713ex; height:7.676ex;" alt="A=\iint _{D}
{\sqrt {\left({\frac {\partial f}{\partial x}}\right)^{2}+\left({\frac {\partial
f}{\partial y}}\right)^{2}+1}}\,dx\,dy."/></span></dd></dl>
<p>An even more general formula for the area of the graph of a <a
href="/wiki/Parametric_surface" title="Parametric surface">parametric surface</a>
in the vector form <span class="mwe-math-element"><span class="mwe-math-mathml-
inline mwe-math-mathml-a11y" style="display: none;"><math
xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" alttext="{\displaystyle \mathbf {r}
=\mathbf {r} (u,v),}">
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mi mathvariant="bold">r</mi>
</mrow>
<mo>=</mo>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mi mathvariant="bold">r</mi>
</mrow>
<mo stretchy="false">(</mo>
<mi>u</mi>
<mo>,</mo>
<mi>v</mi>
<mo stretchy="false">)</mo>
<mo>,</mo>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle \mathbf {r} =\mathbf
{r} (u,v),}</annotation>
</semantics>
</math></span><img
src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/6aeec617173611dac8fc72
db0dff05aa533de232" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline" aria-hidden="true"
style="vertical-align: -0.838ex; width:11.25ex; height:2.843ex;" alt="{\mathbf
{r}}={\mathbf {r}}(u,v),"/></span> where <span class="mwe-math-element"><span
class="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-math-mathml-a11y" style="display: none;"><math
xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" alttext="{\displaystyle \mathbf {r} }">
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mi mathvariant="bold">r</mi>
</mrow>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle \mathbf {r} }
</annotation>
</semantics>
</math></span><img
src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/eca0f46511c4c986c48b25
4073732c0bd98ae0c1" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline" aria-hidden="true"
style="vertical-align: -0.338ex; width:1.102ex; height:1.676ex;" alt="\mathbf {r}
"/></span> is a continuously differentiable vector function of <span class="mwe-
math-element"><span class="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-math-mathml-a11y"
style="display: none;"><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"
alttext="{\displaystyle (u,v)\in D\subset \mathbb {R} ^{2}}">
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mo stretchy="false">(</mo>
<mi>u</mi>
<mo>,</mo>
<mi>v</mi>
<mo stretchy="false">)</mo>
<mo>&#x2208;<!-- ∈ --></mo>
<mi>D</mi>
<mo>&#x2282;<!-- ⊂ --></mo>
<msup>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mi mathvariant="double-struck">R</mi>
</mrow>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mn>2</mn>
</mrow>
</msup>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle (u,v)\in D\subset
\mathbb {R} ^{2}}</annotation>
</semantics>
</math></span><img
src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/840754272f6c3d17618fe2
a2ca80697700dc9adc" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline" aria-hidden="true"
style="vertical-align: -0.838ex; width:15.896ex; height:3.176ex;" alt="(u,v)\in
D\subset {\mathbb {R}}^{2}"/></span> is:<sup id="cite_ref-doCarmo_8-1"
class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-doCarmo-8">&#91;8&#93;</a></sup>
</p>
<dl><dd><span class="mwe-math-element"><span class="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-
math-mathml-a11y" style="display: none;"><math
xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" alttext="{\displaystyle A=\iint
_{D}\left|{\frac {\partial \mathbf {r} }{\partial u}}\times {\frac {\partial
\mathbf {r} }{\partial v}}\right|\,du\,dv.}">
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mi>A</mi>
<mo>=</mo>
<msub>
<mo>&#x222C;<!-- ∬ --></mo>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mi>D</mi>
</mrow>
</msub>
<mrow>
<mo>|</mo>
<mrow>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mfrac>
<mrow>
<mi mathvariant="normal">&#x2202;<!-- ∂ --></mi>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mi mathvariant="bold">r</mi>
</mrow>
</mrow>
<mrow>
<mi mathvariant="normal">&#x2202;<!-- ∂ --></mi>
<mi>u</mi>
</mrow>
</mfrac>
</mrow>
<mo>&#x00D7;<!-- × --></mo>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mfrac>
<mrow>
<mi mathvariant="normal">&#x2202;<!-- ∂ --></mi>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mi mathvariant="bold">r</mi>
</mrow>
</mrow>
<mrow>
<mi mathvariant="normal">&#x2202;<!-- ∂ --></mi>
<mi>v</mi>
</mrow>
</mfrac>
</mrow>
</mrow>
<mo>|</mo>
</mrow>
<mspace width="thinmathspace" />
<mi>d</mi>
<mi>u</mi>
<mspace width="thinmathspace" />
<mi>d</mi>
<mi>v</mi>
<mo>.</mo>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle A=\iint _{D}\left|
{\frac {\partial \mathbf {r} }{\partial u}}\times {\frac {\partial \mathbf {r} }
{\partial v}}\right|\,du\,dv.}</annotation>
</semantics>
</math></span><img
src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/9d0b4024b8e933d55893aa
d41806b2e8bedf6ae9" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline" aria-hidden="true"
style="vertical-align: -2.338ex; width:26.937ex; height:5.843ex;" alt="A=\iint
_{D}\left|{\frac {\partial {\mathbf {r}}}{\partial u}}\times {\frac {\partial
{\mathbf {r}}}{\partial v}}\right|\,du\,dv."/></span></dd></dl>
<h3><span class="mw-headline" id="List_of_formulas">List of formulas</span><span
class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a
href="/w/index.php?title=Area&amp;action=edit&amp;section=26" title="Edit section:
List of formulas">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h3>
<table class="wikitable">
<caption>Additional common formulas for area:
</caption>
<tbody><tr>
<th>Shape
</th>
<th>Formula
</th>
<th>Variables
</th></tr>
<tr>
<td>Regular <a href="/wiki/Triangle" title="Triangle">triangle</a> (<a
href="/wiki/Equilateral_triangle" title="Equilateral triangle">equilateral
triangle</a>)
</td>
<td><span class="mwe-math-element"><span class="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-math-
mathml-a11y" style="display: none;"><math
xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" alttext="{\displaystyle {\frac {\sqrt
{3}}{4}}s^{2}\,\!}">
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mfrac>
<msqrt>
<mn>3</mn>
</msqrt>
<mn>4</mn>
</mfrac>
</mrow>
<msup>
<mi>s</mi>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mn>2</mn>
</mrow>
</msup>
<mspace width="thinmathspace" />
<mspace width="negativethinmathspace" />
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle {\frac {\sqrt {3}}
{4}}s^{2}\,\!}</annotation>
</semantics>
</math></span><img
src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/fb8ae9deb6ba961efd1566
b0af61eca1cc5ff077" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline" aria-hidden="true"
style="vertical-align: -1.838ex; margin-right: -0.387ex; width:6.466ex;
height:5.843ex;" alt="{\frac {{\sqrt {3}}}{4}}s^{2}\,\!"/></span>
</td>
<td><span class="mwe-math-element"><span class="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-math-
mathml-a11y" style="display: none;"><math
xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" alttext="{\displaystyle s}">
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mi>s</mi>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle s}</annotation>
</semantics>
</math></span><img
src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/01d131dfd7673938b94707
2a13a9744fe997e632" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline" aria-hidden="true"
style="vertical-align: -0.338ex; width:1.09ex; height:1.676ex;" alt="s"/></span> is
the length of one side of the triangle.
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td><a href="/wiki/Triangle" title="Triangle">Triangle</a><sup id="cite_ref-
MathWorld_1-6" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-MathWorld-
1">&#91;1&#93;</a></sup>
</td>
<td><span class="mwe-math-element"><span class="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-math-
mathml-a11y" style="display: none;"><math
xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" alttext="{\displaystyle {\sqrt {s(s-a)
(s-b)(s-c)}}\,\!}">
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<msqrt>
<mi>s</mi>
<mo stretchy="false">(</mo>
<mi>s</mi>
<mo>&#x2212;<!-- − --></mo>
<mi>a</mi>
<mo stretchy="false">)</mo>
<mo stretchy="false">(</mo>
<mi>s</mi>
<mo>&#x2212;<!-- − --></mo>
<mi>b</mi>
<mo stretchy="false">)</mo>
<mo stretchy="false">(</mo>
<mi>s</mi>
<mo>&#x2212;<!-- − --></mo>
<mi>c</mi>
<mo stretchy="false">)</mo>
</msqrt>
</mrow>
<mspace width="thinmathspace" />
<mspace width="negativethinmathspace" />
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle {\sqrt {s(s-a)(s-b)(s-
c)}}\,\!}</annotation>
</semantics>
</math></span><img
src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/dec878c707ac333aef6c7b
fbd52205746ccb1b8c" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline" aria-hidden="true"
style="vertical-align: -1.838ex; margin-right: -0.387ex; width:24.256ex;
height:4.843ex;" alt="{\sqrt {s(s-a)(s-b)(s-c)}}\,\!"/></span>
</td>
<td><span class="mwe-math-element"><span class="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-math-
mathml-a11y" style="display: none;"><math
xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" alttext="{\displaystyle s}">
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mi>s</mi>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle s}</annotation>
</semantics>
</math></span><img
src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/01d131dfd7673938b94707
2a13a9744fe997e632" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline" aria-hidden="true"
style="vertical-align: -0.338ex; width:1.09ex; height:1.676ex;" alt="s"/></span> is
half the perimeter, <span class="mwe-math-element"><span class="mwe-math-mathml-
inline mwe-math-mathml-a11y" style="display: none;"><math
xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" alttext="{\displaystyle a}">
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mi>a</mi>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle a}</annotation>
</semantics>
</math></span><img
src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/ffd2487510aa438433a257
9450ab2b3d557e5edc" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline" aria-hidden="true"
style="vertical-align: -0.338ex; width:1.23ex; height:1.676ex;" alt="a"/></span>,
<span class="mwe-math-element"><span class="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-math-mathml-
a11y" style="display: none;"><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"
alttext="{\displaystyle b}">
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mi>b</mi>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle b}</annotation>
</semantics>
</math></span><img
src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/f11423fbb2e967f986e368
04a8ae4271734917c3" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline" aria-hidden="true"
style="vertical-align: -0.338ex; width:0.998ex; height:2.176ex;" alt="b"/></span>
and <span class="mwe-math-element"><span class="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-math-
mathml-a11y" style="display: none;"><math
xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" alttext="{\displaystyle c}">
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mi>c</mi>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle c}</annotation>
</semantics>
</math></span><img
src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/86a67b81c2de995bd608d5
b2df50cd8cd7d92455" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline" aria-hidden="true"
style="vertical-align: -0.338ex; width:1.007ex; height:1.676ex;" alt="c"/></span>
are the length of each side.
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td><a href="/wiki/Triangle" title="Triangle">Triangle</a><sup id="cite_ref-AF_2-9"
class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-AF-2">&#91;2&#93;</a></sup>
</td>
<td><span class="mwe-math-element"><span class="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-math-
mathml-a11y" style="display: none;"><math
xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" alttext="{\displaystyle {\tfrac {1}
{2}}ab\sin(C)\,\!}">
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="false" scriptlevel="0">
<mfrac>
<mn>1</mn>
<mn>2</mn>
</mfrac>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<mi>a</mi>
<mi>b</mi>
<mi>sin</mi>
<mo>&#x2061;<!-- ⁡--></mo>
<mo stretchy="false">(</mo>
<mi>C</mi>
<mo stretchy="false">)</mo>
<mspace width="thinmathspace" />
<mspace width="negativethinmathspace" />
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle {\tfrac {1}
{2}}ab\sin(C)\,\!}</annotation>
</semantics>
</math></span><img
src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/1c2fc0a9c894a67a4d09e3
37f1e23f2a5b70e56d" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline" aria-hidden="true"
style="vertical-align: -1.171ex; margin-right: -0.387ex; width:11.091ex;
height:3.509ex;" alt="{\tfrac 12}ab\sin(C)\,\!"/></span>
</td>
<td><span class="mwe-math-element"><span class="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-math-
mathml-a11y" style="display: none;"><math
xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" alttext="{\displaystyle a}">
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mi>a</mi>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle a}</annotation>
</semantics>
</math></span><img
src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/ffd2487510aa438433a257
9450ab2b3d557e5edc" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline" aria-hidden="true"
style="vertical-align: -0.338ex; width:1.23ex; height:1.676ex;" alt="a"/></span>
and <span class="mwe-math-element"><span class="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-math-
mathml-a11y" style="display: none;"><math
xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" alttext="{\displaystyle b}">
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mi>b</mi>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle b}</annotation>
</semantics>
</math></span><img
src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/f11423fbb2e967f986e368
04a8ae4271734917c3" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline" aria-hidden="true"
style="vertical-align: -0.338ex; width:0.998ex; height:2.176ex;" alt="b"/></span>
are any two sides, and <span class="mwe-math-element"><span class="mwe-math-mathml-
inline mwe-math-mathml-a11y" style="display: none;"><math
xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" alttext="{\displaystyle C}">
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mi>C</mi>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle C}</annotation>
</semantics>
</math></span><img
src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/4fc55753007cd3c18576f7
933f6f089196732029" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline" aria-hidden="true"
style="vertical-align: -0.338ex; width:1.766ex; height:2.176ex;" alt="C"/></span>
is the angle between them.
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td><a href="/wiki/Triangle" title="Triangle">Triangle</a><sup id="cite_ref-
MathWorld_1-7" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-MathWorld-
1">&#91;1&#93;</a></sup>
</td>
<td><span class="mwe-math-element"><span class="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-math-
mathml-a11y" style="display: none;"><math
xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" alttext="{\displaystyle {\tfrac {1}
{2}}bh\,\!}">
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="false" scriptlevel="0">
<mfrac>
<mn>1</mn>
<mn>2</mn>
</mfrac>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<mi>b</mi>
<mi>h</mi>
<mspace width="thinmathspace" />
<mspace width="negativethinmathspace" />
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle {\tfrac {1}
{2}}bh\,\!}</annotation>
</semantics>
</math></span><img
src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/e5ccb3113c20ba5cf8e4aa
bae07eb4bdd2f1c80a" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline" aria-hidden="true"
style="vertical-align: -1.171ex; margin-right: -0.387ex; width:4.382ex;
height:3.509ex;" alt="{\tfrac 12}bh\,\!"/></span>
</td>
<td><span class="mwe-math-element"><span class="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-math-
mathml-a11y" style="display: none;"><math
xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" alttext="{\displaystyle b}">
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mi>b</mi>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle b}</annotation>
</semantics>
</math></span><img
src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/f11423fbb2e967f986e368
04a8ae4271734917c3" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline" aria-hidden="true"
style="vertical-align: -0.338ex; width:0.998ex; height:2.176ex;" alt="b"/></span>
and <span class="mwe-math-element"><span class="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-math-
mathml-a11y" style="display: none;"><math
xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" alttext="{\displaystyle h}">
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mi>h</mi>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle h}</annotation>
</semantics>
</math></span><img
src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/b26be3e694314bc90c3215
047e4a2010c6ee184a" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline" aria-hidden="true"
style="vertical-align: -0.338ex; width:1.339ex; height:2.176ex;" alt="h"/></span>
are the <a href="/wiki/Base_(geometry)" title="Base (geometry)">base</a> and <a
href="/wiki/Altitude_(triangle)" title="Altitude (triangle)">altitude</a> (measured
perpendicular to the base), respectively.
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td><a href="/wiki/Isosceles_triangle" title="Isosceles triangle">Isosceles
triangle</a>
</td>
<td><span class="mwe-math-element"><span class="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-math-
mathml-a11y" style="display: none;"><math
xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" alttext="{\displaystyle {\frac {1}
{2}}b{\sqrt {a^{2}-{\frac {b^{2}}{4}}}}={\frac {b}{4}}{\sqrt {4a^{2}-b^{2}}}}">
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mfrac>
<mn>1</mn>
<mn>2</mn>
</mfrac>
</mrow>
<mi>b</mi>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<msqrt>
<msup>
<mi>a</mi>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mn>2</mn>
</mrow>
</msup>
<mo>&#x2212;<!-- − --></mo>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mfrac>
<msup>
<mi>b</mi>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mn>2</mn>
</mrow>
</msup>
<mn>4</mn>
</mfrac>
</mrow>
</msqrt>
</mrow>
<mo>=</mo>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mfrac>
<mi>b</mi>
<mn>4</mn>
</mfrac>
</mrow>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<msqrt>
<mn>4</mn>
<msup>
<mi>a</mi>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mn>2</mn>
</mrow>
</msup>
<mo>&#x2212;<!-- − --></mo>
<msup>
<mi>b</mi>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mn>2</mn>
</mrow>
</msup>
</msqrt>
</mrow>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle {\frac {1}{2}}b{\sqrt
{a^{2}-{\frac {b^{2}}{4}}}}={\frac {b}{4}}{\sqrt {4a^{2}-b^{2}}}}</annotation>
</semantics>
</math></span><img
src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/b88f72cc92cf41c350c8b4
ef7fcddbf9227ad01a" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline" aria-hidden="true"
style="vertical-align: -2.171ex; width:29.092ex; height:6.176ex;" alt="{\frac {1}
{2}}b{\sqrt {a^{2}-{\frac {b^{2}}{4}}}}={\frac {b}{4}}{\sqrt {4a^{2}-
b^{2}}}"/></span>
</td>
<td><span class="mwe-math-element"><span class="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-math-
mathml-a11y" style="display: none;"><math
xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" alttext="{\displaystyle a}">
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mi>a</mi>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle a}</annotation>
</semantics>
</math></span><img
src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/ffd2487510aa438433a257
9450ab2b3d557e5edc" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline" aria-hidden="true"
style="vertical-align: -0.338ex; width:1.23ex; height:1.676ex;" alt="a"/></span> is
the length of one of the two equal sides and <span class="mwe-math-element"><span
class="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-math-mathml-a11y" style="display: none;"><math
xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" alttext="{\displaystyle b}">
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mi>b</mi>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle b}</annotation>
</semantics>
</math></span><img
src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/f11423fbb2e967f986e368
04a8ae4271734917c3" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline" aria-hidden="true"
style="vertical-align: -0.338ex; width:0.998ex; height:2.176ex;" alt="b"/></span>
is the length of a different side.
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td><a href="/wiki/Rhombus" title="Rhombus">Rhombus</a>/<a
href="/wiki/Kite_(geometry)" title="Kite (geometry)">Kite</a>
</td>
<td><span class="mwe-math-element"><span class="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-math-
mathml-a11y" style="display: none;"><math
xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" alttext="{\displaystyle {\tfrac {1}
{2}}ab}">
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="false" scriptlevel="0">
<mfrac>
<mn>1</mn>
<mn>2</mn>
</mfrac>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<mi>a</mi>
<mi>b</mi>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle {\tfrac {1}
{2}}ab}</annotation>
</semantics>
</math></span><img
src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/4164108e2658d2333ea13f
eee6a0cb0be43db7e8" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline" aria-hidden="true"
style="vertical-align: -1.171ex; width:3.885ex; height:3.509ex;" alt="{\tfrac {1}
{2}}ab"/></span>
</td>
<td><span class="mwe-math-element"><span class="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-math-
mathml-a11y" style="display: none;"><math
xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" alttext="{\displaystyle a}">
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mi>a</mi>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle a}</annotation>
</semantics>
</math></span><img
src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/ffd2487510aa438433a257
9450ab2b3d557e5edc" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline" aria-hidden="true"
style="vertical-align: -0.338ex; width:1.23ex; height:1.676ex;" alt="a"/></span>
and <span class="mwe-math-element"><span class="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-math-
mathml-a11y" style="display: none;"><math
xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" alttext="{\displaystyle b}">
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mi>b</mi>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle b}</annotation>
</semantics>
</math></span><img
src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/f11423fbb2e967f986e368
04a8ae4271734917c3" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline" aria-hidden="true"
style="vertical-align: -0.338ex; width:0.998ex; height:2.176ex;" alt="b"/></span>
are the lengths of the two <a href="/wiki/Diagonals" class="mw-redirect"
title="Diagonals">diagonals</a> of the rhombus or kite.
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td><a href="/wiki/Parallelogram" title="Parallelogram">Parallelogram</a>
</td>
<td><span class="mwe-math-element"><span class="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-math-
mathml-a11y" style="display: none;"><math
xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" alttext="{\displaystyle bh\,\!}">
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mi>b</mi>
<mi>h</mi>
<mspace width="thinmathspace" />
<mspace width="negativethinmathspace" />
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle bh\,\!}</annotation>
</semantics>
</math></span><img
src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/df8554a2f57fafe9f2083a
45b83c2214e10ec1ea" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline" aria-hidden="true"
style="vertical-align: -0.338ex; margin-right: -0.387ex; width:2.724ex;
height:2.176ex;" alt="bh\,\!"/></span>
</td>
<td><span class="mwe-math-element"><span class="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-math-
mathml-a11y" style="display: none;"><math
xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" alttext="{\displaystyle b}">
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mi>b</mi>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle b}</annotation>
</semantics>
</math></span><img
src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/f11423fbb2e967f986e368
04a8ae4271734917c3" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline" aria-hidden="true"
style="vertical-align: -0.338ex; width:0.998ex; height:2.176ex;" alt="b"/></span>
is the length of the base and <span class="mwe-math-element"><span class="mwe-math-
mathml-inline mwe-math-mathml-a11y" style="display: none;"><math
xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" alttext="{\displaystyle h}">
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mi>h</mi>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle h}</annotation>
</semantics>
</math></span><img
src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/b26be3e694314bc90c3215
047e4a2010c6ee184a" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline" aria-hidden="true"
style="vertical-align: -0.338ex; width:1.339ex; height:2.176ex;" alt="h"/></span>
is the perpendicular height.
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td><a href="/wiki/Trapezoid" title="Trapezoid">Trapezoid</a>
</td>
<td><span class="mwe-math-element"><span class="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-math-
mathml-a11y" style="display: none;"><math
xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" alttext="{\displaystyle {\frac {(a+b)h}
{2}}\,\!}">
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mfrac>
<mrow>
<mo stretchy="false">(</mo>
<mi>a</mi>
<mo>+</mo>
<mi>b</mi>
<mo stretchy="false">)</mo>
<mi>h</mi>
</mrow>
<mn>2</mn>
</mfrac>
</mrow>
<mspace width="thinmathspace" />
<mspace width="negativethinmathspace" />
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle {\frac {(a+b)h}
{2}}\,\!}</annotation>
</semantics>
</math></span><img
src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/74f0e60f6ff6237dbaa420
5562aac2ab650fde94" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline" aria-hidden="true"
style="vertical-align: -1.838ex; margin-right: -0.387ex; width:9.439ex;
height:5.676ex;" alt="{\frac {(a+b)h}{2}}\,\!"/></span>
</td>
<td><span class="mwe-math-element"><span class="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-math-
mathml-a11y" style="display: none;"><math
xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" alttext="{\displaystyle a}">
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mi>a</mi>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle a}</annotation>
</semantics>
</math></span><img
src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/ffd2487510aa438433a257
9450ab2b3d557e5edc" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline" aria-hidden="true"
style="vertical-align: -0.338ex; width:1.23ex; height:1.676ex;" alt="a"/></span>
and <span class="mwe-math-element"><span class="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-math-
mathml-a11y" style="display: none;"><math
xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" alttext="{\displaystyle b}">
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mi>b</mi>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle b}</annotation>
</semantics>
</math></span><img
src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/f11423fbb2e967f986e368
04a8ae4271734917c3" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline" aria-hidden="true"
style="vertical-align: -0.338ex; width:0.998ex; height:2.176ex;" alt="b"/></span>
are the parallel sides and <span class="mwe-math-element"><span class="mwe-math-
mathml-inline mwe-math-mathml-a11y" style="display: none;"><math
xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" alttext="{\displaystyle h}">
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mi>h</mi>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle h}</annotation>
</semantics>
</math></span><img
src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/b26be3e694314bc90c3215
047e4a2010c6ee184a" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline" aria-hidden="true"
style="vertical-align: -0.338ex; width:1.339ex; height:2.176ex;" alt="h"/></span>
the distance (height) between the parallels.
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td>Regular <a href="/wiki/Hexagon" title="Hexagon">hexagon</a>
</td>
<td><span class="mwe-math-element"><span class="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-math-
mathml-a11y" style="display: none;"><math
xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" alttext="{\displaystyle {\frac {3}{2}}
{\sqrt {3}}s^{2}\,\!}">
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mfrac>
<mn>3</mn>
<mn>2</mn>
</mfrac>
</mrow>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<msqrt>
<mn>3</mn>
</msqrt>
</mrow>
<msup>
<mi>s</mi>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mn>2</mn>
</mrow>
</msup>
<mspace width="thinmathspace" />
<mspace width="negativethinmathspace" />
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle {\frac {3}{2}}{\sqrt
{3}}s^{2}\,\!}</annotation>
</semantics>
</math></span><img
src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/63e0d50ff608d21b373af3
6adf90dcedbf383dde" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline" aria-hidden="true"
style="vertical-align: -1.838ex; margin-right: -0.387ex; width:7.629ex;
height:5.176ex;" alt="{\frac {3}{2}}{\sqrt {3}}s^{2}\,\!"/></span>
</td>
<td><span class="mwe-math-element"><span class="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-math-
mathml-a11y" style="display: none;"><math
xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" alttext="{\displaystyle s}">
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mi>s</mi>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle s}</annotation>
</semantics>
</math></span><img
src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/01d131dfd7673938b94707
2a13a9744fe997e632" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline" aria-hidden="true"
style="vertical-align: -0.338ex; width:1.09ex; height:1.676ex;" alt="s"/></span> is
the length of one side of the hexagon.
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td>Regular <a href="/wiki/Octagon" title="Octagon">octagon</a>
</td>
<td><span class="mwe-math-element"><span class="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-math-
mathml-a11y" style="display: none;"><math
xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" alttext="{\displaystyle 2(1+{\sqrt
{2}})s^{2}\,\!}">
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mn>2</mn>
<mo stretchy="false">(</mo>
<mn>1</mn>
<mo>+</mo>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<msqrt>
<mn>2</mn>
</msqrt>
</mrow>
<mo stretchy="false">)</mo>
<msup>
<mi>s</mi>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mn>2</mn>
</mrow>
</msup>
<mspace width="thinmathspace" />
<mspace width="negativethinmathspace" />
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle 2(1+{\sqrt
{2}})s^{2}\,\!}</annotation>
</semantics>
</math></span><img
src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/1d8ce5d1f1ba7af9fcbaf5
6c4b671778b6bd9272" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline" aria-hidden="true"
style="vertical-align: -0.838ex; margin-right: -0.387ex; width:12.605ex;
height:3.176ex;" alt="2(1+{\sqrt {2}})s^{2}\,\!"/></span>
</td>
<td><span class="mwe-math-element"><span class="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-math-
mathml-a11y" style="display: none;"><math
xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" alttext="{\displaystyle s}">
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mi>s</mi>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle s}</annotation>
</semantics>
</math></span><img
src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/01d131dfd7673938b94707
2a13a9744fe997e632" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline" aria-hidden="true"
style="vertical-align: -0.338ex; width:1.09ex; height:1.676ex;" alt="s"/></span> is
the length of one side of the octagon.
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td><a href="/wiki/Regular_polygon" title="Regular polygon">Regular polygon</a>
</td>
<td><span class="mwe-math-element"><span class="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-math-
mathml-a11y" style="display: none;"><math
xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" alttext="{\displaystyle {\frac {1}
{4}}nl^{2}\cdot \cot(\pi /n)\,\!}">
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mfrac>
<mn>1</mn>
<mn>4</mn>
</mfrac>
</mrow>
<mi>n</mi>
<msup>
<mi>l</mi>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mn>2</mn>
</mrow>
</msup>
<mo>&#x22C5;<!-- ⋅ --></mo>
<mi>cot</mi>
<mo>&#x2061;<!-- ⁡--></mo>
<mo stretchy="false">(</mo>
<mi>&#x03C0;<!-- π --></mi>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mo>/</mo>
</mrow>
<mi>n</mi>
<mo stretchy="false">)</mo>
<mspace width="thinmathspace" />
<mspace width="negativethinmathspace" />
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle {\frac {1}
{4}}nl^{2}\cdot \cot(\pi /n)\,\!}</annotation>
</semantics>
</math></span><img
src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/b97fa989f04761a4603f69
78ce0fe92e206180f3" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline" aria-hidden="true"
style="vertical-align: -1.838ex; margin-right: -0.387ex; width:16.005ex;
height:5.176ex;" alt="{\frac {1}{4}}nl^{2}\cdot \cot(\pi /n)\,\!"/></span>
</td>
<td><span class="mwe-math-element"><span class="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-math-
mathml-a11y" style="display: none;"><math
xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" alttext="{\displaystyle l}">
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mi>l</mi>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle l}</annotation>
</semantics>
</math></span><img
src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/829091f745070b9eb97a80
244129025440a1cfac" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline" aria-hidden="true"
style="vertical-align: -0.338ex; width:0.693ex; height:2.176ex;" alt="l"/></span>
is the side length and <span class="mwe-math-element"><span class="mwe-math-mathml-
inline mwe-math-mathml-a11y" style="display: none;"><math
xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" alttext="{\displaystyle n}">
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mi>n</mi>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle n}</annotation>
</semantics>
</math></span><img
src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/a601995d55609f2d9f5e23
3e36fbe9ea26011b3b" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline" aria-hidden="true"
style="vertical-align: -0.338ex; width:1.395ex; height:1.676ex;" alt="n"/></span>
is the number of sides.
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td>Regular polygon
</td>
<td><span class="mwe-math-element"><span class="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-math-
mathml-a11y" style="display: none;"><math
xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" alttext="{\displaystyle {\frac {1}
{4n}}p^{2}\cdot \cot(\pi /n)\,\!}">
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mfrac>
<mn>1</mn>
<mrow>
<mn>4</mn>
<mi>n</mi>
</mrow>
</mfrac>
</mrow>
<msup>
<mi>p</mi>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mn>2</mn>
</mrow>
</msup>
<mo>&#x22C5;<!-- ⋅ --></mo>
<mi>cot</mi>
<mo>&#x2061;<!-- ⁡--></mo>
<mo stretchy="false">(</mo>
<mi>&#x03C0;<!-- π --></mi>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mo>/</mo>
</mrow>
<mi>n</mi>
<mo stretchy="false">)</mo>
<mspace width="thinmathspace" />
<mspace width="negativethinmathspace" />
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle {\frac {1}
{4n}}p^{2}\cdot \cot(\pi /n)\,\!}</annotation>
</semantics>
</math></span><img
src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/2a4441e8bc63cd6089934c
0c4fc9db66d0279f21" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline" aria-hidden="true"
style="vertical-align: -1.838ex; margin-right: -0.387ex; width:16.481ex;
height:5.176ex;" alt="{\frac {1}{4n}}p^{2}\cdot \cot(\pi /n)\,\!"/></span>
</td>
<td><span class="mwe-math-element"><span class="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-math-
mathml-a11y" style="display: none;"><math
xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" alttext="{\displaystyle p}">
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mi>p</mi>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle p}</annotation>
</semantics>
</math></span><img
src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/81eac1e205430d1f40810d
f36a0edffdc367af36" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline" aria-hidden="true"
style="vertical-align: -0.671ex; margin-left: -0.089ex; width:1.259ex;
height:2.009ex;" alt="p"/></span> is the perimeter and <span class="mwe-math-
element"><span class="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-math-mathml-a11y" style="display:
none;"><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" alttext="{\displaystyle
n}">
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mi>n</mi>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle n}</annotation>
</semantics>
</math></span><img
src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/a601995d55609f2d9f5e23
3e36fbe9ea26011b3b" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline" aria-hidden="true"
style="vertical-align: -0.338ex; width:1.395ex; height:1.676ex;" alt="n"/></span>
is the number of sides.
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td>Regular polygon
</td>
<td><span class="mwe-math-element"><span class="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-math-
mathml-a11y" style="display: none;"><math
xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" alttext="{\displaystyle {\frac {1}
{2}}nR^{2}\cdot \sin(2\pi /n)=nr^{2}\tan(\pi /n)\,\!}">
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mfrac>
<mn>1</mn>
<mn>2</mn>
</mfrac>
</mrow>
<mi>n</mi>
<msup>
<mi>R</mi>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mn>2</mn>
</mrow>
</msup>
<mo>&#x22C5;<!-- ⋅ --></mo>
<mi>sin</mi>
<mo>&#x2061;<!-- ⁡--></mo>
<mo stretchy="false">(</mo>
<mn>2</mn>
<mi>&#x03C0;<!-- π --></mi>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mo>/</mo>
</mrow>
<mi>n</mi>
<mo stretchy="false">)</mo>
<mo>=</mo>
<mi>n</mi>
<msup>
<mi>r</mi>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mn>2</mn>
</mrow>
</msup>
<mi>tan</mi>
<mo>&#x2061;<!-- ⁡--></mo>
<mo stretchy="false">(</mo>
<mi>&#x03C0;<!-- π --></mi>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mo>/</mo>
</mrow>
<mi>n</mi>
<mo stretchy="false">)</mo>
<mspace width="thinmathspace" />
<mspace width="negativethinmathspace" />
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle {\frac {1}
{2}}nR^{2}\cdot \sin(2\pi /n)=nr^{2}\tan(\pi /n)\,\!}</annotation>
</semantics>
</math></span><img
src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/c72416ad4546be361d1c7c
e5582df14a6332e13a" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline" aria-hidden="true"
style="vertical-align: -1.838ex; margin-right: -0.387ex; width:34.036ex;
height:5.176ex;" alt="{\frac {1}{2}}nR^{2}\cdot \sin(2\pi /n)=nr^{2}\tan(\pi
/n)\,\!"/></span>
</td>
<td><span class="mwe-math-element"><span class="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-math-
mathml-a11y" style="display: none;"><math
xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" alttext="{\displaystyle R}">
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mi>R</mi>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle R}</annotation>
</semantics>
</math></span><img
src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/4b0bfb3769bf24d80e1537
4dc37b0441e2616e33" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline" aria-hidden="true"
style="vertical-align: -0.338ex; width:1.764ex; height:2.176ex;" alt="R"/></span>
is the radius of a circumscribed circle, <span class="mwe-math-element"><span
class="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-math-mathml-a11y" style="display: none;"><math
xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" alttext="{\displaystyle r}">
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mi>r</mi>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle r}</annotation>
</semantics>
</math></span><img
src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/0d1ecb613aa2984f0576f7
0f86650b7c2a132538" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline" aria-hidden="true"
style="vertical-align: -0.338ex; width:1.049ex; height:1.676ex;" alt="r"/></span>
is the radius of an inscribed circle, and <span class="mwe-math-element"><span
class="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-math-mathml-a11y" style="display: none;"><math
xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" alttext="{\displaystyle n}">
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mi>n</mi>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle n}</annotation>
</semantics>
</math></span><img
src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/a601995d55609f2d9f5e23
3e36fbe9ea26011b3b" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline" aria-hidden="true"
style="vertical-align: -0.338ex; width:1.395ex; height:1.676ex;" alt="n"/></span>
is the number of sides.
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td>Regular polygon
</td>
<td><span class="mwe-math-element"><span class="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-math-
mathml-a11y" style="display: none;"><math
xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" alttext="{\displaystyle {\tfrac {1}
{2}}ap={\tfrac {1}{2}}nsa\,\!}">
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="false" scriptlevel="0">
<mfrac>
<mn>1</mn>
<mn>2</mn>
</mfrac>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<mi>a</mi>
<mi>p</mi>
<mo>=</mo>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="false" scriptlevel="0">
<mfrac>
<mn>1</mn>
<mn>2</mn>
</mfrac>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<mi>n</mi>
<mi>s</mi>
<mi>a</mi>
<mspace width="thinmathspace" />
<mspace width="negativethinmathspace" />
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle {\tfrac {1}
{2}}ap={\tfrac {1}{2}}nsa\,\!}</annotation>
</semantics>
</math></span><img
src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/a83aec711680eee3fcd5d8
0571c349bc49965c53" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline" aria-hidden="true"
style="vertical-align: -1.171ex; margin-right: -0.387ex; width:12.916ex;
height:3.509ex;" alt="{\tfrac 12}ap={\tfrac 12}nsa\,\!"/></span>
</td>
<td><span class="mwe-math-element"><span class="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-math-
mathml-a11y" style="display: none;"><math
xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" alttext="{\displaystyle n}">
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mi>n</mi>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle n}</annotation>
</semantics>
</math></span><img
src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/a601995d55609f2d9f5e23
3e36fbe9ea26011b3b" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline" aria-hidden="true"
style="vertical-align: -0.338ex; width:1.395ex; height:1.676ex;" alt="n"/></span>
is the number of sides, <span class="mwe-math-element"><span class="mwe-math-
mathml-inline mwe-math-mathml-a11y" style="display: none;"><math
xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" alttext="{\displaystyle s}">
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mi>s</mi>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle s}</annotation>
</semantics>
</math></span><img
src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/01d131dfd7673938b94707
2a13a9744fe997e632" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline" aria-hidden="true"
style="vertical-align: -0.338ex; width:1.09ex; height:1.676ex;" alt="s"/></span> is
the side length, <span class="mwe-math-element"><span class="mwe-math-mathml-inline
mwe-math-mathml-a11y" style="display: none;"><math
xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" alttext="{\displaystyle a}">
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mi>a</mi>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle a}</annotation>
</semantics>
</math></span><img
src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/ffd2487510aa438433a257
9450ab2b3d557e5edc" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline" aria-hidden="true"
style="vertical-align: -0.338ex; width:1.23ex; height:1.676ex;" alt="a"/></span> is
the <a href="/wiki/Apothem" title="Apothem">apothem</a>, or the radius of an
inscribed circle in the polygon, and <span class="mwe-math-element"><span
class="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-math-mathml-a11y" style="display: none;"><math
xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" alttext="{\displaystyle p}">
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mi>p</mi>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle p}</annotation>
</semantics>
</math></span><img
src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/81eac1e205430d1f40810d
f36a0edffdc367af36" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline" aria-hidden="true"
style="vertical-align: -0.671ex; margin-left: -0.089ex; width:1.259ex;
height:2.009ex;" alt="p"/></span> is the perimeter of the polygon.
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td><a href="/wiki/Circle" title="Circle">Circle</a>
</td>
<td><span class="mwe-math-element"><span class="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-math-
mathml-a11y" style="display: none;"><math
xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" alttext="{\displaystyle \pi r^{2}\
{\text{or}}\ {\frac {\pi d^{2}}{4}}\,\!}">
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mi>&#x03C0;<!-- π --></mi>
<msup>
<mi>r</mi>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mn>2</mn>
</mrow>
</msup>
<mtext>&#xA0;</mtext>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mtext>or</mtext>
</mrow>
<mtext>&#xA0;</mtext>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mfrac>
<mrow>
<mi>&#x03C0;<!-- π --></mi>
<msup>
<mi>d</mi>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mn>2</mn>
</mrow>
</msup>
</mrow>
<mn>4</mn>
</mfrac>
</mrow>
<mspace width="thinmathspace" />
<mspace width="negativethinmathspace" />
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle \pi r^{2}\ {\text{or}}\
{\frac {\pi d^{2}}{4}}\,\!}</annotation>
</semantics>
</math></span><img
src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/b1d3b518dc5fa06fa96afe
706b6429613b7cd0fb" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline" aria-hidden="true"
style="vertical-align: -1.838ex; margin-right: -0.387ex; width:11.498ex;
height:5.676ex;" alt="\pi r^{2}\ {\text{or}}\ {\frac {\pi d^{2}}{4}}\,\!"/></span>
</td>
<td><span class="mwe-math-element"><span class="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-math-
mathml-a11y" style="display: none;"><math
xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" alttext="{\displaystyle r}">
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mi>r</mi>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle r}</annotation>
</semantics>
</math></span><img
src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/0d1ecb613aa2984f0576f7
0f86650b7c2a132538" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline" aria-hidden="true"
style="vertical-align: -0.338ex; width:1.049ex; height:1.676ex;" alt="r"/></span>
is the radius and <span class="mwe-math-element"><span class="mwe-math-mathml-
inline mwe-math-mathml-a11y" style="display: none;"><math
xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" alttext="{\displaystyle d}">
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mi>d</mi>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle d}</annotation>
</semantics>
</math></span><img
src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/e85ff03cbe0c7341af6b98
2e47e9f90d235c66ab" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline" aria-hidden="true"
style="vertical-align: -0.338ex; width:1.216ex; height:2.176ex;" alt="d"/></span>
the <a href="/wiki/Diameter" title="Diameter">diameter</a>.
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td><a href="/wiki/Circular_sector" title="Circular sector">Circular sector</a>
</td>
<td><span class="mwe-math-element"><span class="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-math-
mathml-a11y" style="display: none;"><math
xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" alttext="{\displaystyle {\frac
{\theta }{2}}r^{2}\ {\text{or}}\ {\frac {L\cdot r}{2}}\,\!}">
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mfrac>
<mi>&#x03B8;<!-- θ --></mi>
<mn>2</mn>
</mfrac>
</mrow>
<msup>
<mi>r</mi>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mn>2</mn>
</mrow>
</msup>
<mtext>&#xA0;</mtext>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mtext>or</mtext>
</mrow>
<mtext>&#xA0;</mtext>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mfrac>
<mrow>
<mi>L</mi>
<mo>&#x22C5;<!-- ⋅ --></mo>
<mi>r</mi>
</mrow>
<mn>2</mn>
</mfrac>
</mrow>
<mspace width="thinmathspace" />
<mspace width="negativethinmathspace" />
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle {\frac {\theta }
{2}}r^{2}\ {\text{or}}\ {\frac {L\cdot r}{2}}\,\!}</annotation>
</semantics>
</math></span><img
src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/353f8d7bb77ddf34e1ee7f
27e46c53071affc106" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline" aria-hidden="true"
style="vertical-align: -1.838ex; margin-right: -0.387ex; width:12.871ex;
height:5.343ex;" alt="{\frac {\theta }{2}}r^{2}\ {\text{or}}\ {\frac {L\cdot r}
{2}}\,\!"/></span>
</td>
<td><span class="mwe-math-element"><span class="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-math-
mathml-a11y" style="display: none;"><math
xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" alttext="{\displaystyle r}">
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mi>r</mi>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle r}</annotation>
</semantics>
</math></span><img
src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/0d1ecb613aa2984f0576f7
0f86650b7c2a132538" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline" aria-hidden="true"
style="vertical-align: -0.338ex; width:1.049ex; height:1.676ex;" alt="r"/></span>
and <span class="mwe-math-element"><span class="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-math-
mathml-a11y" style="display: none;"><math
xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" alttext="{\displaystyle \theta }">
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mi>&#x03B8;<!-- θ --></mi>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle \theta }</annotation>
</semantics>
</math></span><img
src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/6e5ab2664b422d53eb0c7d
f3b87e1360d75ad9af" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline" aria-hidden="true"
style="vertical-align: -0.338ex; width:1.09ex; height:2.176ex;" alt="\theta
"/></span> are the radius and angle (in <a href="/wiki/Radian"
title="Radian">radians</a>), respectively and <span class="mwe-math-element"><span
class="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-math-mathml-a11y" style="display: none;"><math
xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" alttext="{\displaystyle L}">
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mi>L</mi>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle L}</annotation>
</semantics>
</math></span><img
src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/103168b86f781fe6e9a4a8
7b8ea1cebe0ad4ede8" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline" aria-hidden="true"
style="vertical-align: -0.338ex; width:1.583ex; height:2.176ex;" alt="L"/></span>
is the length of the perimeter.
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td><a href="/wiki/Ellipse" title="Ellipse">Ellipse</a><sup id="cite_ref-AF_2-10"
class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-AF-2">&#91;2&#93;</a></sup>
</td>
<td><span class="mwe-math-element"><span class="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-math-
mathml-a11y" style="display: none;"><math
xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" alttext="{\displaystyle \pi ab\,\!}">
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mi>&#x03C0;<!-- π --></mi>
<mi>a</mi>
<mi>b</mi>
<mspace width="thinmathspace" />
<mspace width="negativethinmathspace" />
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle \pi
ab\,\!}</annotation>
</semantics>
</math></span><img
src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/e0c6066b3bd3ced4101ed6
fae94b62ea4480e4fb" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline" aria-hidden="true"
style="vertical-align: -0.338ex; margin-right: -0.387ex; width:3.946ex;
height:2.176ex;" alt="\pi ab\,\!"/></span>
</td>
<td><span class="mwe-math-element"><span class="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-math-
mathml-a11y" style="display: none;"><math
xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" alttext="{\displaystyle a}">
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mi>a</mi>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle a}</annotation>
</semantics>
</math></span><img
src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/ffd2487510aa438433a257
9450ab2b3d557e5edc" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline" aria-hidden="true"
style="vertical-align: -0.338ex; width:1.23ex; height:1.676ex;" alt="a"/></span>
and <span class="mwe-math-element"><span class="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-math-
mathml-a11y" style="display: none;"><math
xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" alttext="{\displaystyle b}">
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mi>b</mi>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle b}</annotation>
</semantics>
</math></span><img
src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/f11423fbb2e967f986e368
04a8ae4271734917c3" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline" aria-hidden="true"
style="vertical-align: -0.338ex; width:0.998ex; height:2.176ex;" alt="b"/></span>
are the <a href="/wiki/Semi-major_axis" class="mw-redirect" title="Semi-major
axis">semi-major</a> and <a href="/wiki/Semi-minor_axis" class="mw-redirect"
title="Semi-minor axis">semi-minor</a> axes, respectively.
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td>Total surface area of a <a href="/wiki/Cylinder_(geometry)" class="mw-redirect"
title="Cylinder (geometry)">cylinder</a>
</td>
<td><span class="mwe-math-element"><span class="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-math-
mathml-a11y" style="display: none;"><math
xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" alttext="{\displaystyle 2\pi
r(r+h)\,\!}">
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mn>2</mn>
<mi>&#x03C0;<!-- π --></mi>
<mi>r</mi>
<mo stretchy="false">(</mo>
<mi>r</mi>
<mo>+</mo>
<mi>h</mi>
<mo stretchy="false">)</mo>
<mspace width="thinmathspace" />
<mspace width="negativethinmathspace" />
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle 2\pi
r(r+h)\,\!}</annotation>
</semantics>
</math></span><img
src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/b0c9869517b8ff53c209d2
ff1586b10b7916773f" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline" aria-hidden="true"
style="vertical-align: -0.838ex; margin-right: -0.387ex; width:10.968ex;
height:2.843ex;" alt="2\pi r(r+h)\,\!"/></span>
</td>
<td><span class="mwe-math-element"><span class="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-math-
mathml-a11y" style="display: none;"><math
xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" alttext="{\displaystyle r}">
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mi>r</mi>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle r}</annotation>
</semantics>
</math></span><img
src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/0d1ecb613aa2984f0576f7
0f86650b7c2a132538" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline" aria-hidden="true"
style="vertical-align: -0.338ex; width:1.049ex; height:1.676ex;" alt="r"/></span>
and <span class="mwe-math-element"><span class="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-math-
mathml-a11y" style="display: none;"><math
xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" alttext="{\displaystyle h}">
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mi>h</mi>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle h}</annotation>
</semantics>
</math></span><img
src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/b26be3e694314bc90c3215
047e4a2010c6ee184a" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline" aria-hidden="true"
style="vertical-align: -0.338ex; width:1.339ex; height:2.176ex;" alt="h"/></span>
are the radius and height, respectively.
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td>Lateral surface area of a cylinder
</td>
<td><span class="mwe-math-element"><span class="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-math-
mathml-a11y" style="display: none;"><math
xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" alttext="{\displaystyle 2\pi rh\,\!}">
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mn>2</mn>
<mi>&#x03C0;<!-- π --></mi>
<mi>r</mi>
<mi>h</mi>
<mspace width="thinmathspace" />
<mspace width="negativethinmathspace" />
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle 2\pi
rh\,\!}</annotation>
</semantics>
</math></span><img
src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/bd91694dd8cf138a6ebb51
e81d0b68b9e1a3b795" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline" aria-hidden="true"
style="vertical-align: -0.338ex; margin-right: -0.387ex; width:5.269ex;
height:2.176ex;" alt="2\pi rh\,\!"/></span>
</td>
<td><span class="mwe-math-element"><span class="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-math-
mathml-a11y" style="display: none;"><math
xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" alttext="{\displaystyle r}">
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mi>r</mi>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle r}</annotation>
</semantics>
</math></span><img
src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/0d1ecb613aa2984f0576f7
0f86650b7c2a132538" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline" aria-hidden="true"
style="vertical-align: -0.338ex; width:1.049ex; height:1.676ex;" alt="r"/></span>
and <span class="mwe-math-element"><span class="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-math-
mathml-a11y" style="display: none;"><math
xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" alttext="{\displaystyle h}">
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mi>h</mi>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle h}</annotation>
</semantics>
</math></span><img
src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/b26be3e694314bc90c3215
047e4a2010c6ee184a" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline" aria-hidden="true"
style="vertical-align: -0.338ex; width:1.339ex; height:2.176ex;" alt="h"/></span>
are the radius and height, respectively.
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td>Total surface area of a <a href="/wiki/Sphere_(geometry)" class="mw-redirect"
title="Sphere (geometry)">sphere</a><sup id="cite_ref-MathWorldSurfaceArea_6-3"
class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-MathWorldSurfaceArea-6">&#91;6&#93;</a></sup>
</td>
<td><span class="mwe-math-element"><span class="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-math-
mathml-a11y" style="display: none;"><math
xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" alttext="{\displaystyle 4\pi r^{2}\
{\text{or}}\ \pi d^{2}\,\!}">
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mn>4</mn>
<mi>&#x03C0;<!-- π --></mi>
<msup>
<mi>r</mi>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mn>2</mn>
</mrow>
</msup>
<mtext>&#xA0;</mtext>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mtext>or</mtext>
</mrow>
<mtext>&#xA0;</mtext>
<mi>&#x03C0;<!-- π --></mi>
<msup>
<mi>d</mi>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mn>2</mn>
</mrow>
</msup>
<mspace width="thinmathspace" />
<mspace width="negativethinmathspace" />
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle 4\pi r^{2}\
{\text{or}}\ \pi d^{2}\,\!}</annotation>
</semantics>
</math></span><img
src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/574fbe3468d331ea3cacf3
5b967ee17e7cbfa4a0" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline" aria-hidden="true"
style="vertical-align: -0.338ex; margin-right: -0.387ex; width:11.824ex;
height:2.676ex;" alt="4\pi r^{2}\ {\text{or}}\ \pi d^{2}\,\!"/></span>
</td>
<td><span class="mwe-math-element"><span class="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-math-
mathml-a11y" style="display: none;"><math
xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" alttext="{\displaystyle r}">
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mi>r</mi>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle r}</annotation>
</semantics>
</math></span><img
src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/0d1ecb613aa2984f0576f7
0f86650b7c2a132538" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline" aria-hidden="true"
style="vertical-align: -0.338ex; width:1.049ex; height:1.676ex;" alt="r"/></span>
and <span class="mwe-math-element"><span class="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-math-
mathml-a11y" style="display: none;"><math
xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" alttext="{\displaystyle d}">
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mi>d</mi>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle d}</annotation>
</semantics>
</math></span><img
src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/e85ff03cbe0c7341af6b98
2e47e9f90d235c66ab" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline" aria-hidden="true"
style="vertical-align: -0.338ex; width:1.216ex; height:2.176ex;" alt="d"/></span>
are the radius and diameter, respectively.
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td>Total surface area of a <a href="/wiki/Pyramid_(geometry)" title="Pyramid
(geometry)">pyramid</a><sup id="cite_ref-MathWorldSurfaceArea_6-4"
class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-MathWorldSurfaceArea-6">&#91;6&#93;</a></sup>
</td>
<td><span class="mwe-math-element"><span class="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-math-
mathml-a11y" style="display: none;"><math
xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" alttext="{\displaystyle B+{\frac {PL}
{2}}\,\!}">
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mi>B</mi>
<mo>+</mo>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mfrac>
<mrow>
<mi>P</mi>
<mi>L</mi>
</mrow>
<mn>2</mn>
</mfrac>
</mrow>
<mspace width="thinmathspace" />
<mspace width="negativethinmathspace" />
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle B+{\frac {PL}
{2}}\,\!}</annotation>
</semantics>
</math></span><img
src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/c50c5fca427dc232041d2c
d4587b58aada992a4b" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline" aria-hidden="true"
style="vertical-align: -1.838ex; margin-right: -0.387ex; width:9.156ex;
height:5.176ex;" alt="B+{\frac {PL}{2}}\,\!"/></span>
</td>
<td><span class="mwe-math-element"><span class="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-math-
mathml-a11y" style="display: none;"><math
xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" alttext="{\displaystyle B}">
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mi>B</mi>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle B}</annotation>
</semantics>
</math></span><img
src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/47136aad860d145f75f3ee
d3022df827cee94d7a" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline" aria-hidden="true"
style="vertical-align: -0.338ex; width:1.764ex; height:2.176ex;" alt="B"/></span>
is the base area, <span class="mwe-math-element"><span class="mwe-math-mathml-
inline mwe-math-mathml-a11y" style="display: none;"><math
xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" alttext="{\displaystyle P}">
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mi>P</mi>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle P}</annotation>
</semantics>
</math></span><img
src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/b4dc73bf40314945ff376b
d363916a738548d40a" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline" aria-hidden="true"
style="vertical-align: -0.338ex; width:1.745ex; height:2.176ex;" alt="P"/></span>
is the base perimeter and <span class="mwe-math-element"><span class="mwe-math-
mathml-inline mwe-math-mathml-a11y" style="display: none;"><math
xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" alttext="{\displaystyle L}">
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mi>L</mi>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle L}</annotation>
</semantics>
</math></span><img
src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/103168b86f781fe6e9a4a8
7b8ea1cebe0ad4ede8" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline" aria-hidden="true"
style="vertical-align: -0.338ex; width:1.583ex; height:2.176ex;" alt="L"/></span>
is the slant height.
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td>Total surface area of a <a href="/wiki/Pyramid_(geometry)" title="Pyramid
(geometry)">pyramid</a> <a href="/wiki/Frustum" title="Frustum">frustum</a><sup
id="cite_ref-MathWorldSurfaceArea_6-5" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-
MathWorldSurfaceArea-6">&#91;6&#93;</a></sup>
</td>
<td><span class="mwe-math-element"><span class="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-math-
mathml-a11y" style="display: none;"><math
xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" alttext="{\displaystyle B+{\frac {PL}
{2}}\,\!}">
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mi>B</mi>
<mo>+</mo>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mfrac>
<mrow>
<mi>P</mi>
<mi>L</mi>
</mrow>
<mn>2</mn>
</mfrac>
</mrow>
<mspace width="thinmathspace" />
<mspace width="negativethinmathspace" />
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle B+{\frac {PL}
{2}}\,\!}</annotation>
</semantics>
</math></span><img
src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/c50c5fca427dc232041d2c
d4587b58aada992a4b" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline" aria-hidden="true"
style="vertical-align: -1.838ex; margin-right: -0.387ex; width:9.156ex;
height:5.176ex;" alt="B+{\frac {PL}{2}}\,\!"/></span>
</td>
<td><span class="mwe-math-element"><span class="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-math-
mathml-a11y" style="display: none;"><math
xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" alttext="{\displaystyle B}">
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mi>B</mi>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle B}</annotation>
</semantics>
</math></span><img
src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/47136aad860d145f75f3ee
d3022df827cee94d7a" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline" aria-hidden="true"
style="vertical-align: -0.338ex; width:1.764ex; height:2.176ex;" alt="B"/></span>
is the base area, <span class="mwe-math-element"><span class="mwe-math-mathml-
inline mwe-math-mathml-a11y" style="display: none;"><math
xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" alttext="{\displaystyle P}">
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mi>P</mi>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle P}</annotation>
</semantics>
</math></span><img
src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/b4dc73bf40314945ff376b
d363916a738548d40a" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline" aria-hidden="true"
style="vertical-align: -0.338ex; width:1.745ex; height:2.176ex;" alt="P"/></span>
is the base perimeter and <span class="mwe-math-element"><span class="mwe-math-
mathml-inline mwe-math-mathml-a11y" style="display: none;"><math
xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" alttext="{\displaystyle L}">
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mi>L</mi>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle L}</annotation>
</semantics>
</math></span><img
src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/103168b86f781fe6e9a4a8
7b8ea1cebe0ad4ede8" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline" aria-hidden="true"
style="vertical-align: -0.338ex; width:1.583ex; height:2.176ex;" alt="L"/></span>
is the slant height.
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td><a href="/wiki/Square" title="Square">Square</a> to circular area conversion
</td>
<td><span class="mwe-math-element"><span class="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-math-
mathml-a11y" style="display: none;"><math
xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" alttext="{\displaystyle {\frac {4}
{\pi }}A\,\!}">
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mfrac>
<mn>4</mn>
<mi>&#x03C0;<!-- π --></mi>
</mfrac>
</mrow>
<mi>A</mi>
<mspace width="thinmathspace" />
<mspace width="negativethinmathspace" />
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle {\frac {4}
{\pi }}A\,\!}</annotation>
</semantics>
</math></span><img
src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/7f1d5a0046409bcf949fb1
5a3056dc5322acd3b1" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline" aria-hidden="true"
style="vertical-align: -1.838ex; margin-right: -0.387ex; width:4.298ex;
height:5.176ex;" alt="{\frac {4}{\pi }}A\,\!"/></span>
</td>
<td><span class="mwe-math-element"><span class="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-math-
mathml-a11y" style="display: none;"><math
xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" alttext="{\displaystyle A}">
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mi>A</mi>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle A}</annotation>
</semantics>
</math></span><img
src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/7daff47fa58cdfd29dc333
def748ff5fa4c923e3" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline" aria-hidden="true"
style="vertical-align: -0.338ex; width:1.743ex; height:2.176ex;" alt="A"/></span>
is the area of the <a href="/wiki/Square" title="Square">square</a> in square
units.
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td><a href="/wiki/Circle" title="Circle">Circular</a> to square area conversion
</td>
<td><span class="mwe-math-element"><span class="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-math-
mathml-a11y" style="display: none;"><math
xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" alttext="{\displaystyle {\frac {\pi }
{4}}C\,\!}">
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mfrac>
<mi>&#x03C0;<!-- π --></mi>
<mn>4</mn>
</mfrac>
</mrow>
<mi>C</mi>
<mspace width="thinmathspace" />
<mspace width="negativethinmathspace" />
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle {\frac {\pi }
{4}}C\,\!}</annotation>
</semantics>
</math></span><img
src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/146562d188e9b0d4bc29e2
beeb61b14de7427172" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline" aria-hidden="true"
style="vertical-align: -1.838ex; margin-right: -0.387ex; width:4.322ex;
height:4.676ex;" alt="{\frac {\pi }{4}}C\,\!"/></span>
</td>
<td><span class="mwe-math-element"><span class="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-math-
mathml-a11y" style="display: none;"><math
xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" alttext="{\displaystyle C}">
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mi>C</mi>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle C}</annotation>
</semantics>
</math></span><img
src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/4fc55753007cd3c18576f7
933f6f089196732029" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline" aria-hidden="true"
style="vertical-align: -0.338ex; width:1.766ex; height:2.176ex;" alt="C"/></span>
is the area of the <a href="/wiki/Circle" title="Circle">circle</a> in circular
units.
</td></tr></tbody></table>
<p>The above calculations show how to find the areas of many common <a
href="/wiki/Shapes" class="mw-redirect" title="Shapes">shapes</a>.
</p><p>The areas of irregular polygons can be calculated using the "<a
href="/wiki/Surveyor%27s_formula" class="mw-redirect" title="Surveyor&#39;s
formula">Surveyor's formula</a>".<sup id="cite_ref-Surveyor_24-1"
class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Surveyor-24">&#91;24&#93;</a></sup>
</p>
<h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Relation_of_area_to_perimeter">Relation of area
to perimeter</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-
bracket">[</span><a href="/w/index.php?title=Area&amp;action=edit&amp;section=27"
title="Edit section: Relation of area to perimeter">edit</a><span class="mw-
editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h3>
<p>The <a href="/wiki/Isoperimetric_inequality" title="Isoperimetric
inequality">isoperimetric inequality</a> states that, for a closed curve of length
<i>L</i> (so the region it encloses has <a href="/wiki/Perimeter"
title="Perimeter">perimeter</a> <i>L</i>) and for area <i>A</i> of the region that
it encloses,
</p>
<dl><dd><span class="mwe-math-element"><span class="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-
math-mathml-a11y" style="display: none;"><math
xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" alttext="{\displaystyle 4\pi A\leq
L^{2},}">
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mn>4</mn>
<mi>&#x03C0;<!-- π --></mi>
<mi>A</mi>
<mo>&#x2264;<!-- ≤ --></mo>
<msup>
<mi>L</mi>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mn>2</mn>
</mrow>
</msup>
<mo>,</mo>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle 4\pi A\leq
L^{2},}</annotation>
</semantics>
</math></span><img
src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/dd8bd2c0d6a1230d3672a7
9f0974b1488aa89df1" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline" aria-hidden="true"
style="vertical-align: -0.671ex; width:10.62ex; height:3.009ex;" alt="4\pi A\leq
L^{2},"/></span></dd></dl>
<p>and equality holds if and only if the curve is a <a href="/wiki/Circle"
title="Circle">circle</a>. Thus a circle has the largest area of any closed figure
with a given perimeter.
</p><p>At the other extreme, a figure with given perimeter <i>L</i> could have an
arbitrarily small area, as illustrated by a <a href="/wiki/Rhombus"
title="Rhombus">rhombus</a> that is "tipped over" arbitrarily far so that two of
its <a href="/wiki/Angle" title="Angle">angles</a> are arbitrarily close to 0° and
the other two are arbitrarily close to 180°.
</p><p>For a circle, the ratio of the area to the <a href="/wiki/Circumference"
title="Circumference">circumference</a> (the term for the perimeter of a circle)
equals half the <a href="/wiki/Radius" title="Radius">radius</a> <i>r</i>. This can
be seen from the area formula <i>πr</i><sup>2</sup> and the circumference formula
2<i>πr</i>.
</p><p>The area of a <a href="/wiki/Regular_polygon" title="Regular
polygon">regular polygon</a> is half its perimeter times the <a
href="/wiki/Apothem" title="Apothem">apothem</a> (where the apothem is the distance
from the center to the nearest point on any side).
</p>
<h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Fractals">Fractals</span><span class="mw-
editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a href="/w/index.php?
title=Area&amp;action=edit&amp;section=28" title="Edit section:
Fractals">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h3>
<p>Doubling the edge lengths of a polygon multiplies its area by four, which is two
(the ratio of the new to the old side length) raised to the power of two (the
dimension of the space the polygon resides in). But if the one-dimensional lengths
of a <a href="/wiki/Fractal" title="Fractal">fractal</a> drawn in two dimensions
are all doubled, the spatial content of the fractal scales by a power of two that
is not necessarily an integer. This power is called the <a
href="/wiki/Fractal_dimension" title="Fractal dimension">fractal dimension</a> of
the fractal.
<sup id="cite_ref-Mandelbrot1983_29-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-
Mandelbrot1983-29">&#91;29&#93;</a></sup>
</p>
<h2><span class="mw-headline" id="Area_bisectors">Area bisectors</span><span
class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a
href="/w/index.php?title=Area&amp;action=edit&amp;section=29" title="Edit section:
Area bisectors">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h2>
<div role="note" class="hatnote navigation-not-searchable">Main article: <a
href="/wiki/Bisection#Area_bisectors_and_perimeter_bisectors"
title="Bisection">Bisection §&#160;Area bisectors and perimeter bisectors</a></div>
<p>There are an infinitude of lines that bisect the area of a triangle. Three of
them are the <a href="/wiki/Median_(triangle)" class="mw-redirect" title="Median
(triangle)">medians</a> of the triangle (which connect the sides' midpoints with
the opposite vertices), and these are <a href="/wiki/Concurrent_lines"
title="Concurrent lines">concurrent</a> at the triangle's <a href="/wiki/Centroid"
title="Centroid">centroid</a>; indeed, they are the only area bisectors that go
through the centroid. Any line through a triangle that splits both the triangle's
area and its perimeter in half goes through the triangle's incenter (the center of
its <a href="/wiki/Incircle" class="mw-redirect" title="Incircle">incircle</a>).
There are either one, two, or three of these for any given triangle.
</p><p>Any line through the midpoint of a parallelogram bisects the area.
</p><p>All area bisectors of a circle or other ellipse go through the center, and
any <a href="/wiki/Chord_(geometry)" title="Chord (geometry)">chords</a> through
the center bisect the area. In the case of a circle they are the diameters of the
circle.
</p>
<h2><span class="mw-headline" id="Optimization">Optimization</span><span class="mw-
editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a href="/w/index.php?
title=Area&amp;action=edit&amp;section=30" title="Edit section:
Optimization">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h2>
<p>Given a wire contour, the surface of least area spanning ("filling") it is a <a
href="/wiki/Minimal_surface" title="Minimal surface">minimal surface</a>. Familiar
examples include <a href="/wiki/Soap_bubble" title="Soap bubble">soap bubbles</a>.
</p><p>The question of the <a href="/wiki/Filling_area_conjecture" title="Filling
area conjecture">filling area</a> of the <a href="/wiki/Riemannian_circle"
title="Riemannian circle">Riemannian circle</a> remains open.<sup id="cite_ref-30"
class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-30">&#91;30&#93;</a></sup>
</p><p>The circle has the largest area of any two-dimensional object having the
same perimeter.
</p><p>A <a href="/wiki/Cyclic_polygon" class="mw-redirect" title="Cyclic
polygon">cyclic polygon</a> (one inscribed in a circle) has the largest area of any
polygon with a given number of sides of the same lengths.
</p><p>A version of the <a href="/wiki/Isoperimetric_inequality"
title="Isoperimetric inequality">isoperimetric inequality</a> for triangles states
that the triangle of greatest area among all those with a given perimeter is <a
href="/wiki/Equilateral" class="mw-redirect"
title="Equilateral">equilateral</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-Chakerian_31-0"
class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Chakerian-31">&#91;31&#93;</a></sup>
</p><p>The triangle of largest area of all those inscribed in a given circle is
equilateral; and the triangle of smallest area of all those circumscribed around a
given circle is equilateral.<sup id="cite_ref-32" class="reference"><a
href="#cite_note-32">&#91;32&#93;</a></sup>
</p><p>The ratio of the area of the incircle to the area of an equilateral
triangle, <span class="mwe-math-element"><span class="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-
math-mathml-a11y" style="display: none;"><math
xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" alttext="{\displaystyle {\frac {\pi }
{3{\sqrt {3}}}}}">
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mfrac>
<mi>&#x03C0;<!-- π --></mi>
<mrow>
<mn>3</mn>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<msqrt>
<mn>3</mn>
</msqrt>
</mrow>
</mrow>
</mfrac>
</mrow>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle {\frac {\pi }{3{\sqrt
{3}}}}}</annotation>
</semantics>
</math></span><img
src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/9e87580f1fcf9c9b18a8e4
a5d9261491e79b8bf8" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline" aria-hidden="true"
style="vertical-align: -2.838ex; width:5.097ex; height:5.676ex;" alt="{\frac {\pi }
{3{\sqrt {3}}}}"/></span>, is larger than that of any non-equilateral triangle.<sup
id="cite_ref-33" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-33">&#91;33&#93;</a></sup>
</p><p>The ratio of the area to the square of the perimeter of an equilateral
triangle, <span class="mwe-math-element"><span class="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-
math-mathml-a11y" style="display: none;"><math
xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" alttext="{\displaystyle {\frac {1}
{12{\sqrt {3}}}},}">
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mfrac>
<mn>1</mn>
<mrow>
<mn>12</mn>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<msqrt>
<mn>3</mn>
</msqrt>
</mrow>
</mrow>
</mfrac>
</mrow>
<mo>,</mo>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle {\frac {1}{12{\sqrt
{3}}}},}</annotation>
</semantics>
</math></span><img
src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/844409c74d8d57e537c55a
4c22aeea1a25ecd65a" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline" aria-hidden="true"
style="vertical-align: -2.838ex; width:6.906ex; height:6.176ex;" alt="\frac{1}
{12\sqrt{3}},"/></span> is larger than that for any other triangle.<sup
id="cite_ref-Chakerian_31-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Chakerian-
31">&#91;31&#93;</a></sup>
</p>
<h2><span class="mw-headline" id="See_also">See also</span><span class="mw-
editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a href="/w/index.php?
title=Area&amp;action=edit&amp;section=31" title="Edit section: See
also">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h2>
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Brahmagupta_quadrilateral" class="mw-redirect"
title="Brahmagupta quadrilateral">Brahmagupta quadrilateral</a>, a cyclic
quadrilateral with integer sides, integer diagonals, and integer area.</li>
<li><a href="/wiki/2_%C3%97_2_real_matrices#Equi-areal_mapping" title="2 × 2 real
matrices">Equi-areal mapping</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Heronian_triangle" title="Heronian triangle">Heronian
triangle</a>, a triangle with integer sides and integer area.</li>
<li><a href="/wiki/List_of_triangle_inequalities#Area" title="List of triangle
inequalities">List of triangle inequalities</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/One-seventh_area_triangle" title="One-seventh area
triangle">One-seventh area triangle</a>, an inner triangle with one-seventh the
area of the reference triangle.</li></ul>
<dl><dd><ul><li><a href="/wiki/Routh%27s_theorem" title="Routh&#39;s
theorem">Routh's theorem</a>, a generalization of the one-seventh area
triangle.</li></ul></dd></dl>
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Orders_of_magnitude_(area)" title="Orders of magnitude
(area)">Orders of magnitude</a>—A list of areas by size.</li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Pentagon#Derivation_of_the_area_formula"
title="Pentagon">Derivation of the formula of a pentagon</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Planimeter" title="Planimeter">Planimeter</a>, an instrument for
measuring small areas, e.g. on maps.</li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Quadrilateral#Area_of_a_convex_quadrilateral"
title="Quadrilateral">Area of a convex quadrilateral</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Region_(mathematics)" title="Region
(mathematics)">Region</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Robbins_pentagon" title="Robbins pentagon">Robbins pentagon</a>,
a cyclic pentagon whose side lengths and area are all rational numbers.</li></ul>
<h2><span class="mw-headline" id="References">References</span><span class="mw-
editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a href="/w/index.php?
title=Area&amp;action=edit&amp;section=32" title="Edit section:
References">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h2>
<div class="reflist" style="list-style-type: decimal;">
<div class="mw-references-wrap mw-references-columns"><ol class="references">
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MathWorld_1-0"><sup><i><b>a</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-MathWorld_1-
1"><sup><i><b>b</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-MathWorld_1-
2"><sup><i><b>c</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-MathWorld_1-
3"><sup><i><b>d</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-MathWorld_1-
4"><sup><i><b>e</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-MathWorld_1-
5"><sup><i><b>f</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-MathWorld_1-
6"><sup><i><b>g</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-MathWorld_1-
7"><sup><i><b>h</b></i></sup></a></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite
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href="http://mathworld.wolfram.com/Area.html">"Area"</a>. <a
href="/wiki/Wolfram_MathWorld" class="mw-redirect" title="Wolfram
MathWorld">Wolfram MathWorld</a>. <a rel="nofollow" class="external text"
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html">Archived</a> from the original on 5 May 2012<span class="reference-
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title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx
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;rft.au=Weisstein%2C+Eric+W.&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fmathworld.wolfram.com
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class="Z3988"></span><style data-mw-deduplicate="TemplateStyles:r951705291">.mw-
parser-output cite.citation{font-style:inherit}.mw-parser-output .citation
q{quotes:"\"""\"""'""'"}.mw-parser-output .id-lock-free a,.mw-parser-output
.citation .cs1-lock-free a{background-
image:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/65/Lock-green.svg/9px-
Lock-green.svg.png");background-image:linear-
gradient(transparent,transparent),url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/6/6
5/Lock-green.svg");background-repeat:no-repeat;background-size:9px;background-
position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .id-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-
output .id-lock-registration a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-
parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-registration a{background-
image:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-
2.svg/9px-Lock-gray-alt-2.svg.png");background-image:linear-
gradient(transparent,transparent),url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/d/d
6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg");background-repeat:no-repeat;background-size:9px;background-
position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .id-lock-subscription a,.mw-parser-
output .citation .cs1-lock-subscription a{background-
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2.svg/9px-Lock-red-alt-2.svg.png");background-image:linear-
gradient(transparent,transparent),url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/a/a
a/Lock-red-alt-2.svg");background-repeat:no-repeat;background-size:9px;background-
position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output
.cs1-registration{color:#555}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-
output .cs1-registration span{border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help}.mw-parser-
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logo.svg/12px-Wikisource-logo.svg.png");background-image:linear-
gradient(transparent,transparent),url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/4/4
c/Wikisource-logo.svg");background-repeat:no-repeat;background-
size:12px;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output code.cs1-
code{color:inherit;background:inherit;border:inherit;padding:inherit}.mw-parser-
output .cs1-hidden-error{display:none;font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-
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maint{display:none;color:#33aa33;margin-left:0.3em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-
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.cs1-kern-wl-right{padding-right:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .citation .mw-
selflink{font-weight:inherit}</style></span>
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<li id="cite_note-AF-2"><span class="mw-cite-backlink">^ <a href="#cite_ref-AF_2-
0"><sup><i><b>a</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-AF_2-
1"><sup><i><b>b</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-AF_2-
2"><sup><i><b>c</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-AF_2-
3"><sup><i><b>d</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-AF_2-
4"><sup><i><b>e</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-AF_2-
5"><sup><i><b>f</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-AF_2-
6"><sup><i><b>g</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-AF_2-
7"><sup><i><b>h</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-AF_2-
8"><sup><i><b>i</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-AF_2-
9"><sup><i><b>j</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-AF_2-
10"><sup><i><b>k</b></i></sup></a></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite
class="citation web cs1"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text"
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y/areas.htm">Archived</a> from the original on 2 July 2012<span class="reference-
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title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx
%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=unknown&amp;rft.btitle=Area+Formulas&amp;rft.pub=Math.com&amp
;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.math.com%2Ftables%2Fgeometry%2Fareas.htm&amp;rfr_id=info
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</li>
<li id="cite_note-B-3"><span class="mw-cite-backlink">^ <a href="#cite_ref-B_3-
0"><sup><i><b>a</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-B_3-
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the CGPM (1960)"</a>. <a href="/wiki/Bureau_International_des_Poids_et_Mesures"
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12/">Archived</a> from the original on 2012-07-28<span class="reference-
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%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx
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he+CGPM+
%281960%29&amp;rft.pub=Bureau+International+des+Poids+et+Mesures&amp;rft_id=http%3A
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%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AArea" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-
style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r951705291"/></span>
</li>
<li id="cite_note-bkos-4"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-
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id="CITEREFMark_de_BergMarc_van_KreveldMark_OvermarsOtfried_Schwarzkopf2000"
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href="https://archive.org/details/computationalgeo00berg/page/45">45–61</a>. <a
href="/wiki/ISBN_(identifier)" class="mw-redirect" title="ISBN
(identifier)">ISBN</a>&#160;<a href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/978-3-540-65620-3"
title="Special:BookSources/978-3-540-65620-3"><bdi>978-3-540-65620-
3</bdi></a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi
%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx
%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=bookitem&amp;rft.atitle=Chapter+3%3A+Polygon+Triangulation&am
p;rft.btitle=Computational+Geometry&amp;rft.pages=45-
61&amp;rft.edition=2nd+revised&amp;rft.pub=Springer-
Verlag&amp;rft.date=2000&amp;rft.isbn=978-3-540-65620-
3&amp;rft.au=Mark+de+Berg&amp;rft.au=Marc+van+Kreveld&amp;rft.au=Mark+Overmars&amp;
rft.au=Otfried+Schwarzkopf&amp;rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Farchive.org%2Fdetails
%2Fcomputationalgeo00berg%2Fpage%2F45&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org
%3AArea" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-
data:TemplateStyles:r951705291"/></span>
</li>
<li id="cite_note-5"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-
5">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite id="CITEREFBoyer1959"
class="citation book cs1"><a href="/wiki/Carl_Benjamin_Boyer" title="Carl Benjamin
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href="https://archive.org/details/historyofcalculu00boye"><i>A History of the
Calculus and Its Conceptual Development</i></a>. Dover. <a
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8</bdi></a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi
%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx
%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=book&amp;rft.btitle=A+History+of+the+Calculus+and+Its+Concept
ual+Development&amp;rft.pub=Dover&amp;rft.date=1959&amp;rft.isbn=978-0-486-60509-
8&amp;rft.aulast=Boyer&amp;rft.aufirst=Carl+B.&amp;rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Farchive.org
%2Fdetails%2Fhistoryofcalculu00boye&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org
%3AArea" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-
data:TemplateStyles:r951705291"/></span>
</li>
<li id="cite_note-MathWorldSurfaceArea-6"><span class="mw-cite-backlink">^ <a
href="#cite_ref-MathWorldSurfaceArea_6-0"><sup><i><b>a</b></i></sup></a> <a
href="#cite_ref-MathWorldSurfaceArea_6-1"><sup><i><b>b</b></i></sup></a> <a
href="#cite_ref-MathWorldSurfaceArea_6-2"><sup><i><b>c</b></i></sup></a> <a
href="#cite_ref-MathWorldSurfaceArea_6-3"><sup><i><b>d</b></i></sup></a> <a
href="#cite_ref-MathWorldSurfaceArea_6-4"><sup><i><b>e</b></i></sup></a> <a
href="#cite_ref-MathWorldSurfaceArea_6-5"><sup><i><b>f</b></i></sup></a></span>
<span class="reference-text"><cite id="CITEREFWeisstein,_Eric_W." class="citation
web cs1"><a href="/wiki/Eric_W._Weisstein" title="Eric W. Weisstein">Weisstein,
Eric W.</a> <a rel="nofollow" class="external text"
href="http://mathworld.wolfram.com/SurfaceArea.html">"Surface Area"</a>. <a
href="/wiki/Wolfram_MathWorld" class="mw-redirect" title="Wolfram
MathWorld">Wolfram MathWorld</a>. <a rel="nofollow" class="external text"
href="https://web.archive.org/web/20120623021029/http://mathworld.wolfram.com/Surfa
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accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">3 July</span> 2012</span>.</cite><span
title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx
%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=unknown&amp;rft.btitle=Surface+Area&amp;rft.pub=Wolfram+MathW
orld&amp;rft.au=Weisstein%2C+Eric+W.&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fmathworld.wolfram.com
%2FSurfaceArea.html&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AArea"
class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-
data:TemplateStyles:r951705291"/></span>
</li>
<li id="cite_note-7"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-
7">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite id="CITEREFFoundation"
class="citation web cs1">Foundation, CK-12. <a rel="nofollow" class="external text"
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GEO-CCSS/">"Surface Area"</a>. <i>CK-12 Foundation</i><span class="reference-
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12+Foundation&amp;rft.atitle=Surface+Area&amp;rft.aulast=Foundation&amp;rft.aufirst
=CK-12&amp;rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.ck12.org%2Fc%2Fgeometry%2Fsurface-area%2Flesson
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data:TemplateStyles:r951705291"/></span>
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<li id="cite_note-doCarmo-8"><span class="mw-cite-backlink">^ <a href="#cite_ref-
doCarmo_8-0"><sup><i><b>a</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-doCarmo_8-
1"><sup><i><b>b</b></i></sup></a></span> <span class="reference-text"><a
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data:TemplateStyles:r951705291"/><a href="/wiki/ISBN_(identifier)" class="mw-
redirect" title="ISBN (identifier)">ISBN</a>&#160;<a
href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/978-0-13-212589-5" title="Special:BookSources/978-
0-13-212589-5">978-0-13-212589-5</a></span>
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<li id="cite_note-Rudin-9"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-
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style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r951705291"/><a href="/wiki/ISBN_(identifier)"
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href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/0-07-100276-6" title="Special:BookSources/0-07-
100276-6">0-07-100276-6</a>.</span>
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<li id="cite_note-10"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-
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Analysis: modern techniques and their applications</i>, John Wiley &amp; Sons,
Inc., p. 20, <link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-
data:TemplateStyles:r951705291"/><a href="/wiki/ISBN_(identifier)" class="mw-
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31716-0">0-471-31716-0</a></span>
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<li id="cite_note-Moise-11"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-
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from an Advanced Standpoint</i></a></span>. Addison-Wesley Pub. Co<span
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+Co.&amp;rft.date=1963&amp;rft.aulast=Moise&amp;rft.aufirst=Edwin&amp;rft_id=https
%3A%2F%2Farchive.org%2Fdetails%2Felementarygeomet0000mois&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid
%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AArea" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-
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<li id="cite_note-BIPM2006Ch5-12"><span class="mw-cite-backlink">^ <a
href="#cite_ref-BIPM2006Ch5_12-0"><sup><i><b>a</b></i></sup></a> <a
href="#cite_ref-BIPM2006Ch5_12-1"><sup><i><b>b</b></i></sup></a> <a
href="#cite_ref-BIPM2006Ch5_12-2"><sup><i><b>c</b></i></sup></a> <a
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rel="nofollow" class="external text"
href="https://web.archive.org/web/20131105051930/http://www.bipm.org/utils/common/p
df/si_brochure_8_en.pdf">Archived</a> <span class="cs1-format">(PDF)</span> from
the original on 2013-11-05<span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span
class="nowrap">2008-02-13</span></span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-
2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx
%3Ajournal&amp;rft.genre=article&amp;rft.atitle=The+International+System+of+Units+
%28SI
%29&amp;rft.date=2006&amp;rft.au=Bureau+international+des+poids+et+mesures&amp;rft_
id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.bipm.org%2Futils%2Fcommon%2Fpdf
%2Fsi_brochure_8_en.pdf&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AArea"
class="Z3988"></span> <span class="cs1-hidden-error error citation-comment">Cite
journal requires <code class="cs1-code">&#124;journal=</code> (<a
href="/wiki/Help:CS1_errors#missing_periodical" title="Help:CS1
errors">help</a>)</span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-
data:TemplateStyles:r951705291"/> Chapter 5.</span>
</li>
<li id="cite_note-heath-13"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-
heath_13-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite
id="CITEREFHeath2003" class="citation cs2"><a href="/wiki/Thomas_Little_Heath"
class="mw-redirect" title="Thomas Little Heath">Heath, Thomas L.</a> (2003), <a
rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://books.google.com/books?
id=_HZNr_mGFzQC&amp;pg=PA121"><i>A Manual of Greek Mathematics</i></a>, Courier
Dover Publications, pp.&#160;121–132, <a href="/wiki/ISBN_(identifier)" class="mw-
redirect" title="ISBN (identifier)">ISBN</a>&#160;<a
href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/978-0-486-43231-1" title="Special:BookSources/978-
0-486-43231-1"><bdi>978-0-486-43231-1</bdi></a>, <a rel="nofollow" class="external
text"
href="https://web.archive.org/web/20160501215852/https://books.google.com/books?
id=_HZNr_mGFzQC&amp;pg=PA121">archived</a> from the original on 2016-05-
01</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev
%3Amtx
%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=book&amp;rft.btitle=A+Manual+of+Greek+Mathematics&amp;rft.pag
es=121-
132&amp;rft.pub=Courier+Dover+Publications&amp;rft.date=2003&amp;rft.isbn=978-0-
486-43231-1&amp;rft.aulast=Heath&amp;rft.aufirst=Thomas+L.&amp;rft_id=https%3A%2F
%2Fbooks.google.com%2Fbooks%3Fid%3D_HZNr_mGFzQC%26pg%3DPA121&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid
%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AArea" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-
style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r951705291"/></span>
</li>
<li id="cite_note-14"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-
14">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite id="CITEREFStewart2003"
class="citation book cs1">Stewart, James (2003). <a rel="nofollow" class="external
text" href="https://archive.org/details/singlevariableca00stew/page/3"><i>Single
variable calculus early transcendentals</i></a> (5th. ed.). Toronto ON: Brook/Cole.
p.&#160;<a rel="nofollow" class="external text"
href="https://archive.org/details/singlevariableca00stew/page/3">3</a>. <a
href="/wiki/ISBN_(identifier)" class="mw-redirect" title="ISBN
(identifier)">ISBN</a>&#160;<a href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/978-0-534-39330-4"
title="Special:BookSources/978-0-534-39330-4"><bdi>978-0-534-39330-4</bdi></a>.
<q>However, by indirect reasoning, Eudoxus (fifth century B.C.) used exhaustion to
prove the familiar formula for the area of a circle: <span class="mwe-math-
element"><span class="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-math-mathml-a11y" style="display:
none;"><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" alttext="{\displaystyle
A=\pi r^{2}.}">
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mi>A</mi>
<mo>=</mo>
<mi>&#x03C0;<!-- π --></mi>
<msup>
<mi>r</mi>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mn>2</mn>
</mrow>
</msup>
<mo>.</mo>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle A=\pi
r^{2}.}</annotation>
</semantics>
</math></span><img
src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/ecdb193f0c084cce66161e
383a7e8acb1eea80f1" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline" aria-hidden="true"
style="vertical-align: -0.338ex; width:8.923ex; height:2.676ex;" alt="A= \pi
r^2."/></span></q></cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info
%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx
%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=book&amp;rft.btitle=Single+variable+calculus+early+transcende
ntals.&amp;rft.place=Toronto+ON&amp;rft.pages=3&amp;rft.edition=5th.&amp;rft.pub=Br
ook%2FCole&amp;rft.date=2003&amp;rft.isbn=978-0-534-39330-
4&amp;rft.aulast=Stewart&amp;rft.aufirst=James&amp;rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Farchive.org
%2Fdetails%2Fsinglevariableca00stew%2Fpage%2F3&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid
%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AArea" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-
style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r951705291"/> </span>
</li>
<li id="cite_note-Arndt-15"><span class="mw-cite-backlink">^ <a href="#cite_ref-
Arndt_15-0"><sup><i><b>a</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-Arndt_15-
1"><sup><i><b>b</b></i></sup></a></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite
id="CITEREFArndtHaene_l2006" class="citation book cs1">Arndt, Jörg; Haene l,
Christoph (2006). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text"
href="https://books.google.com/?
id=QwwcmweJCDQC&amp;printsec=frontcover#v=onepage&amp;q&amp;f=false"><i>Pi
Unleashed</i></a>. Springer-Verlag. <a href="/wiki/ISBN_(identifier)" class="mw-
redirect" title="ISBN (identifier)">ISBN</a>&#160;<a
href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/978-3-540-66572-4" title="Special:BookSources/978-
3-540-66572-4"><bdi>978-3-540-66572-4</bdi></a><span class="reference-accessdate">.
Retrieved <span class="nowrap">2013-06-05</span></span>.</cite><span
title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx
%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=book&amp;rft.btitle=Pi+Unleashed&amp;rft.pub=Springer-
Verlag&amp;rft.date=2006&amp;rft.isbn=978-3-540-66572-
4&amp;rft.aulast=Arndt&amp;rft.aufirst=J%C3%B6rg&amp;rft.au=Haene+l
%2C+Christoph&amp;rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fbooks.google.com%2F%3Fid%3DQwwcmweJCDQC
%26printsec%3Dfrontcover%23v%3Donepage%26q%26f%3Dfalse&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid
%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AArea" class="Z3988"></span><span class="cs1-maint citation-
comment">CS1 maint: ref=harv (<a href="/wiki/Category:CS1_maint:_ref%3Dharv"
title="Category:CS1 maint: ref=harv">link</a>)</span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-
inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r951705291"/> English translation by
Catriona and David Lischka.</span>
</li>
<li id="cite_note-16"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-
16">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite id="CITEREFEves1990"
class="citation cs2">Eves, Howard (1990), <i>An Introduction to the History of
Mathematics</i> (6th ed.), Saunders, p.&#160;121, <a href="/wiki/ISBN_(identifier)"
class="mw-redirect" title="ISBN (identifier)">ISBN</a>&#160;<a
href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/978-0-03-029558-4" title="Special:BookSources/978-
0-03-029558-4"><bdi>978-0-03-029558-4</bdi></a></cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-
2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx
%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=book&amp;rft.btitle=An+Introduction+to+the+History+of+Mathema
tics&amp;rft.pages=121&amp;rft.edition=6th&amp;rft.pub=Saunders&amp;rft.date=1990&a
mp;rft.isbn=978-0-03-029558-
4&amp;rft.aulast=Eves&amp;rft.aufirst=Howard&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid
%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AArea" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-
style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r951705291"/></span>
</li>
<li id="cite_note-17"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-
17">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite
id="CITEREFHeath,_Thomas_L.1921" class="citation book cs1">Heath, Thomas L. (1921).
<i>A History of Greek Mathematics (Vol II)</i>. Oxford University Press.
pp.&#160;321–323.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi
%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx
%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=book&amp;rft.btitle=A+History+of+Greek+Mathematics+%28Vol+II
%29&amp;rft.pages=321-
323&amp;rft.pub=Oxford+University+Press&amp;rft.date=1921&amp;rft.au=Heath
%2C+Thomas+L.&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AArea"
class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-
data:TemplateStyles:r951705291"/></span>
</li>
<li id="cite_note-18"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-
18">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><span class="citation mathworld"
id="Reference-Mathworld-Heron&#39;s_Formula"><cite id="CITEREFWeisstein"
class="citation web cs1"><a href="/wiki/Eric_W._Weisstein" title="Eric W.
Weisstein">Weisstein, Eric W.</a> <a rel="nofollow" class="external text"
href="https://mathworld.wolfram.com/HeronsFormula.html">"Heron's Formula"</a>.
<i><a href="/wiki/MathWorld" title="MathWorld">MathWorld</a></i>.</cite><span
title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx
%3Ajournal&amp;rft.genre=unknown&amp;rft.jtitle=MathWorld&amp;rft.atitle=Heron
%27s+Formula&amp;rft.au=Weisstein%2C+Eric+W.&amp;rft_id=https%3A%2F
%2Fmathworld.wolfram.com%2FHeronsFormula.html&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid
%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AArea" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-
style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r951705291"/></span></span>
</li>
<li id="cite_note-19"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-
19">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite id="CITEREFBourke1988"
class="citation web cs1">Bourke, Paul (July 1988). <a rel="nofollow"
class="external text"
href="http://www.seas.upenn.edu/~sys502/extra_materials/Polygon%20Area%20and
%20Centroid.pdf">"Calculating The Area And Centroid Of A Polygon"</a> <span
class="cs1-format">(PDF)</span>. <a rel="nofollow" class="external text"
href="https://web.archive.org/web/20120916104133/http://www.seas.upenn.edu/~sys502/
extra_materials/Polygon%20Area%20and%20Centroid.pdf">Archived</a> <span class="cs1-
format">(PDF)</span> from the original on 2012-09-16<span class="reference-
accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">6 Feb</span> 2013</span>.</cite><span
title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx
%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=unknown&amp;rft.btitle=Calculating+The+Area+And+Centroid+Of+A
+Polygon&amp;rft.date=1988-
07&amp;rft.aulast=Bourke&amp;rft.aufirst=Paul&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F
%2Fwww.seas.upenn.edu%2F~sys502%2Fextra_materials%2FPolygon%2520Area%2520and
%2520Centroid.pdf&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AArea"
class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-
data:TemplateStyles:r951705291"/></span>
</li>
<li id="cite_note-20"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-
20">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation web cs1"><a
rel="nofollow" class="external text"
href="https://proofwiki.org/wiki/Area_of_Parallelogram/Rectangle">"Area of
Parallelogram/Rectangle"</a>. ProofWiki.org. <a rel="nofollow" class="external
text"
href="https://web.archive.org/web/20150620062553/https://proofwiki.org/wiki/Area_of
_Parallelogram/Rectangle">Archived</a> from the original on 20 June 2015<span
class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">29 May</span>
2016</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi
%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx
%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=unknown&amp;rft.btitle=Area+of+Parallelogram
%2FRectangle&amp;rft.pub=ProofWiki.org&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fproofwiki.org%2Fwiki
%2FArea_of_Parallelogram%2FRectangle&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org
%3AArea" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-
data:TemplateStyles:r951705291"/></span>
</li>
<li id="cite_note-21"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-
21">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation web cs1"><a
rel="nofollow" class="external text"
href="https://proofwiki.org/wiki/Area_of_Square">"Area of Square"</a>.
ProofWiki.org. <a rel="nofollow" class="external text"
href="https://web.archive.org/web/20171104234553/https://proofwiki.org/wiki/Area_of
_Square">Archived</a> from the original on 4 November 2017<span class="reference-
accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">29 May</span> 2016</span>.</cite><span
title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx
%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=unknown&amp;rft.btitle=Area+of+Square&amp;rft.pub=ProofWiki.o
rg&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fproofwiki.org%2Fwiki%2FArea_of_Square&amp;rfr_id=info
%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AArea" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-
inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r951705291"/></span>
</li>
<li id="cite_note-22"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-
22">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite
id="CITEREFAverbachChein2012" class="citation cs2">Averbach, Bonnie; Chein, Orin
(2012), <a rel="nofollow" class="external text"
href="https://books.google.com/books?id=Dz_CAgAAQBAJ&amp;pg=PA306"><i>Problem
Solving Through Recreational Mathematics</i></a>, Dover, p.&#160;306, <a
href="/wiki/ISBN_(identifier)" class="mw-redirect" title="ISBN
(identifier)">ISBN</a>&#160;<a href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/978-0-486-13174-0"
title="Special:BookSources/978-0-486-13174-0"><bdi>978-0-486-13174-0</bdi></a>, <a
rel="nofollow" class="external text"
href="https://web.archive.org/web/20160513101526/https://books.google.com/books?
id=Dz_CAgAAQBAJ&amp;pg=PA306">archived</a> from the original on 2016-05-
13</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev
%3Amtx
%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=book&amp;rft.btitle=Problem+Solving+Through+Recreational+Math
ematics&amp;rft.pages=306&amp;rft.pub=Dover&amp;rft.date=2012&amp;rft.isbn=978-0-
486-13174-0&amp;rft.aulast=Averbach&amp;rft.aufirst=Bonnie&amp;rft.au=Chein
%2C+Orin&amp;rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fbooks.google.com%2Fbooks%3Fid%3DDz_CAgAAQBAJ%26pg
%3DPA306&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AArea"
class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-
data:TemplateStyles:r951705291"/></span>
</li>
<li id="cite_note-23"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-
23">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite id="CITEREFJoshi2002"
class="citation cs2">Joshi, K. D. (2002), <a rel="nofollow" class="external text"
href="https://books.google.com/books?id=5SDcLHkelq4C&amp;pg=PA43"><i>Calculus for
Scientists and Engineers: An Analytical Approach</i></a>, CRC Press, p.&#160;43, <a
href="/wiki/ISBN_(identifier)" class="mw-redirect" title="ISBN
(identifier)">ISBN</a>&#160;<a href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/978-0-8493-1319-6"
title="Special:BookSources/978-0-8493-1319-6"><bdi>978-0-8493-1319-6</bdi></a>, <a
rel="nofollow" class="external text"
href="https://web.archive.org/web/20160505011253/https://books.google.com/books?
id=5SDcLHkelq4C&amp;pg=PA43">archived</a> from the original on 2016-05-
05</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev
%3Amtx
%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=book&amp;rft.btitle=Calculus+for+Scientists+and+Engineers
%3A+An+Analytical+Approach&amp;rft.pages=43&amp;rft.pub=CRC+Press&amp;rft.date=2002
&amp;rft.isbn=978-0-8493-1319-6&amp;rft.aulast=Joshi&amp;rft.aufirst=K.
+D.&amp;rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fbooks.google.com%2Fbooks%3Fid%3D5SDcLHkelq4C%26pg
%3DPA43&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AArea" class="Z3988"></span><link
rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-
data:TemplateStyles:r951705291"/></span>
</li>
<li id="cite_note-Surveyor-24"><span class="mw-cite-backlink">^ <a href="#cite_ref-
Surveyor_24-0"><sup><i><b>a</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-Surveyor_24-
1"><sup><i><b>b</b></i></sup></a></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite
id="CITEREFBraden1986" class="citation journal cs1">Braden, Bart (September 1986).
<a rel="nofollow" class="external text"
href="http://www.maa.org/pubs/Calc_articles/ma063.pdf">"The Surveyor's Area
Formula"</a> <span class="cs1-format">(PDF)</span>. <i>The College Mathematics
Journal</i>. <b>17</b> (4): 326–337. <a href="/wiki/Doi_(identifier)" class="mw-
redirect" title="Doi (identifier)">doi</a>:<a rel="nofollow" class="external text"
href="https://doi.org/10.2307%2F2686282">10.2307/2686282</a>. <a
href="/wiki/JSTOR_(identifier)" class="mw-redirect" title="JSTOR
(identifier)">JSTOR</a>&#160;<a rel="nofollow" class="external text"
href="//www.jstor.org/stable/2686282">2686282</a>. <a rel="nofollow"
class="external text"
href="https://web.archive.org/web/20120627180152/http://www.maa.org/pubs/Calc_artic
les/ma063.pdf">Archived</a> <span class="cs1-format">(PDF)</span> from the original
on 27 June 2012<span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span
class="nowrap">15 July</span> 2012</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-
2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx
%3Ajournal&amp;rft.genre=article&amp;rft.jtitle=The+College+Mathematics+Journal&amp
;rft.atitle=The+Surveyor
%27s+Area+Formula&amp;rft.volume=17&amp;rft.issue=4&amp;rft.pages=326-
337&amp;rft.date=1986-09&amp;rft_id=info%3Adoi%2F10.2307%2F2686282&amp;rft_id=%2F
%2Fwww.jstor.org%2Fstable
%2F2686282&amp;rft.aulast=Braden&amp;rft.aufirst=Bart&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F
%2Fwww.maa.org%2Fpubs%2FCalc_articles%2Fma063.pdf&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid
%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AArea" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-
style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r951705291"/></span>
</li>
<li id="cite_note-Pick-25"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-
Pick_25-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite
id="CITEREFTrainin2007" class="citation journal cs1">Trainin, J. (November 2007).
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2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx
%3Ajournal&amp;rft.genre=article&amp;rft.jtitle=Mathematical+Gazette&amp;rft.atitle
=An+elementary+proof+of+Pick
%27s+theorem&amp;rft.volume=91&amp;rft.issue=522&amp;rft.pages=536-
540&amp;rft.date=2007-11&amp;rft.aulast=Trainin&amp;rft.aufirst=J.&amp;rfr_id=info
%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AArea" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-
inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r951705291"/></span>
</li>
<li id="cite_note-26"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-
26">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation book
cs1"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://books.google.com/books?
id=NFkVfrZBqpUC&amp;pg=PA51"><i>Matematika</i></a>. PT Grafindo Media Pratama.
pp.&#160;51–. <a href="/wiki/ISBN_(identifier)" class="mw-redirect" title="ISBN
(identifier)">ISBN</a>&#160;<a href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/978-979-758-477-1"
title="Special:BookSources/978-979-758-477-1"><bdi>978-979-758-477-1</bdi></a>. <a
rel="nofollow" class="external text"
href="https://web.archive.org/web/20170320100900/https://books.google.com/books?
id=NFkVfrZBqpUC&amp;pg=PA51">Archived</a> from the original on 2017-03-
20.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev
%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=book&amp;rft.btitle=Matematika&amp;rft.pages=51-
&amp;rft.pub=PT+Grafindo+Media+Pratama&amp;rft.isbn=978-979-758-477-
1&amp;rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fbooks.google.com%2Fbooks%3Fid%3DNFkVfrZBqpUC%26pg
%3DPA51&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AArea" class="Z3988"></span><link
rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-
data:TemplateStyles:r951705291"/></span>
</li>
<li id="cite_note-27"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-
27">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation book
cs1"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://books.google.com/books?
id=uwqvITs8OaUC&amp;pg=PA157"><i>Get Success UN +SPMB Matematika</i></a>. PT
Grafindo Media Pratama. pp.&#160;157–. <a href="/wiki/ISBN_(identifier)" class="mw-
redirect" title="ISBN (identifier)">ISBN</a>&#160;<a
href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/978-602-00-0090-9" title="Special:BookSources/978-
602-00-0090-9"><bdi>978-602-00-0090-9</bdi></a>. <a rel="nofollow" class="external
text"
href="https://web.archive.org/web/20161223115304/https://books.google.com/books?
id=uwqvITs8OaUC&amp;pg=PA157">Archived</a> from the original on 2016-12-
23.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev
%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=book&amp;rft.btitle=Get+Success+UN+
%2BSPMB+Matematika&amp;rft.pages=157-
&amp;rft.pub=PT+Grafindo+Media+Pratama&amp;rft.isbn=978-602-00-0090-
9&amp;rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fbooks.google.com%2Fbooks%3Fid%3DuwqvITs8OaUC%26pg
%3DPA157&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AArea"
class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-
data:TemplateStyles:r951705291"/></span>
</li>
<li id="cite_note-MathWorldCone-28"><span class="mw-cite-backlink">^ <a
href="#cite_ref-MathWorldCone_28-0"><sup><i><b>a</b></i></sup></a> <a
href="#cite_ref-MathWorldCone_28-1"><sup><i><b>b</b></i></sup></a> <a
href="#cite_ref-MathWorldCone_28-2"><sup><i><b>c</b></i></sup></a></span> <span
class="reference-text"><cite id="CITEREFWeisstein,_Eric_W." class="citation web
cs1"><a href="/wiki/Eric_W._Weisstein" title="Eric W. Weisstein">Weisstein, Eric
W.</a> <a rel="nofollow" class="external text"
href="http://mathworld.wolfram.com/Cone.html">"Cone"</a>. <a
href="/wiki/Wolfram_MathWorld" class="mw-redirect" title="Wolfram
MathWorld">Wolfram MathWorld</a>. <a rel="nofollow" class="external text"
href="https://web.archive.org/web/20120621230050/http://mathworld.wolfram.com/Cone.
html">Archived</a> from the original on 21 June 2012<span class="reference-
accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">6 July</span> 2012</span>.</cite><span
title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx
%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=unknown&amp;rft.btitle=Cone&amp;rft.pub=Wolfram+MathWorld&amp
;rft.au=Weisstein%2C+Eric+W.&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fmathworld.wolfram.com
%2FCone.html&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AArea"
class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-
data:TemplateStyles:r951705291"/></span>
</li>
<li id="cite_note-Mandelbrot1983-29"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a
href="#cite_ref-Mandelbrot1983_29-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text">
<cite id="CITEREFMandelbrot1983" class="citation book cs1">Mandelbrot, Benoît B.
(1983). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text"
href="https://books.google.com/books?id=JFX9mQEACAAJ"><i>The fractal geometry of
nature</i></a>. Macmillan. <a href="/wiki/ISBN_(identifier)" class="mw-redirect"
title="ISBN (identifier)">ISBN</a>&#160;<a href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/978-0-
7167-1186-5" title="Special:BookSources/978-0-7167-1186-5"><bdi>978-0-7167-1186-
5</bdi></a>. <a rel="nofollow" class="external text"
href="https://web.archive.org/web/20170320115652/https://books.google.com/books?
id=JFX9mQEACAAJ">Archived</a> from the original on 20 March 2017<span
class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">1 February</span>
2012</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi
%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx
%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=book&amp;rft.btitle=The+fractal+geometry+of+nature&amp;rft.pu
b=Macmillan&amp;rft.date=1983&amp;rft.isbn=978-0-7167-1186-
5&amp;rft.aulast=Mandelbrot&amp;rft.aufirst=Beno%C3%AEt+B.&amp;rft_id=https%3A%2F
%2Fbooks.google.com%2Fbooks%3Fid%3DJFX9mQEACAAJ&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid
%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AArea" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-
style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r951705291"/></span>
</li>
<li id="cite_note-30"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-
30">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite id="CITEREFGromov1983"
class="citation cs2">Gromov, Mikhael (1983), <a rel="nofollow" class="external
text" href="http://projecteuclid.org/euclid.jdg/1214509283">"Filling Riemannian
manifolds"</a>, <i>Journal of Differential Geometry</i>, <b>18</b> (1): 1–147, <a
href="/wiki/CiteSeerX_(identifier)" class="mw-redirect" title="CiteSeerX
(identifier)">CiteSeerX</a>&#160;<span class="cs1-lock-free" title="Freely
accessible"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text"
href="//citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/summary?
doi=10.1.1.400.9154">10.1.1.400.9154</a></span>, <a href="/wiki/MR_(identifier)"
class="mw-redirect" title="MR (identifier)">MR</a>&#160;<a rel="nofollow"
class="external text" href="//www.ams.org/mathscinet-getitem?
mr=0697984">0697984</a>, <a rel="nofollow" class="external text"
href="https://web.archive.org/web/20140408110006/http://projecteuclid.org/euclid.jd
g/1214509283">archived</a> from the original on 2014-04-08</cite><span
title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx
%3Ajournal&amp;rft.genre=article&amp;rft.jtitle=Journal+of+Differential+Geometry&am
p;rft.atitle=Filling+Riemannian+manifolds&amp;rft.volume=18&amp;rft.issue=1&amp;rft
.pages=1-147&amp;rft.date=1983&amp;rft_id=%2F%2Fciteseerx.ist.psu.edu%2Fviewdoc
%2Fsummary%3Fdoi%3D10.1.1.400.9154&amp;rft_id=%2F%2Fwww.ams.org%2Fmathscinet-
getitem%3Fmr%3D697984&amp;rft.aulast=Gromov&amp;rft.aufirst=Mikhael&amp;rft_id=http
%3A%2F%2Fprojecteuclid.org%2Feuclid.jdg%2F1214509283&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid
%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AArea" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-
style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r951705291"/></span>
</li>
<li id="cite_note-Chakerian-31"><span class="mw-cite-backlink">^ <a
href="#cite_ref-Chakerian_31-0"><sup><i><b>a</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-
Chakerian_31-1"><sup><i><b>b</b></i></sup></a></span> <span class="reference-
text">Chakerian, G.D. (1979) "A Distorted View of Geometry." Ch. 7 in
<i>Mathematical Plums</i>. R. Honsberger (ed.). Washington, DC: Mathematical
Association of America, p. 147.</span>
</li>
<li id="cite_note-32"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-
32">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text">Dorrie, Heinrich (1965), <i>100
Great Problems of Elementary Mathematics</i>, Dover Publ., pp. 379–380.</span>
</li>
<li id="cite_note-33"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-
33">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite
id="CITEREFMinda,_D.Phelps,_S.2008" class="citation journal cs1">Minda, D.; Phelps,
S. (October 2008). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text"
href="https://www.researchgate.net/publication/228698127">"Triangles, ellipses, and
cubic polynomials"</a>. <i><a href="/wiki/American_Mathematical_Monthly"
title="American Mathematical Monthly">American Mathematical Monthly</a></i>.
<b>115</b> (8): 679–689: Theorem 4.1. <a href="/wiki/JSTOR_(identifier)" class="mw-
redirect" title="JSTOR (identifier)">JSTOR</a>&#160;<a rel="nofollow"
class="external text" href="//www.jstor.org/stable/27642581">27642581</a>. <a
rel="nofollow" class="external text"
href="https://web.archive.org/web/20161104141707/https://www.researchgate.net/publi
cation/228698127_Triangles_ellipses_and_cubic_polynomials">Archived</a> from the
original on 2016-11-04.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info
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%3Ajournal&amp;rft.genre=article&amp;rft.jtitle=American+Mathematical+Monthly&amp;r
ft.atitle=Triangles%2C+ellipses
%2C+and+cubic+polynomials&amp;rft.volume=115&amp;rft.issue=8&amp;rft.pages=679-
689%3A+Theorem+4.1&amp;rft.date=2008-10&amp;rft_id=%2F%2Fwww.jstor.org%2Fstable
%2F27642581&amp;rft.au=Minda%2C+D.&amp;rft.au=Phelps%2C+S.&amp;rft_id=https%3A%2F
%2Fwww.researchgate.net%2Fpublication%2F228698127&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid
%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AArea" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-
style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r951705291"/></span>
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<h2><span class="mw-headline" id="External_links">External links</span><span
class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a
href="/w/index.php?title=Area&amp;action=edit&amp;section=33" title="Edit section:
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<div role="navigation" class="navbox" aria-
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style="font-size:114%;margin:0 4em"><a href="/wiki/Classical_mechanics"
title="Classical mechanics">Classical mechanics</a> <a
href="/wiki/International_System_of_Units" title="International System of Units">SI
units</a></div></th></tr><tr><td colspan="2" class="navbox-list navbox-odd"
style="width:100%;padding:0px"><div style="padding:0;"><table class="wikitable"
style="text-align:center;line-height:0.9;border-
collapse:collapse;margin:auto;border:none;background:none;">
<tbody><tr>
<td colspan="4" style="border:none;backgound:none; font-
weight:bold;">Linear/translational quantities</td>
<td rowspan="12" style="border:none;backgound:none;"></td>
<td colspan="4" style="border:none;backgound:none; font-
weight:bold;">Angular/rotational quantities</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<th style="font-weight:normal;font-size:80%;">Dimensions</th>
<th style="font-weight:normal;">1</th>
<th style="font-weight:normal;">L</th>
<th style="font-weight:normal;">L<sup>2</sup></th>
<th style="font-weight:normal;font-size:80%;">Dimensions</th>
<th style="font-weight:normal;">1</th>
<th style="font-weight:normal;">1</th>
<th style="font-weight:normal;">1</th>
</tr>
<tr>
<th style="font-weight:normal;">T</th>
<td><a href="/wiki/Time" title="Time">time</a>: <span
class="texhtml"><i>t</i></span><br /><a href="/wiki/Second"
title="Second">s</a></td>
<td><a href="/wiki/Absement" title="Absement">absement</a>: <span
class="texhtml"><b>A</b></span><br /><a href="/wiki/Meter_second" class="mw-
redirect" title="Meter second">m s</a></td>
<td></td>
<th style="font-weight:normal;">T</th>
<td><a href="/wiki/Time" title="Time">time</a>: <span
class="texhtml"><i>t</i></span><br /><a href="/wiki/Second"
title="Second">s</a></td>
<td></td>
<td></td>
</tr>
<tr>
<th style="font-weight:normal;">1</th>
<td></td>
<td><a href="/wiki/Distance" title="Distance">distance</a>: <span
class="texhtml"><i>d</i></span>, <span class="nowrap"><a
href="/wiki/Position_(vector)" class="mw-redirect" title="Position
(vector)">position</a>: <span class="texhtml"><b>r</b></span>, <span
class="texhtml"><b>s</b></span>, <span class="texhtml"><b>x</b></span></span>, <a
href="/wiki/Displacement_(vector)" class="mw-redirect" title="Displacement
(vector)">displacement</a><br /><a href="/wiki/Metre" title="Metre">m</a></td>
<td><a class="mw-selflink selflink">area</a>: <span
class="texhtml"><i>A</i></span><br /><a href="/wiki/Square_metre" title="Square
metre">m<sup>2</sup></a></td>
<th style="font-weight:normal;">1</th>
<td></td>
<td><a href="/wiki/Angle" title="Angle">angle</a>: <span
class="texhtml"><i>θ</i></span>, <a href="/wiki/Angular_displacement"
title="Angular displacement">angular displacement</a>: <span
class="texhtml"><b>θ</b></span><br /><a href="/wiki/Radian"
title="Radian">rad</a></td>
<td><span class="nowrap"><a href="/wiki/Solid_angle" title="Solid angle">solid
angle</a>: <span class="texhtml">Ω</span><br /><a href="/wiki/Steradian"
title="Steradian">rad<sup>2</sup>, sr</a></span></td>
</tr>
<tr>
<th style="font-weight:normal;">T<sup>−1</sup></th>
<td><span class="nowrap"><a href="/wiki/Frequency"
title="Frequency">frequency</a>: <span class="texhtml"><i>f</i></span></span><br
/><a href="/wiki/Inverse_second" title="Inverse second">s<sup>−1</sup></a>, <a
href="/wiki/Hertz" title="Hertz">Hz</a></td>
<td><a href="/wiki/Speed" title="Speed">speed</a>: <span
class="texhtml"><i>v</i></span>, <a href="/wiki/Velocity"
title="Velocity">velocity</a>: <span class="texhtml"><b>v</b></span><br /><a
href="/wiki/Metre_per_second" title="Metre per second">m s<sup>−1</sup></a></td>
<td><a href="/wiki/Kinematic_viscosity" class="mw-redirect" title="Kinematic
viscosity">kinematic viscosity</a>: <span class="texhtml"><i>ν</i></span>,<br /><a
href="/wiki/Specific_angular_momentum" title="Specific angular momentum">specific
angular momentum</a>:&#160;<span class="texhtml"><b>h</b></span><br /><a
href="/wiki/Metre_squared_per_second" title="Metre squared per
second">m<sup>2</sup> s<sup>−1</sup></a></td>
<th style="font-weight:normal;">T<sup>−1</sup></th>
<td><span class="nowrap"><a href="/wiki/Frequency"
title="Frequency">frequency</a>: <span class="texhtml"><i>f</i></span></span><br
/><a href="/wiki/Inverse_second" title="Inverse second">s<sup>−1</sup></a>, <a
href="/wiki/Hertz" title="Hertz">Hz</a></td>
<td><a href="/wiki/Angular_speed" class="mw-redirect" title="Angular
speed">angular speed</a>: <span class="texhtml"><i>ω</i></span>, <a
href="/wiki/Angular_velocity" title="Angular velocity">angular velocity</a>: <span
class="texhtml"><b>ω</b></span><br /><a href="/wiki/Radian_per_second"
title="Radian per second">rad<span style="letter-
spacing:0.1em">&#160;</span>s<sup>−1</sup></a></td>
<td></td>
</tr>
<tr>
<th style="font-weight:normal;">T<sup>−2</sup></th>
<td></td>
<td><a href="/wiki/Acceleration" title="Acceleration">acceleration</a>: <span
class="texhtml"><b>a</b></span><br /><a href="/wiki/Metre_per_second_squared"
title="Metre per second squared">m s<sup>−2</sup></a></td>
<td></td>
<th style="font-weight:normal;">T<sup>−2</sup></th>
<td></td>
<td><a href="/wiki/Angular_acceleration" title="Angular acceleration">angular
acceleration</a>: <span class="texhtml"><b>α</b></span><br /><a
href="/wiki/Radian_per_second_squared" class="mw-redirect" title="Radian per second
squared">rad<span style="letter-spacing:0.1em">&#160;</span>s<sup>−2</sup></a></td>
<td></td>
</tr>
<tr>
<th style="font-weight:normal;">T<sup>−3</sup></th>
<td></td>
<td><a href="/wiki/Jerk_(physics)" title="Jerk (physics)">jerk</a>: <span
class="texhtml"><b>j</b></span><br />m s<sup>−3</sup></td>
<td></td>
<th style="font-weight:normal;">T<sup>−3</sup></th>
<td></td>
<td><a href="/wiki/Jerk_(physics)#Jerk_in_rotation" title="Jerk
(physics)">angular jerk</a>: <span class="texhtml"><b>ζ</b></span><br />rad<span
style="letter-spacing:0.1em">&#160;</span>s<sup>−3</sup></td>
<td></td>
</tr>
<tr style="border-top: 3px double #a2a9b1;">
<th style="font-weight:normal;">M</th>
<td><a href="/wiki/Mass" title="Mass">mass</a>: <span
class="texhtml"><i>m</i></span><br /><a href="/wiki/Kilogram"
title="Kilogram">kg</a></td>
<td>weighted position: M ⟨x⟩ = ∑ m x </td>
<td></td>
<th style="font-weight:normal;">ML<sup>2</sup></th>
<td><a href="/wiki/Moment_of_inertia" title="Moment of inertia">moment of
inertia</a>:&#160;<span class="texhtml"><i>I</i></span><br /><a
href="/wiki/Kilogram_square_metre" class="mw-redirect" title="Kilogram square
metre">kg<span style="letter-spacing:0.1em">&#160;</span>m<sup>2</sup></a></td>
<td></td>
<td></td>
</tr>
<tr>
<th style="font-weight:normal;">MT<sup>−1</sup></th>
<td></td>
<td><a href="/wiki/Momentum" title="Momentum">momentum</a>: <span
class="texhtml"><b>p</b></span>, <a href="/wiki/Impulse_(physics)" title="Impulse
(physics)">impulse</a>: <span class="texhtml"><b>J</b></span><br /><a
href="/wiki/Kilogram_metre_per_second" class="mw-redirect" title="Kilogram metre
per second">kg<span style="letter-
spacing:0.1em">&#160;</span>m&#160;s<sup>−1</sup></a>, <a
href="/wiki/Newton_second" class="mw-redirect" title="Newton second">N s</a></td>
<td><a href="/wiki/Action_(physics)" title="Action (physics)">action</a>: <span
class="texhtml">𝒮</span>, <a href="/wiki/Absement#Applications"
title="Absement">actergy</a>: <span class="texhtml">ℵ</span><br /><a
href="/wiki/Kilogram_square_metre_per_second" class="mw-redirect" title="Kilogram
square metre per second">kg<span style="letter-
spacing:0.1em">&#160;</span>m<sup>2</sup>&#160;s<sup>−1</sup></a>, <a
href="/wiki/Joule-second" title="Joule-second">J s</a></td>
<th style="font-weight:normal;">ML<sup>2</sup>T<sup>−1</sup></th>
<td></td>
<td><a href="/wiki/Angular_momentum" title="Angular momentum">angular
momentum</a>: <span class="texhtml"><b>L</b></span>, <a
href="/wiki/List_of_equations_in_classical_mechanics#Derived_dynamic_quantities"
title="List of equations in classical mechanics">angular impulse</a>: <span
class="texhtml">Δ<b>L</b></span><br /><a
href="/wiki/Kilogram_square_metre_per_second" class="mw-redirect" title="Kilogram
square metre per second">kg<span style="letter-
spacing:0.1em">&#160;</span>m<sup>2</sup>&#160;s<sup>−1</sup></a></td>
<td><a href="/wiki/Action_(physics)" title="Action (physics)">action</a>: <span
class="texhtml">𝒮</span>, <a href="/wiki/Absement#Applications"
title="Absement">actergy</a>: <span class="texhtml">ℵ</span><br /><a
href="/wiki/Kilogram_square_metre_per_second" class="mw-redirect" title="Kilogram
square metre per second">kg<span style="letter-
spacing:0.1em">&#160;</span>m<sup>2</sup>&#160;s<sup>−1</sup></a>, <a
href="/wiki/Joule-second" title="Joule-second">J&#160;s</a></td>
</tr>
<tr>
<th style="font-weight:normal;">MT<sup>−2</sup></th>
<td></td>
<td><a href="/wiki/Force" title="Force">force</a>: <span
class="texhtml"><b>F</b></span>, <a href="/wiki/Weight" title="Weight">weight</a>:
<span class="texhtml"><b>F</b><sub>g</sub></span><br /><span style="margin-
right:0.1em;">kg </span> m s<sup>−2</sup>, <a href="/wiki/Newton_(unit)"
title="Newton (unit)">N</a></td>
<td><a href="/wiki/Energy" title="Energy">energy</a>: <span
class="texhtml"><i>E</i></span>, <a href="/wiki/Work_(physics)" title="Work
(physics)">work</a>: <span class="texhtml"><i>W</i></span>, <a
href="/wiki/Lagrangian_mechanics" title="Lagrangian mechanics">Lagrangian</a>:
<span class="texhtml"><i>L</i></span><br /><span style="margin-
right:0.1em;">kg</span> m<sup>2</sup> s<sup>−2</sup>, <a href="/wiki/Joule"
title="Joule">J</a></td>
<th style="font-weight:normal;">ML<sup>2</sup>T<sup>−2</sup></th>
<td></td>
<td><a href="/wiki/Torque" title="Torque">torque</a>: <span
class="texhtml"><b>τ</b></span>, <a href="/wiki/Torque#Terminology"
title="Torque">moment</a>: <span class="texhtml"><b>M</b></span><br /><span
style="margin-right:0.1em;">kg</span> m<sup>2</sup> s<sup>−2</sup>, <a
href="/wiki/Newton_metre" class="mw-redirect" title="Newton metre">N m</a></td>
<td><a href="/wiki/Energy" title="Energy">energy</a>: <span
class="texhtml"><i>E</i></span>, <a href="/wiki/Work_(physics)" title="Work
(physics)">work</a>: <span class="texhtml"><i>W</i></span>, <a
href="/wiki/Lagrangian_mechanics" title="Lagrangian mechanics">Lagrangian</a>:
<span class="texhtml"><i>L</i></span><br /><span style="margin-
right:0.1em;">kg</span> m<sup>2</sup> s<sup>−2</sup>, <a href="/wiki/Joule"
title="Joule">J</a></td>
</tr>
<tr>
<th style="font-weight:normal;">MT<sup>−3</sup></th>
<td></td>
<td><a href="/wiki/Yank_(physics)" class="mw-redirect" title="Yank
(physics)">yank</a>: <span class="texhtml"><b>Y</b></span><br /><span
style="margin-right:0.1em;">kg</span> m s<sup>−3</sup>, N s<sup>−1</sup></td>
<td><a href="/wiki/Power_(physics)" title="Power (physics)">power</a>: <span
class="texhtml"><i>P</i></span><br /><span style="margin-right:0.1em;">kg</span>
m<sup>2</sup> s<sup>−3</sup>,&#160;<a href="/wiki/Watt" title="Watt">W</a></td>
<th style="font-weight:normal;">ML<sup>2</sup>T<sup>−3</sup></th>
<td></td>
<td><a href="/wiki/Rotatum" title="Rotatum">rotatum</a>: <span
class="texhtml"><b>P</b></span><br /><span style="margin-right:0.1em;">kg</span>
m<sup>2</sup> s<sup>−3</sup>, N m s<sup>−1</sup></td>
<td><a href="/wiki/Power_(physics)" title="Power (physics)">power</a>: <span
class="texhtml"><i>P</i></span><br /><span style="margin-right:0.1em;">kg</span>
m<sup>2 </sup>s<sup>−3</sup>,&#160;<a href="/wiki/Watt" title="Watt">W</a></td>
</tr>
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interwiki-kbd"><a href="https://kbd.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%A9I%D1%8B%D0%BFI%D1%8D_
%D0%B8%D0%BD%D0%B0%D0%B3%D1%8A" title="ЩIыпIэ инагъ – Kabardian" lang="kbd"
hreflang="kbd" class="interlanguage-link-target">Адыгэбзэ</a></li><li
class="interlanguage-link interwiki-af"><a
href="https://af.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oppervlakte" title="Oppervlakte – Afrikaans"
lang="af" hreflang="af" class="interlanguage-link-target">Afrikaans</a></li><li
class="interlanguage-link interwiki-als"><a href="https://als.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fl
%C3%A4cheninhalt" title="Flächeninhalt – Alemannisch" lang="gsw" hreflang="gsw"
class="interlanguage-link-target">Alemannisch</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link
interwiki-ar"><a href="https://ar.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D9%85%D8%B3%D8%A7%D8%AD
%D8%A9" title="‫ – مساحة‬Arabic" lang="ar" hreflang="ar" class="interlanguage-link-
target">‫<العربية‬/a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-an"><a
href="https://an.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aria" title="Aria – Aragonese" lang="an"
hreflang="an" class="interlanguage-link-target">Aragonés</a></li><li
class="interlanguage-link interwiki-arc"><a
href="https://arc.wikipedia.org/wiki/%DC%AB%DC%9B%DC%9D%DC%9A%DC%98%DC%AC%DC%90"
title="‫ – ܫܛܝܚܘܬܐ‬Aramaic" lang="arc" hreflang="arc" class="interlanguage-link-
target">‫<ܐܪܡܝܐ‬/a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-as"><a
href="https://as.wikipedia.org/wiki/%E0%A6%95%E0%A7%8D
%E0%A6%B7%E0%A7%87%E0%A6%A4%E0%A7%8D%E0%A7%B0%E0%A6%AB%E0%A6%B2" title="ক্ষেত্ৰফল –
Assamese" lang="as" hreflang="as" class="interlanguage-link-
target">অসমীয়া</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-ast"><a
href="https://ast.wikipedia.org/wiki/%C3%81rea_(Xeometr%C3%ADa)" title="Área
(Xeometría) – Asturian" lang="ast" hreflang="ast" class="interlanguage-link-
target">Asturianu</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-av"><a
href="https://av.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%9F%D0%BB%D0%BE%D1%89%D0%B0%D0%B4%D1%8C"
title="Площадь – Avaric" lang="av" hreflang="av" class="interlanguage-link-
target">Авар</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-az"><a
href="https://az.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sah%C9%99_(%C3%B6l%C3%A7%C3%BC_parametri)"
title="Sahə (ölçü parametri) – Azerbaijani" lang="az" hreflang="az"
class="interlanguage-link-target">Azərbaycanca</a></li><li class="interlanguage-
link interwiki-azb"><a
href="https://azb.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D9%85%D8%B3%D8%A7%D8%AD%D8%AA" title="‫– مساحت‬
South Azerbaijani" lang="azb" hreflang="azb" class="interlanguage-link-target">
‫<تۆرکجه‬/a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-bn"><a
href="https://bn.wikipedia.org/wiki/%E0%A6%95%E0%A7%8D
%E0%A6%B7%E0%A7%87%E0%A6%A4%E0%A7%8D%E0%A6%B0%E0%A6%AB%E0%A6%B2" title="ক্ষেত্রফল –
Bangla" lang="bn" hreflang="bn" class="interlanguage-link-target">বাংলা</a></li><li
class="interlanguage-link interwiki-zh-min-nan"><a href="https://zh-min-
nan.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bi%C4%81n-chek" title="Biān-chek – Chinese (Min Nan)"
lang="nan" hreflang="nan" class="interlanguage-link-target">Bân-lâm-gú</a></li><li
class="interlanguage-link interwiki-ba"><a
href="https://ba.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%9C%D0%B0%D0%B9%D2%99%D0%B0%D0%BD"
title="Майҙан – Bashkir" lang="ba" hreflang="ba" class="interlanguage-link-
target">Башҡортса</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-be"><a
href="https://be.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%9F%D0%BB%D0%BE%D1%88%D1%87%D0%B0"
title="Плошча – Belarusian" lang="be" hreflang="be" class="interlanguage-link-
target">Беларуская</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-be-x-old"><a
href="https://be-tarask.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%9F%D0%BB%D0%BE%D1%88%D1%87%D0%B0"
title="Плошча – Belarusian (Taraškievica orthography)" lang="be-tarask"
hreflang="be-tarask" class="interlanguage-link-target">Беларуская
(тарашкевіца)</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-bh"><a
href="https://bh.wikipedia.org/wiki/%E0%A4%95%E0%A5%8D
%E0%A4%B7%E0%A5%87%E0%A4%A4%E0%A5%8D%E0%A4%B0%E0%A4%AB%E0%A4%B2" title="क्षेत्रफल –
Bhojpuri" lang="bh" hreflang="bh" class="interlanguage-link-
target">भोजपुरी</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-bg"><a
href="https://bg.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%9F%D0%BB%D0%BE%D1%89" title="Площ –
Bulgarian" lang="bg" hreflang="bg" class="interlanguage-link-
target">Български</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-bar"><a
href="https://bar.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fl%C3%A4chn" title="Flächn – Bavarian"
lang="bar" hreflang="bar" class="interlanguage-link-target">Boarisch</a></li><li
class="interlanguage-link interwiki-bs"><a href="https://bs.wikipedia.org/wiki/Povr
%C5%A1ina" title="Površina – Bosnian" lang="bs" hreflang="bs" class="interlanguage-
link-target">Bosanski</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-br"><a
href="https://br.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gorread" title="Gorread – Breton" lang="br"
hreflang="br" class="interlanguage-link-target">Brezhoneg</a></li><li
class="interlanguage-link interwiki-ca"><a
href="https://ca.wikipedia.org/wiki/%C3%80rea" title="Àrea – Catalan" lang="ca"
hreflang="ca" class="interlanguage-link-target">Català</a></li><li
class="interlanguage-link interwiki-cv"><a
href="https://cv.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%9B%D0%B0%D0%BF%D1%82%C4%83%D0%BA"
title="Лаптăк – Chuvash" lang="cv" hreflang="cv" class="interlanguage-link-
target">Чӑвашла</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-ceb"><a
href="https://ceb.wikipedia.org/wiki/Langyab" title="Langyab – Cebuano" lang="ceb"
hreflang="ceb" class="interlanguage-link-target">Cebuano</a></li><li
class="interlanguage-link interwiki-cs"><a
href="https://cs.wikipedia.org/wiki/Obsah" title="Obsah – Czech" lang="cs"
hreflang="cs" class="interlanguage-link-target">Čeština</a></li><li
class="interlanguage-link interwiki-sn"><a
href="https://sn.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nharaunda" title="Nharaunda – Shona" lang="sn"
hreflang="sn" class="interlanguage-link-target">ChiShona</a></li><li
class="interlanguage-link interwiki-cy"><a
href="https://cy.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arwynebedd" title="Arwynebedd – Welsh"
lang="cy" hreflang="cy" class="interlanguage-link-target">Cymraeg</a></li><li
class="interlanguage-link interwiki-da"><a
href="https://da.wikipedia.org/wiki/Areal" title="Areal – Danish" lang="da"
hreflang="da" class="interlanguage-link-target">Dansk</a></li><li
class="interlanguage-link interwiki-de"><a href="https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fl
%C3%A4cheninhalt" title="Flächeninhalt – German" lang="de" hreflang="de"
class="interlanguage-link-target">Deutsch</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link
interwiki-dv"><a href="https://dv.wikipedia.org/wiki/%DE%87%DE%A6%DE%86%DE%A6%DE
%89%DE%A8%DE%82%DE%B0" title="ް‫ – އަކަމިނ‬Divehi" lang="dv" hreflang="dv"
class="interlanguage-link-target">ް‫ދވެހިބަސ‬ި </a></li><li class="interlanguage-link
interwiki-dsb"><a href="https://dsb.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wop%C5%9Bimje%C5%9Be_p
%C5%82oni" title="Wopśimjeśe płoni – Lower Sorbian" lang="dsb" hreflang="dsb"
class="interlanguage-link-target">Dolnoserbski</a></li><li class="interlanguage-
link interwiki-et"><a href="https://et.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pindala" title="Pindala –
Estonian" lang="et" hreflang="et" class="interlanguage-link-
target">Eesti</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-el"><a
href="https://el.wikipedia.org/wiki/%CE%95%CE%BC%CE%B2%CE%B1%CE%B4%CF%8C%CE%BD"
title="Εμβαδόν – Greek" lang="el" hreflang="el" class="interlanguage-link-
target">Ελληνικά</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-es"><a
href="https://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/%C3%81rea" title="Área – Spanish" lang="es"
hreflang="es" class="interlanguage-link-target">Español</a></li><li
class="interlanguage-link interwiki-eo"><a
href="https://eo.wikipedia.org/wiki/Areo" title="Areo – Esperanto" lang="eo"
hreflang="eo" class="interlanguage-link-target">Esperanto</a></li><li
class="interlanguage-link interwiki-eu"><a
href="https://eu.wikipedia.org/wiki/Azalera" title="Azalera – Basque" lang="eu"
hreflang="eu" class="interlanguage-link-target">Euskara</a></li><li
class="interlanguage-link interwiki-fa"><a
href="https://fa.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D9%85%D8%B3%D8%A7%D8%AD%D8%AA" title="‫– مساحت‬
Persian" lang="fa" hreflang="fa" class="interlanguage-link-target">‫<فارسی‬/a></li><li
class="interlanguage-link interwiki-fo"><a href="https://fo.wikipedia.org/wiki/V
%C3%ADdd" title="Vídd – Faroese" lang="fo" hreflang="fo" class="interlanguage-link-
target">Føroyskt</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-fr"><a
href="https://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aire_(g%C3%A9om%C3%A9trie)" title="Aire
(géométrie) – French" lang="fr" hreflang="fr" class="interlanguage-link-
target">Français</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-fy"><a
href="https://fy.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oerflak" title="Oerflak – Western Frisian"
lang="fy" hreflang="fy" class="interlanguage-link-target">Frysk</a></li><li
class="interlanguage-link interwiki-gv"><a
href="https://gv.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eaghtyr" title="Eaghtyr – Manx" lang="gv"
hreflang="gv" class="interlanguage-link-target">Gaelg</a></li><li
class="interlanguage-link interwiki-gd"><a
href="https://gd.wikipedia.org/wiki/Farsaingeachd" title="Farsaingeachd – Scottish
Gaelic" lang="gd" hreflang="gd" class="interlanguage-link-
target">Gàidhlig</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-gl"><a
href="https://gl.wikipedia.org/wiki/%C3%81rea" title="Área – Galician" lang="gl"
hreflang="gl" class="interlanguage-link-target">Galego</a></li><li
class="interlanguage-link interwiki-gan"><a
href="https://gan.wikipedia.org/wiki/%E9%9D%A2%E7%A9%8D" title="面積 – Gan Chinese"
lang="gan" hreflang="gan" class="interlanguage-link-target">贛語</a></li><li
class="interlanguage-link interwiki-gu"><a
href="https://gu.wikipedia.org/wiki/%E0%AA%95%E0%AB%8D%E0%AA%B7%E0%AB%87%E0%AA
%A4%E0%AB%8D%E0%AA%B0%E0%AA%AB%E0%AA%B3" title="ક્ષેત્રફળ – Gujarati" lang="gu"
hreflang="gu" class="interlanguage-link-target">ગુજરાતી</a></li><li
class="interlanguage-link interwiki-hak"><a
href="https://hak.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mien-chit" title="Mien-chit – Hakka Chinese"
lang="hak" hreflang="hak" class="interlanguage-link-target">客家語/Hak-kâ-
ngî</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-ko"><a
href="https://ko.wikipedia.org/wiki/%EB%84%93%EC%9D%B4" title="넓이 – Korean"
lang="ko" hreflang="ko" class="interlanguage-link-target">한국어</a></li><li
class="interlanguage-link interwiki-haw"><a
href="https://haw.wikipedia.org/wiki/%CA%BBAlea" title="ʻAlea – Hawaiian"
lang="haw" hreflang="haw" class="interlanguage-link-target">Hawaiʻi</a></li><li
class="interlanguage-link interwiki-hy"><a
href="https://hy.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D5%84%D5%A1%D5%AF%D5%A5%D6%80%D5%A5%D5%BD"
title="Մակերես – Armenian" lang="hy" hreflang="hy" class="interlanguage-link-
target">Հայերեն</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-hi"><a
href="https://hi.wikipedia.org/wiki/%E0%A4%95%E0%A5%8D
%E0%A4%B7%E0%A5%87%E0%A4%A4%E0%A5%8D%E0%A4%B0%E0%A4%AB%E0%A4%B2" title="क्षेत्रफल –
Hindi" lang="hi" hreflang="hi" class="interlanguage-link-target">हिन्दी</a></li><li
class="interlanguage-link interwiki-hsb"><a
href="https://hsb.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wobsah_p%C5%99estrjenje" title="Wobsah
přestrjenje – Upper Sorbian" lang="hsb" hreflang="hsb" class="interlanguage-link-
target">Hornjoserbsce</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-hr"><a
href="https://hr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Povr%C5%A1ina" title="Površina – Croatian"
lang="hr" hreflang="hr" class="interlanguage-link-target">Hrvatski</a></li><li
class="interlanguage-link interwiki-io"><a
href="https://io.wikipedia.org/wiki/Areo" title="Areo – Ido" lang="io"
hreflang="io" class="interlanguage-link-target">Ido</a></li><li
class="interlanguage-link interwiki-ilo"><a
href="https://ilo.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kalawa" title="Kalawa – Iloko" lang="ilo"
hreflang="ilo" class="interlanguage-link-target">Ilokano</a></li><li
class="interlanguage-link interwiki-id"><a
href="https://id.wikipedia.org/wiki/Luas" title="Luas – Indonesian" lang="id"
hreflang="id" class="interlanguage-link-target">Bahasa Indonesia</a></li><li
class="interlanguage-link interwiki-ia"><a
href="https://ia.wikipedia.org/wiki/Area" title="Area – Interlingua" lang="ia"
hreflang="ia" class="interlanguage-link-target">Interlingua</a></li><li
class="interlanguage-link interwiki-os"><a
href="https://os.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%A4%C3%A6%D0%B7%D1%83%D0%B0%D1%82"
title="Фæзуат – Ossetic" lang="os" hreflang="os" class="interlanguage-link-
target">Ирон</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-is"><a
href="https://is.wikipedia.org/wiki/Flatarm%C3%A1l" title="Flatarmál – Icelandic"
lang="is" hreflang="is" class="interlanguage-link-target">Íslenska</a></li><li
class="interlanguage-link interwiki-it"><a
href="https://it.wikipedia.org/wiki/Area" title="Area – Italian" lang="it"
hreflang="it" class="interlanguage-link-target">Italiano</a></li><li
class="interlanguage-link interwiki-he"><a
href="https://he.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D7%A9%D7%98%D7%97" title="‫ – שטח‬Hebrew"
lang="he" hreflang="he" class="interlanguage-link-target">‫<עברית‬/a></li><li
class="interlanguage-link interwiki-jv"><a
href="https://jv.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jembar" title="Jembar – Javanese" lang="jv"
hreflang="jv" class="interlanguage-link-target">Jawa</a></li><li
class="interlanguage-link interwiki-kn"><a
href="https://kn.wikipedia.org/wiki/%E0%B2%B5%E0%B2%BF%E0%B2%B8%E0%B3%8D
%E0%B2%A4%E0%B3%80%E0%B2%B0%E0%B3%8D%E0%B2%A3" title="ವಿಸ್ತೀರ್ಣ – Kannada" lang="kn"
hreflang="kn" class="interlanguage-link-target">ಕನ್ನಡ</a></li><li
class="interlanguage-link interwiki-ka"><a
href="https://ka.wikipedia.org/wiki/%E1%83%A4%E1%83%90%E1%83%A0%E1%83%97%E1%83%9D
%E1%83%91%E1%83%98" title="ფართობი – Georgian" lang="ka" hreflang="ka"
class="interlanguage-link-target">ქართული</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link
interwiki-kk"><a
href="https://kk.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%90%D1%83%D0%B4%D0%B0%D0%BD_(%D0%B3%D0%B5%D0
%BE%D0%BC%D0%B5%D1%82%D1%80%D0%B8%D1%8F)" title="Аудан (геометрия) – Kazakh"
lang="kk" hreflang="kk" class="interlanguage-link-target">Қазақша</a></li><li
class="interlanguage-link interwiki-sw"><a
href="https://sw.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eneo" title="Eneo – Swahili" lang="sw"
hreflang="sw" class="interlanguage-link-target">Kiswahili</a></li><li
class="interlanguage-link interwiki-ku"><a href="https://ku.wikipedia.org/wiki/R
%C3%BBerd" title="Rûerd – Kurdish" lang="ku" hreflang="ku" class="interlanguage-
link-target">Kurdî</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-ky"><a
href="https://ky.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%90%D1%8F%D0%BD%D1%82" title="Аянт – Kyrgyz"
lang="ky" hreflang="ky" class="interlanguage-link-target">Кыргызча</a></li><li
class="interlanguage-link interwiki-lo"><a
href="https://lo.wikipedia.org/wiki/%E0%BB%80%E0%BA%99%E0%BA%B7%E0%BB%89%E0%BA%AD
%E0%BA%97%E0%BA%B5%E0%BB%88" title="ເນື້ອທີ່ – Lao" lang="lo" hreflang="lo"
class="interlanguage-link-target">ລາວ</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link
interwiki-la"><a href="https://la.wikipedia.org/wiki/Area_(geometria)" title="Area
(geometria) – Latin" lang="la" hreflang="la" class="interlanguage-link-
target">Latina</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-lv"><a
href="https://lv.wikipedia.org/wiki/Laukums" title="Laukums – Latvian" lang="lv"
hreflang="lv" class="interlanguage-link-target">Latviešu</a></li><li
class="interlanguage-link interwiki-lb"><a href="https://lb.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fl
%C3%A4ch" title="Fläch – Luxembourgish" lang="lb" hreflang="lb"
class="interlanguage-link-target">Lëtzebuergesch</a></li><li class="interlanguage-
link interwiki-lt"><a href="https://lt.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plotas" title="Plotas –
Lithuanian" lang="lt" hreflang="lt" class="interlanguage-link-
target">Lietuvių</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-li"><a
href="https://li.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oppervlak" title="Oppervlak – Limburgish"
lang="li" hreflang="li" class="interlanguage-link-target">Limburgs</a></li><li
class="interlanguage-link interwiki-ln"><a
href="https://ln.wikipedia.org/wiki/Etando" title="Etando – Lingala" lang="ln"
hreflang="ln" class="interlanguage-link-target">Lingála</a></li><li
class="interlanguage-link interwiki-hu"><a href="https://hu.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ter
%C3%BClet_(matematika)" title="Terület (matematika) – Hungarian" lang="hu"
hreflang="hu" class="interlanguage-link-target">Magyar</a></li><li
class="interlanguage-link interwiki-mai"><a
href="https://mai.wikipedia.org/wiki/%E0%A4%95%E0%A5%8D
%E0%A4%B7%E0%A5%87%E0%A4%A4%E0%A5%8D%E0%A4%B0%E0%A4%AB%E0%A4%B2" title="क्षेत्रफल –
Maithili" lang="mai" hreflang="mai" class="interlanguage-link-
target">मैथिली</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-mk"><a
href="https://mk.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%9F%D0%BB%D0%BE%D1%88%D1%82%D0%B8%D0%BD
%D0%B0" title="Плоштина – Macedonian" lang="mk" hreflang="mk" class="interlanguage-
link-target">Македонски</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-mg"><a
href="https://mg.wikipedia.org/wiki/Velarantany" title="Velarantany – Malagasy"
lang="mg" hreflang="mg" class="interlanguage-link-target">Malagasy</a></li><li
class="interlanguage-link interwiki-ml"><a
href="https://ml.wikipedia.org/wiki/%E0%B4%B5%E0%B4%BF%E0%B4%B8%E0%B5%8D
%E0%B4%A4%E0%B5%80%E0%B5%BC%E0%B4%A3%E0%B5%8D%E0%B4%A3%E0%B4%82" title="വിസ്തീർണ്ണം –
Malayalam" lang="ml" hreflang="ml" class="interlanguage-link-
target">മലയാളം</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-mr"><a
href="https://mr.wikipedia.org/wiki/%E0%A4%95%E0%A5%8D
%E0%A4%B7%E0%A5%87%E0%A4%A4%E0%A5%8D%E0%A4%B0%E0%A4%AB%E0%A4%B3" title="क्षेत्रफळ –
Marathi" lang="mr" hreflang="mr" class="interlanguage-link-target">मराठी</a></li><li
class="interlanguage-link interwiki-xmf"><a
href="https://xmf.wikipedia.org/wiki/%E1%83%A4%E1%83%90%E1%83%A0%E1%83%97%E1%83%9D
%E1%83%91%E1%83%98" title="ფართობი – Mingrelian" lang="xmf" hreflang="xmf"
class="interlanguage-link-target">მარგალური</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link
interwiki-mzn"><a href="https://mzn.wikipedia.org/wiki/%DA%AF%D8%AA%DB%8C" title="
‫ – گتی‬Mazanderani" lang="mzn" hreflang="mzn" class="interlanguage-link-target">
‫<مازرونی‬/a></li><li
ِ class="interlanguage-link interwiki-ms"><a
href="https://ms.wikipedia.org/wiki/Keluasan" title="Keluasan – Malay" lang="ms"
hreflang="ms" class="interlanguage-link-target">Bahasa Melayu</a></li><li
class="interlanguage-link interwiki-cdo"><a href="https://cdo.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mi
%C3%AAng-c%C3%A9k" title="Miêng-cék – Min Dong Chinese" lang="cdo" hreflang="cdo"
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nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oppervlakte" title="Oppervlakte – Low Saxon" lang="nds-NL"
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%E0%A4%B7%E0%A5%87%E0%A4%A4%E0%A5%8D%E0%A4%B0%E0%A4%AB%E0%A4%B2" title="क्षेत्रफल –
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Chechen" lang="ce" hreflang="ce" class="interlanguage-link-
target">Нохчийн</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-frr"><a
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Frisian" lang="frr" hreflang="frr" class="interlanguage-link-
target">Nordfriisk</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-no"><a
href="https://no.wikipedia.org/wiki/Areal" title="Areal – Norwegian Bokmål"
lang="nb" hreflang="nb" class="interlanguage-link-target">Norsk bokmål</a></li><li
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target">Олык марий</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-uz"><a
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link-target">ਪੰਜਾਬੀ</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-pfl"><a
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class="interlanguage-link interwiki-pnb"><a
href="https://pnb.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D8%AA%DA%BE%D8%A7%DA%BA_(%D8%AC%D9%85%DB%8C
%D9%B9%D8%B1%DB%8C)" title=")‫ – تھاں (جمیٹری‬Western Punjabi" lang="pnb"
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href="https://km.wikipedia.org/wiki/%E1%9E%80%E1%9F%92%E1%9E%9A%E1%9E%9B%E1%9E
%B6%E1%9E%95%E1%9F%92%E1%9E%91%E1%9F%83" title="ក្រលាផ្ទៃ – Khmer" lang="km"
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Polish" lang="pl" hreflang="pl" class="interlanguage-link-
target">Polski</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-pt"><a
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title="Площадь – Russian" lang="ru" hreflang="ru" class="interlanguage-link-
target">Русский</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-sah"><a
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%E0%A4%B7%E0%A5%87%E0%A4%A4%E0%A5%8D%E0%A4%B0%E0%A4%AB%E0%A4%B2%E0%A4%AE%E0%A5%8D"
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%C3%ABrfaqja" title="Sipërfaqja – Albanian" lang="sq" hreflang="sq"
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interwiki-scn"><a href="https://scn.wikipedia.org/wiki/%C3%80ria_(supirfici)"
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href="https://simple.wikipedia.org/wiki/Area" title="Area – Simple English"
lang="en-simple" hreflang="en-simple" class="interlanguage-link-target">Simple
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href="https://sd.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D8%A7%D9%8A%D8%B1%D8%A7%D8%B6%D9%8A" title="
‫ – ايراضي‬Sindhi" lang="sd" hreflang="sd" class="interlanguage-link-target">
‫<سنڌي‬/a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-sk"><a
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target">Slovenčina</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-sl"><a
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%D1%81%D1%82%D1%80%D0%B0%D0%BD%D0%B8%D1%A5" title="Пространиѥ – Church Slavic"
lang="cu" hreflang="cu" class="interlanguage-link-target">Словѣньскъ /
ⰔⰎⰑⰂⰡⰐⰠⰔⰍⰟ</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-szl"><a
href="https://szl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plac_rozlygowa%C5%84o" title="Plac rozlygowańo
– Silesian" lang="szl" hreflang="szl" class="interlanguage-link-
target">Ślůnski</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-so"><a
href="https://so.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bed" title="Bed – Somali" lang="so"
hreflang="so" class="interlanguage-link-target">Soomaaliga</a></li><li
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href="https://ckb.wikipedia.org/wiki/%DA%95%D9%88%D9%88%D8%A8%DB%95%D8%B1" title="
‫ – ڕووبەر‬Central Kurdish" lang="ckb" hreflang="ckb" class="interlanguage-link-
target">‫<کوردی‬/a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-sr"><a
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%D0%B0" title="Површина – Serbian" lang="sr" hreflang="sr" class="interlanguage-
link-target">Српски / srpski</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-sh"><a
href="https://sh.wikipedia.org/wiki/Povr%C5%A1ina" title="Površina – Serbo-
Croatian" lang="sh" hreflang="sh" class="interlanguage-link-
target">Srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link
interwiki-su"><a href="https://su.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ar%C3%A9a" title="Aréa –
Sundanese" lang="su" hreflang="su" class="interlanguage-link-
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lang="fi" hreflang="fi" class="interlanguage-link-target">Suomi</a></li><li
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%E0%AE%B3%E0%AE%B5%E0%AF%81" title="பரப்பளவு – Tamil" lang="ta" hreflang="ta"
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lang="te" hreflang="te" class="interlanguage-link-target">తెలుగు</a></li><li
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class="interlanguage-link interwiki-uk"><a
href="https://uk.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%9F%D0%BB%D0%BE%D1%89%D0%B0"
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target">Võro</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-vls"><a
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href="https://yi.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D7%A9%D7%98%D7%97" title="‫ – שטח‬Yiddish"
lang="yi" hreflang="yi" class="interlanguage-link-target">‫<יִידיש‬/a></li><li
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