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Indian Retail Scenario

The retail scenario is one of the fastest growing industries in India over the last couple of
years. India retail sector comprises of organized retail and unorganized retail sector.
Traditionally the retail market in India was largely unorganized; however with changing
consumer preferences, organized retail is gradually becoming popular. Unorganized
retailing consists of small and medium grocery store, medicine stores, subzi mandi,
kirana stores, paan shops etc. More than 90% of retailing in India fall into the
unorganized sector, the organized sector is largely concentrated in big cities. Organized
retail in India is expected to grow 25-30 per cent yearly and is expected to increase from
Rs35, 000 crore in 2004-05 to Rs109, 000 crore ($24 billion) by 2010.

Quick facts on Indian Retail sector

* Indian Retail sector is the fifth largest global retail destination.

* India retail market is dominated by the unorganized sector.

* The top five companies in retail hold a combined market share of less than 2%.

* The Indian retail market has been ranked by AT Kearney's eighth annual Global
Retail Development Index (GRDI), in 2009 as the most attractive emerging market for
investment in the retail sector.

* Currently the share of retail trade in India's GDP is around 12 per cent, and is
estimated to reach 22 per cent by 2010.

* According to Government of India estimate the retail sector is likely to grow to a

value of Rs. 2,00,000 crore (US$45 billion) and could yield 10 to 15 million retail jobs in
the coming five years; currently this industry employs 8% of the working population.

* India continues to be among the most attractive countries for global retailers.
According to the Department of Industrial Policy and Promotion, approximately US$
47.43 million was the amount of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) inflow as on
September 2009, in single-brand retail trading.

More than 80% of the retail sector in the country is concentrated in the large cities. A
study reveals that among the more than 20 locations, for organized retail in India,
Mumbai was found to be the most preferred location followed closely by Bengaluru in
the second position.
Key Players in Indian Retail Sector

* AV Birla Group has a strong presence in apparel retail and owns renowned brands
like Allen Solly, Louis Phillipe, Trouser Town, Van Heusen and Peter England. The
company has investment plans to the tune of Rs 8000 – 9000 crores till 2010.

* Trent is a subsidiary of the Tata group; it operates lifestyle retail chain, book and
music retail chain, consumer electronic chain etc. Westside, the lifestyle retail chain
registered a turnover of Rs 3.58 mn in 2006

* Landmark Group invested Rs. 300 crores to expand Max chain, and Rs 100 crores on
Citymax 3 star hotel chain. Lifestyle International is their international brand business.

* K Raheja Corp Group has a turnover of Rs 6.75 billion which is expected to cross
US$100 million mark by 2010. Segments include books, music and gifts, apparel,
entertainment etc.

* Reliance has more than 300 Reliance Fresh stores; they have multiple formats and
their sale is expected to be Rs 90,000 crores ($20 billion) by 2009-10.

* Pantaloon Retail has 450 stores across the country and revenue of over Rs. 20 billion
and is expected to touch 30 million by 2010. Segments include Food & grocery, e-tailing,
home solutions, consumer electronics, entertainment, shoes, books, music & gifts, health
& beauty care services.

Retail and recession

The global economic slump has had its impact on the India retail sector. One of the
earliest players in the Indian retail scenario Subhiksha's operations came to a near
standstill and required liquidity injection. Vishal Retail secured corporate debt
restructuring (CDR) plan from its lenders while other players like the Reliance Retail run
by Mukesh Ambani and Pantaloon led Kishore Biyani by went slow on expansion plans
and even scaled down operations. However, during the last quarter a bit of confidence
was restored as the economy showed signs of growth.
Future Trends

* Lifestyle International, a division of Landmark Group, plans to have more than 50

stores across India by 2012–13.

* Shoppers Stop has plans to invest Rs250 crore to open 15 new supermarkets in the
coming three years.

* Pantaloon Retail India (PRIL) plans to invest US$ 77.88 million this fiscal to add up
to existing 2.4 million sq ft retail space. PRIL intends to set up 155 Big Bazaar stores by
2014, raising its total network to 275 stores.

* Timex India will open another 52 stores by March 2011 at an investment of US$ 1.3
million taking its total store count to 120. In the first six months of the current fiscal
ending September 30, 2009, the company has recorded a net profit of US$ 1.2 million.

* Australia's Retail Food Group is planning to enter the Indian market in 2010. It has
plans to clock US$ 87 million revenue in five years. In 20 years they expect the India
operations to be larger than the Australia operations.

The Road Ahead

Industry experts predict that the next phase of growth in the retail sector will emerge
from the rural markets. By 2012 the rural retail market is projected to have a total of more
than 50 per cent market share. The total number of shopping malls is expected to expand
at a compound annual growth rate of over 18.9 per cent by 2015. According to market
research report by RNCOS the Indian organized retail market is estimated to reach US$
50 billion by 2011.

India Industry

* Hotel Industry in India

* Retail Industry
* Software Industry
* Indian Manufacturing
* Confederation of Indian Industry
* India Industry Sector
* IT Industry
* Banking Industry
* Indian pharmaceutical industry
* Indian Telecom Industry
* Industries in India
* Reliance Industries India

* Basic Metals Industry

* Biscuits Industry
* Bus Industry
* Fertilizer Industry
* Handicraft Industry
* Heavy Chemical Industry
* Machinery Industry
* Metallurgical Industry
* Steel Industry
* Textile Industry
* Truck Industry

Retailing in India

Retailing is one of the pillars of the economy in India and accounts for 35% of GDP.[1]

The retail industry is divided into organised and unorganised sectors. Over 12 million
outlets operate in the country and only 4% of them being larger than 500 sq ft (46 m2) in
size. Organised retailing refers to trading activities undertaken by licensed retailers, that
is, those who are registered for sales tax, income tax, etc. These include the corporate-
backed hypermarkets and retail chains, and also the privately owned large retail
businesses. Unorganised retailing, on the other hand, refers to the traditional formats of
low-cost retailing, for example, the local kirana shops, owner manned general stores,
paan/beedi shops, convenience stores, hand cart and pavement vendors, etc.[2] In India, a
shopkeeper of such kind of shops is usually known as a dukandar.

Most Indian shopping takes place in open markets and millions of independent grocery
shops called kirana. Organized retail such supermarkets accounts for just 4% of the
market as of 2008.[3] Regulations prevent most foreign investment in retailing. Moreover,
over thirty regulations such as "signboard licences" and "anti-hoarding measures" may
have to be complied before a store can open doors. There are taxes for moving goods to
states, from states, and even within states.[3]

An increasing number of people in India are turning to the services sector for
employment due to the relative low compensation offered by the traditional agriculture
and manufacturing sectors. The organized retail market is growing at 35 percent annually
while growth of unorganized retail sector is pegged at 6 percent.[4]

The Retail Business in India is currently at the point of inflection. Rapid change with
investments to the tune of US $ 25 billion is being planned by several Indian and
multinational companies in the next 5 years. It is a huge industry in terms of size and
according to management consulting firm Technopak Advisors Pvt. Ltd., it is valued at
about US $ 350 billion. Organised retail is expected to garner about 16-18 percent of the
total retail market (US $ 65-75 billion) in the next 5 years.

India has topped the A.T. Kearney’s annual Global Retail Development Index (GRDI) for
the third consecutive year, maintaining its position as the most attractive market for retail
investment. The Indian economy has registered a growth of 8% for 2007. The predictions
for 2008 is 7.9%.[5] The enormous growth of the retail industry has created a huge
demand for real estate. Property developers are creating retail real estate at an aggressive
pace and by 2010, 300 malls are estimated to be operational in the country.[6]

With over 1,000 hypermarkets and 3,000 supermarkets projected to come up by 2011,
India will need additional retail space of 700,000,000 sq ft (65,000,000 m2) as compared
to today. Current projections on construction point to a supply of just 200,000,000 sq ft
(19,000,000 m2), leaving a gap of 500,000,000 sq ft (46,000,000 m2) that needs to be
filled, at a cost of US$15–18 billion.[7]

According to the Icrier report, the retail business in India is estimated to grow at 13%
from $322 billion in 2006-07 to $590 billion in 2011-12. The unorganized retail sector is
expected to grow at about 10% per annum with sales expected to rise from $ 309 billion
in 2006-07 to $ 496 billion in 2011-12.[8]

[edit] The Indian Retail Market

Indian market has high complexities in terms of a wide geographic spread and distinct
consumer preferences varying by each region necessitating a need for localization even
within the geographic zones. India has highest number of outlets per person (7 per
thousand) Indian retail space per capita at 2 sq ft (0.19 m2)/ person is lowest in the world
Indian retail density of 6 percent is highest in the world.[9] 1.8 million households in India
have an annual income of over 45 lakh (US$ 102,150)[10].

Delving further into consumer buying habits, purchase decisions can be separated into
two categories: status-oriented and indulgence-oriented. CTVs/LCDs, refrigerators,
washing machines, dishwashers, microwave ovens and DVD players fall in the status
category. Indulgence-oriented products include plasma TVs, state-of-the-art home theatre
systems, iPods, high-end digital cameras, camcorders, and gaming consoles. Consumers
in the status category buy because they need to maintain a position in their social group.
Indulgence-oriented buying happens with those who want to enjoy life better with
products that meet their requirements. When it comes to the festival shopping season, it is
primarily the status-oriented segment that contributes largely to the retailer’s cash

While India presents a large market opportunity given the number and increasing
purchasing power of consumers, there are significant challenges as well given that over
90% of trade is conducted through independent local stores. Challenges include:
Geographically dispersed population, small ticket sizes, complex distribution network,
little use of IT systems, limitations of mass media and existence of counterfeit goods.[12]

[edit] Major Indian Retailers

Indian apparel retailers are increasing their brand presence overseas, particularly in
developed markets. While most have identified a gap in countries in West Asia and
Africa, some majors are also looking at the US and Europe. Arvind Brands, Madura
Garments, Spykar Lifestyle and Royal Classic Polo are busy chalking out foreign
expansion plans through the distribution route and standalone stores as well. Another
denim wear brand, Spykar, which is now moving towards becoming a casualwear
lifestyle brand, has launched its store in Melbourne recently. It plans to open three stores
in London by 2008-end.[13]

The low-intensity entry of the diversified Mahindra Group into retail is unique because it
plans to focus on lifestyle products. The Mahindra Group is the fourth large Indian
business group to enter the business of retail after Reliance Industries Ltd, the Aditya
Birla Group, and Bharti Enterprises Ltd. The other three groups are focusing either on
perishables and groceries, or a range of products, or both.

• Next retail India Ltd (Consumer Electronics)(www.next.co.in)

• Vivek Limited Retail Formats: Viveks, Jainsons, Viveks Service Centre, Viveks
Safe Deposit Lockers
• PGC Retail -T-Mart India[1], Switcher , Respect India , Grand India Bazaar ,etc.,
• REI AGRO LTD Retail-Formats:6TEN Hyper & 6TEN Super
• RPG Retail-Formats: Music World, Books & Beyond, Spencer’s Hyper,
Spencer’s Super, Daily & Fresh
• Pantaloon Retail-Formats: Big Bazaar, Food Bazaar, Pantaloons, Central, Fashion
Station, Brand Factory, Depot, aLL, E-Zone etc.
• The Tata Group-Formats: Westside, Star India Bazaar, Steeljunction, Landmark,
Titan Industries with World of Titans showrooms, Tanishq outlets, Chroma.
• K Raheja Corp Group-Formats: Shoppers Stop, Crossword, Hyper City, Inorbit
• Lifestyle International-Lifestyle, Home Centre, Max, Fun City and International
Franchise brand stores.
• Pyramid Retail-Formats: Pyramid Megastore, TruMart
• Nilgiri’s-Formats: Nilgiris’ supermarket chain
• Subhiksha-Formats: Subhiksha supermarket pharmacy and telecom discount
• Trinethra- Formats: Fabmall supermarket chain and Fabcity hypermarket chain
• Vishal Retail Group-Formats: Vishal Mega Mart
• BPCL-Formats: In & Out
• Reliance Retail-Formats: Reliance Fresh
• Reliance ADAG Retail-Format: Reliance World
• German Metro Cash & Carry
• Shoprite Holdings-Formats: Shoprite Hyper
• Paritala stores bazar: honey shine stores
• Aditya Birla Group - more Outlets
• Kapas- Cotton garment outlets

[edit] Entry of MNCs

The world's largest retailer by sales, Wal-Mart Stores Inc and Sunil Mittal's Bharti
Enterprises have entered into a joint venture agreement and they are planning to open 10
to 15 cash-and-carry facilities over seven years. The first of the stores, which will sell
groceries, consumer appliances and fruits and vegetables to retailers and small
businesses, is slated to open in north India by the end of 2008.[14]

Carrefour, the world’s second largest retailer by sales, is planning to setup two business
entities in the country one for its cash-and-carry business and the other a master
franchisee which will lend its banner, technical services and know how to an Indian
company for direct-to-consumer retail.[15]

The world’s fifth largest retailer by sales, Costco Wholesale Corp (Costco) known for its
warehouse club model is also interested in coming to India and waiting for the right

Opposition to the retailers' plans have argued that livelihoods of small scale and rural
vendors would be threatened. However, studies have found that only a limited number of
small vendors will be affected and that the benefits of market expansion far outweigh the
impact of the new stores.[17]

Tesco Plc., plans to set up shop in India with a wholesale cash-and-carry business and
will help Indian conglomerate Tata group to grow its hypermarket business.(19)

[edit] Challenges

To become a truly flourishing industry, retailing needs to cross the following hurdles:[18]

• Automatic approval is not allowed for foreign investment in retail.

• Regulations restricting real estate purchases, and cumbersome local laws.
• Taxation, which favours small retail businesses.
• Absence of developed supply chain and integrated IT management.
• Lack of trained work force.
• Low skill level for retailing management.
• Lack of Retailing Courses and study options
• Intrinsic complexity of retailing – rapid price changes, constant threat of product
obsolescence and low margins.

To overcome some of the challenges faced by modern retail, the country is developing a
support infrastructure in form of specialised retail schools. One such skill development
initiative has been taken by TKWs Group. Its TKWs Retail School has already training
over a thousand students and retail professionals for different retail skills. TKWs Retail
School is also associated with government projects like enhancing retail experience of
foreign tourists, improving retail of handicraft and local produce, skill development of
village youth.

Evolution of the Indian Retail Sector

The origins of retailing in India can be traced back to the emergence of Kirana
stores and mom-and-pop stores. These stores used to cater to the local people.
Eventually the government supported the rural retail and many indigenous
franchise stores came up with the help of Khadi & Village Industries
Commission. The economy began to open up in the 1980s resulting in the
change of retailing. The first few companies to come up with retail chains were
in textile sector, for example, Bombay Dyeing, S Kumar's, Raymonds, etc.
Later Titan launched retail showrooms in the organized retail sector. With the
passage of time new entrants moved on from manufacturing to pure retailing.
Retail outlets such as Foodworld in FMCG, Planet M and Musicworld in Music,
Crossword in books entered the market before 1995. Shopping malls emerged in the
urban areas giving a world-class experience to the customers. Eventually hypermarkets
and supermarkets emerged. The evolution of the sector includes the continuous
improvement in the supply chain management, distribution channels, technology, back-
end operations, etc. this would finally lead to more of consolidation, mergers and
acquisitions and huge investments.

Phases in the evolution of retail sector

Weekly Markets, Village and Rural Melas

 Source of entertainment and commercial exchange

Convenience stores, Mom-and-pop / Kirana shops
 Neighborhood stores/convenience
 Traditional and pervasive reach

PDS outlets, Khadi stores, Cooperatives

 Government supported
 Availability/low costs/distribution

Exclusive brand outlets, hypermarkets and supermarkets, department stores and shopping

 Shopping experience/ efficiency

 Modern formats/ international

Percentage of Organised Retail across the world

Retail Formats
The following kinds of retail formats are found in India:

• Mom-and-pop stores: These are generally family-owned businesses

catering to small sections of society. They are small, individually run
and handled retail outlets.
• Category killers: Small specialty stores have expanded to offer a range
of categories. They have widened their vision in terms of the number of
categories. They are called category killers as they specialize in their
fields, such as electronics (Best Buy) and sporting goods (Sport

• Department stores: These are the general merchandise retailers offering

various kinds of quality products and services.
These do not offer full service category products and some carry a selective product line.
K Raheja's Shoppers Stop is a good example of department stores. Other examples are
Lifestyle and Westside. These stores have further categories, such as home and décor,
clothing, groceries, toys, etc.

• Malls: These are the largest form of retail formats. They provide an ideal
shopping experience by providing a mix of all kinds of products and services,
food and entertainment under one roof. Examples are Sahara Mall, TDI Mall in

• Specialty Stores: The retail chains, which deal in specific categories and provide
deep assortment in them are specialty stores. Examples are RPG's Music World,
Mumbai's bookstore Crossword, etc.

• Discount stores: These are the stores or factory outlets that provide discount on
the MRP items. They focus on mass selling and reaching economies of scale or
selling the stock left after the season is over.
• Hypermarkets/ Supermarkets: These are generally large self-service outlets,
offering a variety of categories with deep assortments. These stores contribute
30% of all food and grocery organized retail sales. Example: Big Bazaar.
• Convenience stores: They are comparatively smaller stores located near
residential areas. They are open for an extended period of the day and have a
limited variety of stock and convenience products. Prices are slightly higher due
to the convenience given to the customers.
• E-tailers: These are retailers that provide online facility of buying and selling
products and services via Internet. They provide a picture and description of the
product. A lot of such retailers are booming in the industry, as this method
provides convenience and a wide variety for customer. But it does not provide a
feel of the product and is sometimes not authentic. Examples are Amazon.com,
Ebay.com, etc.
• Vending: This kind of retailing is making incursions into the industry. Smaller
products such as beverages, snacks are some the items that can be bought through
vending machines. At present, it is not very common in India.

Challenges facing the Indian

Organized Retail sector
The challenges facing the Indian organized retail sector are various and these are
stopping the Indian retail industry from reaching its full potential. The behavior pattern
of the Indian consumer have undergone a major change. This have happened for the
Indian consumer is earning more now, western influences, women working force is
increasing, desire for luxury items and better quality. He now wants to eat, shop, and get
entertained under the same roof. All these have lead the Indian organized retail sector to
give more in order to satisfy the Indian customer.

The biggest challenge facing the Indian organized retail sector is the lack of
retail space. With real estate prices escalating due to increase in demand from the Indian
organized retail sector, it is posing a challenge to its growth. With Indian retailers having
to shell out more for retail space it is effecting there overall profitability in retail.

Trained manpower shortage is a challenge facing the organized retail sector in India. The
Indian retailers have difficultly in finding trained person and also have to pay more in
order to retain them. This again brings down the Indian retailers profit levels.

The Indian government have allowed 51% foreign direct investment (FDI) in the India
retail sector to one brand shops only. This have made the entry of global retail giants to
organized retail sector in India difficult. This is a challenge being faced by the Indian
organized retail sector. But the global retail giants like Tesco, Wal-Mart, and Metro AG
are entering the organized retail sector in India indirectly through franchisee agreement
and cash and carry wholesale trading. Many Indian companies are also entering the
Indian organized retail sector like Reliance Industries Limited, Pantaloons, and Bharti
Telecoms. But they are facing stiff competition from these global retail giants. As a result
discounting is becoming an accepted practice. This too bring down the profit of the
Indian retailers. All these are posing as challenges facing the Indian organized retail

The challenges facing the Indian organized retail sector are there but it will have to be
dealt with and only then this sector can prosper.
Retail Industry in India:challenges
Opportunties and Strategies
Retailing involves all activities incidental to selling to ultimate consumer for their
personnel family and household use. It does this by organizing their availability on a
relatively large scale and supplying them to a customers on arelatively smallscale.
Retailer is any person/organization instrumental in reaching the goods or merchandise oer
services to the end users.Retailer is a must and cannot be eliminated.
The Indian retailing industry is becoming intensely competitive, as more and more payers
are Vying for the same set of customers. The major retail players are Pantaloon Retail,
Shoppers Stop, Reliance,etc..,
Retailing is one of the biggest sectors and it is witnessing revolution in India. The new
entrant in retailing in India signifies the beginning of retail revolution. India's retail
market is expected to grow tremendously in next few years. According to AT Kearney,
The Windows of Opportunity shows that Retailing in India was at opening stage in 1995
and now it is in peaking stage in 2006. India's retail market is expected to grow
tremendously in next few years. India shows US$330 billion retail market that is
expected to grow 10% a year, with modern retailing just beginning. India ranks first in
2005. In fact, in 2005 and 2006, India is the most compelling opportunity for retailers,
because now India is in peaking stage.
This window of opportunity is useful for executives who plan their market-specific
strategies; the four stages or the lifecycle of this industry is as as follows:
An introduction is the opening phase of a market and is one that is just entering the
GRDI, Global Retail Development Index This index is based on more than 25 macro-
economic and retail –specific variables.for instance ,the country risk includes parameters
like political risk,economic performance,debt indicators,credit ratings,access bank
finance and business risk.The market attractiveness covers reail sales per capita ,urban
population ,laws and regulations and business efficiency.
Iin this stage all, which are outside the top 30 markets, falls in this stage. At this stage,
retailers should monitor and performing high-level assessments, they should plan for their
entry strategies. India in the late 1990's is a good example in the opening stage, while in
2006, Kazakhstan is the country in introduction stage.
Stategy suggested:A rapid penetration strategy is suggested at this stage i>e low price and
high promotion.
In growth stage, the market is developing quickly and also ready for modern retailing.
Countries, which are in Peaking stage, are India, Ukraine and Vietnam. Retailers entering
this stage have the best chance for long-term success. Retailers at this stage should enter
through local representations, sourcing offices and new stores. Wal-Mart success in china
in the late 1990's and early 2000's gives us the importance of committing to a promising
high-growth market at right time.
Strategy suggested: The strategy of adopting quality and styled products with new models
and shift of advertising from product awareness to product preference Eg the big bazaar
advt says surf exel is cheaper than the market price.The idea behind adopting strategy is
to strengthen against competitors.

In this stage the market is still big and growing, but the space for new entrants will
become tighter and retailers should act quickly at this stage because retailers at this stage
have limited time to explore, and also their margin for error is thin. In general , they
should act according to the established rules and should be open to face the competition
from international retailers. This stage generally lasts longer than the previous two stages.
Strategy suggested: Enter new market segments that is either enter new geographic areas
eg vishal megha mart has opened stores in smaller cities tier II and III cities

The window of opportunity is closing fast and modern retail share is reaching 40 to 60
percent. Though the opportunity is closing the existing retailers can enter with new
formats such as discount models or non-food formats such as consumer electronics and
Window of opportunity ends for about 5 to 10years before a market enters the closing
phase and reaches saturation level. India for example, was in the opening stage in 1995
and entered peaking stage in the year 2003 and reached number 1 rank in2005.
Strategy suggested: Identifying weak segments, maintaining investment level selectively.
Unorganized retailing in India
In India, the most of the retail sector is unorganized. In India, the retail business
contributes around 11 percent of GDP. Of this, the organized retail sector accounts only
for about 3 percent share, and the remaining share is contributed by the unorganized
sector. The main challenge facing the organized sector is the competition from
unorganized sector. Unorganized retailing has been there in India for centuries, theses are
named as mom-pop stores. The main advantage in unorganized retailing is consumer
familiarity that runs from generation to generation. It is a low cost structure, they are
mostly operated by owners, has very low real estate and labor costs and has low taxes to
Organized retailing in India
In late 1990's the retail sector has witnessed a level of transformation. Retailing is being
perceived as a beginner and as an attractive commercial business for organized business
i.e. the pure retailer is starting to emerge now. Organized retail business in India is very
small but has tremendous scope. The total in 2005 stood at $225 billion, accounting for
about 11% of GDP. In this total market, the organized retail accounts for only $8 billion
of total revenue. According to A T Kearney, the organized retailing is expected to be
more than $23 billion revenue by 2010.
In organized retailing will grow faster than unorganized sector and the growth speed will
be responsible for its high market share, which is expected to be $ 17 billion by 2010-11.
Retailing will show good prospects in cities like Mumbai, Delhi, Chennai, kolkata,
Banglore and Kanpur. After Dubai, Singapore and Hong Kong, In India Delhi will be the
next big retail destination, According to Confederation of Indian Industries whose
findings have shown that Delhi has the good resources and good conditions for the retail
sector. Out of the total earnings of the Government of Delhi Rs 11,000 crore, Rs 6,500
crore is achieved from the retail sector.
- Share of Organised Retail

1999 2002 2005

Total Retail (in billion INR) 7000 8250 10000
Organized Retail (in billion INR) 50 150 350
% Share of Organized Retail 0.70% 1.80% 3.5%

The organized sector is expected to grow faster than GDP growth in next few years
driven by favorable demographic patterns, changing lifestyles, and strong income growth.
This organized retail sector mix includes supermarkets, hypermarkets discounted stores
and specialty stores, departmental stores. For example, Spencer network has 69 stores,
which includes seven Spencer hypermarkets, three Spencer super markets and 49 Spencer
Dailys. Now the company is planning to open 20 stores in 10 cities in six months. The
top 10 retailers account only for 2% of total market, today modern retailing is expected to
enter a boom phase, which has major players and these players might capture 10% of
total market, within next five years. The retail sales in India for future are shown below
(data from 2005-2008 is based on estimates):

* Unorganized market: Rs. 583,000 crores

* Organized market: Rs.5, 000 crores
* 5X growth in organized retailing between 2000-2005
* Over 4,000 new modern Outlets in the last 3 years
* Over 5,000,000 sq. ft. of mall space under development
* The top 3 modern retailers control over 750,000 sq. ft. of retail space
* Over 400,000 shoppers walk through their doors every week

Growth drivers in India for retail sector

• Rising incomes and improvements in infrastructure are enlarging consumer markets and
accelerating the convergence of consumer tastes.
• Liberalization of the Indian economy
• Increase in spending Percapita Income.
• Advent of dual income families also helps in the growth of retail sector.
• Shift in consumer demand to foreign brands like McDonalds, Sony, Panasonic, etc.
• Consumer preference for shopping in new environs
• The Internet revolution is making the Indian consumer more accessible to the growing
influences of domestic and foreign retail chains. Reach of satellite T.V. channels is
helping in creating awareness about global products for local markets.
• About 47% of India's population is under the age of 20; and this will increase to 55% by
2015. This young population, which is technology-savvy, watch more than 50 TV
satellite channels, and display the highest propensity to spend, will immensely contribute
to the growth of the retail sector in the country.
• Availability of quality real estate and mall management practices
• Foreign companies' attraction to India is the billion-plus population.
Employment opportunities in retail sector in India
India's retail industry is the second largest sector, after agriculture, which provides
employment. According to Associated Chambers of Commerce and Industry of India
(ASSOCHAM), the retail sector will create 50,000 jobs in next few years.
Retail companies are starting retail manamgent courses in partnership with management
institutes, roping in talent from other sectors and developing comprehensive career
growth and loyalty plans for existing employees.
Top players like Pantaloon Retail India Limited, Trent, Shopper's Stop, RPG Group and
ebony are virtually on their toes.
Consider the plans of largest player, The Pantaloon Retail India Ltd, the company has
developed a comprehensive strategy, where in it expects that in 2years, it will not recruit
any new managers from outside.
"The estimated need is 1 lakh of employees till 2011", said Mr. Sanjoy Jog, HR Head at
Pantaloon Retail India Ltd. Pantaloon has the concept of partnership with educational
Institute to run retail courses across the entire chain. The company has tied up with 11-B
schools including K J Somaiya , Welinkars, Narsee Monjre and IISWBM. "The students
joins the course and they are given an appointment letter by Pantaloon to become
employees" said Mr. Jog, Pantaloon. Pantaloon is also planning to tie up with
Ahmedabad-based National Institute of Design to start a course in visual merchandising.
"The apex body of Indian organized retailers, Retailers Association of India( RAI) is also
lending help hand to tide over the shortage of employees in organized retail sector.
Trent has also started in-house learning programmes and now goes to under graduate
colleges to recruit students.
Since, the job market is hugely receptive to this with more and more business schools
focusing on the sector and large retailers setting up retail academics.
Challenges of Retailing in India
In India the Retailing industry has a long way to go,and to become a truly flourishing
industry, retailing needs to cross the following hurdles:

* The first challenge facing the organized retail sector is the competition from
unorganized sector.
* In retail sector, Automatic approval is not allowed for foreign investment.
* Taxation, which favors small retail businesses.
* Developed supply chain and integrated IT management is absent in retail sector.
* Lack of trained work force.
* Low skill level for retailing management.
* Intrinsic complexity of retailing- rapid price changes, threat of product obsolescence
and low margins.
* Organized retail sector has to pay huge taxes, which is negligible for small retail
*Cost of business operations is very high in India.

Many agencies have estimated differently about the size of organized retail market in
2010. The one thing that is common amongst these estimates is that Indian organized
retail market will be very big in 2010. The status of the retail industry will depend mostly
on external factors like Government regulations and policies and real estate prices,
besides the activities of retailers and demands of the customers also show impact on retail
As the retail market place changes shape and competition increases, the potential for
improving retail productivity and cutting costs is likely to decrease. Therefore it is
important for retailers to secure a distinctive position in the market place based on values
relationships or experience.
Finally it is important to note that these strategies are not strictly independent of each
other; value is function of not just price quality and service but can also be enhanced by
personalization and offering a memorable experience

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This research is basically done to find out the training needs of the sales people in the
retail industry and how they are being fulfilled. The retail industry in our country is at
boom and getting organized day by day, the demands of customers are not just great
products but also great shopping experience and to make this possible a retail outlet
should have well trained sales people. This study is made to know how well the sales
people of retail industry in INDIA are trained to meet the customer expectations and
global standards.

The retail industry in INDIA has changed its face and approach. Sales people working in
this industry play major role in handling the customers effectively. This study is done to
evaluate the training system used by the retail industry in INDIA and also to understand
training aspects which keeps the sales force of retain industry fit and ready to face any
kind of challenges, particularly due to increasing domestic and international competition.


The word retail is derived from the French word ‘retailer’, meaning ‘to cut a piece off’ or
‘to break bulk’. Retailing involves a direct interface with the customers and the
coordination of business activities from end to end. The retail scenario in India is unique.
Much of it is in the unorganized sector. With over 12 million retail outlets of various
sizes and formats. Almost 96% of these retail outlets are less than 500sq.ft. In the size
and the percapita retail space in India being 2 sq.ft compared to the U.S. figure of 16sq.ft.
India’s percapita retailing space is the lowest in the world. With more than 9 outlets per
1000 people, India has the largest number in the world. Most of them are independent
and contribute as much as 96% to total retail sales. There is an incredible amount of
activity in terms of creation of retail-oriented space across India. As per some estimates,
there are over 200 retail mall projects under construction or under active planning stage
spanning over 25 cities. This may translate into over 25 million sq. f t. of new retail space
in the market within next 24 months.


• Unorganized market: Rs. 583,000 crores

• Organized market: Rs.5, 000 crores

• 5X growth in organized retailing between 2000-2005

• Over 4,000 new modern retail outlets in the last 3 years

• Over 5,000,000 sq. ft. of mall space under development

• The top 3 modern retailers control over 750,000 sq. ft. of retail space

• Over 400,000 shoppers walk through their doors every week

• Growth in organized retail on par with expectations and projections of the last 5 Years
on course to touch Rs. 35,000 crores (US$ 7 Billion) or more by 2005-06


Retail and real estate are the two booming sectors of India in the present times. And if
industry experts are to be believed, the prospects of both the sectors are mutually
dependent on each other. Retail, one of India’s largest industries, has presently emerged
as one of the most dynamic and fast paced industries of our times with several players
entering the market. Accounting for over 10 per cent of the country’s GDP and around
eight per cent of the employment retailing in India is gradually inching its way toward
becoming the next boom industry. As the contemporary retail sector in India is reflected
in sprawling shopping centers, multiplex- malls and huge complexes offer shopping,
entertainment and food all under one roof, the concept of shopping has altered in terms of
format and consumer buying behavior, ushering in a revolution in shopping in India. This
has also contributed to large scale investments in the real estate sector with major
national and global players investing in developing the infrastructure and construction of
the retailing business. The trends that are driving the growth of the retail sector in India
· Low share of organized retailing

· Falling real estate prices

· Increase in disposable income and customer aspiration

· Increase in expenditure for luxury items


The government is now set to initiate a second wave of reforms in the segment by
liberalizing investment norms further. This will not only favor the retail sector develop in
terms of design concept, construction quality and providing modern amenities but will
also help in creating a consumer-friendly environment. Retail industry in India is at the
crossroads but the future of the consumer markets is promising as the market is growing,
government policies are becoming more favorable and emerging technologies are
facilitating operations in India. And this upsurge in the retail industry has made India a
promising destination for retail investors and at the same time has impelled investments
in the real estate sector. As foreign investors cautiously test the Indian Markets for
investments in the retail sector, local companies and joint ventures are expected to be
more advantageously positioned than the purely foreign ones in the evolving India's
organized retailing industry

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Retail industry: Changing scenario

LARGE RETAILERS, BE they domestic players like Reliance Retail or MNCs like Wal-
Mart (of course in conjunction with the Bharti group), it is feared, will spell doom for the
traditional mom-and-pop stores before long. This will lead to job losses since mom-and-
pop stores provide job opportunities to semi-skilled and unskilled people. One of the
small retailers I interviewed went as far as to claim, “it hardly matters whether I am
deprived of my livelihood by Reliance Retail or Wal-Mart or Subhiksha; the fact is I’ll
lose my livelihood”. Is this an overreaction or the truth?

Remarks Shailendra Prasad, a Senior Executive with an IT company in Bangalore whom

I interviewed when he emerged out of a Subhiksha outlet in Milk Colony, Bangalore:
“where else do you get vegetables and grocery under one roof at reasonable prices? The
range of products organised retail offers is something that you do not find in a mom-and-
pop store”. But small retailers create job opportunities for semi-skilled and unskilled
people, don’t they? If small retailers wind up business, what happens to the livelihood of
these people? Prasad begs to differ. “Large retailers create jobs too”, he says. “They
employ semi-skilled and unskilled people too. Job losses, if any, in the unorganised small
retail trade cannot be as high as projected. Many small retailers run sweatshops and either
underpay their employees or do not pay them at all. A job loss there is made good by a
job creation here. The vegetables you get to buy from the traditional mandi are, for
example, inconsistent in terms of quality and price. You walk away with a very good
bargain sometimes and you are practically robbed sometimes. Thank God, I don’t have to
encounter such uncertainty here” he says pointing at Subhiksha.

Suraksha and Shruti, college students, maintain that they are spoilt for choice when they
shop at a large retailer. But things are different with a Kiranawallah. “You ask for a
Kilogram of rice and I bet the Kiranawallah will weigh out only 950 gm although you do
not get to notice it. Additionally, they do not mind dumping stale and adulterated stuff on
you”, they assert. Since everything is available under one roof, bulk purchases can be
made at monthly intervals.

Rajiv and Harpreet, a working couple (both are from the advertising industry) prefer
organised retail for the sheer range of products they can access there. All the same, the
Kiranawallah will continue to be patronised, opines Rajiv. According to him the
Kiranawallah can offer customised services which the large retailers cannot. The
mushrooming of organised retailers need not sound the death knell for small
retailers. There is space for both in a country like India. “One complements the other”,
maintains his wife Harpreet.

What does the beleaguered Kiranawallah say? Ashwath, who has been running a grocery
store hardly 100 feet away from the Subhiksha outlet, asserts that small retailers sell
items like pulse, rice, sugar and edible oil much cheaper. It is only in respect of
established brands which are popular at the national level that large retailers are price-
competitive, thanks to almost total disintermediation. In respect of regional brands or
local brands, the large retailers get the suppliers to mark up the price significantly on
which the large retailer offers a huge discount subsequently. But in net terms, the price
turns out to be the same as the small retailers quote. He feels that by encouraging the
growth of large retail trade, the government is administering ‘slow poison’ to the extant
small retailers. The job losses that will arise when the small retailers wind up business
will be on the high side. The jobs that the so-called organised trade will create will be
abysmally few. Fortunately for large retailers, these days, the affluent younger generation
which puts in 12 hours of work per day does not like to be ‘weighed down’ by ‘shopping
responsibility’. As long as parking lot is available for the car and all household items are
available under one roof on the premises of the large retailer, the younger generation will
not complain. Factors like quality, price, and personalised service take a back seat. “We
fought not long ago to drive foreigners out of our land. Today, we are welcoming them
back so they can usurp our economy. Small retailers empathise with what the customer is
going through because of the personal touch; if the customer cannot settle the monthly
bill owing to a strike in his factory, we bear with him and still keep the credit line open so
he need not starve.

What do present-day economists and institutions do? They persuade him to take a loan or
opt for a credit card and apply usurious rate of interest; they employ ruffians to collect the
money if the customer cannot pay the monthly instalment even for reasons beyond his
control. This is because with the credit card, the customer sometimes buys things he does
not need with money he does not have.”

Scope of the Retail Sector

Retail is clearly the sector that is poised to show the highest growth in the next
five years. The sector is set for a revolution, as both the present players and new
entrants are gearing up to explore the market. This sector contributes 10% of
India's GDP and the current growth rate is 8.5%. The present size of the
organized retailing sector is approximately 3% and is expected to grow to 25-
30% by the year 2010. There are about 300 new malls, 1500 supermarkets and
325 departmental stores currently under construction. Many players are coming
up with huge investments, due to which the present 12 million mom-and-pop
shops and kirana stores fear losing their business. Most predictions say that the
sector might reach to US$ 400-600 billion by the year 2010.
Global retail giants such as Wal-Mart, Tesco, Germany's Metro AG and many others are
ready to enter the retail markets. The rising demand of branded products and increase in
purchasing power have lured these companies to enter the market.

Retail Landscape

Modern retail development in India is focused on the following cities:


 Mumbai
 Pune
 Ahmedabad


 Delhi and the National Capital Region


 Chennai
 Banglore
 Hyderabad


 Kolkata

Leading Indian Retailers

Bata India Ltd, Big Bazaar, Crossword, Ebony Retail Holdings Ltd., Food Bazaar,
Globus Stores Pvt. Ltd., Liberty shoes Ltd., Music World Entertainment Ltd., Pantaloon
Retail India Ltd., Shoppers Stop, Subhiksha, Titan Industries, Trent and the new entrants
penetrating the market soon will include Reliance Retail Ltd, Wal-Mart Stores, Carrefour,
Tesco, Boots Group, etc.

Current Scenario

A glimpse of the International Retail

 One of the world's largest industries exceeding US$ 9 trillion

 47 global fortune companies & 25 of Asia's top 200 companies are retailers
 Dominated by developed countries
 US, EU & Japan constitute 80% of world retail sales.
 Biggest player in India is Pantaloon Retail India Limited.

Percentage of Organized Retail

USA - 85%
Taiwan - 81%
Malaysia - 55%
Thailand - 40%
Brazil - 36%
Indonesia - 30%
Poland - 20%
China - 20%
India - 3%

Key Trends

The existing players like Big Bazaar, Shoppers' Stop, Piramyd are expanding to smaller
towns and cities. Many other business houses are planning to enter the retail sector either
on their own or through partnerships. New entrants like Reliance Retail Ltd and Wal-
Mart are going to enter the market soon. Even rural areas will provide a huge opportunity
to be explored.

Estimates and Predictions

 The industry is estimated to be more than US$ 400 billion by a study of McKinsey.
 The Economist Intelligence Unit (EIU) estimates the retail market in India to increase
to US$608.9 billion in 2009 from US$394 billion in2005.
 A KPMG report says that the organized retail would grow at a higher rate than GDP
in the next five years.
 The retail sector would generate employment for more than 2.5 million people by the
year 2010, says an analysis by Ma Foi Management Consultants Ltd.

Benefits of FDI in Retail Sector

 Higher competition would lead to higher quality in products and services.

 Better lifestyle as better products would be introduced.
 Exports would increase due to greater sourcing of major players.
 Investment in whole supply chain would increase.
 Technology would be upgraded in terms of logistics, production, and distribution
 The markets of the sector would flourish and develop.
 Employment would increase and skills & manpower will develop.
 A strong retailing sector would promote tourism.
 Economies of scale would help lower consumer prices and increase the purchasing
power of the consumer.
 In the long term it will be beneficial in the up-gradation of agriculture and small scale
& medium scale industries.

Indian Consumerism
The Indian consumer behaviour is rapidly changing with a shift in new generation's
preference towards luxury commodities

Retail Space: A Scope for Real Estate Sector

With new boom in the retail industry, the country has identified new scope for real estate
development. The already revolutionizing urbanization and growing demand for finished
products has necessitated development of new space for retail outlets.
Retail Future in India

The Indian retail sector is ready to take on challenges from global retail players such as
Wal-mart and Carrefour because unlike them, they have a better understanding of the
Indian consumer’s psyche. Ultimately, a successful retailer is one who understands his
customer.The Indian customer is looking for an emotional connection, a sense of
belonging. Hence, to be successful any retail outlet has to be localised. The customer
should feel that it is a part of his culture, his perceived values, and does not try to impose
alien values or concepts on him. Indian customer is not keen to buy something just
because it is sold by an international company. Ultimately, it boils down to how much
localisation and adaptation the company is willing to do for India. Other than tremendous
money power, global companies have nothing extra or special that the Indian retail
business does not have.We live in exciting times. Only two percent of India’s retail
market is organised. The future shows tremendous potential for growth in the retail
sector. Almost all large companies worldwide are looking to establish a base or stake in
the Indian market. In this scenario, the Indian retail sector itself must seize the initiative
to realise the dreams of contributing to a prosperous and booming economy. The focus
should be on the Indian horizon before looking for retail opportunities in other countries
because India itself is a big retail market.In the near future India will see a phenomenal
growth of shopping malls and speciality retail stores. The speciality stores will cater for
home, electronics, furniture, watches, sunglasses and assorted items. There will be more
fashion stores for youth. Speciality retail stores and malls are the future of Indian retail

The Indian retail sector is ready to take on challenges from global retail players such as
Wal-mart and Carrefour because unlike them, they have a better understanding of the
Indian consumer’s psyche. Ultimately, a successful retailer is one who understands his
customer.The Indian customer is looking for an emotional connection, a sense of
belonging. Hence, to be successful any retail outlet has to be localised. The customer
should feel that it is a part of his culture, his perceived values, and does not try to impose
alien values or concepts on him. Indian customer is not keen to buy something just
because it is sold by an international company. Ultimately, it boils down to how much
localisation and adaptation the company is willing to do for India. Other than tremendous
money power, global companies have nothing extra or special that the Indian retail
business does not have.We live in exciting times. Only two percent of India’s retail
market is organised. The future shows tremendous potential for growth in the retail
sector. Almost all large companies worldwide are looking to establish a base or stake in
the Indian market. In this scenario, the Indian retail sector itself must seize the initiative
to realise the dreams of contributing to a prosperous and booming economy. The focus
should be on the Indian horizon before looking for retail opportunities in other countries
because India itself is a big retail market.In the near future India will see a phenomenal
growth of shopping malls and speciality retail stores. The speciality stores will cater for
home, electronics, furniture, watches, sunglasses and assorted items. There will be more
fashion stores for youth. Speciality retail stores and malls are the future of Indian retail