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Available in abundance
Very high lumen
Good for colour recognition
Good for comfort
Even availability throughout the day if obtained from north or top lighting
Glare free when obtained from north,
Other directions give glare at one time and inadequate light at other times
This source of light is Energy efficient.
This source of light is Cost free, i.e. it has o recurring costs.
Daylight factors depend on
1) Sky conditions
2) Size, shape and position of window:
3) The effect of obstructions
4) Reflection of light from other sources
a) Sky component: As available from hemisphere excluding direct sunlight on a horizontal
surface is compared with the given surface.
b) External reflected component: Is the reflection from an external surface in comparison
with the unobstructed hemisphere.
c) Internal reflected component is the light received from reflection from internal surfaces as
compared with the unobstructed hemisphere.
d) Reflection of light from external and internal surfaces: Direct reflection from external
component, or internal component excluding direct sunlight should be considered as source
of natural lighting.
D aylight factors also depend on climatic conditions. Hot dry conditions generally require
less amount of window area (1/8 of floor area). Hot humid conditions require more opening.
(Generally 1/6 of floor area) The areas in between shall have openings equal to 1/7 of floor
Artificial light
Availability all the time in required quantity
Adequate lumen possible
Colour rendering adjustable
Comfort is adjustable
Energy cost is high
Types of lighting systems
General lighting system
General lighting system is one in which nearly the same amount of light is thrown out by the
lamp in all the direction and hence gives very simple plane light. In this type of lighting the
amount of light is even over all the areas and adequate shadows for visual quality get cast
Direct light
Direct light is one in which 90% of the light from the light source goes in the direction of
object. This gives a very high intensity of light and strong shades and shadows. This is
good for dramatic highlighting of objects
Indirect light
In this type of lighting, 90% of the light reaches the object after travelling in opposite
direction. It hits a vertical or horizontal surface in the opposite direction before reaching the
desired area. This gives nearly shadow-less, soft, even light. It is generally free from glare.
Defused light
In this case the light gets shattered in all the directions. In this case the light available does
not cast sharp shadows.
Types of fittings
Down-lighters are fittings for designing direct light downward. These can be arranged in
array to give even illumination to horizontal surface below like floors counters stage etc.
Wall mounted down-lighters can be used to illuminate corners and sideboards.
Down lighters consist of a lamp and a reflector. These are many a times recessed or are
decorative fittings.
Semi recessed directional down-lighters are useful for throwing light at an angle.
Wall washers: These are fittings that are ceiling mounted and throw even light across the
vertical surface. These place emphasis on vertical surface. Wall washers are useful to
enhance the display on wall or can bright walls can act as reflector for indirect lighting.
Up-lighters: Gives direct light upward. This is useful for indirect lighting. Up-lighters can be
wall mounted or mounted over stands and can be placed at intervals. Up-lighters can also
be placed on floors for dramatic lighting of corners, wall surfaces behind furniture or plants.
Task Lighting Designed for particular task and location. These are like reading sewing etc.
Accent lighting: These give local instead of general light. These are for highlighting small
individual features indoors or outdoors such as picture or statue.
Illumination required in various areas for different activities.
Activity area
 Residential
1 Living room, and general illumination 150
For reading writing etc 500-1000
2 Kitchen, bedroom, Bathroom, Stairs etc. General 150
Mirror etc 250-500
 Schools
1 Nursery 150
2 Other schools, classrooms, workshops 250-500
3 Drawing classrooms 500-1000
 Hospitals
1 General 150
2 Working area- first aid etc 500-1000
3 Operating Theatre general 500-1000
4 Operation Table 20000-40000
 Offices
1 Conference room 250-500
2 Typing pool 500-1000
3 Clerical jobs 250-500
4 Drawing office – mapping room 2000 +
5 Engineering, Architecture 1000-2000
6 Drawing, Sketching 500-1000
 Shops
1. Shop interiors general lighting 500-1000
2. Show windows and display 1000-2000
 Hotels and restaurant
1. General, Bathrooms, stairs, conference rooms etc. 150
2. Lounge, Restaurant, Bar 150
3. Bedroom general 150
4. Writing desk, work stations etc 50-500
 Factories
1. Rough machining and fitter 250-500
2. Precision Machining, rough grinding 500-1000
3. High precision machining, grinding, polishing etc 1000-
 Storage places:
1. Loading unloading 20-
2. General storage 50-
3. Factory storage area for small items
4. Factor storage for very small items
Calculation of illumination in a layout
The intensity of light varies on two factors
1Distance of fitting over the floor level
2 Intensity of fitting used
The intensity of light can be judged in advance over any floor if the intensity and distance of
fitting is known

Description Fitting Area in square feet for ceiling height

8’ 10’ 12’ 14’ 16’
40 100 90 80 70 55
2x40 180 165 145 125 105
80 -- -- -- 145 125
2x80 --- -- -- 280 235
This shows how light intensity varies with distance and the same lamp if taken high will
cover less area of 100lux illumination. It also shows that just increasing the intensity of light
at one point does not increase the area of illumination. Instead the fittings may be placed a
various levels. This data varies for various buildings because of reflections obtained from
floor, walls and ceiling.
Illumination in shops and show windows
Lighting should be divided into three areas, display, working and circulation.
A) Display: The display should be illuminated as per the needs. Lights should be
focused on the display in such a way as not to throw glare on the face of the observer. The
light over showcases should be so arranged as to illuminate the goods but not to throw
reflection from the show window / showcase glass pane.
B) The lights on the counter and working areas should be bright in order to see details
of goods. Lights should be so arranged as not to put glare in the eyes of the customer.
C) In addition to focused light there should be general lighting in the shop circulation
area. This can be comfortably low so as only to see the circulation.
Illumination of exhibition areas
Illumination should be divided into Display and general area.
A) The display should be illuminated at an angle of about 45 O . The lighting should give a
clear focused wash of light over vertical display surfaces. Care should be taken as not to
cast to a shadow of the observer on the display surface.
B} The display on horizontal surfaces should be focused.
C) The display of three D should be such as to cast adequate shadows to enhance the form
D) The display of miniature should be done with as the observer comes very close to the
E) General illumination should be provided.
F) The angles and position of the fittings should be adjustable to suit the various layouts of
display. Generally fitting is done over battens to give the necessary flexibility of layout.
Illumination of Auditorium
Auditorium stage has focus lights, foot lights, general wash lights, front of the house lights
The lighting in the auditorium must be placed in such away as not to cast shadow of nose.
This is done by having an angle of incidence of 45 O . The lights ate fitted over battens for
General lighting in auditorium hall is done in ceiling. The gangways in the auditorium may
be illuminated with help of lights fitted in the sides of the seats. This helps in the movement
of people in during the show.
Lighting in the foyers, toilets and general areas shall be of general type.
Lighting in industrial building
The industrial buildings need very specific lighting
Lighting in the working areas must be such that the intensity is adequate for the type of
work. The work can be divided into various categories like manual or unskilled work,
precision jobs where the use of sight is important and very high precision jobs like jewellery
work etc. Work benches for jewellery manufacture or watch-repair jobs will have high
intensity of light for specific area over the bench.
Depending on the type of jobs to be performed, the amount of illumination is provided.
Work done in more precise quality will need more illumination.
The storage areas and circulation areas need very less amount of light.
The quality of light should be uniform, should not cast very strong shadows and should be
glare free.
Lighting in office areas.
The general intensity of lights in the office areas is such as to suit the working as well as
general illumination. Lighting may be done on higher intensity level for drafting areas. The
working tables should preferably get lights from the left side so as not to cast shadows. The
lighting should preferably be shadow-less.
Specific lighting may be done in waiting areas and cabins.
Lighting in working areas with computers.
Lighting in working areas with computers should be such that there is no reflection of light
fittings or the light-wash or accent into the screen. The illumination should be general and
comforting to the eye as against the brightness of screen. It should not create a
discomforting contrast between the screen and the area behind