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SYNOD SOCIAL FRONT – 4

KRISTIANTE RAHBI THAR (Seminar/Consultation Paper)

Edited By Rev. Lalchhuanliana Executive Secretary i/c SocialFront, etc.

Published By Synod Social Front Committee –

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Copy Right Synod Social Front Committee

Synod Office, Aizawl

Printed At Synod Press Aizawl,MIzoram

iii

 

A CHHUNGA THU AWMTE

 

Phek

1.

Thuhmahruai

vi

2.

Bung I : RETHEITE CHAWIKAN DAN TUR KAWNGA INRAWNKHAWMNA (November 17,1989)

1

(1)

Pathian thuin retheite chungchang A sawi dan -Rev. H.Vanlalauva, M.A,M.Th.

1

(2)

Mizoram Kristiante retheihna leh a chhanchhuah dan - Upa H.Thangmawizuala, M.A

29

3.

Bung II : SUMDAWNNA LEH SUMDAWNNA KAWNGA INKAIHHRUAINA

(September 27 & 28,1990)

40

(1)

Mizoram sumdawnna, tun hma

 

Leh tunlai

-Pu Thangchungnunga, M.A

40

 

(2)

Sumdawnnain Mizo nun a khawih dan

 

-Upa Dr.H.Lallungmuana, Ph.D

56

 

(3)

Mizorama sumdawnna kawnga kaihhruaina

 

-Pu H.Liansailova, M.A,M.C.S

72

4.

BUNG III : THLANMUAL ENKAWL DAN KAWNGA INRAWNKHAWMNA (June 9,1990)

89

(1)

Thlanmual enkawl dan tur -Rev.

BUNG

I

RETHEI CHAWIKAN DAN TUR KAWNGA INRAWNKHAWMNA

“Riangvaite hnena Chanchin Tha hril tura mi ruat avangin Lalpa Thlarau chu ka chungah a awm……………” Lk. 4:18,19.

1. PATHIAN THUIN RETHEITE CHUNGCHANG A SAWI DAN

Pathian thuin retheite chungchang a sawi dan kan zir ho dawn a. Kan thupui zir ho tur hi sawi dan kawng hrang hrang a awm awm e. ‘Pathian thu’ hi eng ber nge kan kawhtir, eng chen nge a huam? Ngaihtuah ngun a ngai viauvin a lang. Mizo Kristiante Pathian thu ngaihtuahna khawvelah hian, ‘Bible,’Theology,’ leh Pathian Thu (God’s Word) te hi ‘Pathian thu’ tiin kan sawi mai theuh a. Kan paper-ah hian an zavai hian kan huamtir em ni ang? Bible, theology lah Pathian Thu te hi an inzawmin, an inlaichin hle naa, thuhmuna ngaih tur erawh a ni lo. Pathian Thu (God’s Word) hi a bul ber a ni a. Isua Krista a lailui a ni a; tin, Amah chu Pathian thu a ni nghal bawk a, Pathian rilru, Pathian finna angina sawi a ni bawk a; tin, Pathian nen pawh thuhmuna ngaih theih a ni bawk. Pathian thu chu kawng hrang hrangin puanchhuah a ni a. A inpuanchhuahna dawngtute’n an nun leh chezia te tawngka leh ziak tein an lo puang chhawng ve leh a. Chutianga Pathian thu puanchhuah chhawn leha awm chu Thlarau Thianghlim uapna hnuaiah phuah khawmin, Kohhran Bible hi a rawn siam chhuak ta a ni. Bible hi theology, Pathian chungchang sawina a ni a. Theology, Bible laka a danglamna erawh chu – Bible-a thu ziak hrilhfiahna, sawifiahna a ni a. Bible bakah khawvela Pathian inpuanna kal zel innghata Pathian leh mihring, mihring leh mihring, mihring leh khawvel, khawvel leh Pathian inlaichinna zawng zawng zirna leh sawifiahna a ni.

A Chunga kan han sai ang khian, ‘Pathian thu’ kan han tih hi a awmzia leh a huam zau zawngte a thuhmun vek kher loving a. Eng pawh ni se, kan paper-ah hian kan bible-in retheite chungchang a sawite kan chhui deuh ber ang a. Amaherawhchu, theology hrang hrangin an chhui dan leh an sawifiah dante hmangin kan thupui zir ho tur hi buatsaih kan tum dawn a ni.

Mihring nun dan leh khawsak dan siamthatna kawnga thawktute’n Bible hi an zir ngunin, an hmang tangkai hle thin. Sakhaw dang betute leh Pathian awm ringlote meuh pawhin mihring nun chawikanna leh zalenna atana an thawhna-ah Bible hi an hmanraw lakna pawimawh tak a ni. Pu Gandhi-a chuan, lehkhabu ziak The Message of Jesus Christ a tihah chuan, lal Isua zirtirnaa innghata Non- violence Principle hi a chherchhuah ni hial awmin a sawi lang a (M.K. Gandhi,p.35). Tin, Karl Marx-a’n communism a sawi fiah nana a thu hman thenkhatte chu T.T. 2:44,55 & 32,35 atanga a lak chhawn (copy) niin an sawi thei bawk a (H.P.Mabry, Christian Ethics-Introductory Reader, p.192). Gustufson-a chuan Thuthlung Thar hi Communist thurin innghahna lubgphum pawimawh ber niin a pawm nghet hle bawk a (H.P. Mabry,p.196). Heng atang ngawt pawh hian retheite chhanchhuahna atan Bible thute hi a pawimawh hle tih a hriat theih a. Tunlai Pathian thu zirtu tam takin Bible hi retheite chhandamna lehkhabu an ti fo thin reng a. Chuvangin, retheite chunghcang, Bible-in a sawi dante hi ngun taka kan zir a pawimawh hle dawn a ni.

1. Bible-a ‘rethei’ sawina tawngkam hrang hrangte :

1.1 Kan Mizo Bible-ah hian ‘rethei sawina tawngkam chi hrang hrang a

awm a, chung zinga kan hriat theih thenkhatte chu – riangvai, pachhia,

hnehchhiah,

tuar,tihduhdah,tlahham,michhia,michaklo,tanpuingai,khawhar,inngaitlawm,chaklo ,thuhnuairawlh, thinlung lungchhia, zaidam,ngilnei,etc. tithe hi. Saptawng Bible- ah pawh ‘rethei’ sawina tawngkam chi hrang hrang eng emaw zat a awm bawk a. Chutiang bawkin, Greek tawng Bible-ah pawh ‘rethei’ sawina tawngkam chi

hreawm

hrang hrang 12 a awm. Tin, Hebrai Bible, Thuthlung Hlui-ah hian rethei sawina Hebrai tawngkam awm zawng chu 6 chauh a nithung a. Hebrai tawngkam parukte hi Greek tawng hrang harng 12-a lehlin a ni a. Chutiang zelin, Saptawng leh Mizo tawng Bible-ah rethei sawina, tawngkam hrang hranga lehlin a lo nita a ni.

1.2 Retheite chungchang Bible-in a sawi dan hre chiang turin, ‘rethei’

sawina atana thu hman,Hebrai tawngkam 6 : Ebhyon,Dal,Ani,Anaw,Rash leh Masken te leh Greek tawngkam hman lar zual 4- Ptochos, Penes,Tepeinos leh Pros te lo zir ila ( Heng Bible tawngkam hrang hrang kan chhuina atana kan Source pui ber chu Pu Chuauthuama B.D. Thesis : “Meaning and Usage of thr Selected Hebrew Terms in the Old Testament to refer to the poor and oppressed in the Old Testament”)

1.3 Ebhyon : He tawngkam hi ‘rethei’ tia lehlin a ni deuh vek awm e. Sam

Bu leh Zawlnei Isaia Buin a hmang ngun zual a. Bible pumah vawi 61 hman a ni. Ebhyon-hote hi taksa khawsakna dinhmuna miretheite an ni a. Retheite zingah pawh a rethei zualte, In leh lo, rem pawh nei lo, kutdawha vak, mite hmuhsit leh endawngte an ni a. Hetiang taka an retheihna chhan hi mihausa leh miliante hnehchhiahna avang niin ngaih a ni a. Mitlachham tak, saruak leh riltama khawsa,

mikhawngaihthlak takte an ni a. Ni tin inhlawhfaa ei chawp hmute chu dinhmun tha pawl tak an ni. Tam takte hi chu Israel mi dik tak an ni nghe nghe awm e. Tin, hetiang taka mirethei, mite thatna ringawt rinchhan an nih avang hian, Pathianin a ngaihsak bik angina sawi a ni a. Saltang chhuah hnu phei kha chuan, ‘Ebhyon’ tawngkam hi thlarauva rethei sawi nan an hmang a ni awm e (Ct. Exod.23:210,11; Due.15:7 24:15,15 Amosa.5:12Jer5:28;Eze.16:49 Sam 37:14,69:33,86:1)

1.4 Dal : He tawngkam hi Bible-ah vawi 48 hman a ni a. Thufing bu-ah

hman uar deuh a ni. A tawngkam awmzia hi ‘chak lo” tihna a ni a. Taksa leh thlarau lam dinhmuna rethei sawi nan hman a ni a. Ebhyon-hote ang bawka mihausa leh miliante hnehchhiahna avanga rethei, mite hmuhsit leh endawng an ni. Mipui vantlang hnuai lam mite an ni vek a. Ebhyon-hote ai chuan an dinhmun hi tha deuhin a lang a. In leh lo neia khawsa pawh ‘Dal’-ho zingah hi chuan an awm ve awm e.Tin, Dal-hote zingah hian rilru natna avanga rethei an langsar a. Thlarau lam ‘rethei’ an nihna hian chutiang mite dinhmun chu a kawk nghe nghe awm e (Cf II Sam. 13”4; Ruth.3:10; Ror.6:15; Amosa.2:7;Isa.10:2;Eph.3:12;

Thuf.10:15,14:31,29:7,14).

1.5 Ani :

uar a. Bible pumah vawi 71 hman a ni. Ani-hote hi an pianziain a zir loh vang ni lovin, pawn lam dinhmunin a zir loh hrim hrim avanga rethei an ni. Mihausa leh miliante hnehchhiahna avanga retheite an ni ber Mi-inngaitlawm leh thuhnuairawlh tia sawi an hlawh hle a. Messia sawi nan pawh an hmang hial a ni.

(Ctf. Exod

3:14,15:14:32;Sam25:16,34:7,35:10,72:2,4,12).

Lev 19:9,10; Duet 24:12; Isa

Zawlnei Isaia leh Sam bute hian he tawngkam hi an hmang

22:5;

1.6 Anaw: Bible pumah he tawngkam hi vawi 21chauh a lang.

Rethei tia kan sawi theih maite hi an ni a. Taksa dinhmuna mirethei pangngaite hi an ni. Anaw an tithe hi mitha an ni a. Rethei an ni a; mahse, mizaidam, nunnem, Pathiana innghat, Amah tih nachang hria an ni. Mosia pawh ‘ Anaw’ tia sawi a ni. Rethei dangte ang bawkin mihausa leh miliante rahbeh leh hnehchhiaha awmte an

ni ve tho. (Cf.3:34,16:19; Isa. 29:19; Sam 10:17,22:26,37:11).

1.7 Rash : Mihring taksa dinhmun kawng hrang hrang

ngaihtuaha’rethei’ kan tih thin sawina tawngkam a ni a. A opposite chiah chu ‘hausa’ a ni.Taksa khawsakna dinhmuna mipui vantlang hnuailam, poverty line hnuai lama awmte sawina tawngkam ni berin a lang. Bethsebi pasal hmasa Uria kha ‘rash’ tia sawi a ni. Miretheidangte ang bawka hnehchhiahna tuarte an ni.

Bible pumah ‘rash’ tawngkam hi vawi 21 chiah hman a ni. (Cf.II Sam 12:1-4; Thuf. 13:8,14:20).

1.8 Masken : He tawngkam hi Thuhriltute Bu-ah chauh tum li hman a ni.

Mirethei chanhai takte an ni. Amaherawhchu, miffing leh mirilru nei tak, roreltute tan pawha mihlauhawm nip hate an ni (Eccl. 4:13,9:15,16).

1.9

A hma lama kan han sawi taw hang khan Hebrai tawnga’rethei’

sawina tawngkam paruk lehlin nan Greek tawng 12 hman a ni a. Chung zinga palite chu hman lar deuhte an ni a; tin, Thuthlung Thar Bu-ah pawh hman lar a nit

ho bawk. Ptochos: Hebrai twang Anil eh Rash-hoten aiin an dinhmun a chhe zual

a. Ebhyon-hote ai pawhin an la rethei hial awm e. Kutdawh leh piangsualhote an

ni bera. Mite hmuhsit leh endawng an hlawh nasa hle. Penes : Anni hi Ptochos aiin an dinhmuna tha a. ‘Ebhyon’ lah ‘Dal’ lehlinna tawngkam a ni. Thuthlung Thar Bu-a Penes an tithe chu mahni ei chawp dapa khawsa tawk tawkte an ni. Tepeinos : Hebrai tawnga ‘Ani’ leh ‘Dal’ tawngkam lehlinna tawngkam a ni a. Thlarau lam pachhiate sawina tawngkam bik angina a ngaih theih. Mi inngaitlawm leh thuhnuairawlh mite an ni deuh ber. A tam ber chu taksa khawsakna dinhmuna rethei an ni a. A tam ber chu taksa khawsakna dinhmun rethei an ni a. An zinga thenkhat dinhmun tha deuha dingte pawh an awm ve. Pros : Tapeinos-te ang bawk an ni. Mirethei, mitha anga ngaih theihte an ni. Pathian tih mi, mi hmangaih thei takte an ni awm e.

1.10 Bible-a rethei tawngkam hrang hrang kan zir atang hian retheite chu

an dinhmun inchen vek lo mahse, a tlangpuiin, mi vantlang hnuai lam mite an ni deuh ber a. Mihring chanvo dik tak luah pha lote an ni a. Mihausa leh Miliante hnehchhiahna tuartute an ni deuh vek. Mite hmuhsit leh endawng, mi khawngaihthlak takte an ni. Thlarau dinhmunah pawh pachhe tak an ni a. Amaherawhchu, mirethei thenkhatte chu mi-inngaitlawm, thuhnuairawlh tak anga sawi theih an ni awm e. Mifel leh tha, Pathian tih mi eng emaw zat an awmin a

lang. Tin, retheite zingah hian Israel-hote chu a hnam pumin tel ve-a sawi thin a ni

a. A la bang awm chhun (remnant)-ho te, Isua Krista leh Kohhranhote pawh Bible- in ‘rethei’ tia a sawiah hian an tel ve.

2. Bible –in rethei a tihte hi tute nge? Eng ang mi nge

2.1 A chunga ‘rethei’ tawngkam hrang hrang kan chhui takte khian eng

emawti chen chu,’retheite’ chu tute nge an niha, eng ang mi nge an nih kan hre thei ang a. Bible-in mirethei a tih zingah hming hmerha sawi lan fo thinte an awm avangin, chung mite chu tlem tal tar lan kan tum dawn a ni.

2.2 Bible-in rethei a sawi zingah Fahrah, paneilo, hmeithai leh

ramdangmite hi a lar berte an ni hial awm e. Pathianin a bik taka a ngaihsak pawh an hlawh hlein a lang. Fahrah (Orphan)- hote hi nu leh pain an thihsan, mi dangin an chawilen takte chu an ni ber a. Fahrah tam ber hi indona avanga nu leh pain an thihsante an ni awm e. Bible khawvelah indona te, inrun te a tam thin em avang in fahrahhote hi buaipui tham fe an awm ni ngei tur a ni. Paneilo (Fatherless)- te hi nawhchizuarhote fa hrin an ni ber a. An sual vang hrim hrim vang pawh nilovin, khawsak harsatna avangte pawhin nawhchizuarho hi thahnem fe an awm awm e. An fa hrin (a bikin hmeichhia) tam takte, a pa hriat chian theih

lohte an ni a. Rethei takin an lo seilian ve-in, an lo nung ve hram ni tur a ni. Hmeithai thahnem fe Bible khawvelah hian an awm bawk a. Indona avang chauh pawh ni lo lovin, damlohna leh hrisel lohna avanga an pasalte thihsan thahnem fe an awm. Juda-hote’n tuarna leh sualna hi inzawm tlat nia an ngaih avangin, heng hmeithaihote hian thlarau lam retheihna pawh an tuar nasa hlein a lang. Hmeithai tam takte chu mipui vantlang kutthlak hnawihna an ni a, tihduhdahna an tuar nasa hle (Isa 1:23,10:2; Job 22:9). Inthuamna bikte pawh an nei hial nghe nghe a ni awm e.

2.3 Ramdangmite hi Israel hnam zingah thahnem fe an khawsa ve a.

Heng mite hi Kanaan mite an ni deuh ber awm e. Israel fate’n Kanaan ram an va luah fel hnua, an ram mi an hnena khawsa chhunzawm tate kha an ni a. An zinga thenkhat, Israel saphun tate eng emaw zat an awm naa, eng emaw zat an awm naa, eng emaw zat cultural identity hrang neia awm an awm. Heng mite hian politics- ah te, ei leh bar zawnna kawngah te, Israel mite dinhmun an pha lova, thlei bik deuh niin an lang. A tlangpuiin, an dinhmun a tha lo va, sakhuana thilah phei chuan endawng leh hmuhsit an hlawh zual. Tamna leh indona avang tea ramdangmi, Israel rama lo pem lut eng emaw zat an awm bawk. Heng mite hi chhiahhlawh hna thawka awm an thahnem fe awm e. Thingphurh leh tuichawi an hnathawh langsar tak a ni. Ramdang mi, chhiahhlawha awmte hian Sabbath an serh ve a, Israel mipui inkhawmnaah pawh an tel ve. Ramdangmite hi hmeithai leh fahrahhote ang bawka a bika Pathianin a ngaihsakte an ni a. Mosia danah pawh heng mite enkawlna hi siam a ni.

2.4 Bawih, Sal leh Chhiahhlawhte hi Bible-a mirethei tia an sawi zinga

mite an ni. Bawih leh mirethei tia an sawi zinga mite an ni. Bawih leh salte hi Bible-ah hian mi thuhmun anga sawi lan a ni a. Chhiahhlawh pawh hi tawngkam a hrang naa, bawih leh sal an tithe nen hian thuhmun anga sawi lan a ni fo bawk. Bawih leh salhote hi retheina avang te, indona avangte leh inhremna pumpelhna a nih avangtea lo awm a ni a. Mirethei chhuanchhamte’n mihausa leh miliante hnenah sum an puk thin. An retheih avangin an leiba chu an pe thei lo va, chutianga an leiba pek theih loh avanga bawiha in pete thahnem fe an awm a ni. Bawih leh sal tura a ruka ruk chhuahte an awm bawk a. Retheih avanga an fate, bawih leh sala hralh eng emaw zat an awm bawk. Heng bawih leh sal leh chhiahhlawhte hi an duh vang nilovin, pianphungin an zir loh vang pawh ni lovin, mihausa leh miliante suahsualna avanga bawih, sal leh chhiahhlawh lo ni tate an ni deuh berin a lang. An pute kutah an awm hlawm tawp a. Mihring pangngai chanvo a luah pha lo hle. An dinhmun hi a hreawm em avanga tlan bo tate pawh an awm thin. Hnathawka chhawr an ni ber a. An hnathawh rah zawng zawng an pute ta a ni a. An pute’n an pek phal tawk an pek ve chu an chanvo neih chhun chu a ni. An pute Ina an awm chhung chu, an fate chenin an pute ta an ni. Heng miretheite hi Pathianin a ngaihsak hle a ni.

2.5

Nawhchizuar hote hi mirethei anga sawi an ni bawk a. An taksa

khawsakna dinhmunin a zir loh avanga nawhchizuara inseam te an ni. Sakhaw inzirtirna dih lo avanga hetiang dinhmuna dingte hi awm bawk mah se, nawhchizuarte hi mihausa leh mi-liante hnehchhiahna avanga lo awm ni-a sawi

loh theih loh an ni. Mirethei zinga chhiar tel an ni.

2.6 Piangsual Mitdel, kebai, bengngawng,tawngtheilohote hi mirethei

zingah an tel a. Tin, damlo, natna tuar- phar, zeng, leh ramhuai bawlhhlawhin a man leh a sawisak nia an ngaihhote Bible-in mirethei a tithe an ni bawk. Thuthlung Hluiah chauh ni lovin, Thuthlung Tharah pawh heng mite hi ‘rethei’ anga sawi an ni. An dinhmun a chhe hle. A tam berin kut an dawh a. Mite thatnaah an innghat ngawt mai a. An sual vang emaw, an thlahtute suahsualna avanga chutiang retheihna chu tuar tur renga ngaih an ni lehnghal a. Mipui vantlanmg hmuhsit leh endawng an ni. An tan din chhuaha, mihring pangngai anga khawsak leh chu beisei phak loh tawp niin a lang a. Anni hian Pathian ram lo thlen hun tur hi an nghakhlelh zual hle a ni.

2.7 Levia chiteho hi mirethei anga an sawi fo thin an ni. Puithiam

rawngbawltute an ni naa, In leh lo nei mumal lo an ni a. Mosia danah pawh fahrah, paneilo, hmeithai leh ramdangmite nen a bika enkawlne pek tura tih an ni.

2.8 A hma lama kan sawi tawh angina, Israel hnam hi a hnam pum

angina ‘rethei’ tia sawi a ni ve f ova. Aigupta rama an awm chhunga an retheihna te mai bakah, Lalte hun hma lam zawnga an dinhmun ngaihtuahin, hnam hausa leh ropui tak chu an ni lo phawt mai le. Israel chanchin an chhui hian hnam rethei tak anga sawi loh theih loh an ni. Lalte hunah ngei pawh khan milian leh mihausate awm ve bawk mahse, chung mihausa leh miliante hnehchhiahna tuara rethei taka awmte kha mipui tam ber an niin a lang. Babulon salah an tang a, saltan hnu lamah pawh hnam dang awpbehna hnuaiah an kun a. Rome-in a awp hma kum rei lo te chhung tih loh kha chu hnam dangte rahbeh leh hnehchhiahna tuarin an rum tlawk tlawk a ni ber mai. Israel hnam sawmte phei chu Assuria-hote’n sala an mana an hneh tak hnu phei kha chuan, an ral hial ta niin a lang. Israel hnam tluka ‘rethei’ hi khawvelah an vang hle awm e. Pathianin a’n ngaihsakna chhan pawh hi an retheih bik vang a ni mai thei.

2.9 Israel hnam zingah ‘a la bang awm chhun’ (remnant)- hote hi rethei

anga sawi an ni bawk a. Heng mite hi Pathian mite anga sawi an ni deuh bik a. Israel hnam, a hnam pum anga an sawprawp hnua sakhaw dang zirtirnain a chiahpiah fe tawh hnua, sakhaw dang zirtirnain a chiahpiah fe tawh hnu pawha Jehova ringtu, Pathian ram lo thleng tur rinawm taka beisei leh nghak tlattute an ni. Heng mite hi taksa khawsakna dinhmuna mirethei, mihausa leh miliante’n an hnehchhiah ve thote an ni. Pathian an rinna erawh chuai chuang lovin, harsatna hnuaiah pawh chhel takin, Lalpa ni, Messia lo lan hun chu an nghak fan fan a. Thlarau lam dinhmuna ‘rethei’ tia an ni fo bawk a ni.

2.10

Lal Isua hi ‘rethei’ zingah Bible hian a chhiar tel vein a lang. A

pianna leh a seilenna chhungkua hi ‘rethei chhungkua’ nia ngaih a ni a. Amaherawhchu, a pa Josepa leh amah ngei pawhin a hawh thin ‘mistiri’ hna hi Lal Isua hun lai hian hna hnuaihnunga ngaih erawh a ni lo. A tlangpuiin, mistiri hnathawkte chu mipui vantlang chung lam mah, a ni lo berah, middle class an tih zinga chhiar tel theih tur niin Pathian thuzirtute chuan an ngai a ni. Engpawh ni se, Lal Isua hi ‘Pathian Fapa’, ‘Pathian angaa awma Pathian tluka awm chu thil thlakhlelh hleitheiha’ ngai lova, mihringa lo chang a nih avangin, a dinhmun hmasa nena ngaihtuahin ‘rethei’ tih loh rual a ni lo. ‘Hausa mah sela, nangmahni avang ngeiin a lo retheih tak kha,’ Paula’n a tih ang khan. (Cf Phil 2:5f II Kor.1:9)

2.11 Kohhran hi ‘rethei’ zingah chhiar tel a ni bawk a. Kohhran hi Krista

taksa, a tuarna leh retheihna keng chhunzawm zeltu a ni. Kohhran dinhmun hmasa kan ngaihtuahin, Kohhran mite chu mipui vantlang hnuai lam mite an ni ber a. An zingah mihausa tlem azawng tel bawk mah se, a am ber chu miretheite an ni. Khatih hun lai khawvela mihausa leh miliante’n an hmuhsit em em thin an ni. Tihduhdah leh hnehchhiahna nasa takin Kohhranin a tuar thin. Constantine-a hun,

kum zabi 4-na atang khan Kohhran dinhmun hi tlemin a lo ziaawm deuh va. Amaherawhchu, vawiin thlengin Kohhran hi ‘rethei’ takin, khawvel mite tihduhdah leh hnehchhiahna tawkin a la nung reng a nih hi.

3.

Retheite dinhmun leh retheih chhante :

3.1

Retheite dinhmun eng emaw chen hre tawh mah ila, heng a hnuaia Bible-a retheite dinhmun sawi lanna thenkhat hi tar langin, lo thlir leh ila :

Joba

24:2-11,14

“Ri sawn chingte an awm a, Ran rual an man lui a, an vulh a, Paneilote sabengtung an um bosak a, Hmeithai bawngpa, dahkham atan an laksak a………. Vartianah tualthattu an tho va, Rethei leh tlachhamte an that a.

Amosa 2:6-7;8:4-6

“Tangkaruaa mifel an hralh avang leh pheikhawk bun khata mifel an hralh avangin, miretheite lu chunga vaivut takngial pawh an it a, pachhiate an ruksak a, pa leh fapa chuan nula pakhat an zen tawm a.”

“Aw, tlachhamte ei zo duha, ram mirethei tibo duhte u, buh kan zawrh theih nan thla thar chu engtikah nge a ral ang a, chhangphut buh kan chhuah theih nan chawlhni chu engtikah nge a ral ang, titu; ephah titein sekel tiliana, dik lo taka bumna buk hmanga; tangkaruaa mirethei leia, mitlachhamte chu pheikhawk bun khata leia, buhsi kan hralh theih nan, tiin.”

Isaia 10:1,2

 

“Dan chimawm takte insiama……… Hetiang hian mikhawngaihthlakte dik takin in relsak duh lo va, retheite that na tur in dang tlat a.

3.2

A chunga kan Bible thuziak tar lan atang khian miretheite dinhmun

chhiatzia kan hre chiang hle awm e. Mihausa leh miliante hnehchhiahna namenlovin an tuar a.Rahbehin an awm a, an rum tlawk tlawk a ni ber mai awm e. In leh lo an neih chhun takngial pawh chhuhsak an ni a. An silhfen neih chhunte dahkhamin, chutianga an dahkhamte chu an chan leh mai si thin. In leh lo nei lovin, riltam leh saruakin mirethei tam berte hi an khawsa a. Sum leh pai an neih chhun pawh, mihausate duhamna avangin, a tangkai tur angina an hmang tangkai thei lo. An tan nun hi anchhia a ni a, ran ang leka sawisak leh thah an ni hial thin. Miretheite hian an chanvo dik tak an luah pha lo hle. Mihring an tling zo lo. Mihausa leh miliante dinhmun leh chhuahna kawng reng a awm lo. Kawng tinrengin hnehchhiahin an awm a. Rorelna-ah thlei bik an ni a. Dik lo takin an chungthu relsak an ni a. Rorelna kalhmang leh dante chu mihausa leh miliante duh dana siam a nih miau avangin, retheite tan rorelnaah beisei tur a awm tlem hle. Ei

leh bar zawnna leh taksa khawsakna dinhmunah namenlova rahbehin an awm a. Sakhuana thil chenin retheite hi rahbeh leh hnehchhiahin an awm tak zet a ni.

3.3 Retheite dinhmun kan sawi tawhte atang khian retheite retheihna

chhan kan hre theuh awm e. Mihausa leh miliante suahsualna leh khawlohna avangin miretheite an lo awmin, retheihna hi a lo awm a ni. Mihausa leh miliante chuan mirethei thil neihte chu chhuhsakin intihhausak nan an hmang a. Miretheite nunna, an tha leh an zung hmangin an intihausa bawk a, miretheite’n rim taka an thawh chhuah zawng zawng chu milian leh mihausate ta a lo ni thin. Chu mai ni lovin, an nunna hial laksakin, an nupui leh fanaute an chhuhsak hial thin a ni. Bible khawvelah mihausa leh miliante hi mi retheite rorelsaktu an ni kumkhua a. Rorelna an kutah awmin, rorelna kalhmang leh ram leh hnam enkawlna dan zawng zawngte pawh an duh dan angina an siamin an kalpui thinin a lang. Khawtlang mipui inlaichin dan zawng zawng pawh mihausa leh miliante ngaihdan leh duh dana siam rem vek a ni a. Ei leh bar zawnna lam kalhmang zawng zawng pawh mihausa leh miliante hamthatna tura siam leh rem ni deuhvin a lang. Sakhuana lamah pawh chutiang deuh bawk chu a ni. Lal Isua hun lai phei kha chuan sakhuana leh thuneihna hi a inkawp thui hle a. Pharisai-hote Sadukai-hote Lal

Isua’n demna leh a khinna zawng zawng kha mihausa leh miliante demna leh khinna niin tunlai Pathian thuzirtute chuan an ngai a ni.

3.4 A chunga kan tar lan ang khian, mihausa leh miliante’n mihring

khawsakna tinreng-mihring khawvel zawng zawngah an duh danin ro an rel a. Socio-economic and political order kan tih thin hi an kutah a awm vek a. Religious order ngei pawh mihausa leh milianhote kutah a awm a ni. Miretheite ngaihtuah lova mahni hmasial tak duham taka an nun avangin retheina hi lo awm niin a lang. A tawi zawngin sawi ila: retheihna hi mihausa leh milian hote siam chawp, an awm tir chawp anga sawi theih a ni. Zawlneite’n an hmu chiang hle a. An thusawi tam ber kha mihausate leh milianhote demna, an suahsualna avanga Pathian rorelna lo thleng tur thu kha a ni. Lal Isua chhandamna hnathawhin a tum pawimawh tak mai pakhat pawh mihausa leh miliante hnehchhiahna zawng zawng tihbova, retheite chhanchhuah hi ni ve ngeiin a lang.

3.5 Retheite chhan hi kawng hrang hrang sawi a ni thin a. Tam tlak

vang te, indona avang te, thlahtute atanga dinhmunin a zir loh vang te leh ei leh bar zawn dan hmangin a zir loh vangtea retheihna hi lo awm a ngaih a ni a.

Hengte hi retheihna lo awm chhan Bible-in a sawi lante an ni nghe nghe a. Heng retheihna chhan kawng hrang hrangte pawh hi ngin taka zu zirtute chuan mihausa leh miliante hnehchhiahna avang vek niin an ngai a ni. (Gutierrez, Theology of Liberation p.293). Indona hi chu, Political order kha mihausa leh milian kuta awm a nih avangin mihring siam chawp a ni tih a chiang thei ami. Ei leh bar zawn dan hmang fel lo phei hi chu mihring siam chawp liau liau niin a lang bawk a.

3.6 Retheihna hi thatchhiat leh dawngdahna avanga lo awm niin

Thufing Buin a tar lang ngun hle mai. Taimaknain hausakna a thlen laiin, thatchhiatna erawh chuan retheihna a awmtir nia inzirtirna hi Bible inzirtirna pakhat niin a lang. Pianphung mizia zir loh vanga thatchhiatna leh dawngdahna hi a awm niin a lang bawk a. Amaherawhchu, ngun taka kan ngaihtuah erawh chuan, pawn lam dinhmun fell oh avanga thatchhiatna hi awm ve thei a nit ho mai.

3.7 Juda-hote Pathian thu kalpui dan (theology) tuarna leh sualna

inzawm tlata zirtirna hi retheihna awmtirtu pakhat anga sawi theih a ni awm e.

Fahrah leh hmeithaite, piangsual leh damlo, phar leh zengte retheihna chhan pakhat ni ve ngeiin a lang. Tin, Juda-te chauh, Israel hnam chauh Pathianin enkawl leh ngaihsak nia inzirtirna hi ram dang mite retheihna bul pakhat niin a lang bawk

a.

3.8

Kawng hrang hranga retheite retheihna chhan Bible-in a sawi khi

han thlirin, a bul nia lang chu structural injustices mihausa leh miliante’n an awmtir chawp, mirethei an rahbehna leh an hnehchhiatna chu niin a lang a. Hei aia bul zawka sawi tumtu thenkhatte chuan mahni hmasialna leh chapona, mihring duhamna tiin an sawi thin a. Mahni hmasialna leh chapona hi structural injustices-

in a awm anga sawi ve theih tho a ni a. Eng pawh ni se, hengte hi structural injustices, socio-economic & political order phuar khawng tlatu chu niin a lang.

4.

Retheite chhanchhuahna kawng :

4.1

Tunlai Pathian thu zirtirtute’n Pathian hian miretheite hi angaihsak

bikin, ‘Mirethei Pathian’, tiin, Pathian hming an sai thin a; miretheite a

ngaihsakzia Mosia Lehkhabu pangate’n an tar lan thenkhat lo en hmasa ila :

Exodus 22 :22-26

Hmeithai emaw, fahrah emaw in tirethei tur a ni lo.

Anmahni in tihretheih vaiha, min rawn auh phawt chuan, min auhna

Ka miteho zinga in hnena

awm, retheite tangka in puktir chuan, I leiba angah I ngai tur a ni lo va; a lakah a pung I phut tur a ni hek lo.

aw chu ka lo ngaithla ngei ang …………

Deut. 24:14,19

In mirawih, mirethei leh tlachhamte chu…

In lova buh in senga, buhphal in khawm hmaih chuan, in lak leh tur a ni lo; ramdangmi te, paneilo te, hmeithaite ta tur a ni.

in

hnehchhiah tur a ni lo.

Mosia Dan ang hi chuan mirethei hnehchhiah khap tlat a ni. An retheihna denchhena intihhausak engti kawng mahin phal a ni lo. Felt akin miretheite ro an relsak tur a ni. An retheih avanga In leh lo an chante pawh Jubili kuma pek let vek tur a ni. Israel-te zinga miretheite ngat phei chu unau angina an chhawmdawl tur a ni. Sawma pakhat chu rethei chhawmdawlna atan hman ve tur a ni bawk. Inthawina thilhlan tur mirethei tan bik siam a ni bawk a. Heng Mosia Dan hian Order fel lo avanga retheihna hi lo awm a nihzia hriain, order chu siam dik a tum a ni.

4.2 Mosia dan hi mihausa leh miliante’n an zawm tha lo hle ni ngei tur a

ni. Zawlneite’n mihausa leh miliante’n Dan an bawhchhiatna avanga retheihna leh

pachhiatna lo awm chu an engto em em a. Pathian mite tawngtaina hla a ni fo bawk thin.

Sam 113 :5-9

Lalpa kan Pathian, chung lama thutphah neia, Van thil awmte leh leia thil awmte en tura Intihhnuai thin ang hi tu nge awm? Ani chuan retheite chu vaivut ata a kaitho thina, Pachhia chu ek dur ata a chawikang thin.

4.3

Mari hla an

tih fo thin, Lk. 1:51f thu hi Pathianin mirethei a

ngaihsakzia leh a chhanchhuah dan tur nia ngaih a ni a.

Luka 1:51-52

A banin a tha chakzia a entir a, Michapote chu an inngaihtuahnain a tidarh ta a, An thutphaha lal thute chu a hnuk thla a, Hnam tlawmte chu a chawimawi ta a. Riltamte chu thil that akin a tipuar a, Hausate chu kutruakin a kal botir ta a.

Mari hla hian retheihna um bo hi Pathian chhandamna hnathawhin a tum a nihzia a tar lang chiang hle a. Retheihna um bo tur chuan milian leh mihausa, miretheite hnehchhiahtu chu a target an ni tih a tilang bawk a. Tin, retheihna tihbo dan chu retheite chawikan a ni. Retheite chawikana an awm theih na tur chuan mihausa hnuh hniamtur a ni bawk a, Hei hi retheihna chhanchhuah dan tur model niin sawi

a ni hial thin (Robinson, “Mission in Christ’s Way Siding with the proor.” The South Indian Churchman. April 1968.p.8f).

4.4 Lal Isua lo kal chhan leh a chhandamna hnathawhin a tum

pawimawh tak pakhat nia tunlai Pathian thuzirtirtute’n an sawi thin chu-retheite chhanchhuah hi a ni. Lal Isua tawngkamah retheite chhandam tura lo kal a nih thu

hi

hmun tam takah kan hmu a: “Boralte chhandam turin mihring fapa hi a lo kal a

ni

reng si a (Lk 19:10)”. “Mifel takte lam tura lo kal ka ni lo va, misualte zawk

lam tura lo kal ka ni (Mk 2:17)”. Boral te misual te; hengte hi miretheite, taksa dinhmuna retheite an ni. Baptistu Johana mi tirhte hnena a inpuanna thu khan Lal Isua lo kal chhan miretheite chhanchhuah a nihzia a tar lang chiang hle bawk a. Mat 25:24f-a ‘Pa vohbikte chanvo’ khan mirethei chhanchhuah hi Mission hnapui

a nihzia a tichiang hle bawk. Tin, Lal Isua khan miretheite a khawngaihin a lainat

a ni mai lo. Anmahni a chhandam theih ngeina turin miretheia lo changing,

mirethei angina a khawsa a; miretheite chhanchhuah an nih theihna turin an nit tin mamawh a pe a ni mai lo, retheihna khura dahtute an do let theihna turin chaknain

a thuam a, tiretheitu chakna chu a takin a do zawk a ni. Lal Isua retheite

chhanchhuak tura lo kal a nihzia. Nazareth manifesto an tih hian a tichiang hle

mai:

Luka 41: 8

Riangvaite (Retheite) hnena Chanchin Tha hril tura mi ruat avangin, Lalpa Thlarau chu ka chungah a awm; Ani chuan salte hnena chhuahna thu leh mitdelte hnena mitvar neih lehna thu sawi tur te,

tihduhdah tuarte chhuahtirna tur te, Lalpa lungawi kum thu sawi tur tein mi tir a ni.

Sal te, mitdel te, tihduhdah tuarte hi thlarau lam thil ni lovin, he taksa dinhmun ngeia mirethei, setana (structural injustices) tihretheiha awm mekte chu an ni. Heng mite chhanchhuahna hi a takin, a dam lai ngei pawhin a lantir tak kha.

4.5 Mat. 5:3 leh Lk. 6:20 thu hi khaikhinin a ni fo thin. Thlarau lama

retheite dinhmun sawina angina sawi a ni fo thin a. Amaherawhchu, Lal Isua’n ‘rethei’ tia a sawite hi thlarauva rethei ni mai lovin, taksa dinhmun pawha rethei a sawina ni ngeiin a lang. Rilru-a rethei mai ni lovin, lungngai te, thuhnuairawlh te, etc. Bible-ina mirethei a tithe kha an ni. Krista hnathawh chuan Pathian ram thlentirin retheihna a tikiang tur a ni a; tichuan, mirethei zalenna, mihring dik tak chanvo an luah vena tur kawng a lo inhawng dawn a ni.

4.6 Lal Isua hnathawh leh thiltih zawng zawng hi retheite chhanchhuah

an nih theihna tura ‘model’ a ni vek mai. Mirethei khawngaiha thil petu ni mai lovin, Kohhran leh ringtute hian mirethei chhanchhuaha an awm theihna turin an retheihna hi kan chanpuiin, retheihna ata an lo din chhuah theihna turin an tha tichaktu-ah kan tang ang a, an retheih na zawng zawng, Lal Isua angina kan nunna hlan hial khawpin kan do tur a ni. Retheihna leh pachhiatna laka chhanchhuah hi Kohhran Mission pawimawh tak niin a lang.

4.7 Miretheite, Pathianin a ngaihsakzia, a chhandamna hnathawhin

retheite a tumzia kan hria a. Eng vangin nge heti tak maia Pathianin retheite a ngaihsaka, chhandam a duh? A tawi zawng in sawi ila: Aigupta sal ata chhandam an nih thu kha Israel sakhaw lungphum pawimawh ber a ni. Kha Pathian chhandamna kha retheite chhandamna a ni. Retheite an retheihna ata chhandam hi Pathian duhzawng leh a tum a ni tih a chiang hle bawk a. Pathian in a mite enkawl a tum zel dante kan thlirin, retheihna laka a mite humhim hi a tum a ni tih kan hre bawk a ni. Chutichuan, retheihna leh Pathian chhandamna hi a inkalh a ni. Pathian chhandamna hnathawh chuan retheihna tihbo a tum a, a tibo reng thin a ni. Pathian leh mihring inlaichinna a siam tha mai ni lovin, mihring leh mihring, mihring leh khawvel, khawvel leh Pathian inlaichinna pawh a siam thain; chutin, retheite nun chawikawnga, tizalenin, Pathian ram a lo thleng thin a ni. Chu vangin, Pathianin retheite hi ngaihsak lozia a ni lo.

4.8 Mihring hi Pathianin ama anpuia a siam a ni. Thil siam hotu leh

enkawltu tura a siam leh dah a ni. Retheihna hian chu dinhmun chu luah thei lovin mihring a awmtir thin. Thil siamte hotu leh enkawltu chu thil siam lekah chantirin, thil siam thuhnuaiah a kuntir hial thin. Pathian anpui kan nihna chu ‘kut hnathawh’-ah hian a ni. Mihring chu hnathawk tur renga siam a ni a. Thil siamte enkawlna hnathawha lantir tur a ni. Pathianin min kohna ropui tak a ni a, a kohna phu a kan awmna tur a ni. Retheihna avang bawkin kut hnathawhte hi anchhia a

chang zova. Thil tenawmah a chang ta hial zawk a ni. Mihausate hnehchhiahna avangin hna thawh hlawkna zawng zawng chu mihring phur tirit zualtu maiah te a lo chang ta hial a. Tin, mihringte hi inlaichinna tha tak nei tura Pathian anpuia siam kan ni bawk a. Mahse, he inlaichinna pawh hi retheihna, hnehchhiahna avanga lo awm chuan a tichhe vek. Mihringte inkarah indaidanna lo awmin, inpawngnekna leh indonate hial a lo awm ta. Chuvangin, Pathianin retheite hi ngaihsak lozia a ni lo va, a chhandamna hnathawh hian retheihna hi a tin zawn lo thei lo a ni.

4.9 Engkim hi Pathian ta a ni. “Amah atang leh amah avang leh amah

atan thil zawng zawng hi lo awm a ni si a (Rom 11:36).” Engkim hi Pathian ropuina leh mawina tur a ni. Sual thuneihna leh rorelna zawng zawngte tichhe vekin, khawvel zawng zawngah, thil siam zawng zawngte hnenah Pathian ram thlentir tur a ni.Pathian nena inrem lo zawng zawngte, ‘ A fapa Kraws thisen chuan’ inremtir tur a ni. Chu chhandamna hnathawh chu Krista mission a ni a, a taksa-Kohhran mission a ni nghal chiah bawk a ni. (Cf. R.Lalthanmawia, “ Khawtlang thila inhmang tura Pathian Thu Lungphum.” Didakhe, Sept-Oct, 1986, pp 2-10).

4.11 Mihring pumpui chhandam hi Pathian chhandamnain a tum a ni.

Mihring hi taksa leh thlarau a ni. Taksa leh thlarau chu Pathian Pathian siam leh ama hnen atanga chhuak ve ve an ni. Mihring sualna leh hnehchhiahna hian taksa leh thlarau a khawih ve ve a, a taksa leh a thlarau khawvel zawng zawng pawh a khawih ve ve bawk. Pathian chhandamna chuan sualin mihring nun khawvel a tihkhawloh zawng zawng a puma tundina, siam that vek a tum a ni.

4.11 Pathian tihna, a duhzawng leh a thuhuaia kun, a lalna leh a rorelna

hnuaiah nun, engkim engkima amaha innghat hi mihring tan thil tha ber, mihring awmdan tura Pathian chatuan remruat, Krista nuna Pathian inpuannain a tihlan chu a ni. Value system zawng zawng chu, chumi-a innghat tlat chu a ni. A tawi zawngin, ‘Sovereignty of God,’ hi value system innghahna leh kengtu tur a ni. Retheihna hian hei hi a dodal. Mihausa leh miliante rorelna hian Pathian lalna leh thuneihna hi a do va, a kalhzawngin a kalpui thin a. Chuvangin, Pathianin retheite hi a ngaihsakin, an changkanna turin hna a thawk lo thei lo a ni. (Cf R.Lalthanmawia, Ibid).

4.12 Pathian chu ‘ Retheite Lal, Pa leh Pathian’ a nih avangin mi retheite

a ngaihtuah a, retheihna khura hnuk luttu-lal te, hotu te, roreltu te, up ate, ramneitu

te, mihausa sumdawng leh, pawisa, a pung uma puktir thintu te, sipai hotu te, vantlang hruaitu te, sakhaw hotu te, puithiam te hmeichhia (cows of Bashan) te, misuaksual leh tualthattu te- mihausa leh milian tia kan sawi thinte hnehchhiahna leh tihretheihna laka chhanchhuah hi a duh a, a tum lat a ni. (Isa, 1:23, 3:1,4,14 10:1-3,5:10; Amos. 8:6, 2:8,4:4,5,4:1; Sam 37:14;Job,24:14). Miretheite lah chu an ngawi mai mai thei si lo. Chhandam turin Lalpa an au reng a, Amah chu an

nghahfak a ni a, an zawng a, an dil a, anmahni anpui tura a lo kal hun chu nghakhlelh takin an thlir a ni. (Sam 34:6,9:10,40:16,69:6). Chuvangin, Pathianin miretheite hi a nghah thlawntirin, a beisei thlawntir dawn lo (Sam 34:4,35:10)niin a lang.

5

Tlangkawmna

5.1

Pathian thuin retheite chhandamna hi a tum pawimawh tak pakhat a

ni. Pathian chu ‘Fahrahte leh retheite Lal Pa leh Pathian’ a nihzia a tar lang chiang

hle. Retheite an lo din chhuaha, mihring chanvo dik tak an rawn luah theih nan Pathianin chhandamna hna a thawk a ni.

5.2 Retheite hian mihring an tling zo lo va, thil pawimawh an tluk pha lo

hial a. Chutiang taka dinhmun hnuaihnungah chuan hnuhhniamin an awm. Chutianga mihring, Pathian anpuia siamte hnuk luttu chu structural injustices hi a ni. Chu injustices awmtirtu leh retheite rahbeh nana hmangtute chu ‘mihausa leh miliante’ leh an hote, an lam atanga an hnuh khawmhote zawng chu an ni. Mihring pianzia leh chhungril lam fel lohnate pawh hi heng pawn lam dinhmun

tha lovin a awmtir hi an ni zawk hial awm e. Retheite chhanchhuah an nih theih nan structure fel lo leh tha lo, system tha lo leh dik lo, a innghahna value/principle fel lote hi siam that, her dik a tul a, a tihchhiat ngai te, a thlak ngaite thlak a tul bawk a. Hetiang hi Pathianin chhandamna hna a thawh thin dan chu niin a lang. Keini pawhin retheite chhanchhuah an nih theih nan a tih dan zuiin kan thawk tur a ni ang chu.

5.3 Pathian thuin retheite chungchang a sawi dante hre chiang turin

retheite dinhmun atanga Pathian thu kan chhiar, kan zir leh kan ngaihtuah a tul. Bible-in rethei a tihte hi ‘retheite’ hi an ni e. Khawvelah ‘Pathian ram’ hi Pathianin thlentir a tum ‘Khawvel ram zawng zawng hi Krista leh a lalna ram’-a siam hi Pathian chhandamnain a tum a ni tih hi lawm taka pawm mai tur a niin a lang. Kan zingah a taka a lo lan theihna turin i thawk ang u.

Sawi ho turte :

1. Pathian thuin ‘rethei’ a tih hi taksa dinhmuna retheite hi ni ngeiin kan hria em?

2. Miretheite retheih dan leh Lal Isua retheih dan inan lohna sawi tur engte nge? Sawi ho ni sela.

3. Miretheite retheih chhan kan paper-a sawi lante hi dik lo awmin kan hria em? Eng ber hi nge? Eng vangin nge?

4. Retheihna hi eng nge ni? Sin emaw virtue emawa sawi theih a ni tak zetin I hria em? Engvangin nge?

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Claretian Publications, 1984. ELIADA, Mircia, (ed) The Encylopadia of Religion Vol. II New York :

Macmillan Publication, 1987. GASPAR, Deogo de, World Hunger : A Christian Reappraisal. Geneca :

W.C.C. 1982. GUTIERREZ, G. Theology of Liberation. London : SCM Press, 1973. HARRISON, R.K. OLD TESTAMENT TIMES. Grand Rapids : W.B. Eeerdman Publishing Co., 1974. GRAY, G.B. Sacrifice in the Old Testament. Kettel, Gerhard & G.Friedrich (eds) Theological Dictionary of the New Testament. Grand Rapids : W.M.B.Eerdsmans Publishing Co. 1983. KURIEN, C.T. Proverty & Development. Madras : CLS, 1974. LALTHANMAWIA, r. “ Khawtlang thila inhmang tura Pathian thu Lungphum,” Didakhe. (Sept-Oct. 1986)pp. 2-10. MABRY, H.P.(ed) Christian Ethics: Introductory Reader. Kottayam : ITL, 1987. NABAN, Sonna Your Kingdom Come. Geneva: WCC, 1980. NIEBUHR, R. The Nature and Estiny of Man. London, SCM Press, 1943. OSTHATIOS, Mar. Theology of a Classess Society. London : Lutterworth Pres, 1979. PACHUAU, Vanhela. “ Kristian leh a hnathawh,” Didakhe. (Nov-Dec., 1986)pp.11-13.

RICHARDSON, Alan (ed) A theological Word Book of the Bible. London :

SCM Press,1051. SIDER, Ronald J. & John. R.W.Scott (ed) Evangelism, Salvation and Social Justice. Bramcote Notts Grove Books, 1977. STOTT, John R.W. Isssues Facing Christians Today. Bombay : GLS, 1984. VIENING, Edwards (ed) The Zondervan Topical Bible. Grand Rapids: Zondervan Publishing House, 1969.

2.

MIZORAM KRISTIANTE RETHEIHNA

LEH A CHHANCHHUAH DAN

“ Consultation on Retheite Chawikan Dan” atana paper ziak tura min sawmna hi zahawm leh lawmawm tiin, a thupui harsatzia hre chung rengin ka han ziak ve chawt mai a ni. Kohhran ang ngawtin thil kan thli turah ka ngai lo va, kan sawrkar leh ram hruaitute pawh finchhuah zel turah ka han ngai ngawt a. kawng hrang hrang tar lan mi mah se, thenkhatah chuan ngaih dan siam a ni lo va, mipui ngaih dan lak turah ka ngai a ni.

Retheihna han tih hian a huam zau zawnga ngaihtuah chuan ei leh bar, sum leh pai, ni tina kan taksa mamawh phuhrukna kawnga kan retheihna bakah, kan thlarau nun leh chatuan ram thlenga kan retheihna a huam thei ang a.Mahse, hetianga zauzawnga ngaihtuah tur kan ni chuan ka ring lo. Chuvangin, ei

leh bar, sum leh pai, silh leh fen, ni tina kan taksa mamawh phuhrukna kawnga kan retheihna hi kan chhut tur chu a ni ngei ang. Tin, “ Kan rethei,” han tih hian, eng hun nena khaikhin emaw, tute nena khaikhinin emaw a ni duh hle.

Mizoramah hian statistics lam kan tlachham hle mai a. Khawpui huam chhung (Urban area) per capita income (1983-84) chu Rs 3477.48 a ni a. Thingtlang lam statistics awm bawk sela, han la khawm tai la chu a hniam duh awm hlein a lang. Chutianga retheihnain min tuam vel chung pawhin, mi tam tak phei chuan eng vakah mah kan ngai lo niin a lang. Ni ¾ ruah sura kawng ping maiah, nghei nghal zel kan nih hi kan hre theuh ang. Khawpui pathuma per capita income hi chu hniam vak lo mah se, sawrkar hnathawk hlawh leh pawisa thawk chhuak nasate avanga sang a ni berin ka ring. Dik tak chuan, kan rama tangka luang lutte hi insemrual deuh ila chuan, hetiang retheihna thuk tak hi tam tak chuan an dai loh phah ngeiin a rinawm.

Retheihna atanga tlan chhuak tur hian, tangka lama invur thuai dan ngaihtuah rup rup mai nge pawimawh hmasa thinlung buatsaih, tih hi ngaihtuah a ngai hle mai. Tunlai hi chuan kan thlarau nun lamah harhtharna ropui takin kan ram a fang mek niin a lang a; chutih lai chuan, taksa lam ngaihtuah a tul tho si. Ram hi lo hausa tat hut mai ila,thinlung lam kan buatsaih si loh chuan tlakchhiatna kawng a ni tho. A lehlamah chuan, thinlung buatsaih vak ila, taksa lamah rethei hle sir eng ila, engtihna nge ni ang? Mahse, tunah chuan ram hausa zawkte nih ang ni pha vea, an neih ang nei pha ve turin kan thlarau leh taksa nun hian a phak ve a ni tih hi kan inhrilhhriata, kan vawn reng a ngai a ni. Hausakna lo thleng pawh a hman danah kan fimkhur a ngaihzia te hian kan thinlung deng thleng phak sela. Biak In inzirtirna te hian taksa, rilru, thlarau chhandamna famkim a nih dante hi uar tel zel sela a duhawm hle ang.

Kan Bible chuan, “ A ram leh a felna zawng hmasa zawk rawh u…….” a ti a (Mat. 6:83). Hei hi kan innghahna tur a ni. Kan ram chengker taka cheng, thawh chhuah sawi tur awm si lo; mahse, buhfai nghei lova kana wm ngawt mai te hi kan rin Lalpa vang a ni. Kan sualna lam sawi chuan kan sawi teuh theih laiin, Baala hmaa thingthi ngai lo eng emaw zatte zarzovin kan ram hi a la hmuingil zel a ni zawk. “ A thlahte thlenga chaw khawn pawh ka hmu ngai lo ” tih hi a takin kan chang zel a nih hi. Engang sawrkar hausa pawh ni se, min vur hle pawh tum sela, a ram leh a felna zawng hmasa lo kan nih chuan eng mah kan ni chuang lo vang. Pathian, min enkawltu hian a tawp thlengin min enkawl dawn a ni tih rin ngama, a duhzawng tih zel hi kan nunna bul a ni. Israel fate “ Manna” petu kha kan biak Pathian a nia, Lalpa tihtute reng reng kan chan a chhe lutuk ngai lo vang. Lalpa’n min chhanchhuah dan a hriain min chhanchhuak thin. He reheihna ata chhanchhuak tur hian eng kawngin nge maw tan kan lak ang le?

1. Khaw te reuh te te-a chen darhsan nuaia, mahni khawthleng ngainat

hlurna hi tihbo tur niin ka ring nghet tlat a. Mizoramah hian, kan chhiarpui

hnuhnung berah khan mihring 4,93,757 kan awm a. Decinial growth rate chu 48.55 a ni a. Calcutta khawpuiah chuan mi maktaduai 9 zet an cheng a ni. Mahselanging, tunah kan ramah hian hetiang zat chauh mihring kan nih si avang hian, a tam berah khaw 10 emaw-ah chauh kana wm khawm tur a

ni ang. Tichuan, entir nan, Vairengte, Kolasib, Aizawl, Serchhip,Thenzawl, Champhai, mmit, Lokicherra, Tlabung, Lunglei, Lawngtlai, Saiha-ah inhawk khawm tai la. Sawrkarin tuna a sum sen ang chauh pawh hi seng sela, khawpui 10 emaw chei nan chuan a tawk hle ang. Sikul kan mamawh vek a, engkim mai khaw lian neih ang kan duh vek si, retheite inchawikang turin a harsat lutuk. Buai laia Grouping Centre a awmte kha ka lawm hle mai a; mahse, khawthleng ngainatnain min bual a si. Thinlung hmin takin inbawk khawm ila ka ti ngawt mai.

2. Retheite chawikan hna nasa taka sawrkar hmalakna a ni a. Kawng

chi hrang hrangin Department hrang hrangin hna an thawk mek zel a ni. Sawrkar pawisate hi, sawrkar kalphung pangngai ang chuan hman chhuah leh lak luhte hi, dan leh hrai a tam thin avangte hian hna awlsam zawk nan agency chi hran hran din tur a ni thin.

Sawrkar anga hmalak mehna pahnih khat han tar lang ila :-

IRDP : He scheme hi, mirethei zual, kum khata Rs 3500/- hnuai lam

la lut chin chawikan nana duanchhuah a ni. Mizorama hmalak dan thlir ila :

(Rs.in lakh)

Kum Expenditure

Chhungkaw

puih

zat

1978-79

10.00

315

1979-80

15.00

1470

1980-81

15.00

1533

1981-82

60.00

1725

1982-83

80.00

2214

1983-84

154.00

1943

1984-85

167.00

3405

1985-86

127.00

3264

1986-87

300.75

8438

1987-88

267.88

4455

1988-89

183.33

6397

1989-90

18.99

287

(upto 1 st . quarter)

 

1,399.00

35,446

Source : SLMC, Aizawl Hei hi, scheme tam tak, retheite chhanchhuah nana hman mekte zinga pakhat a ni. Scheme dang a tam hle. Heng tangka zozaite hi an vai deuh thaw-in Mizo Kristiante tan a sen

a ni a. Engtiangin nge kan hlawkpui? Chhungkua heti zat chhawmdawl tawh chuan retheihna hi um bo ni thuai awm a ni.

TRYSEM ( Training of Rural Youth for Self Employment) : He scheme hnuaiah hian mi 4639 lai, mahnia indap thei turin train tawh an ni. JRY (Jawahar Razgar Yojona) : He scheme hi a thar a ni a. Retheite chawikanna scheme bawk a ni. NREP, RLEGP, AMSF te khaikhawmna a ni ber awm e. Tun mai khan, Aizawl District, 15 Blocks tan ngawt pawh Rs 97 lakhs pek chhuah a ni. Scheme dang tam tak a awm. Kohhran anga kan tih ve theih eng tak ni ang maw! Thinlung lam buasaih chu a ni phawt ang le! Heng zawng zawngah hian a pawimawh ber chu, scheme scheme chi hrang hrangin a huam dan leh a hawh dan te, chumi atanga malsawmna hmuh dan kawngte hriat chian hi a ni. Mipuite hi inzirtir fin kan ngai a. Rehei zawkte hi zirtir ngai hlei hlei an ni fo lehnghal. Chtianga mipui zirtirna pe thei khawpin sawrkar scheme kalhmangte pawh hi kan Pastor leh Upate hi inzir a ngai a ni.

A chang chuan Nilai zan thupuiahte hian retheihna umbona scheme

zualte hi chu zir turah hian telh ve chi a ni hial lo’m ni tih te ka ngaihtuah a.

3. Banks : Mizoramah hian Bank harng hrang a lo awm ta neuh

neuh a. Heng Bank ho-te hi retheihna atanga min chhanchhuak turin, beiseina sang tak neiin, kan ram hruaitute’n mi sawiselna awmthei leh a kaihhnawih thil awm theite pawh pawisa zo lovin, “Ram tana a that dawn phawt chuan,” tiin sawrkarah an chhunglut deuh vek hlawm a. Mahselangin, beiseina neih san ang he hu chuan kan chhawr hlawk lo hle mai. Kan Mizoram bikah phei chuan State Banks of India hian Branch 18 lai neiin Mizoramah chuan hmahruaitu a ni a. Hei bakah hian UCO Bank leh Vijaya Bank pakhat v eve a awm bawk a. kan ram bik atan Mizoram Rural Bank, Mizoram Co-Operative Apex Bank, Mizoram Urban Development Bank te an awm bawk. Heng Bank-te hi an hnathawh a ropui hle laiin, chhut chian tur erawh chu a awm. Pawisa khawla Bank-a dah hi kan uar ta hle a; mahse Bank hian kan ram chhungah hian pawisa a pe chhuak tam tawk ve si lo.

A

hnuaia mi hi I han thlir the ang :

 
 

Credit As on 30.6.89

Deposit

Ratio (Rs in lakhs)

Bank

No.of

Deposits

Advance

C.D. Ratio

Branches

SBI

18

5034.17

1243.67

24.70

UCO Bank

1

457.24

111.02

24.20

Vijaya Bank

1

1033.67

153.07

14.80

Apex Bank

7

1708.02

1050.00

61.50

Mizoram Rural

Bank

44

530.23

417.12

79.00

71

8763.33

2978.23

33.95

Source : Lead Bank officer, Mizoram, Aizawl.

Khing figure-ah hian eng nge lang thei nghal? Deposit a tam tham ve tawh nen advance pek chhuah chu a chau angreng hle. Bank thenkhat phei chuan neinungte’n an puk hnem avanga advance amount hi lian mai niin a lang hlawm bawk.

Retheite chhanchhuahnaah Bank-te nawr nat deuh dan zawn hi a tul hlein ka hria. Satna Syndicate Bank, etc. ang kan bawh dan atangin kan riltam dan

a lang chiang hle a ni. India hmarchhak pumpuia Bank Branch pakhatin mipui a

cover zat tur Reserve Bank of India chhut chhuah chu mi 10,000 a ni a. Mizoramah erawh chuan Bank Branch 71 lai awmin, 65 phei chu thingtlang lamah

a nileh nghal a. Mipui 6740-in Bank Branch pakhat an intawm ang hu a ni. Mahse, hetih lai hian Bank hi kan chhawr nep hle.

4. Family Welfare : India ram chhungah hian mihring hi kan tama kan pun

chak luat avangin, thuneitute chuan hetiang scheme hi an duangin an hmang ta zel a. He scheme hnuaiah hian fa neih tlem mai bakah, naupang leh an nute hriselna chawikang tur zawnga beihna a huama a ni.Mi tam tak chuan, chhungkua hian kan chawmzawh tawk turf a neih chuan kan rethei bik loving tih ngaihdan neiin tlem tete an nei a. Chutih laiin, ‘ Mizote kan tlem lutuk chuan hnathawktu tur kan ngai ang a, phai vai an lo lut ang a, min chim ral ang,’an ti ve bawk a. Ngaihdan hmasa zawk, mahni chawm zawh tur chiah fa neih tih chu hun rei lo tea tan a tha ang a, kum zabi 4/5 hnu lamah erawh chuan Mizo hnam hi a awm tawh lo vang, tih ngaih dan hi a lian hle. ‘ Europe ram thenkhat pawh hi hnam dang chiahpiah luat avangin an boral thuai ang,’ tih sawi a ni thin.

Ngaihdan tha leh dik zawk hriat a harsa hle a. Mahse, ‘ Mizo Kristiante,” a nih avangin ffa neih tlem intihhmuh vak mai hi, hun reizawk thlirin, retheihna ata chhanchhuahnaah tam tak tan ngaih a harsa hle. Hun rei lo te atan, chhungkua atan chuan ‘chhanchhuahna’ a ni thei. Mahse, ‘Mizo Kristiante’ anga hun rei zawk ngaihtuah chuan, fa neih tlem zel hi retheihna thuk zawka min hnuk luttu a ni nge min chhanchhuaktu tih chhut tham a ni.

Family Welfare Programme hlawhtlin dan han thlir ila ( Source :

Statistical Handbook 1985-86 & 86-87).

Items

1985-86

1986-87

Total

Vasectomy

30

2869

2899

Tubectomy

11

2697

2708

IUD inserted

1409

1651

3060

Oral Pills sem

7889

7773

15662

Conventional

Contraceptive sem

79076

77780

156856

88416

92770

181186

Kohhran angina engtiang kawngin nge tan kan lak ang tih ngaihtuah

a tul hle mai.

Pakhatna-ah chuan, eizawnna kawng hre lote an eizawnna kawng zawnsaka, councelling pek hi kan tih tur ngeiah ngai ila. Mi thenkhat chuan eizawnna atan huan/lo nghet te, ranvulh te an han zawh a, mahse, rem hre lo tak tan chuan hlawk taka thawh a harsa thin. Chvangin, eizawnna kawng kawhhmuh mai bakah, an kawng zawh tawha thurawn pek ang ngai thin. Hei hi kohhran anga awlsam taka kan tih theih a ni ang. Chtiang lam buaipuitu bik turte chu tualchhung Kohhranah Committee bik siam ni se, bawhzui chak theih nan. Chutiang tana mi tangkai tur mi chu Kohhran tinah an awm ngei ang.

Pahnihna-ah chuan, tualchhung kohhran hian mirethei zual kan neih te hi chawm in chhawmdawl ta ila. Hostel angrengin enkawl khawm ila, a chhunga awm chunga an thawh theih tawk tur ruahmansak ta ila. Hawh chhuah tha tak an nei thuai ang. Entir nan, an chemkalna zawng awm ngaihtuaha, buatsaihsak ni bawk sela, a that hmel hle. Puanthui thiam tehi tur zirtira, hnangtah lama kal mite, theih anga zirtira kaihhruai an tha ang.

Pathumna-ah chuan, kut hnathawh hi thil zahthlak a ni lo tih hriattir an ngai a ni. Mizote hian hna hniam anga ngaih kan nei mai thin a. A bikin, tlangval tam tak, hnathawh tur nei lo anga lang an tam hle in a lang. Annihohi thawk chhuak tur an nih laiin eiraltu satliah an ni fo thin. Sawrkar hna emaw, thla tin hlawh lak tum ngawt hi a ni thei lo va. Hnam changkang ho tih dan angina, kum puitling an nih tawh chuan an lehkha zirna pawh hi theihtawpa mahni intum chawp tumna thinlung kan siam a ngai. Mi ina awma, chhiahhlawh anga awm te hi retheite pawhin an dih thin lo. Mahse, mahni inchawm chawpa lehkha zirna emaw, chhungte tanpuina emaw a nih dawn chuan hna zahthlak a ni lo tih inzirtir a tul.

Palina-ah chuan, Mizoramah rethei zual ngawih ngawih hi a tlangpui thua han enin, Kohhran mumal nei lo, eng mah ngaihsak nei lo leh ram dang atang

a lo pem lut an nih duh hmel hle. Chutiang a nih phei chuan, hnam dang lo lut tur danna kawngah Kohhrante hian ham kan lak a hun lo’m ni?

Sawrkar ang pawhin nasa takin tan la-in, regeistration fel tak neia beih mek niin a lang a. Burma lam leh khawi lai atangin emaw nun dan leh rin dan hrang hrang lo lutte hian mihring anga kan khawsakhona leh kan thlarau nun pawh hi a khawih ngei ang. Suahsualna emaw, thlarau lamah emawa extremism an tih angte hi khawi lai atanga lo chhuak nge? Chung chuan retheihna-ah min hruai lut a ni lo’m ni? Chu vangin, sawrkar hmalak mekna, ramdangmite chungchanga rilru put dan hi Kohhran angina thiam a tul hle ang.

Pangana-ah chuan, Kohhranin nge YMA-in retheite chawikan, chhawmdawl nan hian sum seng hnem zawk ang tih chhut ka chak hle mai a. Ka theihnain a tlin si lo. Mahni tualchhung theuh chhut ta ila kan hre chiang maiin ka ring. Kohhran ang hi chuan, mahni Kohhran inhung bik chhungah chauh rawngbawlna hi a kal duh hle mai a. Hengte hian kan Pathianin min zirtir dan a kalh em tih ka ngaihtuah thin.

Khawpuiah ngat hian chuan, “ An rethei em a, i tanpui teh ang u,” han tih tur hi an awmin ka ring lo. Kan harsa theuh nachungin, zokhaw lam ang chu kan ni lovin ka ring.

Sawi ho turte

1. Kan ramah te reuh tetea inthendarh ai hian khaw lian deuhva insiam zel

zawk hi changkanna a ni tih hi eng chenin nge a dik?

2. Fa neih tlem beihpui hi Mizoramah hian a hlawhtling hle mai a. Hei hian retheihna atangin min chhanchhuak ang nge min man nghet zel zawk ang?

3. Retheihna atanga inchhanchhuah nan hian thinlung lam nge pawimawh hmasa zawk tangka?

4. Mahni Kohhran theuhvah Kohhran anga kan tanlakna hi Retheihna ata chhanchhuahna kawngah a tawk kan ti em le?

5. Sawrkar scheme hrang hrangte hi tangka sen tam ang huin a hlawhtling lo hlein a lang hlawm a: Eng kawngin nge Kohhran angina heng scheme tha takte hi hlawhtling tura kan puih theih ang?

6. Kohhran anga kan tih ve theih mai tur kawng hrang hrangte engtin nge ni ang le?

BUNG II

SUMDAWNNA LEH SUMDAWNNA KAWNGA INKAIHHRUAINA

1. MIZORAM SUMDAWNNA TUN HMA LEH TUNLAI

British hun hma

Sumdawnna hian thil lei leh hralh, dehchhuah leh phurh kualvelnate hi a huap a. Pawisa hman a nih hmain, bungrua leh bungrua inthleng tawnin, sumdawn a ni vet ho va. THil man bithliah dan erawh a harsain a inang lo nual a ni. Mizote pawhin sial emaw, vawkpui emaw te kha thil khat zawng thehkhawng nan ang hmang thin. Nupui man chu sial chuti zat a ni tih te kan hre thin. Chung hun lai chuan sumdawn theih dan kawng a tlem hle a, hmun hla deuh va thil phei chu tihngaihna awm lo tluk a ni. Mizote’n pawisa hmel an hmuh tan hun tak hi hriat a harsa hle a. Thir leh Dara siam hmanrua an neihna chu hun rei tawh tak a ni a. Engtia lak luh nge an nih tih a hriat hleihtheih loh va, phai ram atanga lak a nih a rinawm. Kum 1835 hma lamah kha chuan Silai an la nei lo. Vai lian lo do nan silai an hmang ngei a; Lushai-hote’n Chin ramah silai an hralh thin tih Administration report 1892-93-ah khan a chuang a. Kum 1897 atang khan License pek an ni. Tin, dan lova Chin rama silai hralh ruk chu 106 lai a ni tih report-ah hian hmuh a ni bawk. Heng silaite hi 50% atanga 100% vel hlepa hralh thin a ni tih sawi tel a ni bawk.

Tichuan, British awm hma kha chuan Mizote tan sum dehchhuah theihna kawng inhawng a tlem hle. A harsa leh khawsa theite chub uh leh bal thar tam leh ran vulha hmuingilte leh sa kap theite kha an ni mai a. Khawlkhawm ngaihn vak a awm lo va, deh ral dan mumal tak, sakhuana nena inzawm tlat a awm thung a. Hausakna vawrtawpin a hlawh chhuahsak chu- Thangchhuahpa, Zaudawhpa nih kha a ni. Neih khawl tam aiin hman ral tam lamah inel a ni. Thatna lai a neih pakhat chu- mipuiin zar an zo thei kha an ni. Tunlaiah erawh

chuankhawl khawm tam thei apiang hausa leh hmingthang an ni a, mipuiin kan eipui phak ta lo a ni. Taimak, huaisen leh tlawmngaihahte hmingthanna an zawng

a, rual an el thin.

Ram leilung leh vantlang nunphung a inzawm hle a. Mi-awmthei leh thei lo inkar pawh a tilang fiah hle a ni. Dai kil retheite’n lo neih tur mi dangin an thlan fel vek hma chuan an thlang ngam ngai lo va. Khawtlangah dinhmun chungnung leh thil tithei bik hlawm lian tak an awm a. Heng mite nun zia leh awm dan hian khawtlang nun pawh a kaihruai hle thin. Hausakna leh sum dehchhuahna hnar awm chhun leilung hamthatna bik an chang a, awmthei, Mual-kil-Upa an ni. Thi-beh-pa, aawmthei thu-zai-zap-thei-pa an ni. Khawvel hausaknain mihring nunah thu a sawi thui hle tih a hriat theih awm e.

British hun

Kum 1891 vel atanga Britishin hmunan rawn khuar tak khan chhiah pawh chawi tan a lo nit a. Chhiah chawi a ngaih tak si-ah chuan, mipuite kutah pawisa luan thlentir a ngai ta nghal a. Sawrkarin hlawh neiin mi a ruai ta nual a, inhlawhfaknate pawh a lo awm chho ve zel a. Chung pawisa luang lut chuan

bazaar thil pawh lei a nita thuai a. Loneitute kutah pawisa fai a thleng ve thei ta thuai a ni. Administrative Report, North Lushai Hills-a kan hmuh angina, kum 1917 khan Lushai sumdawng pakhat chuan fu huan zau tak a siam a, bazarah mound 20 lai a hralh, tih kan hmu. Tin, Pu Khamliana, Lungleng lal pawhin a coffee thar bazarah a hralh tih ziak a ni bawk. Sairangah sawrkarin Serthlum huan

a siam leh mi mal huan tam tak a awm thu a lang bawk. Tichuan, kum 1917 vel

atang khan Monetized Economy tih theih a ni vet a a; sum veivak erawh chu a tlem em em tih a hriat thung a ni. Dawrkai an awm tan a, regular income nei an awm nual ta bawk.

Hetianga pawisa hman lar a lo nih tak chinah chuan, pawisa neitute lei duh zawng apiang kha dehchhuah lar a lo nit a a. Thei leh Thlai bakah thelret, thalrit, khawihnun, chi, zampher, thir, laduang leh rante hralh leh lei ber an ni. Pawisa hian thingtlang hmun tinreng a fan chhuak chak lo hle a. Cheng 2 lek chhiah chawi tur pawh kha, tam tak tan hmuhchhuah dan tur kawng a harsa hle a ni.

Indopui I zawh atang kha chuan pawisa a luang tam lehzual a; neih khawl (wealth of possession) tumna rilru a lo awm tan a, thil chin hlui, neih zawng zawng deh ral (wealth of disposal) thinna thinlung kha a reh tan ta a. Electrict Torch te, second hand te, kawrchung te, lukhum parh te, nihliap, mangai pheikhawk te, dawhkan leh chair-te neih theih an chak em em a. A hman tangkaina hlutpui (pride of utilization) lamai mahin, neitheipa nih duhna (pride of possession) rilru kha a lian tan ve ta hle a. Ram pawn bazarah an duhzawng a lo tam tual tual a, sum zawnna kawng leh nunphung pawhin khan ram pawn dawrkaite ziarang a pu chak hle a ni.

Indopui II-a sum luang tam tak kha chuan Mizoram a rawn chim thleng ve ta hle a. Hna a pung a, sum lakluhna kawng a lo inhawng zau ta hle bawk a. Ch vang chuan, sumdawng tan thil hralhna pawh a lo awm ve tan a. Nghawngkawla bungrua phurin mi tam tak an sumdawng tan thei ta. Dawrkai, ei zawn nana hmang an lo awm ve taka tang khan khawpui leh thingtlang nun pawh a lo inang lo ta hret hret a. kut hnathawk lova ei zawng theite chu vantlang chung lamah ruat an ni.

Independent achin

Independent hnua Autonomous District Council kan neih takah khan sawrkar hna a lo pung a, ram tihhmasawnna nan sum pawh pek kan ni vet a nual a. Sumdawngte tan pawh bungraw chi hrang hrang zawrhna tur hun remchang a lo awm vet a zel a. Vai ram atangin ei chawp thil kan la lut meuh lo. Buhfai, Vaihlo zawrhte kha sumdawnna lar tak a ni mai awm e. Vawiina dawrkai hausa tak takte pawh hi chutiang zuara bul tante chu an ni. Japan ral len zarzova lo hausa tate sawi tur an awm bawk. Amaherawhchu, tunlai angina sawrkar khan thil lei a nei tam lo va. Sumdawnghote sawrkarah innghat an awm lo. Taimakna leh thawhrimna avanga hlawhtlingte an ni ber hlawm mai Mihausa leh rethei dinhmun a inthlau lo viau va mimir nunphung hrim hrim a rual tlang hle. Politician leh sawrkar hnathawkte erawh chuan hma a hruai tan tih a hriat a. Office kai chin reng reng chu kan ngai babu hle a ni. Mivengva leh sum nei deuhte chuan ram pawh an lo ngah tan a, tun hunah phei chuan an hlawkpui ta hle a. Ram neih tamah pawh kan intlansiak nasa ta hle a ni. Mipui kan pun tam hnu phei chuan ram leh hmun a lo hlu taul tual a, Asset investment-na (sum hnar) pawimawh tak an lo nit a bawk. Pa thiltithei chinte tan tan lakna bulpui tak pakhat a tling reng a ni.

India ram Five Year Plan chhunga Mizoram hmasanna tura pawisa lo luang lut a pung chak em em a. Plan leh Non-Plan Expenditure-ah then a ni a, a hnuaia kan tar lan hi chu Plan Outlay a ni.

Rs. In Crores

Name of Plans

Original

Actual

Outlay

Expenditure

1. First Five Year Plan (1951-56)

N.A

0.06

2. Second Five Year Plan(1956-61)

N.A

2.11

3. Third Five Year Plan (1961-66)

N.A

4.11

4. Fourth Five Year Plan (1966-74)

15.19

9.30

5. Fifth Five Year Plan (1974-79)

46.50

48.73

6. Sixth Five Year Plan ((1980-85)

130.00

149.30

TOTAL

558.11

Heta tar lan bakah hian, kan State Budget-a tel lo, Central Institution atanga lo kal a awm bawk a. Post and Telegraph, All India Radio, Defence, BRTF, NEHU leh Bank-hote hi chu Central Budget hran an ni. Chu vang chuan, pawisa

lo luang lut hi a tam hle tih a hriat; hei bakah hian, Non-Plan expenditure, kan plan

hman ral aia tam zawk hi a lo luang lut bawk a ni. Chung pawisate chu kawng

hrang hrangin chhungkaw tinah a lo luang lut a.

Income distribution policy fel taka siam a ni thin a. Engtin nge rualkhai zawka miten’n pawisa an lo lak luh ve ang tih ngaihtuahin, chhiah chi hrang hrangte leh tanpuina hrang hrangte siam a ni. CCentral Investment subsidy pawh unit 1925 zet hnenah pek an ni. Sumdawnna (trade) chi hrang 26 vel lai a khuh a, kum thum (1985-1987) chhung ringawt khan Rs. 6,00,74,857.00 tanpuina (CIS) pek chhuah tawh a ni. Tin, Industrial loan pawh sumdawnna chi hrang 38 lai tan Rs.11,63,05,709.00, 1987 thlenga pek chhuah tawh a ni bawk.

First Plan chhunga Development pawisa kan hman ral zawng zawng chu cheng nuai 6 a ni a, kum tinin cheng nuai khat leh sing hnih hmang ang kan ni. Kum 1990-91 Annual Plan-ah hian crore 125 n ni a, chu chu plan pakhatna kum khat chhunga kan hman let 13425 a ni. Plan 7-na-ah hian plan khat chhunga kan hman let 6,075 lai hman ral a nit a bawk a. Henga kan hman ral hi ram hmasawnna tur bika buatsaih, Economic Infrastructure siamna tur a ni a. Mizoramin thil kan lo deh chhuah tam ve-a, ke-a kan din theihna tura development pawisate hi pek kan ni. Kawngpui leh power-te inbuatsaiha, hmasawnna danga chhun zawm zel tur a ni. Mahse, kan sawrkar kutkawih ngat atang chuan engmah vak tihhlawhtlin a la awm lo. Hisapna satliah atang chuan cheng 100 zelah hian cheng 20 vel chauh hi hnathawh nana hman ni awmin a lang. A dang cheng 80 erawh hi chu Politician, Contractor, Manager, leh Supplier-te kutah a kal ni awm tak a ni.

A chhan chu-mi mal, pawisa hmang nasa em em, an thawh chhuah lai awm kan

hriat theih mai si loh an tam hle a. Business sawi tham em em nei si lo mah se, hausa tlat mai kan tam si-ah hian, ram hmasawnna lang chak thei lo nen thil awmzia chhut chhuah theih chu niin a lang.

Development pawisa lo luang lut tam hian mihring nun a khawi nasa hlein a lang. Thenawmpa hausa leh khawsak sang deuh mai tluk ve tuma intlansiakna a nasa hle a. Hei hi Demonstration effect an ti a, thil lei leh thil neih a inen tawn uar em em hnam kan ni. Chu vangin, sumdawnna khawvelah hian, Sakhua, Culture leh hnam kan danglamnate phum bovin thawh ho thiam tak kan ni; suma hlawkna kan hmuh theih dawn phawt chuan eng mi mai pawh hi unauah kan pawm hnial lem lo niin a lang. Hnam dang Permanent Trade License nei Aizawl-ah 32, Lunglei-ah 32, Sairang-ah 3, Demagiri-ah 11 lai an awm.

Temporary Trade License nei pawh mi 125 lai heng khaw hrang hrangah hian an awm bawk. Chu bakah chuan, Mizo hming hawha dawrkai mi 142 Aizawl khawpuiah hian awm mek nia hriat an ni.

Thil neih inentawn leh intihhmuh hi kan tlan chakna tak kawng pakhat a ni. Incheina-ah phei chuan a style thar apiang kan bawh ruih ruih zel a, pheikhawk sang miin an bun chuan bun ve ngei ngei turah kan ngai a. Kekawrtlawn pawh a zuih leh a arh, a hun lai chuan kan ha vek ringawt mai a ni. Puan chi hrang hrang mak tak tak kan ha chhuak thar reng mai bawk. Heng thil nei tur hian aman to leh tlawm lampang kan ngaihtuah hauh lo niin a lang. Motor pawh hi, population proportion-a lak chuan, a nei ngah ber khawpui kan ni hial awm e. A leina khawp pawisa kan hmu hlauh a nih chuan mi In luah chung pawhin kan lei thei mai a ni. Tunah hian Taxi 1,021 lai Aizawl khawpuiah hian tlantir a ni. Tunah Town Bus 95 leh Bazar Bus hrang hrang 40 vel lai a awm bawk. Private Bus kan neih zawng zawng chu 257 a ni a. Sawrkar ta 194 a awm bawk.

Truck chi hrang hrang pawh Private-ah 1137 leh sawrkar ta 532 lai a awm. Kum 10 kal ta main en pawh khan khaikhin ila, a inang lo hle awm e. In pawh kan sat ha sawt hle a, concrete In neih deuh vek kan tum tan leh ta. Rei lo te chhungin Aizawl Khawpui hmel a danglam thuai thuai mai. Mizoram kan thang chak a, Pathian malsawmna kan dawng kan tih chhan ber pawh a ni awm e.

Mizoramah sum kan hmuh atanga thil kan lei leh hralh dan tlangpui lo chhut tai la, Dawrkai thil zawrh zawng zawng tih theih hi State pawn atanga lak luh a ni a. Kum 1989 chhung khan Buhfai 88,293.5 MT kan la lut a,wheat 12,720.3 MT leh chini 34,770 MT kan la lut bawk. Chu bakah, Tel hi cheng nuai 360 man lai kan lei thin bawk. Heng zawng hi crore 60 lai a ni a. Vairengte atanga Aizawl phurh thlen nan hian crore 3 lai sen a ni. Mizoram puma phurhvelna ringawt hi crore 12 lai niin hriat a ni. Tiang hian State pawisa chu a luangchhuak ziak thin. Thil mak tak pakhat chu kan eiral tam lutuk hi a ni. Mizo mipuiin kan kum khat tla tawka ngaih chu 80,000 MT a ni a; mahse, kan lak luh ngawt pawh wheat chhiar telin, 1,01,014Mt lai a ni a. Hemi bakah hian 40,000 mt vel buh tharin kan insawi bawk si a. A chhan leh vang ngaihtuah tham tak a ni.

Dawrkai hausa pangngai chin hi chuan thla tinin Rs.3,00,000/- man aia tlem lo bungrua an la lut a. Ni tinin Rs 2,000/- atanga 20,000/- vel man an hralh chhuak bawk. A hralh lehna man zawng zawng zaa 90 dawn lai hi chu phai lamah a let leh vek thin a ni. In sakna hmanrua tam ber leh raw-material, Industry- in a hman chi hrang hrangte pawh hi State pawn atanga lak luh an ni. Heng sum hman ral zawng zawng hi state chhunga hman ni se chuan mi tam tak tan employment (hnathawhna), Industry neitute’n an siam thei ang a, chhungkaw tam takin an thil deh chhuah hralhna tur an hmu thei bawk ang a, kan economy hi a thang nasa hle tawh tur a ni. Mahse, ram chhungah kan sumin hna a thawh loh

avangin thil dehchhuah a pung lo va, leilung hausakna kan hai chhuak thei bawk lo va, kan economy a thang chak thei hauh lo a ni.

Pawisa hi mi mal min tizalentu pawimawh tak a ni. Intodelh theia

min sum a lo lak luh hian a nun a zalen a, mahni duh dan ang angina a tal phah thin. Mizo khawtlang nun pawh a danglam phah nasa hle tawh a ni. Tunlai phei chuan, nute pawh kum 40 an tlin hmain an fa naupang berin sikul a kal tan tawh a. Vanglai takin, In chhung hlamchhiahin pawn lamah a in hmang thei tawh a. Nutling la thalai tak tak, sumdawnga zinvel leh dawr hmuna chetla an tam tae m

em a ni. A hmaa kan sawi tawh angin, rual el a na a, sumah thahnem kan ngai hle a, kan khawtlang nunzia (moral life) pawhin tawrhna tam tak a nei tan ta.

Sumdawnna-ah kan mizia hi a la puitling lo em em bawk. Vawilehkhata hausak thur maina kawng kan zawng nasa a. Loan lak kan huai a, a rulh leh lamah kan tha lo em em. ZIDCO Loan pawh hi zaa 27 recovery rate a ni. Tin, thil eng emaw hlek a danglamin Bazar thil man a sang chak em em mai. Remchang a awm phawt chuan thil dik zawk ngaihtuah lova hlawkna lampang ringawt um kan ni fo mai. Thil leitute pawh hi a man to hrim hrim hian min hip nasa hle. Thuamhnaw leh incheina-ah a ni bik. Thil pangngai reng pawh a man hniam aia a man tihsan vanga hralh theih phah a awm fo bawk. Hei hi Branch hrang hrang kan hriatthiam loh thilah a ni bik.

Lehlamah chuan, min dawrtute dawnsawn leh kaihhruai thiamna kan

tlachham em em thung. A help um ringawt kan nih avangin kan business thatna tur

leh rin mai theihna tur pawh ngaihtuah nachang kan hre lo, tlachawp thilin kan kal

mai mai a ni.

Kan kalphung dang leh pakhat chu sawrkar department-in thil enkawlna (Department Management System) an chelh hi a ni. Industry, Supply, Transport, Agriculture and Allied, Forest leh PWD department ten an thil enkawl tam tak hi chu corporation-a tih theih a ni. Sawrkar hnuaiah chuan hlep a ni emaw,

hloh a ni emaw tu ma’n pawiti an awm lo. Kan ramah hi chuan a enkawltu tur bera ngaihte kha a rawk tu ah an tang tlat mai. Eng deparment mah hian help an hlawh chhuak zo lo a ni. Kan pawisa hmanral za-a 20 vel chauh hi hnathawh nan department thenkhatah hi chuan hman a ni mai thei kan tih tawh kha. A dang, za-a 80-te hi chu a enkawltu contractor leh politician-te kutah a luang ral a ni. Hei hian sumdawnna, lian takin a nghawng a ni. Aizawl chhungkaw intlansiakna ber pawh, thil ti thei leh milian laka tlaktlum a ni. Kha lama tlan thei chin kha chu eng emaw tit ala luh ve dan kawng dapa hmanhlelh kan nit a. Lobbyist group an tih ang deuh hi kan nit a ber mai. India ramah he nunzia hi a lar em em a; mahse, inelna a nasa

em em a; lal chhungkua hnaih thei nih a har a, a circle pawh a insawr zim tual tual

thin. Mizoramah pawh hian inner circle-a luh theih chu a harsa tial tialin a lang.

He

kalphung hian dinhmun inthlauhna a siam thuai a chu chuan servive attitude (

Mi

tlawmna, chung enna rilru) a siam thin, a pawi hle a ni.

Sawrkar department-in thil a lei tam em em a, mi tam tak sumdawnna pawh Mizoram sawrkara supplier hna hi a ni. Bazar rate aiin sawrkarin thil a leina rate hi a tha bik a; chu vangin, sawrkara thil supply theitu nih chu a nihlawhthlak hle a ni. Sawrkarin thil hrang hrang a lei thin supplier nih pawh kan inchuh nasa hle thin. Sum lakluhna tha, hlep hmuh tam theihna a nih a vangin a hna pe theitu pawh kan bawr nasa hle a ni. Mi tam tak lo ding chhuak ho pawh hi sawrkara thil hralh thei ho an ni. Chu vangin, tuna kan dinhmunah chuan, miin Industry emaw, thil dang dehchhuah a lo neih dawn pawhin sawrkarah order a hmu thei dawn em tih hi chhut a ngai lo. Sawrkarah contract thawk hnem apiang an hausa chak thin tih kan hria. State pawn atanga supply lo kal chi hrang hrang hi chu hnam dang deuh vek contractor an ni. Department reng rengin equipment, tools, etc. an leina a ni bik. Tin, manufacture-a thil dehchhuah kan neih pawh hi pawn lam mi rinchhana tih deuh vek bawk a ni.

Agriculture lama kan thar chhuah thil hralhna a tha lo hle a. A zawrh hun laiin an tam em em a, man hniam tetein hralh a ni thin. Ni tin deuhthaw a man hi a danglam thei a ni. Chu vangin, loneitue’n an tum ang leh an hisap angina an hralh thei lo va, mangan hralh (distress sale) an tawk zing em em. Ei khawp pawh thar lo mah se pawisa fai mamawhna avangin hralh a tul thin. Damdawi, thawmhnaw leh sikul naupang zirlai but e, lohtheihlohvin mamawh a ni si a, chhungkaw ei tur ai pawh dehral ngaih chang a awm thin a ni. Markett tha tawk leh storage facility (dahkhawmna) tha tawk neih a tul chuti lo chuan, loneitute an mangang fo lo thei lo a ni. A bikin, thingtlang atanga rawn phur luttute mangang taka siam an ni chawk thin.Chutiang bawkin, Mizoram atanga phai lama zuartute pawh Marwari-te’n harsatna siam chawpin man man lo tak takin hralhtir an ni. Ni tin kan ei tur mamawh, kuta thawkchhuaktute hna reng reng hi hmuhsitawmah kan ngai a, a zawrh thlengin hna zahawm lo bik niin kan hre ta a ni awm e. Khawpui mite’n thingtlang mi an nuihzatna ber pawh kut hnathawka ei zawng mi an nih vang a ni.

Kan sawi tawh angina, Mizoramah sumdawnna tlangpui chu zawrh chhawn (distributive activity) a ni a. Sumdawngte’n a siamchhuaktute hnen atangin bungrua an lei a, hmun hrang hrangah an hralh leh a, hetiang chi-a sumdawnna hi USA-ah pawh an sumdawnna zawng zawng 40 p.c lai a ni. A then chu company thil hralhin, an hralhna atanga eng emaw at ei ve ringawtin agen hna an thawk a ni. Sumdawng thenkhat erawh chu retailer ang deuhva hmunleh hmun atanga bungrua la chhawng chawpte an ni bawk. Hausa deuhte chuan hmun hrang hrangah dawr (chain stores) an siam a. mi dang ti ve turte tan hmun awm mang lo khawpa sumdawnna hmun neih an tum tan ta. Mi dang lo luh vena tur kawng tihpin an tum thin a ni. Chutih laiin, Sale-tax chawitir an lo ni veta a. Mihausa thenkhat chuan thla tlin hlawh pein mithiam an ruai a, statement fel tak an buatsaih a. An duh tawk, mawi an tih tawk chiah an chawi mai dawn ni awm tak a

ni. Dawrkai hausa lo zawk bawk hian an phu tawkah an chawi hnem leh mai dawn niin a lang.

Aizawl Bazarpui hmun hi tunah chuan a lun ta hle a. Inrinni hi chuan

mi 1800 vel thil zuartu hrang hrang an thu thin a, ni pangngaiah erawh hi chuan mi

100 aia tam deuh thil zuartu an awm thin. Fur lai tak hi chuan Mizoram thlai thar

an zuar deuh ber a, phai lam atanga lo kal chu tlem te zawk a ni. Thal lai erawh chuan phai aanga lakluh deuh vek a nit hung. Bazar-a thu pakhat hian Rs 200/- atanga Rs 1000/- dawn lai man vel an zuar a. A tlangpuia chhutin, sum nusi 7 atanga 10 vel a vir kual nitin thin a ni. Chu chuan chhungkaw 3000 vel lai intunnunna a lo siamsak a ni. Tun hma lam ai khan sa pawh hralh chhuah tlem

zawk a ni. Chawlhkar ni pangngaiah hi chuan vawk 5 emaw vel chauh talh a ni a, tun hma deuh kha chuan vawk 10 vel tal chu talh ziah a ni. Ran hri tha lo a len vang nge, hmun hrang hrangah zawrhna hmunte a lo awm tak vang, hriat chiah phei chu a har. Kan consumption habit a lo danglam tak vang pawh a ni mai thei bawk. Tin, Bazar hmun hian hma a sawn ve zel a, mihring nunzia pawh a danglam

ve hret hret zel. Thutna inchuh buai te, anhnah tel inpawh darhsak ang chi te leh

zuruia buaina siam ang thin te kha vawiinah chuan hmuh tur a awm ta lo tluk a ni.

Tin, Bazar hi mi chi hrang hrangte intawh khawmna hmun a ni a; a tlangpuiin, lehkha chhiar tlem mi an ni. An nun leh an hriatna kaihruaitu ber pawh Bazar titi a ni. Titi thiam leh thu sawi thiamte thu an pawm thuai thuai a, thil danglam deuhvin an rilru a dek hma hle bawk. Chu vangin, khawlai leh Bazar hmun thu hian mipui nun a kaihruai thin. Hlawkna tur leh pawisa hmuh awlsam theihna kawnga inzirtirna phei chuan a hneh awlin bum pawh nuam tak an ni. Amaherawhchu, mihring hmel han thlir in bazaar ni tin eichawp tete zawng thinte hi dawrkai hausa te ai chuan an nun a zangkhaiin a hlim zawk. Rualelna rilru hah an neih loh vang a ni thei awm e.

State kan lo neih vela tang khan dawrkai hrang hrang, thingtlanga mi

leh khawpui a mite’n pawisa van thu an sawi theuh mai, Mizorama pawisa lo lut a

pun a pun chhoh zel lai si hian; a chhan hriat hle a ni. Rin thuin han sawi tai la; pakhatnaah chuan, pawisa kan hman pawp pawpna rilru kha a lo danglam ta a ni mai thei. Pawisa nei tlem chuang lovin kan hmang ral tlem ta a, khawl(saving) tumna a lo lian ta zawk a ni thei. Pahnihnaah chuan, kan consumption habit a lo danglam ta a ni thei bawk. Thuamhnaw leh bungrua leh ei lampanga sen hnem aiin nawm chenna leh luxurious goods lamah kan hmang tam ta a ni thei bawk. Zu leh Drug-ah te, hotel lama nuam tawl nan te, pawisa hi a luang ral hnem ta hle. Tin, television, video, car, scooter, electronic appliances-te leh foreign thil tha ak takte kan lei uar ta bawk. Kan thil lei dan kalphung hian kan rama sumdawng tam takte hi a thlawh khum ta bawk a ni. A pathumnaah chuan, state sawrkar thuneihna lo sang ta avang hian mithiltitheite’n sawrkar sum hi an thut bet hneh ta a ni thei bawk. Mipui vantlang hmuh ve phak a tlem tual tual a, mihausate kuta pawisain Mizoram a kal kan leh si a ni thei. Sum hi a insem rual loh hle chuan, khawilai

emaw (sector) chuan a tuar a; sector dang erawh chuan a thatpui thung a ni. Chu vangin, bazaar thil nepnawi tete hralh hleithei lo mah sela, Maruti car te, T.V. te Video te chu hralh a nuam hle reng thung a ni. Hemi avang hian kan sawrkar kalphung leh vantlang inrelbawlnate (institutions) hi siam that a hun a ni, sumdawnna innghahna bul a ni si a.

Sawi ho turte

1. Khawvel dang nen sumdawnna kawngah kan inpawh (contact) nasat avang hian kan Mizo nunzia (culture) hi eng angina nge a danglam?

2. Kan value system (Ngaihsanzawng) hi kan mihausate leh roreltute hian eng chenin nge an kaihhruai?

3. Permit, License ngai tam lutuk hian kan sumdawnna eng chenin nge an nek chep? Awm lo se a tha zawk ang em?

4. Luxury thil (Nawmsakna) hi kan hnam hian kan ngaisang lutuk bike m? Eng chenin nge khawtlang nun a khawih pawi? Engtin nge kan inzirtir ang?

5. Sum, awlsam taka kan hmuh thin (Easy money) hian Work Ethics a tichhiain kan hria em?

2. SUMDAWNNAIN MIZO NUN A KHAWIH DAN

Sumdawnna han tih hian, Mizoram chungchang bik kan thlur dawn avangin, Sum hmanga lei leh hralh tih nan kan hmang deuh ber ang. A pung uma puktir emaw, bank-a dah pun emaw, hna peng danga sum tawh chetna lam chu sawi sen a nih dawn loh avangin dah tha phawt ila. Tuna kan thlur tur hi chu, sumdawnnain a chhe lam a tha lama Mizote nun a khawih dan a ni ang a; hetiang lama statistics emaw, thil record rin tlak tha emaw a awm meh loh avangin, a tlangpui deuhvin kan thlir dawn a ni.

India ram indan hma kha chuan kan rama sumdawnna hi chu a la tein a la naupang hle. Tangka sum an hmelhriatna pawh a la rei lo. Kum 1891 vela Sap-hovin Mizoram an rawn laka an awp ngheh lai khan, In tinah Cheng hnih chiah chawi an phut a; kha kha mipui nawlpui chuan tangka kan hmelhriat chianna chu a ni chauh awm e. Kha chhiah phut duh lo khan Mizo lal (nu) pakhat Pi Ropuiliani chuan Chittagong Jail-ah a tan hlum phah thak tih kan hria.

Independent hmaa Zoram sumdawnna chuan a huap zim hle. Zoram dehchhuah, heng-thelret, serthlum, la leh thlai thenkhatte chu vaiho hnenah an hralh thin a. Ram pawn lam atangin an mamawhte an chaw lut thung thin. India ram ril zawk an thleng pha meuh lo va, Hringchar (Silchar) leh Sihlet (Sylhet), ram thenkha an dawr ber. Heng bakah hian, Burma lam atangin eng eng emaw an chaw thla bawk a, a hlawk phian awm lehnghal e.

Sumdawnnaah hian rinawm a harin chin tawk neih a harsa hrim hrim nge ni, mi rilru hmanhmawh hnam kan nih avangin thlemna te a sang bawk nge ni, kan sumdawn tirh lam pawh khan thil dik lo leh fel lo sawi tur a awm nghal pang mai a. Thelret hlum an zawrhahte chuan thil eng eng emaw an lo phum ru thin a. Chu chuan an sumdawnna kha a tileihnawng nasa hle a. Zoram atanga an thawnchhuah, la telah te chuan, mai te, ba pui te an lo phum rut a thin tih Pu Lalbuaia’n min hrilh. Mizote hi hnam rinawm tak angina kan insawi thin si a, kan lo rinawm tak tak lem lo nge ni, sumdawnna hmanga hnam dang ze tha lo kan lo kai nge, sumdawnnaa kan rilru hmanhmawh luat leh hlawk kan um luatna hian khua min hmuhtir ta lo tih pawh chhut tham a awm.

Eng pawh ni se, sum thu-ah hi chuan, tun hnai mai ni lo, hnam atang tawhin rinawm harsa kan ti deuh ni chuan a lang. Amaherawhchu, heng hnam dangte nena insumdawn tawnna hian rah tha tak a chhuah ve bawk a, chu chu rual-

elna a ni. Tlawngphaiah khuan serthlum huan zau tak an siam a, cheng singhnih lai lei hmante pawh an awm a, a tam ta hlauh va, a rem leh zo ta a. rem lo seng chuan vawiin thlenga kan sum hnar tur hi a ni a. Thelret sumdawnna chuan phurna a cho chhuak tha hle a. Lungleng lal Khamliana phei chuan a In velah Thelret kung a phun khat tlat a, tun thlengin a la ngaw khung mai a ni-a suak a lo ni hlauh mai pawh a. Suak lo phei se chuan dinchhuahpui tham a phun.

Indian hnu

India ram a lo indan tirh kha chuan Mizoram hian hriat a hlawh lo hle a. Amaherawhchu, zawi zawiin ram hnasawnna atan pawisa a lo lut tam ve tial

tial a. Five Year Plan 4-naah phei chuan chanvo kan lo nei vet a hial a. Sum hmel

a lan tam takah chuan sumdawnna pawh a thang ve hrat hrat a. Mihring lo pung

chho zelah leh khawsak lo sang chho tial tial avangin mamawh a lo pung ve tial tial a; chung mamawhte phuhru tur chuan, sumdawnna pawh a thang chho ve zel a. Kawtchhuah dang kan neih loh avangin Silchar khu kan dawr ber a ni a. Silchar-

a Bengali- ho nen kan inpawh tial tial a, an zia pawh kan kai tam tial tial a ni.

1972 khan mizoram chu UT-ah hlan kai a lo ni ta a. UT kan han ni tir kha chu, chenna ngai loh ram fan ang a ni a, kan khawr tlang hle mai. Budget hran kan han nei ve ta a; kan budget pawh zaa za Central tumsak kan ni bawk a, khalehchen kan lo buai tawh nen, fa tlum duatin min duat a pawisa a tam ta phut mai a. Chung Delhi khawngaihna sum phuanchhuakah chuan mi tam tak chu inchiah ve thei lem lo mah se, thenkhat chuan an lo nghafuan ruh tawk tawk mai a, an dinchhuah phah reng a. Sum leh pai tam tak lo luang lut dul dul mai chuan nasa takin sumdawnna a tithang a, Bungraw chi hrang harng chi tinreng mai chu Mizoramah a rawn chhoh luan ta a. Chu chuan ram hmel, a bikin khawpui a tidanglam kawk kawk a. In leh loa phuisui a, In chhung bungrua a ngelnghet a, incheinaah kan sang zual a, sumdawng Motor leh Bus, Taxi leh Car te thlengin a pung ta em em a. Silchar mai kan dawr duh ta lo va, Guwahati te, Culcutta te, Bombay leh Madras leh khawpui dang danga mi bungrua , a tha thlan khawm (incheinaah a ni zual bik a) chuan Zoram a lo thleng zel a.

Ram hruaitute lam atanga tangka khuahkhirh (financial control) mumal a awm loh avangin, sawrkar hnathawk, a bikin officer-te an hausa chak hle a, pawisa ren nachang an hre lo va. Contract hna a hlawk em em a. Thil man a to chak hle a. Thingtlangah retheite tan erawh chuan a harsa sawt hle. Rel kawngin Zoram chhun ve lo mah se, TMB leh Bus-a kal mai a nit a bik lo va. Thlawhnain, Vayudoot-in Zoram a rawn tlawh vet a bawk a. Vayudoot-a Mizo chuan tam berte hi sumdawng, bungrua la turte an ni awm e. Thlawhnain Mizoram a rawn zawm vena chhan pawh hi Mizo Sumdawng Pawl (Chamber of Commerce)-te hmalakna rah a ni pakhat awm e (Mizoram Chamber of Commerce Souvenir 1990.p-1).

Mizoram Chamber of Commerce

Zoram hi District a nih laia Mizo sumdawnghote’n an lo din, Merchant Association an tih kha UT kan lo nih khan Mizoram Chamber of Commerce tia thlak a lo ni a. He MCC-te enghelh ber mai chu Mizorama hnam dang (vai) sumdawng lo pung chak ta lutuk hi a ni. Sumdawnna khawvelah hian kan tlangmipuite ramkhawpui, heng-Kohima, Shillong, Itanagar,Dimapur, etc- ahte chuan dawr lian deuh deuh chu vai ta vek a lo nit a a. Hnam dang hi a pawnga puia huphurh ngawt chu a dik thei lo vang na; amaherawhchu, huphurh loh theih lohna chu a awm. Sumdawnna khawvelah ngat hi chuan inel ralah chuan zofate hian hnam dang, sumdawnna kawnga miril pui pui hi kan khing zo dawn hauh lo. Sumdawnna pawisa inlumlet vel tur pawh kan nei tha tawk lo va, bulpui eng mah nei ve lovin, mahni thiam ang angina kan ti ve naw naw chauh a la ni.

Chutih laiin, vai sumdawnghote chuan ram pawnah bulpui nghet tak neiin an ngelnghet em em a, an tan thil han chawkluhna man pawh a tlemin a awlsam bik a. Heng avang hian a man thu-ah pawh an titlawm thei zawk reng reng a. Dawrtu an ngah a, bungraw inlumlet chak atanga hlawkna chu a tlo zawk tih an hmu phak si a. Mizo, rilru hmanhmawh reng renga awm thinte’n chu lam chu kan la tluk thiam ve si lo. Tin, chu bakah, vai sumdawngte chuan sumdawn dan an thiam riau va; dawr an nuam in, dawrtute an ngaihsak em em a, an hnena thil lei a nuam a, a zawngchhangawm riau. Mizo dawrkai tam takte erawh chu chutiang an ni lo. Dawrtute an ngaihsak tawk lo va, thian an kawm laklawh lai phei chuan anmahni dawrtute chu an hrilhai hial zawk thin.

Hetiang hi Mizoram khaw hrang hranga hnam dang, sumdawnga awmte dinhmun a ni. Permanent Trade Licence nei, hnam dang, Aizawlah-32, Lunglei ah-32, Sairangah-3, Demagiri-ah-11, Tin, heng khawpui hrang hrangah hian Temporary Trade Licence nei mi 125 lai an awm bawk. Heng bakah hian, Mizo hminga hnam dang dawrkai mi 142 lai Aizawl khawpuiah hian an awm bawk.

Heng hnamdang sumdawngte hi an dawr a muk hle a, len pawh an lian chak hle. Chu vang chuan, Mizo sumdawng pawlte chuan sumdawnna khawvelah hian chimral nih ve an hlau va, an rilru a dam lo a ni. Mizote’n heng hnam dangte hi sumdawnna khawvelah hian kan ngam theih lohzia entirna pakhat han tarlang ila : Zarkawta vai dawrkai pakhat chuan phai artui hi bawm khat Rs. 87/- in a chah thleng a, Rs 125/- in a pe chhuak leh thin a. Chu tiang chuan Mizo nu pakhatin a ti ve ta a. Rs 87/- in a chah thleng ve a, Rs 125/- bawk chuan a hralh vet a a. Eltu (Competitor) an awm tih a hriat chuan vai sumdawng chuan Rs. 120-ah a tihniam ta a, Zonu-in a tih hniam ve zel avangin a tawpah phei chuan Rs 85/- ah a tla thla a. Bawm khat zelah Rs 2/- a chawi ta a nih chu. Help ahneka hloh zel chunga sum han ‘dawn’ chu capital nei tha lo leh bulpui nei tha ve lo Mizote tan chuan a ngaihna awm ta hek lo, Zonu chuan a bansan ta a. A titawp ta tih a

hriat veleh vai sumdawng chuan a man a tisang leh a, a duh zat zat a chhiar ta mai

a ni.

Mipui tam berte hi chu kan retheih em avangin thil thenkhatah chuan

a man titlawm thei apiang kan bawr lo thei lo va,kan fak a, kan lawm bawk thin.

Hetiang a nih avang hian MCC-te chu an thla a phang a, awm mai mai thei ta meuh lo. Chutih lai chuan, sum umin Mizo thenkhatte’n anmahni hmingin vai an lo sumdawntir ang lawi bawk a. A hlawkna eng emaw an tel ve vangin chung hnam dang hnenah chuan an hming an lo hralh thin a ni. Hnam dang sumdawngte chu thenkhatin an hlauh em em laiin, thenkhat chuan an thawhpui duh tak leh an unaute an lo ni bawk si.

Sumdawnna leh politics

India ram pumpui hi British-hovin an awp lai khan keini tlangmite awpna dan bik Inner Line Regulation 5, 1873 (Bengal Eastern Frontier Regulation, 1873) hmanga a bika enkawl kan ni a. Tin, keini Mizoram bik phei chu, Chin Hills Regulation, 1896 hnuaia enkawl kan ni lehzel a. Kum 1930 atang phei chuan, hnam dangin min chiahpiaha min chimral mai loh nan leh, economics lama tlangmite venhim kan nih theih nan Inner Line Regulation mumal taka hman a ni a. Hei hian a tum pawimawh tak pakhat chu, Nepali Bawng vulhte leh Bengali sumdawngte’n min chim loh nan dan a ni ber a. He Inner Line Regulation hi duh angin hmang tangkai lo mah ila, eng emaw chenah chuan a tangkai em em a. Tun thlenga chim rala kan la awm lohna chhan pawimawh tak a tling a ni. He Inner Line Regulation hi kan hman thiam athuin a tangkaiin a tangkailo thei a; a hmangtu tur tak chu politics hi a nih avangin, kan ram hruaitu Ministry chelhtute kutah a innghat a ni.

Sumdawnna te thamah hi chuan hnam dangte hi an la hlauhawm lutuk lo a nih pawhin, a lian tham deuhvah hi chuan Mizote’n kan la ter lo hle a. Mizoram a lo than chhoh ve zel takah hi chuan khawl lian leh hmanraw pui tham deuhte mamawh a lo nita zel a. Heng khawl lian leh contract lian thilah hi chuan hnam dang company lian deuhte chanvo deuh vek ala niin a lang. Thil hlawk tham tak takah chuan Zofate hi kan la cche ve hleithei lo niin a lang. Tin, contract lain tham tak tak ti tura sawrkarin a thlan dan hian sawi a hlawh hle thin a; vantlang ngaih dan lo ang deuhte a nih avangin, inrinhlelhna a nasa thin a; contract pe theitute’n dem an hlawh thin.

Company lian deuhte hi chuan pawn atang ringawt pawhin Zoram thau hi an sawk nasa hle awm e. Mizoram Chamber of Commerce atanga thu ka dawn dan chuan, Maruti Udyog Ltd. Chuan Maruti Stock Yard, Mizoram Quota chu Bawngkawnah Stock Yard neia insawiin an contract a. Nimahsela, pakhat mah phur thleng lovin, a tawp a tawpah phei chuan, sawrkarin a ban ta nghe nghe

a ni awm a. Bawngkawna Gypsy leite chu sawi loh, neih chhun chhun kengin Black-a lei turin Guwahati lamah kan intlanliamsiak a nih kha.

Food Corporation of India-in Zoram buhfai Zorama an chhek thlen vek laiin, Cement Supply contract-tu P.K.Traders chuan Aizawl rawn phurh thlente chu sawi loh Silchar atangin an hralh chhuak hem hem a, Cement man pawh hi lo to lo chi a ni lo ve.

Kan politics nun thianghlim theih lohna chhan pawh hi, kan sumdawng rilru dik loh vang hi a ni thui khawpin a lang. Ram tan leh mipuite rawngbawlsak tumna tak tak thinlung ai chuan, mimal hamthatna, tanghmahaina

leh sum leh dinhmun siam nana politics khel kan tam. Tlawmngaihna kan tih pawh

hi kan vaw vul hle a; mahse, mizo nunah hian thlen phak lohna ram a ngah.

Politics-ah te, sum thu-ah te,kaisanna thilah te hian Zofate zingah mitlawmngai hmuh tur an vang hle.

Politician-te zingah hmingchhiatna leh demkaina tam ber pakhat chu sum thu-ah a ni fo. Politician-te hian sumdawng hausate pawisa an puksak thin. A tangka rulh leh mai bakah bat tel an nei duh khawp mai. A tangkaa inrul leh lova sawrkar thil hamthatna tur danga inrul leh an nih phei chuan, thil pawi tak a tling thin. Hetiang hian rorelna dik a siam thei lo va, mipuite rawngbawl aiin mihausate tihlawm a lo tul tawh thin.

Kan sawi tawh angina Mizote hi mi rilru hman hmawh hnam kan ni

a, teirei leh nghah hi kan peih thin lo. Chung avang chuan, intihhmuh ching kan ni

a Sumdawnna kawngah pawh chu rilru chu a lang fiah hle. Mi pakhat,

sumdawnna kawnga a hlawk viau tih kan hriat chuan, mi am akin tih kan tum nghal mai thin. Kan rama sumdawnna tam ber hi ram dang atanga kan chawk luh a

ni a. Mi malin a hralh tla tura an ngaih leh hlawk tura an ngaih apiang an chawk

luhte a ni ber a. Chu vang chuan, thil man bithliahtu mumal an awm meuh lo va, a zuartute’n an duh ang zat zat an chhiar ta mai thin a. Mihausa leh sum leh pai lolam taka hmu thinte’n sum ren lo va, an duh apiang chu an lei pawp zel a, a manah an buai ngai lo. Chu tiang chuan thil man a tisang chak em em a, miretheite tan harsatna a siam thin. Shillong-a pheikhawk Rs. 150/- vela an lei chu, Aizawlah chuan Rs. 300/- chuangin an zuar mai thin. Krismas hunah te thingtlang mirethei zawkte’n an fate tan an lei a lo tul ve si thin a. ‘ Nei tlem chu neih chhun pawh an laksak ang’ tih ang ziazang khan, fate rual awh hlau ve si-nu leh pa tam tak chuan Krismas pawh an hmang nuam thei tawh thin lo.

Aizawlah ngat phei hi chuan kut hnahawk an tlem hle a. Sawrkar hnathawkte Paradise a ni ringawt mai a. Sawrkar hnathawk lo vek pawhin sawrkar hmuihmer zawngin Pisa velah kan tei huai huai a. Anih loh leh, khawlai a sum siam dan kawng kan zawng a. Retailer nih te kan duh em em a. Heng Fair Price Shop-te hi a ti tawh thinte sawi dan chuan, “ Dik taka thawha, dik taka buk chuan

hlawkna a awm tak tak lo ve,” an ti thin. Mahse, chan tumin kan vir luai luai ang lawi si. Kohhrana rawngbawltu langsar tak tak chhungkua pawhin an han tih chang pawhin, an buk tlin loh luat avanga buk that tir leh chawt chawt a tam tho mai. Vawk sa zuartu tam takte hlawkna chu a boruak an ei hi a ni.

Sazuartu pakhatin, Republic Veng hmeithai pakhat vawk lei a tum a,

a man tihniam deuh turin a ti a. A chhiar ang zaa lei chuan, help tur a neih loh thu

a tanchhan a. Mahse, Republic nu chuan, “Eng vangin nge help in han neih loh

tehlul ang? Hei ka saumbur-ah hian tun hma chuan pava thum chian chiah a leng thin a; mahse, tuna in kg 1 hi chu zu thawl thei a!” tiin a chhang ta a. Nep hran ta

lo chuan a chhiar ang chuan a lei phah ta a ni awm e. Vawk sa zuar pakhat chuan,

Thakthing bazarah a man ngaia hralh turin , bazarpuia mi zu han khar a. Help chu

a nei vet ho. Tun hma deuh khan Lawi sa hi Bawng sa hralha hralh an awm thin a.

Mipui an bun theih nan Bawng vunin an khuh thin! Chutiang bawkin, vai ar zuartute pawhin ar an zawrh hian, buhfai an hralh tel teuh thin. An rante chunga an

ngilneih vang chiah chu a ni lem lo mai thei; chawkchaweng keh lek leka an hrai thin hi. Ar zuar nu pakhat chu, a duh aia hma-in an dawr thut mai si a, chaw a la pe puar si lo va; buhfai vei khat patla-ah a dah a, a buk tel talh mai a ni.

Ration buhfai ip pawh hi Quintal tling tur hi a tling lo duh fo mai. Bagha velah khuan a bag an tipung thiam a ni awm e. Sawrkar kut a thlen hmaa Retailer hmanhmawh zualte’n an lo lak chhawn fo thin avangin chu chu Chalan anga pawm mail oh theih a ni si lo va. A tling lo sa-in retailer-te’n an la a, a tling a han buk leh chu a harsat tawh hmel khawp mai. Chu bakah, help uma thil ti an lo ni bawk si lehnghal. Heng essential goods kan tihah meuh pawh hian mu leh mal a awm thei lo va, mipuite tawrhna hi nasa tak a ni. A kim lovin kan lei a, a kim lovin kan dawng thin. Tuna a lan danah hi chuan, hetiang sumdawnna thenkhat hi chu Pathian tih mite tih awm pawhin a lang thei lo va, a ti awm tawk vel mi an awm niin a lang. Mipuite hi a thei theiin min bum a, a duh duhin min hrek ni maiin a lang.

Tunah hian mipuite thlavang hauh theitu tur Consumer Protection Council, Sawrkarin a siam ta hlauh mai a. Thil zuar leh hralhtute’n a tling lo emaw, a kim lo emaw min pek thin te, a dik lo emaw, a tha lo emaw min leitir ang chite chu an hnenah sawia, anni’n thil dik lo titu chu a tul anga hrem emaw zilhhau emaw an tum dawn a ni. Hetiang hi kan ramin kan mamawh hle. Sum kan zawnna kawngah hian, mi tam ber hi chuan thil mawi leh thil dik kan hre phal lo va. Sum kan siam theihna a nih phawt chuan, thenawmte bum pawh kan hnial lo. He thil lanfiah em emna pakhat chu kan chanchinbu-ah hian a ni. Weekly Chanchinbu hi an ni lehzual. Mipuite rawngbawlna leh hnam nun siam thatna lam

a hawi mawlh lo.

Chanchin tam ber hi thutak a ni meuh lo. A pawnah chanchin ngaihnawm tak pai angina thupui an siam a. A chhungah eng mah chanchin chhiar

tlak a awm leh lawi si lo va. A chang phei chuan, vantlang hnena tihrik tlak loh zahmawh lam rawngkai lek lekte a tel thluah bawk thin. Heng hi inbumna (cheating) chi khat a ni thei. Heng chanchin dukdaklo-KS chungchang te, hmeichhe awm tha duh lo chanchin te, hmeichhiat-mipatna chungchang chhuah vak vak hian nun a hruai sual nasa hle. Sumdawnna tenawm tak a ni.

Mizote rilruah hain sumin hmun a chang thuk hle niin a lang. Officer nupuite pawhin dawr an siam ve nual mai. Heng hi sum kai luhna a nih theih laiin, eiruk thup nan pawh a ni thei. Kohhrana mi langsar takte pawhin sawrkar thil phal loh thil zawrh (smuggling)-in ei kan zawng a. Drug leh ruih theihthil a nih em loh chuan a dik lohna pawh kan hre lem lo. Capital Travel (khualzin bus chi khat)-a Shillong leh Aizawl inkara zin hreawmna ber chu, Silchar vela min lo check buai thin hi a ni. Hei hi keini Zofate zingah ram dang siam phal loh thil, zuartute an tam vang a ni. Kohhran pawhin Sawrkar kan thawhpui meuh lohna lai a ni awm e. Mipa chauh pawh ni lovin, kanhmeichhiate pawh Katmandu kal an huai khawp mai.

Sumdawnna leh Mizo hmeichhiate

India ram pumah hian Mizo hmeichhiate anga sumdawnna inhmang nasa an awm lo an ti. Hmeichhe lal zawkna hnam heng-Khasi leh Garo-te pawh hi Mizo hmeichhiate ang em em chuan sumdawnnaah hian an inhmang nasa lo. Tunlai Mizo sumdawnna pui ber chi chu Silchar leh Culcutta dawr a ni ber a. Mizo hmeichhe thenkhat hi an ro thapin an kawlhrawng ve hle mai. Tawng pawh thiam hlei lo, hruaitu tha pawh nei lem lo hian Vayadoot-in Calcutta-ah an thlawk liam ve leh pawp mai thin. Tin, Silchar lamah phei chuan nula, a bikin, nuthlawi, la valai deuhte, bungrua lain an liam tam hle a.

Thenkhat phei chu hmeichhia, thian pawh nei lovin, mipa hlang zingah te, a duhthawh zual deuhte phei chu vai mipa hlang zingah, motor-in tlai lamahte an tlan liam ve leh pawp mai thin. Sumdawnna khawvela khual nek taka kan hmeichhiate kan hmang hi chu a zahthlak lam deuh chu a ni. Sum kan hmuhna tur a nih phawt chuan, kan pawiti lo thei zel emaw ni.

Mipa tam tak hi chu kan nep deuh nge ni, nuzawk chawmin kan khawsa a, chhungkaw chawmtu leh sum hai luttu an nih miau avangin thikthu kan tichhe ngam lo va. Tin, khawtlang nunin a ken tel vang em maw ni, kan officer nupuite pawh sum dawng eng emaw zat an awm tho mai; nu ber emaw, sumdawnga a vah a vah mai chuan, a fanaute chu pa ber kutah a awm a ngai a; pa ber office- a thawk a nih si chuan, awmpuite kutah dah a lo ngai ta thin a ni. Kan sumum luat avanga fate nungchang kan hloh emaw hi research emaw beia mumal deuha hriat theiha chakawm ngawt mai. Thenkhat chu nupa paa sumdawng, a hmeichhia zawk chhuakvaka hman tlatte kana wm a. sum chu kan hmu meuh mai. Fate, mi ram School tha leh Hostel-ah kan dah a, pawisa hneh takin kan thawn a;

Mizo tawng leh Mizo thil an hre tlem hle a. A tawpah nu leh pa tel lovin an lo tlei ta em em bawk thin. Sum leh paia kan thil thleng chu a ni ve mai a.

Kan hmeichhia, sumdawnna leh kawng dangah pawh chhuakvak taka kan hmanna hian hnam dang (hnam dang chu sumdawngho hi mipa an lo ni deuh zel si a) an nel phah viau zel mai a. Mizo khawtlang nuna kan inkawm leh innel em em dan ang deuh main hnam dang an nel a. Anni lahin khawtlang nun hi a khirh the ual lo a ni tih lo hai bik bawk si lo. Thenkhat phei chuan an lo nel lutuk hman thin. Pasalah hial an lo nei duh mai a, Mizo hmel pu tehchiam lo tak Zoramthanga te, Zoramliana tee maw an lo tam ta. An Scholarship form –ah pawh pa hming aia nu hming ziah ngai tlat an tam tan ta.

Tin, thenkhat chuan an hming hnam dang an hawhtir a, an Mizo nihna an hralh chu a ni em lo vang chu maw. Dawr kawngka lu chung chu a Mizo hle mai a, Prop-ah eng ‘Mawii’ emawte a lo intar khalh a. Mizo dawrah em maw kan luh dawn han ti ila, kan hmuhte chu mipa rual, Mongolian thlah hmel pu hauh lo, Zotawng pai em emte an lo ni si. Hei hi eng emaw chenah hnam inchawhpawlh kan nihna tur bul a ni a. Sum ngainatnaa lut laklawh kan hmeichhiate hi ram chhungah hian sumdawnna kawngah kan hmang lo thei lo a nih pawhin, hmang tam lo ila; ram leh chhungkua pawh kan thianghlimin kan hlimzawk ngei ang.

Tunlai hian, kohhranin sum hnar nghet neih ni se a tha ang tih ngaih dan a lo ri ta zauh zauh va. In saka a luah man tel hi sum hnar tha tak a ni ngei ang. Hetiang ang zawng hian Kohhran hi sumdawng vet a ila a tha an gem tihah hian ngaih dan a phir duh awm hle mai. Kristian nun thianghlimna lam ngai pawimawh lem chuang si lo va, mihausa thenkhatin an neih chuanga liama Kohhran an rawn vur hnawk tee maw, Synod hnuaia hnathawkte’n hlawh leh sum lam hi an engto luat emaw, Kohhran mite zinga a zatve aia tamin sawma pakhat pawh kan la pek mang loh laia In leh rama sumdawn emaw, sum lakluhna dik lo leh hrisel lo atanga sumhmuh chu a thianghlim lo a ni tia zirtirna fumfe pe chhuak mang si lova sum lama thahnem ngaih luattukna tee maw hian sumdawng Kohhranah min chanter ve thei a, kan thlarau nun pawh a tithuanawp thei bawk a ni.

Sawi ho turte

1. “Aw! Hnam zawng zawng leh chi tin tawng tin hi, Van Lal nau ang a tahna Kalvari-ah an dang chuang lo ve,” kan tih laia, sumdawnna kawnga hnam dang chim ral kan hlau leh si hi a dik em?

2. Mizo zingah hmeichhe sumdawng an tam bikna chhan eng nge ni ang? Khawtlang leh Kohhranin kan thatpui nge, kan chhiat phah?

3.

MIZORAMA SUMDAWNNA KAWNGA KAIHHRUAINA

1. Sumdawnna (Business) hi mithiamte’n an hrilh fiah dan chuan-thil

zawrh, dawrkai hna chauh hi a lo ni lo va, hausakna, sum leh pai te thawhchhuahna leh peipung tura tan lakna (activities) chi hrang leh kawng hrang hrang a ni. Thil siam leh dehchhuah lamhna(Production activities) te, a phurhvelna (transportation) te, a hralhna leh zawrh lam hna buaipuina (distribution activities & services) te, sum dawnna (business) chuan a huam a. Tin, chung hna pawh chu hna peng satliah ang mail ova, hnapui leh hna nghet anga vawna, hlawkna hmuh beiseina nena thawh thin a ni bawk.

2. Sumdawn dan hamng (Business Organisation) chu chi hrang

hrang pathumaha a then theih a. Pakhatna chu mi mal sumdawnna ‘Individual or sale Proprietorship’ a ni a. Pahnihna chu ‘Partnership a ni a; hei hi mi pahnih emaw, a aia tam, mi sawmhnih aia tam lo, sumdawng ho tura India Partnership Act, 1932 tlawhchhana indin leh inregister an ni. Tin, pathumna chu ‘Company’ an ti a. Mi sawmhnih chung lam, sumdawngho tura intel khawm, India Company Act tlawhchhana indin leh inregister an ni. Company chu mi mal sumdawng tanghovin an siam. Private Company a awm a; tin, sawrkar lam siam leh din a awm ve bawk a, chu chu Public Company an ti a ni. Tin, heng sumdawn dan hmang kan sawi bakah hian, Co-operative Act hmang leh tlawhchhanin, mi sawm chin chung lam tan Co-operative Society a din theih a.Inrelbawldan mumal leh sawrkar atanga kaihhruaina fel tak neiin, Co- operative Society chuan a member leh mipui vantlang hamthatna atan sumdawnna kawng hrang hrangah hma a la ve thin bawk.

3. Sumdawnnain a tinzawn (Objective) ber nia kan ngaih thin chu

hlawkna hmuh (profit) a ni. Amaherawhchu, hlawkna hmuh leh help um ngawt hi sumdawnnain a tin zawn ber tur (objective) a ni lo. Mihmingthang Urwick-a chuan, ‘Ei in hi mihring dam chhan a ni lo ang bawkin, hlawkna emaw hlep hlawh chhuah ngawt hi sumdawngtu sum dawn chhan a ni thei lo vang’, a ti a. Hlawkna emaw, hlep emaw chu sumdang chuan a hmu ngei tur a ni a, a tul bawk a ni. A chhan chu – Sumdawnna hlawhtlinna leh tehna pawimawh tak a ni. Tin, sumdawngtu thawh hah man leh thawh rim man a ni a, a sumdawnna a than zelna turin a pawimawh em em bawk a ni. Sumdawnna chu a sum dawngtu tana hlawkna hmuhna kawng mai a ni lo va, mipui vantlang mamawh phuhru tur leh ngaihtuah turin a pawimawh em em a ni. Ei tur te, silhfen te, kan ni tin khawsakna atana kan mamawh chi hrang hrangte awlsam taka kan hmuh theihna turin sumdawng chuan a la khawm a, an ngaihtuah a, kan lei theihna tur hmunah min lo dahsak a; chutianga rawngbawla an thawh hah man hlawkna an hmu chu a awm a ni. Chutichuan, sumdawnnain a tin zawn tur (objective) pawimawh tak tak chu hetiang hian lo khaikhawm tai la :

(1) Hlawkna awm tawk leh mawi tawk tak, intunnunna leh inenkawlna tur leh a sumdawnna hmasawn leh that zelna tur thawh chhuah-hei hi economic objective an ti a ni.

(2) Mi dang-a dawrtute (customers) leh a mirawih leh chhawrte (chutiang nei tan) tan belhfakawm leh tangkai a ni tur a ni. Hei hi human objective an ti a. (3) Sumdawngtu chu mahni chauhva khawsa leh nung thei a ni bik lo va. Khawtlangah mi tin kan inphuar khawm a, kan inzawm tawn vek a. Khawtlang tan tangkaina leh pawimawhna lian tak a nei. Khawtlang invawn danleh ngaih dan pela sumdawn hi a dik lo va; hlawkna um avanga chutiang kawng zawh chu a tha lo. Khawtlang leh mipui rawngbawlsakna a ni tur a ni. Chu chu social objective an ti a ni.

(4) Sumdawnna chu a bul tan hmain ngaihtuah fel hmasak ngei ngei tur a ni. Mi tin hian mahni kawng leh theih zawng deuh kan nei theuh. Kan kawng tur a ni emaw inenfiah hmasak a tha. Miin an tiha, an hlawk avanga mi tih ang tih ve duhna ngawt hi kaihruaitu tur a ni lo. Emerson-a pawhin, ‘Sumdawn hi mi nazawng inrawlhna tur a ni lo,’ a ti a ni. Hun that lai leh thil a awlsam laiin sumdawnga eizawn mai chu mi tam takin kan yi a ni mai thei; mahse, hun harsa zawk a lo thlenin, mi tam tak an tlahniam a, an hlawhchham thin a ni. Ch vangin, sumdawn lam kawng zawh tur chuan rilru-a inruahmanna leh ngaihtuahna fel tak nei saa hmalak a tha. Ngaihtuah leh lo inruahman lawk hmasak ngaihna tur, atlangpui deuhte hetiang hian lo thlir tai la :

(1)

Sumdawnna a hlawhtlin theih dan tur leh harsatna awm thei

(2)

tur ang chite ngaihtuah hmasak tur a ni. Kan chakzawng leh mite’n an hlawkpui avang ngawta zuan luh ve ngawt loh a tha a; ‘a hniak tam lam apiang,’ tih ngawt hi sumdawnna atan chuan a tha lo. Sumdawng tur chuan, eng sumdawnna nge tha ang tih a

(3)

ngaihtuah hmasa ngei ngei bawk tur a ni. Sumdawnna tha ber ber leh hlawk chi reng reng thil tam takah chuan, thiamna te, finna te leh thil ruahman lawk thiam mi tak tak deuh nih te atul thin a. Mihmangahria leh thiam zawkte rawn a tha. Sumdawnna chu a hlawk theih dan tur ngawt ngaihtuaha, chhut lovin, chetsual leh tlakchhiat theihna awm thei tur te, thiamna leh hriatna mamawh tur ang chi te ngaihtuah hmasak ngei tur a ni a; tin, sum hman tur (working capital) neih theih tur awmte hriat tur a ni. Kan sumdawnna tura rilru kan inseam fel hnu-ah kan sumdawn dan tur hmang (business) chauhva tih tur nge, mi dangte nena thawh ho tur (Partnership). Tin, eng anga inbun tur nge kan nih dawn? Mi rawih tur leh Office te, hmanrua te

(4)

eng ang nge kan hman anga, kan mamawh tur tih te, ruahmanna fel tak neih tur a ni. Kan sumdawnna atana hman tur sumpui (Capital) kan neih mai theih baka la mamawh kan nih chuan, eng ang leh

khawi atanga hmuh theih tur nge tih te chinfel a pawimawh

em

em bawk a ni. Tin, tangkai taka kan hman tur awm baka

sum puk leh hman hi, a tul lo emaw, atang kailo zawng emawa khawh ral a awl a, fimkhur a ha. Tin, hlawkna lam ngawt thlira sum puk huai lutuk pawh a tha lo.

(5)

Sumdawnna hmun thlan fuh leh sumdawnna hmun tha hi

a

pawimawh em em a ni. A hmun azira hlawhtlina

(6)

hlawhchham theih a ni. Kawng hrang hrang ngaihtuaha sumdawnna hmun fuh tak a awm. Chu vangin, kan sumdawnna hmun leh in-bunna hmunin kawngro a su em em a ni. Sumdawnna hlawhtlin theihna turin thil pawimawh bik a awm. Chungte chu tawi te te-in lo thlir tai la:

Mihring hi an pawimawh hmasa ber mai. Sum dawng

hlawhtling tur mi chu rilru leh taksa, ngaihtuahna leh nungchang, pumrua thleng pawha tlinna tak nei an ni fo. Sum hi sumdawnna hmanrua leh hlawhtlinna tura pawimawh

ber pakhat a ni. Sum tel lo chuan sumdawnna zawng zawng

hi a tih theih loh ani ber a, sum hman tur leh mamawh ang

neih theih loh chuan sumdawnna a hlawhtling thei lo.

Taimakna leh thahnemngaihna hi sumdawngtu

hlawhtlinna atan a pawimawhzia sawi a ngai lo hial awm e. Mitaima leh thahnemngai an hlawhchham tak tak ngai lo. Kan rama sumdawng hlawhtling hmasa leh, tunlai pawha hlawhtling taka sumdawngtute hi mitaima leh thahnemngai rumrut an ni ber mai. Remhriatna leh hmangchang hriatna a pawimawh chutiang

mi chu an hlawhtling thin. Sumdawnna atana mi remhria,

hmangchang hrai leh thil man chak mi an tang kaiin, an lo hlawhtling thin. Nun dan leh nungchang tha (Morality) : Mi nun tha, mi rinawm an pawimawh a, sum dawnna kawnga rinawmna leh dikna (Business morality) hi hlawhtlinnatluantling thlentu a ni. Kawng dik lo leh hlemhle deuhva sumdawnga, hausa an

awm thei; mahse, a tlo lo va, an awhawm tluantling ngai lo. Customer (dawrkai dawrtu)-te hlut thiam, dawnsawn peih leh tilungawi theih sumdawngtu an hlawhtling thin. Sumdawng/Dawrkai chuan a bungraw zawrh chu leisaktu a mamawh a, dawr tu an awm a tul a ni. Bungrua ngah hlein dawr nei lian hle mah se, dawrtu a hmuh that loh chuan a

sumdawnna athang chak thei lo a ni. Sumdawng/Dawrkai-te hlawkna chu thil leitu te (customers) atangin a ni. Customer- te dawnsawn peih leh tihlungawi thiam hi sumdawngte hlawhtlinna atan a pawimawh em em a ni. Chu vangin, sumdawng/dawrkai chuan anmahni dawrtute hmakhua an ngai thiam tur a ni. Rinawm tak leh hawihhawm takin an dawrin an dawngsawng tur a ni a. Tin, hun khirh leh harsatna engemaw lo thleng thut denchhena, mahni hlawkna ngawt ngaihtuaha, thil man tito thuttute, bungraw chheprel (hoarding) chingte, hralh tlak loh leh tling lo, a leitute’n an hriat loh avang maia leitirtute hi sumdawng/dawrkai huatthlala tak an ni. Sumdawnna bungrua leh pawisa hman leh lak luhte fel tek leh tha taka vawna, ziak leh chhinchhiah that(accounting) hi a pawimawh em em a ni. Hei hi ngaih pawimawh loh chuan sumdawnna tak tak a tih theih loh va; tin, hlawhtlin a harsa ang. Sumdawng thiam leh ram changkangah chuan a pawimawhzia an hria a, hei hi sawi ngai lo khawpa an dah pawimawh a ni. An account vawn dante a changkang a, a felfai a, a rintlak a. Sumdawnna lian thamah phei chuan mithiam biktte rawih leh hman an ni a, khawlte an hmang tangkai nasa a ni. Hetianga account-te fel tek leh dik taka vawn a nih avangin, an sumdawnna hian hmasawn dan te, an tlakhniamna lai leh a chhan te, hma an lak lehna tur leh tihdanglam ngai tee maw an hre thuai thuai thei a, nasa takin a pawimawhin a tangkai a; chu vangin, sumdawnna eng pawh fel tak leh dik taka account vawn hi ‘tihmakmawh’ a ni.

5. Mizorama kan sumdawnna dinhmun tlangpui hi lo thlir lawk ila.

Sumdawnna hi a khingbai hle. Kan ramah thil siam leh dehchhuah kan nei lo va; chu vangin kan sumdawnna pawh ‘ Market distribution’ a ni ber. Phai lam atangin bungrua zawng zawng kan la chhuak a, chu chu kan zuar leh ta a ni. Buh-bal kan tih ang chi’ei leh in tur’ pawh tunah chuan kanthar vet a meuh lo va, kan thla hnih/thum ei tur ang chauh kan thar a. Chu vangin, kan mamawh zawng zawng, ram pawn lam atanga lak luh a ni a. Khawpuiah phei chuan kan chaw chhumna tur lamin ram pawn atanga lak luh, ‘Gas’ emaw, ‘Khawnvartui’ emaw kan hmang a. Thlai, anhnah pawh hi fur lai tih lovah chuan,ram pawn lam atanga kan lak luh kan la ring nasa hle a. Sa ei tur leh artui thlengin phai lam atanga lo kal vek a ni mai. A dik tak chuan, kan ram atanga chhuak, sum lakluhna tih tham a awm lo va, ram dang atanga kan lak luh ei leh inin, silh leh fenin kana wm a. Kan sum leh pai neih zawng zawng hi ram pawn lamah a liam fai duak duak a ni. CChu vangin, kan ram sumdawnna hlawkna zawng zawng deuhthaw mai, ram pawn lamah a luang liam vek thin.

6.

Kan ram, thing leh mau-va a hausakna kan la chhawr tangkai lo

va, kan rama thei leh thlai thar tha thei tak tak pawh khawsakna leh sumdawnna atana nunpui tur khawp hmalakna kawngah kan hmulo pawh a ni lo; a taka chanter kawngah kan nasa lo a ni ber. Kan ram thingzai tur tha tak takte pawh, zai thiam leh zai tum pawh kan meuh lo. Sumdawnna anga han buaipui deuhte pawhin ramdangmi an ruai a, chumi chunga sumdawnna um chuan kan sum dawng leh a. Tin, kan ram mau te pawh kan thatpuina tur ang takin kan hmang lo va. Hmunphiahte hi kan ramah a tam a, a tha a, kan buaipui ngai hauh lo va, a seng chauh kan tum mai tur a ni a. Sumdawnna atana ngaihven kana wm mang tlat lo. State dang- Meghalaya te, Tripura angte chuan

an sum hmuhna pawimawh tak a ni. Thil siam lama hma kan sawnna atan sawrkar tanpuina a lo luanluh tam tawhzia leh kan dawn hnem tawhzia kan hria a. Hna thawh lang tham a la awm lo a ni ber mai. Agriculture lamah pawh, sawrkar chuan tan a lain, hma a la zel naa, kan tih dan leh mipui lam zir loh nge ni, hmasawnna a lang thei lo va, kan hniam lam zawk zel a ni em maw chu tih tur a la ni.

7. Sawrkar sum hman ral (Budget expenditure) hi kan ram sum

hnar awm chhun a ni. Kan pawisa lak luh leh khawlai pawisa lengvel reng reng pawh hi sawrkar pawisa chevelah a innghat nasa a ni. Chu vangin, kan rama sumdawnna lian leh hlawk awm thei chi reng reng chu, sawrkar Budget nena inzawm a ni deuh vek. Dawrkai leh Bazar-a inzuarte pawisa lakluh dan pawh hi, sawrkar pawisa tihchhuah tam leh tlem dan azirin, a tamin a tlem ve nghal mai zel. Kan mihausa leh sumdawng liante pawh a tam zawk hi chu, sawrkar

nghenga sumdawng emaw hmu leh thawk thina intilian leh ding chhuak an ni fur mai. Sum lakluhna hlawk ber leh awlsam deuhva sum hmuhna berah kan neih a ni a.

Chu vangin, kan intlansiakna pawh a nasa; a michhia amithain, sawrkar ngawt mai hi kan en ber a ni a. Mahni kutkawiha dinchhuah leh intodelh tumna lamah kan tla hniam hret hret zel a, kan inthlahdah zel bawk a, kan intodelh lo tial tial a, mi mal leh hnam anga kan RINAWMNA pawh a pan tial tial ni awmin a lang. A tlachawp leh hman hcawp thil, rualpawlna atan pawisa hman kan huai hle bawk. Chtichuan, kan sum hnar ber, sawrkar pawisa lengvel atanga kan dawn reng reng pawh chu, intodelh lo, chawmhlawm awng chauh kan nih avangin, kan kuta a lo lut ang chhun pawh, a rawn mikhual zawk hi a ni ber a, phai lamah a liam zo duak zel a. Chu vangin, kan rama sum tam tak lo lut kan tih pawh hi, kan changkanna tur (productive investment)-a hman turin kan khawl hleithei lo va, tla chawp thila sumdawnna (market distribution) hi kan sumdawnna pui ber chu a ni rih ta zel a ni.

8. Sumdawnna kawnga hma kan sawn theihna turin Sawrkarin

duhsakna leh hamthatna tam tam tak min siam sak a. Hmun dang, State danga

sumdawngtute chawi ang chiah chawitir kan ni lo; tun hnai a kan sawrkarin Sales Tax a khawn ve tih mai loh chu. Hnam hnufual leh ram changkang lo kan nih avangin kawng hrang hrangah duhsakna kan dawng a. Kum tina sawrkar tanpuina leh Loan-te hmuh theih tur leh kan hmuh pawh a tam a ni. Tin, sumdawnna lamah a bika ‘Inhumhalhna’ dante kan la nei leh ta zel a. Hetiang duhsakna leh hamthatna kan neih angte hi hmang tangkai lo zawngin ke pen theih a ni a fimkhur a ngai hle.

Hmasawnna leh changkanna tak taka min hlangkaitu-ah aiin, a tlachawpa kan hman leh, inkhawhralna awmze nei lo leh dawngdahna kawng min zawhtirtu a ni thei ve bawk a ni. Tunlai khawvelah hian Competition hi eng kawngah pawh a sang a, “ Survival of the fittest,” an tih hi tha kan tie maw ti lo emaw kan khawvel nunphung hian a ken vet lat a ni. Duhsakna leh hamthatna kan neihte leh a bika inhumhalhnate hi kumkhuaa awm atan beisei loh tur a ni.

9. Kan thalaite hian kan rama sumdawnna a than lena, hma a sawn

theih nan mawhphurhna laa, rilru nei taka an lo pen chhuah a tul hle a ni. Lehkha thiam zawk leh chak zawk an ni a, nu leh pa tam tak ai chuan tunlai khawvel hriatna leh thimnaah an sang a, thil ngaihtuah leh remruat pawh an thiam zawk tur a ni. Tun hma lam khan High School emaw, College emaw zir chhuak tan Sawrkar hna, kamdinna neih thuai a ni a, eizawnna kawng dang ngaihtuah leh khawhawi a tul lo thin a. Tunah erawh chuan High School chin chunglam zir zo, thalai rual kum tin mi 3000 chuang zet an chhuak ziah a, sawrkar hnain a daih seng ta lo va; hna hmu lo leh vawn mumal nei lo thalai an pung sawt hle.

Hei hi chhungkua leh ram tan pawh harsatna lian tak a ni thuai dawn a. Chu vangin, thalai, lehkha thiam zawkte hian sawrkar hna leh kamdinna kawng chauh tin zawna lehkha te zir lovin, sumdawnna hi an lehkhathiamna leh hriatna zau zawk chhawr theihna turin kan mamawh a ni. Dawrkai leh chhungkaw tam takah thalai lamte hi a thawh chhuah sa awmze nei lova chen ral leh khawhraltu-ah an tang hlauh va, khawtlang leh chhungkuaah harsatna a thlen phah a ni. An hun awl leh zirna lam chawlh hunahte, anmahni chhawr tangkaina tur siamsak thin leh rilru an insiam theihna tura kaihhruai a pawimawh a ni.

Tin, kan ram sumdawnnaah, hmeichhiate hi eizawnna kawng danga an inhmang leh thawk nasa ang bawkin, an tangkai hle a. Ram dang hmeichhiate aiin an thawk nasain an inhmang zawk awm e. Hei hi kan hmeichhiate fel vang a ni a, mipa aim aha an thawh nasat leh chhawrawm zawkna pawh a awm thei. Amaherawhchu, In lam enkawl leh fanaute enkawlah chhungkuaa mawhphurtu ber leh rin ber an nih avangin, he lamin a

tawrh khawpa inhmang leh buai lo deuhvin awm thei se a duhawm ang. Tin, phai lam dawr leh zin veivak bera hmeichhia rin phei chu a tha ber lo awm e; In lama fanau enkawl leh hmun thu-ah tang ber sela a tha zawk awm e.

11. Kan sumdawn muk dan- dawrkai hnaa thil pawimawh deuhva

langte han tar lang ila :

(1)

Dawrkai sumdawngte tana, adawr hmun neihah chuan bungrua daha,

(2)

dawrkai/sumdawn a ni mai a, sawrkar lamah emaw dan leh hrai zawh tur a awm meuh lo tih tur a ni. Amaherawhchu, kan bungraw zawrh tur te, Essential Commodities Act-ina a huap – Buhfai, Chini, Tel, etc. control thila sumdawng tur nih chuan, sawrkar atangin phalna (Licence) neih tul chin a awm. Tin, phai lama bungrua laknaah Central Sales Tax kan awl thin a; chu vangin, CST Registration neih a ngai a.