Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 46

1A Double lives

Active vocabulary

Text p.6
Imaginary – вымышленный
To imagine – воображать, представлять себе
Imagination – воображение, фантазия

To lie – лгать, обманывать


To lie in one's throat – бесстыдно лгать
Liar – лжец
Lie – ложь
A white lie – невинная ложь, ложь во спасение
To tell a lie – говорить неправду, врать, обманывать

Sincere – искренний, чистосердечный


≠ Insincere – лицемерный, неискренний, притворный
Sincerity – искренность, откровенность

Telltale – предательский, выдающий что-либо


Telltale – ябедник, доносчик; болтун

Tension – напряжение, напряженность; натянутость


To ease/ to reduce tension – ослабить напряжение
To cause/ to create tension – создать напряженную ситуацию
Tense – напряженный, натянутый

Word combinations
To get away with sth – легко отделаться, остаться безнаказанным; сойти с рук
To give away – выдавать секрет, проговориться; разоблачать (кого-либо)
To specialize in sth – специализироваться на чем-либо

Ex.2 p.8
Political – политический
Politician – политик
Politics – политика, политическая деятельность
Policy – политика, линия поведения

Listening ex.4 p.8


Approach – подход; приближение
To approach – подходить, приближаться; граничить

Arrogant – заносчивый, высокомерный, надменный


Arrogance – заносчивость, высокомерие, надменность
ex.: He had the arrogance to ask for more money. — И у него хватило наглости просить еще
денег.

Expense – затрата, расход


At the expense of sth/ sb – ценой чего-то, за счет чего-то/ кого-то
To reduce expenses – сократить расходы
To cover expenses – покрыть расходы
Living expenses – расходы на жизнь
To pretend – притворяться, делать вид, симулировать
Pretender – притворщик, лицемер
Pretenсe – притворство, обман

Word combinations
To cope with sth – справиться, выдержать

Ex.5 p.8
Eye-opener – шокирующей разоблачение, откровение
ex.: Her confession was a real eye-opener – Ее признание было для нас настоящим
откровением.

Ex.2 p.9
Challenge – трудная, но интересная задача; вызов
To accept / meet / respond to / take up a challenge – принять вызов
To challenge – ставить под сомнение; бросать вызов
Challenging - требующий напряжения (сил); испытывающий (способности, стойкость)
Vocabulary exercises

Ex.1 Read the following definitions and match them with active words and expressions.
1. The feeling of being so nervous or worried that you cannot relax
2. Something that needs a lot of skill, energy and determination to deal with or achieve,
especially something you have never done before and will enjoy doing
3. To deal successfully with difficult situation or job
4. An amount of money you spend in order to buy or do something
5. A set of plans or actions agreed on by government, political party, business, or other group
6. The ideas and activities involved in getting power in a country or over a particular area of
the world
7. Something that you say or write that is not true and that you know is not true
8. To behave in a particular way because you want someone to believe that something is true
when it is not
9. To show an emotion or quality that you are trying to hide

a. lie
b. politics
c. tension
d. to cope
e. to give away
f. expense
g. challenge
h. to pretend
i. policy

Ex.2 Replace the words in italics using your active vocabulary.


1. It was a very difficult but interesting task for him.
2. If you go mountain climbing this summer having no proper training, you can do it only at
the cost of your health.
3. It is not our practice to disclose the names of the patients of our hospital.
4. People often stick to their own fantasy.
5. Don’t believe him! He is a real sham!
6. He is honest about this matter with us.
7. A lot of Portuguese restaurants cook seafood.
8. There are very few people who can work properly under stress.
9. Tom is a very difficult person to deal with. He always treats others with haughtiness.
10. Don’t believe him! He never tells the truth!
11. You may use the word “slanderer” to speak about someone who tells tales about other
people.
12. The country was not as he had pictured it.
13. Watch Frank – hell cheat if he thinks that he won’t be punished.
14. She has always been a very hypocritical person.

Ex.3 Fill in the gaps with active words and expressions.


Imaginary, tension, eye-opener, to cope with, a white lie, to challenge, sincere, pretence, expenses,
to give away, to specialize in, to pretend, political (2), to lie in one’s throat, to get away with,
arrogance, approach

1. We are running out of money! We must cut down on our _____________.


2. An only child often creates an ____________ friend to play with.
3. He says that he didn’t tell anybody about your marriage. But don’t believe him! He
_____________________.
4. He had the ____________________ to ask for more money! Can you imagine it?!
5. The girls _______________ the boys to a cricket match.
6. After he had worked as a doctor for some years, he decided to _____________ children's
diseases.
7. I tried to ease ___________ with a joke but it only made matters worse.
8. I can't ___________ such a pile of work this weekend.
9. She didn’t want Mark to be punished and told his parents a little _______________ in order
to save him from their rage.
10. I think this time she ___________________ a fine. But if she does it again the punishment
will be much more serious.
11. She said she was really pleased to see us, but I could tell it was just ____________.
12. We always thought that she was a very strict woman. That is why her confession was a real
___________.
13. I like her __________ to the problem.
14. Don't __________ the ending of the story, it'll spoil it.
15. The Chinese civilization differs from ours in the economic and ___________ organization
of the country.
16. I want to express my ___________ apologies for what I said.
17. The U.S. has two main _______________ parties.
18. He is not asleep – he is just ______________.

Ex.4 Translate the following sentences using your active vocabulary.


1. Марк создает впечатление искреннего человека, но на самом деле он просто лицемер.
2. Только представь! У этой скверной женщины хватает наглости бесстыдно лгать своей
семье!
3. Когда кто-то критикует ее поведение, она закрывает лицо руками и притворяется, что
плачет.
4. Я не могу справиться с тремя делами одновременно.
5. Если он тебе не нравится, не будь неискренней, скажи ему правду.
6. Мне не нравится политика нашего начальника, которая касается сокращения расходов
на оборудование.
7. Я прекрасно знаю, как понять, что человек притворяется.
8. – Чем ближе конец матча, тем сильнее становится напряжение болельщиков на
стадионе! Они с нетерпением ждут итога игры!
9. Анна подходит к окну, выглядывает на улицу и видит Марка.
10. Часто молодым людям не сразу удается найти хорошую работу, поэтому им
приходится сокращать свои расходы.
11. Эта компания специализируется на производстве двигателей для автомобилей.
12. Он только что проболтался о наших планах!
13. Мери всегда делает вид, что ведет очень активный образ жизни. Но многие знают, что
она их обманывает.
14. Некоторые люди недолюбливают уличных торговцев, потому что считают их
обманщиками.
15. Советую тебе держаться подальше от Джека. Он большой ябедник.
16. Джулия уже час пытается ослабить напряжение, которое возникло с приходом Мери.
17. В газетных статьях мы часто читаем о том, что один человек спасает другого ценой
своей жизни.
18. Она снова опоздала на работу! На это раз ей это с рук не сойдет!
19. Рассказ о его прошлом - настоящее откровение для меня.
20. Затраты на жизнь снова выросли. Я не знаю, как нам удается справляться с
денежными проблемами.
1B Britishness
Active vocabulary

Ex.1 p.10
To consider – полагать, считать; обдумывать; рассматривать, обсуждать
Considerable – значительный, важный, существенный; большой
Consideration – размышление, обсуждение, рассмотрение, разбор
To take into consideration – принимать во внимание

Text p.10
Decent – подходящий; приличный, благопристойный
Decency – благопристойность, приличие; вежливость
To observe the decencies – соблюдать приличия, правила хорошего тона

To define – определять (напр. значение слова), давать определение (какому-либо понятию)


Definition – определение, формулирование, дефиниция
To give definition to sth – дать определение

Irrelevant – неуместный, неподходящий, не относящийся к делу


≠ Relevant – релевантный, значимый, существенный, важный

Pride - гордость
To take pride in sth – гордиться чем-либо
To pride oneself on – хвастаться
Proud - гордый
To be proud of sth – гордиться чем-либо
To be (too) proud to do sth – быть (слишком) гордым, чтобы что-либо сделать

To replace smth by/ with sth else – заменять, замещать

Ex.2 p.11
Word combinations
To stand for – означать, обозначать
Vocabulary exercises

Ex.5 Read the following definitions and match them with active words and expressions.
1. A statement of what a word or expression means.
2. To get rid of someone or something and put a new person or thing in their place.
3. Careful thought before making a decision or judgment about something.
4. A feeling of pleasure and satisfaction that you get when you, or someone connected with
you, have achieved something special; a feeling of respect for yourself; a feeling that you
are better or more important than other people.
5. Behaviour that is moral, good, or reasonable.
6. Large in size, amount, or degree.
7. To describe clearly and exactly what something is; to explain the meaning of a word.
8. Not important or not relating to what you are discussing or doing.

a. consideration
b. considerable
c. definition
d. to define
e. decency
f. irrelevant
g. pride
h. to replace

Ex.6 Replace the words in italics using your active vocabulary.


1. I can’t answer right now. I need to think over all points.
2. Can you give me a clear explanation of this notion?
3. What does this abbreviation mean?
4. The keeping of the proprieties is as indispensable as clean linen.
5. The duties of the post are difficult to describe.
6. To tell the truth your information is not important.
7. Kevin is very pleased with his ability to deal with different people without any problems.
8. Remember that your behaviour must be appropriate, otherwise your reputation will be
seriously damaged.
9. Beckham limped off with an injured ankle and was substituted by Fowler.
10. I’m glad to be British.

Ex.7 Fill in the gaps with active words and expressions.


Decent, decency, proud, to take pride in, to pride oneself on, to replace, irrelevant, pride, to
consider, consideration, considerable, to define, definition, to stand for

1. The letters ERM _______________Exchange-Rate Mechanism.


2. All the craftsmen _____ great ___________ in their work.
3. After such rudeness, the chairman should do the ________________ thing and apologize
publicly.
4. The original date of the translation is _______________ to its value as a historical source.
5. The candidate’s experience must be taken into __________________.
6. The computers are out-of-date and require to be __________________.
7. Manual work is broadly _______________ as work that you do with your hands.
8. We __________________on the quality and thoroughness of our work.
9. He spent a _____________ amount of time looking for all necessary things.
10. You could see the ______________ in their faces when they talked about their daughter’s
acting career.
11. If he had to smoke in her flat, he could at least have the ________________ to empty the
ashtray.
12. I’m ______________ to say that we made the right decision.
13. We’ll have to ________________ all the furniture that was damaged in the flood.
14. The _______________ of ‘family’ has changed over the years.
15. He _________________ whether to accept another job offer.

Ex.8 Translate the following sentences using your active vocabulary.


1. Каждый человек гордится тем, что он гражданин своей страны.
2. Дайте, пожалуйста, определение слову «воображение».
3. Когда вы принимаете важное решение, тщательно рассмотрите все его
положительные и отрицательные стороны.
4. – Что обозначает аббревиатура МГУ? – МГУ значит «Московский государственный
университет».
5. – Такие молодые девушки, как Вы, Скарлетт, всегда и везде соблюдают правила
хорошего тона!
6. Вся та информация, которую вы только что предоставили, к делу не относится.
7. Родители Джейн очень гордятся успехами своей дочери в научной деятельности.
8. У нас снова сломался компьютер! Мы давно хотим заменить все оборудование в
офисе на новое, но у компании сейчас нет денег.
9. Мы уже скопили большую сумму денег на ремонт в квартире.
10. –Есть ли в этом городе какой-нибудь приличный рыбный ресторан? – По-моему, в
центре есть один.
11. Что такое счастье? Многие уже пытались дать этому слову определение, и каждый
понимает счастье по-своему.
12. – Вы знаете семью Морстонов? – Да, это очень приличная семья.
13. У тебя совсем нет чувства приличия! Подумай, что ты говоришь!
14. Чтобы защитить окружающую среду, многие страны в настоящее время заменяют
традиционные источников энергии на альтернативные.
15. Мы всегда принимаем во внимание все детали, чтобы успешно решить любую
проблему.
16. Мэри может похвастаться своим умением сохранять спокойствие, когда внезапно
возникают трудности.
17. Я убежден, что твои сведения к делу относятся.
18. Джейн Остин является автором замечательных романов, таких как «Гордость и
предубеждение» и многих других.
19. Никто не может дать определение слову «любовь».
20. Она знает, что проиграла, но она слишком горда, чтобы признать это.
1C First impressions

Active vocabulary

Ex.1 p.12
To impress – производить впечатление
To impress sb with sth
To be impressed
Impression – впечатление
To gain an impression – получать впечатление
To make a good/ bad impression on sb – произвести хорошее/ плохое впечатление на кого-либо

Listening ex.1,2 p.12


Judge – судья, эксперт
To judge – оценивать, судить; считать, полагать
To judge by appearances – судить по внешнему виду
Judging by/ from sth – судя по

Scary – страшный, жуткий, ужасный


To scare – пугать, испугать
To be scared to death – испугаться до смерти

Word combinations
To have a soft spot for smb – питать к кому-либо нежные чувства, испытывать симпатию
To stick to sth – держаться, придерживаться; быть верным чему-то
To stick to one’s word – держать слово, сдерживать обещание
Vocabulary exercises.

Ex.9 Read the following definitions and match them with active words and expressions.
1. To think someone is nice, to like someone
2. To make someone feel admiration and respect.
3. Frightening.
4. The opinion or feeling you have about someone or something because of the way they seem.
5. The official in control of a court who decides how criminals should be punished.
6. To do or keep doing what you said you would do or what you believe in, even if it is
difficult.
7. To form or give an opinion about someone or something after thinking carefully about all
the information you know about them.
8. To make someone feel frightened.

a. to impress
b. impression
c. judge
d. to judge
e. to scare
f. scary
g. to stick to
h. to have a soft spot for sb

Ex.10 Fill in the gaps with active words and expressions.


To impress, impression (2), impressed (2), judge (2), to judge (2), judging from, to judge by
appearances, scared to death (2), scary, to stick (2), to stick to one’s word, a soft spot (2)

1. When writing an article, _____________ to one style throughout.


2. That was a really ______________ film. I couldn’t help shaking with terror.
3. I made a bad _______________ by arriving late for the interview.
4. He is too quick to _________________ other people by their looks.
5. I can't say I spare much sympathy for his crab-apple Sally, but Phyl has _____________for
her.
6. He was one of the ________________ at a flower-show.
7. Don’t ask him to do something for you! He always promises to help but he never
__________________________.
8. She was very ________________ by one of the male dancers.
9. The age of a good wine can be _______________ from its colour, smell, and taste.
10. When I saw a giant spider I was ________________________!!! It was so awful!!!
11. I beg you not to tell horror stories to Mark! After hearing them he has nightmares and cries
a lot! He is really easily ______________________.
12. A ______________ is a public official with authority to hear cases in a court of law and
pronounce judgment upon them.
13. I’ve always had __________________ for my math’s teacher.
14. The headline gave a false __________________of what the article was about.
15. When meeting people for the first time never ________________________________.Your
first impression can be deceptive.
16. If everyone ____________ to the rules, we shouldn’t have any problems.
17. Her carvings attracted many admirers but her paintings failed to _____________.
18. __________________what you say in the letter, you don’t sound well.
19. What are you doing in there? I was _________________________! I thought a thief had
broken in!

Ex.11 Translate the following sentences using your active vocabulary.


1. Чтобы получить работу, тебе нужно произвести хорошее впечатление на начальника.
2. Никогда не судите о человеке по его внешности. Внешность обманчива.
3. – Зачем ты так кричишь? Ты напугал моего котенка!
4. – Ты только взгляни на Питера! Он глаз не отводит от Марии. Я думаю, что он к ней
неравнодушен.
5. – Я только что вернулась из кинотеатра. Фильм очень впечатлил меня!
6. В нашем деле мы придерживаемся строгих правил.
7. – Что это было? – Я разбил вазу. – Господи, ты меня до смерти напугал!
8. Она поражает меня своим пониманием предмета.
9. Судя по тому, что ты говоришь, у Питера снова большие неприятности.
10. Он всегда держит свое слово и никогда не судит о людях по их внешности.
11. Она сейчас работает судьей на выставке кошек.
12. Он до смерти напугал меня своей шуткой про пожар!
13. Мой брат всегда питал нежные чувства к своей коллеге Анне.
14. Все знают, что он никогда не держит свое слово.
15. – Что ты делаешь? – Я ищу свое новое платье. Я хочу произвести хорошее
впечатление на родителей моего жениха.

Describing appearance

Ex.12 Complete the conversation between two friends, Julie (J) and Anita (A) with words or
phrases from the box.

eyes big what do they look like shaved healthy, tanned average
dark brown hair what’s his hair like pointed

J: We've got three new men in the office.


A: Anybody nice?
J: You mean, (1)___________?
A: OK. I admit it. I'm superficial. So?
J: Well ... Neil's (2)__________build, he's got a pale complexion and he's nearly bald. He's got
small brown (3)___________and ... err, a ... a ... prominent nose.
A: You mean a 'big' nose? OK, so you aren't interested in him. And the other two?
J: Well, Jamie ... Jamie's really sporty ...
A: But you aren't interested in sports, Julie.
J: ... really sporty and he's got a muscular build, a (4)___________head and a (5)___________
complexion.
A: And a 'prominent' nose?
J: Er, no, a straight nose. And blue eyes. Yeah, (6)___________blue eyes.
A: I can see you like him. And the next contestant?
J: OK, that's George. He's slim, tanned ... he's got a round face, these big, dark brown eyes ....
A: And (7)___________? Wavy? Straight?
J: He's got thick, (8)___________. Oh, and a lovely, (9)_________ nose.
A: You like noses, don't you?

Ex.13 Underline the word that does not go with the noun. Can you think of any other words
that can be used with these nouns?

1. complexion pale shaved tanned fair


2. build wide muscular average slim
3. height short small muscular tall
4. skin tanned plump dark pale
5. face wavy freckled wrinkled oval
6. eyes dark blond narrow almond-shaped
7. eyebrows thick bushy square thin
8. hair wavy prominent shiny curly
9. nose slim pointed prominent upturned
10. chin hooked double pointed round
11. lips thin full long thick

Ex.14 Listen to the radio announcement and fill in the table below. Using the notes, describe
each suspect; then, write each suspect’s description.

Suspect 1 Suspect 2

Height short tall

Build quite muscular skinny

Age …..… …..…….

Complexion tanned …….. ………

Face ………….. square

Hair thick,…..., grey short,……..

Eyes ….… slanting

Nose crooked ………..

Lips thin …………

Special features walks with a limp ….……..…


Ex.15 Describe the people in the pictures.
Ex.16 Choose the correct phrase to complete the sentences.
1. Does she look as if / like her mother?
2. They look as if / like boyfriend and girlfriend.
3. My mother looks like / looks very tired. I think she works too much.
4. Are you OK? You look as if / look you have just seen a ghost.
5. He looks like / looks that film star, Orlando Bloom.
6. She looks like / looks French. I think it's because of her clothes.

Ex.17 Translate the sentences into English.


1. Она высокая стройная девушка 25-30 лет. У нее длинные вьющиеся светлые волосы.
Ее глаза – голубые.
2. Это высокий хорошо сложенный молодой человек 20-25 лет, с овальным лицом. У
него темные короткие волосы и прямой нос.
3. Это невысокая стройная женщина средних лет. У нее круглое лицо, короткие прямые
рыжие волосы, тонкие брови, карие глаза.
4. У моей сестры маленькое заостренное лицо, густые светлые волнистые волосы.
5. – Я хочу познакомиться с твоей сестрой. Как она выглядит? – Она стройная
симпатичная девушка. У нее блестящие светлые волосы, слегка заостренный носик и
яркие голубые глаза.
Prepositional phrases.

Ex.18 a) Study the list of prepositional phrases and translate them into Russian.

To be interested in sth
To lie about sth
The truth about sb/ sth
To look at sb
No doubt about sth
At the moment
To arrive at
To arrive in
Similar to sth
Career in politics
To think of sb
To think about/of sb/sth
To care about sth
To spend money on sth
To waste money on sth
To happen to sb
Sb’s opinion of sb
To explain to sb
To listen to sb
Typical of sb

b) Consult your dictionary and find the difference in meaning:


To arrive at – to arrive in
To think of sb – to think about sb

Ex.19 Fill in the gaps using the correct prepositions.


1. My sister is interested _______ history.
2. He has made a career _______ journalism.
3. What time does the plane arrive ________New York?
4. The train has just arrived ______ the station.
5. What on earth has happened ______ you?!!
6. My sister always lies _____ her grades.
7. The truth _____her past was a real eye-opener.
8. Don’t look _____ me that way!
9. She has failed at the exam! There’s no doubt _______it!
10. Do you happen to know what they are doing _____the moment?
11. Their story is very similar _____ mine!
12. When I think _____Britain, I think _____ the royal family, cricket and wet weather.
13. I think ____ myself as a Scot, but I’ve lived in England for 25 years.
14. She lay awake thinking _______ the money.
15. The only thing he seems to care is money.
16. You should learn what to spend money ______.
17. Don’t waste so much money _____ things you don’t need!
18. To tell the truth, my opinion _____ him has changed dramatically.
19. The rules were explained _____ the students at the lesson.
20. It’s typical ___him to waste money ____ PC games.
21. I always try to explain everything ____ her, but she refuses to listen ____ me!

Ex.20 Translate the sentences form Russian into English using prepositional phrases.
1. Прекрати тратить деньги на компьютерные игры!
2. Его политическая карьера заслуживает внимания.
3. Поезд прибывает на станцию.
4. Они только что приехали в Париж.
5. Она всегда растрачивает деньги на пустяки!
6. Мое мнение об этом человеке не изменилось.
7. Я уже три дня пытаюсь объяснить ему правила грамматики.
8. Студенты внимательно слушают лекции преподавателей.
9. Я думаю о нашей поездке на море.
10. Я всегда думал о нем как о порядочном человеке, а он лжец.
11. Единственное, что его волнует, это его новая машина.
12. Ты только представь, что со мной случилось!
13. Он всегда говорит неправду о своих проблемах.
14. Мы наконец-то узнали правду о его достижениях.
15. В настоящий момент мы пытаемся найти решение проблемы.
16. Эта книга очень похожа на твою.
17. Меня всегда интересовали мистические истории.
18. Нет сомнения в том, что они выиграют матч.
19. Он внимательно посмотрел на фотографию.
20. Это так похоже на тебя – забыть дома сумку с документами!
Phrasal verbs and idioms.

Family relationships
Lead-in
Work in pairs. Discuss the following questions.
- In what ways are you similar to or different from other people in your family?
- Do you think parents should be strict or easy-going?

Ex.21 Read and/or listen to the following three interviews and answer the questions.
1. What kind of relationship do the children have with their parents?
2. Are the parents strict?
3. According to the mother, what is it like being a parent and what is a good parent?

Interview with 16-year-old daughter Helen


Inteviewer: How do you get on with your parents?
Helen: I think I get on with them very well, really. We don't always see eye to eye on some
things, like boyfriends - they don't always approve of them - but on the whole they're
very understanding. If I had a personal problem, I think I could confide in them, and
if I was ever in trouble I know I could rely on them to help me.
Interviewer: How strict are your parents?
Helen: Well, my Dad's quite strict about staying out late at night, but I can usually get round
him. If I'm nice to him, he lets me come home a bit later. My Mum's always telling
me to tidy up my bedroom and put things away after I use them, and I have to do
some of the housework. But if I compare them with other parents I know, they aren't
very strict.
Interviewer: And who are you most like in your family?
Helen: Oh, I think I take after my mother. Everybody says we're both very independent and
strong-willed. I like to have my own way a lot of the time, but I'm not spoilt. I don't
always get my own way. And my parents always tell me off if I do anything wrong.

Interview with 17-year-old son David


Interviewer: How do you get on with your parents?
David: I look up to them because I know they've worked hard to
bring us up properly.
Interviewer: How strict are your parents?
David: They can be very strict at times. I told my Dad I wanted a motorbike, but he said it
was out of the question - it was too dangerous. My mother is strict about keeping
things tidy. I can't get out of doing the washing up and things like that, unless I'm
very busy.
Interviewer: How do you get on with your sister?
David: I never agree with what she says, so we are always arguing. We've never been very
close, but I get on all right with her. I think I'm much closer to my mother.

Interview with mother


Interviewer: What's it like being a parent?
Mother: Bringing up children is very difficult. You always worry about them. You have to be
very patient and put up with a lot - like noise and even criticism. And you can't
always get through to them – sometimes they just won't listen. But the advantages of
being a parent outweigh the disadvantages. The main thing is to enjoy your children
while they are young because they grow up so quickly nowadays.
Interviewer: How strict are you with your children?
Mother: I suppose I'm reasonably strict. They can't do what they like and get away with it,
and I tell them off when they do something wrong.
Interviewer: And what is the secret of being a good parent?
Mother: I think you have to give them confidence and let them know you love them. And you
have to set a good example through your own behaviour, otherwise they won't look
up to you.
Interviewer: And what do you want for your children in the future?
Mother: I want them to be happy, and I want them to look back on their childhood as a very
happy time in their lives.

Ex.22 Read the interviews from ex.1 again. Underline all multi-word verbs and try to work
out their meaning from the context. The match the verbs in A with the definitions in B.

A B
1 to get round someone a. to respect and admire someone, to have a
very good opinion of someone
2 to take after someone b. to escape being punished for something
3 to tell someone off (for doing something) c. to think about something that happened in
the past
4 to look up to someone d. to reprimand, to speak severely to someone
because they have done something wrong

5 to bring someone up e. to persuade someone to let you do or have


something, usually by flattering them
6 to get out of doing something f. to raise a child, to look after a child until it is
adult and try to give it particular beliefs and
attitudes
7 to get through to someone g. to resemble a member of your family in
appearance or character
8 to grow up h. to avoid having to do something
9 to get away with something i. to succeed in making someone understand the
meaning of what one is saying
10 to look back (on something) j. to become more adult and mature

Ex.23 Listen and respond to the prompts.

Ex.24 Fill in the gaps below.


a) to disapprove____ someone/something
b) to confide_____ someone
c) to rely_____ someone
d) to compare someone/something _____someone/something
e) to (dis)agree _____ someone/something
f) to argue______ someone _____ something
g) to worry ____someone/something
h) to listen_____ someone/something
Idiomatic expressions
Ex.25 What do you think the following expressions mean?
1 to see eye to eye (with someone) (on something)
2 to have/get one's own way
3 to be close to someone
4 to be the black sheep of the family
5 to take someone's side

Now decide which expressions you could use in the sentences below.
a. The problem is that her parents never stop her doing anything that she wants to do. She's become
a very spoilt child as a result.
b. My family is very ashamed of my brother and never talk about him. He was expelled from school
and has been in prison twice.
c. Whenever I had an argument with my mother or father. I could always rely on my grandparents
to support me.
d. My father and I usually agree about most things, but when it comes to politics we have
completely different views.
e. I can talk to my sister about my problems because I know she will understand me and share my
feelings.

Ex.26 Work with your partner. Take turns asking and answering the questions opposite. Try
to use the multi-word verbs and expressions in the box in your answers, as well as the verbs
above.
Example
A How do you get on with the other people in your family?
B I don't get on with my sisters very well, but I'm very close to my mother. I feel I can confide in
her.

bring up look back on tell off


get on with look up to take after
get away with grow up get round
have one's own way see eye to eye be close to

a. What kind of relationship do you have with the people in your family?
b. Are you similar to anyone in your family?
c. Do you have the same opinions as other members of your family?
d. Where did you spend your childhood?
e. Who took care of you when you were very young?
f. Did you have a strict upbringing?
g. When were you reprimanded as a child/teenager?
h. Were you able to do what you wanted all the time?
i. Who did you admire and respect when you were a child/teenager?
j. When you think about the past, what do you remember?

Ex.27 Work with a different partner. Use the multi-word verbs and idiomatic expressions you
have learnt to describe your relationship with one of the following people.
grandparent teacher uncle/aunt parent
brother/sister neighbour boss cousin
How multi-word verbs work
Ex.28 Match a sentence in A with one in B, and mark the stress. Then practise saying the
questions and answers. The first one has been done for you.
A
1 Do you respect your parents?
2 Do you like David?
3 Did he do the washing up?
4 Does he listen to you?
5 Was he punished for the crime?
6 Have you done the homework?
7 Has he complained about the noise?
B
a. No, he got away with it.
b. No, I can't get through to him.
c. No, he puts up with it
d. No, he got out of it
e. No, I must get down to it.
f. No, I don't get on with him.
g. Yes, I look up to them.

What is the stress rule for multi-word verbs that have two particles?

1) What is the difference between to grow up and to bring someone up?


2) What is the opposite of to look up to someone?
3) What is the noun of a. and adjective of b?
a. to bring up (—> noun) She had a very strict_____________
b. to grow up (—> adjective) He doesn't behave in a very ____________way.

Ex.29 Translate the sentences into English using phrasal verbs and idioms.
1. Даже когда он неправ, он пытается настоять на своем.
2. Он не остался без наказания. Мама его отругала за то, что он говорит
неправду.
3. Его братья – порядочные люди, а он всегда обманывает. Он – позор своей
семьи.
4. Мы редко сходимся во взглядах с родителями, и я всегда поступаю по-своему.
5. Бабушка вырастила и воспитала меня, поэтому мы с ней очень близки.
6. Он всегда старается избежать выполнения работы по дому и притворяется
больным.
7. Ты неправ, я не могу принять твою сторону.
8. Я всегда уважал твоих родителей, они очень порядочные люди. И ты похож на
них.
9. Я часто вспоминаю свое детство.
10. Я давно пытаюсь донести до него, что плохо говорить неправду и ябедничать.
Но он не разделяет моего мнения.

Jokes
Mother Tell your boyfriend he must bring you back here by ten o'clock tonight - and not a
minute later!
Daughter Oh, mother! I'm not a child any longer.
Mother I know. That's why I want you back here by ten.

Pupil Sir, can you be told off for something you haven't done?
Teacher Of course not.
Pupil Oh, that's good, because I haven't done my homework.

One day a boy came home from school and his mother heard him use a very bad word. She was
very angry.
'Where did you learn that word?' she asked.
'From Chaucer,' he replied.
Well, don't play with Chaucer any more,' she said.
(Note: Chaucer was a famous medieval writer.)

Speaking
Work in pairs. Discuss one of the following questions.
- Should boys and girls be brought up in exactly the same way?
- What are the advantages and disadvantages of being an only child?

Writing
Using the multi-word verbs and idiomatic expressions you have learnt in this unit, write about a
relationship which has had an important influence on you.
Grammar exercises
PRESENT FORMS.

Present Simple.

We use the present simple:

a) for permanent states, repeated actions and daily routines.


He works in a bank. (permanent state)
He takes the train to work every morning. (daily routine/repeated actions)

b) for general truths and laws of nature.


The sun sets in the west.

c) for timetables (planes, trains, etc.) and programmes.


The plane from Brussels arrives at 8:30.

d) for sports commentaries, reviews and narration.


a. Peterson overtakes Williams and wins the race. (sports commentary)
b. Mike Dalton plays the part of Macbeth. (review)
c. Then the prince gets on his horse and quickly rides away. (narration)

e) to give instructions or directions (instead of the imperative).


You sprinkle some cheese on the pizza and then you bake it. (Instead of: Sprinkle some cheese on
the pizza ...)

The present simple is used with the following time expressions:


usually, often, always, etc., every day/ week/month/year, in the morning/afternoon/ evening, at
night, at the weekend, on Mondays, etc.

Present Continuous.

We use the present continuous:

a) for actions taking place now, at the moment of speaking.


He is giving the baby a bath at the moment.

b) for temporary actions; that is actions that are going on around now, but not at the actual
moment of speaking.
I'm looking for a new job these days. (He is not looking for a job at the moment of speaking.)

c) with adverbs such as: always, constantly, continually, etc. for actions which happen very
often, usually to express annoyance, irritation or anger.
a) I'm always meeting Sara when I go shopping. (action which happens very often)
b) You're constantly interrupting me when I'm talking. (expressing annoyance/irritation)

d) for actions that we have already arranged to do in the near future, especially when the
time and place have been decided.
They're moving into their new house next week. (The time has been decided.)

e) for changing or developing situations.


More and more species are becoming extinct.
The present continuous is used with the following time expressions:
now, at the moment, at present, these days, still, nowadays, today, tonight, etc.

Present Perfect.

We use the present perfect:

a) for an action which started in the past and continues up to the present, especially with
state verbs such as be, have, like, know, etc. In this case, we often use for and since.
Rachel has had the dog for three years. (She got the dog three years ago and she still has it.)

b) for an action which has recently finished and whose result is visible in the present.
She has just washed her hair. (She has now wrapped her hair in a towel, so the action has
finished.)

c) for an action which happened at an unstated time in the past. The exact time is not
mentioned because it is either unknown or unimportant. The emphasis is placed on the action.
The Taylors have bought a sailing boat. (The exact time is unknown or unimportant. What is
important is the fact that they now own a sailing boat.)

d) for an action which has happened within a specific time period which is not over at the
moment of speaking. We often use words and expressions such as today, this
morning/evening/week/month, etc.
She has taken fifteen pictures today. (The time period - today -is not over yet. She may take more
pictures.)
BUT: She took twenty pictures yesterday. (The time period - yesterday - is over.)

Note: We use the present perfect to announce a piece of news and the past simple or past
continuous to give more details about it.
The police have finally arrested Peter Duncan. He was trying to leave the country when they
caught him.

The present perfect is used with the following time expressions:


for, since, already, yet, always, just, ever, never, so far, today, this week/month, etc., how long,
lately, recently, still (in negations), etc.

Present Perfect Continuous.

We use the present perfect continuous:

a) to put emphasis on the duration of an action which started in the past and continues up to
the present, especially with time expressions such as for, since, all morning I day I year, etc.
Sam has been talking on the phone for half an hour. (He began talking on the phone half an hour
ago and he is still talking.)

b) for an action which started in the past and lasted for some time. The action may have
finished or may still be going on. The result of the action is visible in the present.
Her feet hurt. She has been walking all morning. (The result of the action is visible in the present -
her feet hurt.)

c) to express anger, irritation or annoyance.


Somebody has been giving away our plans. (The speaker is irritated.)
Note: With the verbs live, work, teach and feel (= have a particular emotion) we can use the
present perfect or present perfect continuous with no difference in meaning.
We have lived/have been living here for twenty years.

The present perfect continuous is used with the following time expressions:
for, since, how long, lately, recently.

Note: We use the present perfect to put emphasis on number and the present perfect
continuous to put emphasis on duration.
Compare the examples:
e.g. I've typed four reports so far.
I've been typing reports all morning.

Ex.30 Underline the correct tense.


1. More and more people move/are moving to the countryside these days.
2. Sheila works/is working as a costume designer for the local theatre company.
3. Computec holds/is holding a five-day seminar on computers for all its employees next
week.
4. Lauren doesn't leave/isn't leaving her house before 9 o'clock in the morning.
5. No wonder the phone bills are so high! You always talk/are always talking on the phone!
6. I don't teach/am not teaching in the evenings at present.
7. Do amphibians live/Are amphibians living both on land and in water?
8. They prefer/are preferring to go on holiday in spring when the resorts are less crowded.
9. Chris and Helen are having/have a garden party on Sunday afternoon.

Ex.31 Put the verbs in brackets into the Present Simple or Present Continuous form.
1. A: So, how does the film end?
B: Well, in the end Willy escapes (escape) and________________(swim) out to sea.
He_______________(meet) the rest of his family and they_______________(swim) away
together.
2. A: Would you like to go to the cinema on Sunday?
B: I'm sorry. I_________________(visit) my grandparents this weekend.
3. A: Hurry up! The train__________________(leave) at 2:30.
B: I'll be ready in five minutes.
4. A: Pam___________________(always/complain) about something.
B: Yes, it's annoying, isn't it?
5. A: More and more people___________________(recycle) their rubbish.
B: That's good news.
6. A: Could you give me a lift tomorrow morning?
B: I'm sorry but I___________________(always/use) public transport to get to work.
7. A: Can I speak to Mr Collins, please?
B: I'm afraid he's not available at the moment. He__________________(have) a meeting
with some clients.
8. A: What do you know about snakes?
B: I know that they are reptiles and they___________________(lay) eggs.
9. A: I haven't seen Bob for ages. How is he?
B: Oh, he___________________(work) for an advertising company now.
10. A: Are you busy? I need some help.
B: No, I____________________(not/do)anything at the moment. I can help you.
11. A: Your hair___________________(look) great today. Have you had it cut?
B: Yes, I had it done yesterday.
Ex.32 Fill In the gaps below with the Present Simple or Present Continuous form of the verbs
in the list, as in the example.
be (x2), leave, seem, know, wait, write, fly, grow up, have, make, hope, need, work, attend, come
back, look forward

Dear Marianne,

How 1) __are__ you? I 2)____________to tell you our great news.


As you 3)____________Brad 4)____________for an international media company. Well, he
was offered the opportunity of a lifetime last week — to live and work in Madrid for two years. He
5)_____________tomorrow for sunny Spain to look for a flat for us. He 6)____________at noon so
I 7)_____________ a long list of the things he 8)_____________to consider before choosing a flat.
We 9)____________so many things to do when he 10)_____________. We 11)____________
Sally's wedding in May and we have to pack all our things. I 12)_____________to it so much, I can
hardly wait.
Jack and Katie 13)_____________fine. They 14)____________so quickly that it
15)____________like only yesterday they were babies.
Well, the kids 16)_____________for me to make their lunch so I'd better go. I
17)____________ you're all fine. We'll see you at Sally's wedding.

Love,
Fiona

Ex.33 Mike, a salesman, is talking to his doctor about his stress problem. Complete the
conversation with the Present Simple or Continuous of the verbs in brackets.
DOCTOR: HOW can I help you, Mr Daniels?
MIKE: Well, I started having bad headaches a couple of weeks ago and they (a) ___________
(get) worse. I can't sleep properly, I'm tired all the time, and the worst thing is my hair
(b)______________(go) grey and I'm only 31!
DOCTOR: I see. Let me ask you some questions. (c)_______________(you smoke)?
MIKE: NO, I gave up a month ago.
DOCTOR: Right. I see you're a salesman. How many hours a week (d)_______________(you
work)?
MIKE: Well, I normally (e)_______________(do) eight hours a day, but at the moment I
(f)_______________(work) at least ten hours and some Saturdays.
DOCTOR: That is a lot. How (g)_______________(you relax)?
MIKE: Well, I usually (h)_______________(sit) in front of the TV with a pizza and a few
beers.
DOCTOR: Hmm. (i)_______________(you do) any exercise at the moment?
MIKE: Not really, but I'm losing a lot of weight and I (j)_________________(not know) why.
DOCTOR: I think you (k) __________________(suffer) from stress. I (l)_______________(want) you
to eat a more varied diet and to do some exercise. Come back and see me in four weeks and I'll
check you again.

Ex.34 Choose the correct verb form to complete the sentences.


1. I think he's a liar and I don't believe /I'm not believing him.
2. She thinks /is thinking of divorcing her husband.
3. I want /I am wanting to go to a single-parents' meeting.
4. She says that she loves /is loving me, but I'm not sure.
5. This divorce costs /is costing me a fortune.
6. I dislike /am disliking people who lie.

Ex.35 Choose the correct verb forms to complete the interview.


I: Tonight I (1) interview /am interviewing the world famous model, Tania Brookes. Tania,
welcome.
T: Thanks, James.
I: Now I'd like to start by asking you about this new reality TV programme you (2) do /are doing
called Swapping Jobs.
T: Yep. Basically, I swap jobs for a week with someone ... with Dot Bryce, in fact. Dot is a single
working parent with three kids. She (3) lives /is living in a small flat and (4) works /is working as a
cleaning lady.
I: And how does her life compare to yours?
T: To be honest, there's no comparison. Let me give you an example. In a normal photo shoot I (5)
make /am making about £300 per hour. That is fifty times more than Dot makes in the same time!
I: Wow! Do you feel sorry for her?
T: Not at all. She's a terrific woman: strong, optimistic and fun. We actually (6) like /are liking
each other a lot. And she (7) has /is having three lovely girls.
I: OK, tell us a little about your new job.
T: OK. I (8) get /am getting up at six and take the girls to school for 8.30. Then it's a bus ride to
my first job. I seem to spend a lot of time on buses! Anyway, the work is non-stop. At the moment I
(9) do /am doing stuff like washing dishes, cleaning floors, baths and toilets, hoovering carpets,
tidying up rooms, and so on.
I: And (10) do you enjoy /are you enjoying it?
T: Is that a serious question!? No way!

Ex.36 Underline the correct form.


1. Some kinds of fish contain /are containing high levels of dangerous metals.
2. Scientists nowadays slowly begin to understand /are slowly beginning to understand more
about how the brain works.
3. What do you think /are you thinking of Kale's new hairstyle? It's unusual, isn't it?
4. Loud music can be really annoying. Some people don't realize /aren't realizing what a
nuisance it can be.
5. You can't really have seen a UFO! You imagine /are imagining things!
6. Technicians report that they have /are having difficulty installing the new computer system.
7. No wine for me! I take / I'm taking antibiotics for an ear infection.
8. In career terms, having a good degree appears /is appearing to make little difference.
9. The National Theatre considers /is considering putting on a new production of Uncle
Vanya.
10. Does this wallet belong / Is this wallet belonging to you?

Ex.37 Tick the correct sentence.


1. A). The train from Brussels arrives at 2:20 at Platform 5. …….
B). The train from Brussels is arriving at 2:20 at Platform 5. …….
2. A). Mr Lewis doesn't go to the supermarket today. …….
B). Mr Lewis isn't going to the supermarket today. …….
3. A). Renee always breaks things in the kitchen. …….
B). Renee is always breaking things in the kitchen. …….
4. A). Greg and Julie live in a flat in Manhattan. …….
B). Greg and Julie are living in a flat in Manhattan. …….
5. A). Do we visit Grandma and Grandpa this Sunday? …….
B). Are we visiting Grandma and Grandpa this Sunday? …….
6. A). Cats don't like water. …….
B). Cats are not liking water. …….
7. A). How much does the silk blouse cost? …….
B). How much is the silk blouse costing? …….
8. A). More and more people eat healthily. …….
B). More and more people are eating healthily. …….
9. A). That carton contains one litre of milk. …….
B). That carton is containing one litre of milk. …….
Ex.38 Complete the conversation. Put the verbs in brackets into the Present Simple or Present
Continuous.
Alan: I (1) ________________(think) about going on that Swapping Jobs programme.
Bob: I (2) ________________ (not / think) they’ll want you.
Alan: Why not? I (3) ________________ (have) an interesting job.
Bob: Alan, forget it! You're a traffic warden. That is not an interesting job!
Alan: Well, you're wrong. Look at this. A letter from AVD TV.
Bob: What!?
Alan: Yep! I (4)______________(see) them for a meeting tomorrow. Being a traffic warden is one
of the most unpopular jobs in Britain, you know.
Bob: Yeah, I know. So?
Alan: Well, that means a lot of people would love to see someone famous doing my job.
Bob: Oh, I (5)___________(see) what you mean. So the idea is to watch someone who
(6)________________ (have) a really bad time for a week.
Alan: That's the idea.
Bob: I don't believe it!

Ex.39 Fill in the blanks with the Present Simple or Present Continuous form of the verbs in
brackets.
1. My new jacket__________________(fit) me perfectly.
2. The Greens__________________(play) golf with my parents this weekend.
3. Adam__________________(explain) to his son how to use the new computer.
4. I____________________(not/feel) very well. I__________________(think) I'll lie down
for a few minutes.
5. A: ____________________(Betty/invite) Monica to her wedding?
B: I___________________(have) no idea.
6. Every morning when I___________________(wake up) I__________________(smell)
fresh coffee coming from the kitchen.
7. Stewart always__________________(wear) a suit and tie to the office.
8. A: Where's Ed?
B: He__________________(change) the tyre on his car.
9. A: Karen,__________________(you/know) the answer to question two?
B: Yes, Miss. Water___________________(boil) at 100° C.
10. More and more people___________________(develop) health problems because of air
pollution.

Ex.40 Put the verbs in brackets into the Present Simple or the Present Continuous.
1. A: Michael_____________(be) very quiet today. Is anything wrong?
B: No, I don't think so.
2. A: These towels_____________(feel) as soft as silk.
B: I've just washed them.
3. A: We_____________(think) of moving back to England.
B: Really? When?
4. A: Where's Andrew? We can't find him anywhere.
B: It_____________(look) as if he's disappeared.
5. A: What perfume are you wearing? It______________(smell) lovely.
B: Thanks. It's called "Angel".
6. A: The Trio Dance Group_______________(appear) at the Odeon tonight.
B: Shall we go?
7. A: This skirt______________(not/fit) me any more.
B: You must have gained some weight.
8. A: Mum, I saw a ghost last night.
B: Don't be silly. You________________(just/see) things.
9. A: What's Dad doing?
B: He_______________(taste) the potatoes to see if they are cooked.
10. A: The Richardsons_______________(have) a cottage in Cornwall.
B: I know. They bought it a few years ago.
11. A: I really______________(not/see) what the problem is.
B: No, I don't understand it either.
12. A: This soup______________(taste) delicious. How did you make it?
B: Well, it's really very simple.
13. A: What's that noise?
B: It______________(sound) like Jane playing her trumpet!
14. A: Are you busy at the moment?
B: Yes. I_______________(arrange) a very important meeting.
15. A: What time________________(the train/leave)?
B: At 6 o'clock.

Ex.41 Complete the text with the Present Simple or Present Continuous forms of the verbs in
brackets.
Population a (mean) _________________ the number of people who live in a particular area.
The population of the world b (not stay) __________________ the same. At the moment it c
(grow) _________________ at an increasing rate. In fact, scientists d (believe)
_________________ that the world population will increase until 2200, and then stop growing.
However, things are not the same in all parts of the world. At present in many Western
industrial countries the population e (fall) __________________. This f (happen)
__________________ because families are small, and health conditions are good. In developing
countries, on the other hand, the population g (rise) __________________ sharply. In Ghana, for
example, most families h (have) ___________________ several children. Many children in Ghana
i (die) __________________ from illness, so it is important to have lots of children. They earn
money for the family and j (look after) __________________ their parents in old age.

Ex.42 Find and correct six grammatical mistakes in the verbs in the advertisement.

Are you believing your partner when they say


they’re working late at the office?

How are you knowing if he or she is telling the truth?

Easy!
Buy the person you are loving the Lie Detector this Christmas.
This unique device can tell if a person is lying or not.
It is asking a simple question. If the person is lying, they get an electric shock. If they are
telling the truth, nothing happens.

It couldn't be easier.

So if you think about what you are wanting to buy your


loved one this Christmas, think no more -Trickster Toys has the perfect gift for
him or her.

Every couple should have one.


Ex.43 There are eight mistakes in the letter. Find the mistakes and correct them.
Dear Kate,
How are you? I'm writing to you from Bali. I am being here on holiday. The weather is hot and
sunny so I'm getting a great tan! I get up early every morning and go swimming in the warm sea. I
go on a boat trip tomorrow morning. I'm really looking forward to it.
Right now I sit on the beach. There is a restaurant nearby and the food is smelling wonderful!
I'm starting to feel very hungry. Food in Bali is tasting lovely. I must be careful, though, as I am
thinking I have already gained some weight!
Well, I come home on Tuesday. My parents meet me at the airport.
See you soon,
Love, Jenny.

Ex.44 Translate the sentences into English.


A).
1. В этой части света солнце садится рано.
2. Джойс едет в Данию завтра, потому что ее бабушка хочет ее видеть.
3. Некоторым людям больше всего нравится лето, некоторые любят весну или осень, а
другие предпочитают зиму.
4. "Где Лиззи?" -"Она катается на велосипеде в парке."
5. "Что делают дети?" - "Они слушают музыку и рисуют."
6. Джейн прекрасно рисует.
7. Отец обычно ездит на работу на автобусе, но сегодня он на машине.
8. Каждый год он проводит каникулы на море.
9. Я пишу, чтобы пригласить вас к нам на Рождество.
10. Я сижу у окна и смотрю на море. Какое-то судно уходит (sail away) от порта.

B).
1. "Когда он обычно возвращается с работы?" - "Он обычно приходит в 8 часов вечера."
2. В следующую субботу ко мне приезжают родственники из Англии.
3. Майкл делает новую полку для книг. Он всю мебель для дома всегда делает сам.
4. На ней сегодня белая шляпка и белое платье.
5. Я сейчас читаю эту книгу, поэтому не могу пока дать ее вам.
6. "Вы любите читать?" - "Да, очень." - "Где Вы обычно берете книги?" - "Я обычно
беру несколько книг в библиотеке и меняю их через месяц. Но иногда я покупаю
книги в магазине"
7. "Что вы делаете на полу?" - "Я ищу булавку."
8. "Что у вас обычно на обед?" - "Обычно я ем суп, мясо с гарниром на второе, а потом
выпиваю чашку чая."
9. "Куда ты так спешишь?" - "Я бегу на электричку. Я встречаюсь сегодня с Мери-Энн, а
она ужасно не любит, когда опаздывают."
10. В следующий четверг я уезжаю в Голландию.

Ex.45
Since/for

Since expresses a starting point. She’s been working since November.


For expresses the duration of an action. They’ve been in Hawaii for two weeks.

Fill in ‘since’ or ‘for’.


Animals have been a source of help and comfort to humans 1)___since____ history began, and
we have known 2)___________years that animals make people gentler and more relaxed.
3)________a long time the question has been exactly how animals can change people. Some
researchers believe that stroking a pet helps to relieve anxiety and tension and, 4)______the 1960’s,
therapists have believed that animals’ remarkable powers can be used to heal our bodies and minds.
This belief has actually been confirmed 5)_________the discovery that seriously ill people live
longer if they have a pet to care for.

Ex.46 Underline the correct tense.


1. The plane leaves/has left at four o'clock. We must be at the airport by two o'clock.
2. It gets/is getting colder and colder every day.
3. Have you seen Linda? I have been looking/am looking for her for almost an hour.
4. Sam is a very interesting person. He knows/has known all kinds of unusual facts.
5. First, you are heating/heat the oven to a temperature of 180°C.
6. Have you heard the news? They have just elected / have been electing a new club
chairman!
7. Martha is finding/has found a new job. She is starting next week.
8. The teacher has been correcting / has corrected essays for three hours.
9. Michael's car broke down last week, so he uses/is using his father's for the time being.
10. It rarely gets/is getting very hot in Britain.

Ex.47 Choose the correct answer.


1. ‘I met our new boss this morning.’
I.....him, too. He's very nice.’
A am meeting B have been meeting C have met

2. '.................in a hotel?'
'No, but my parents did last summer in Rome.'
A Have you ever stayed B Did you ever stay C Are you ever staying

3. ‘Who is in that new film?'


'Well, a young actress.................the leading role."
A has been playing B plays C has played

4. ‘Is David at home?'


‘Yes, but he.................a shower at the moment.'
A is having B has been having C has

5. ‘Why are you so upset?'


‘I.................my favourite ring.'
A lose B have been losing C have lost

6. 'Have you found a house yet?'


'No. I.................with my aunt at the moment.'
A stay B am staying C have stayed

Ex.48 Using the Present Perfect or the Present Perfect Continuous of the verbs in brackets,
complete the sentences, as in the example.
1. Ralph is getting frustrated because the meal he ordered hasn't been served yet. (wait)
He ...has been waiting... for his meal.
2. The estate agent is taking down the 'For Sale' sign in front of the house. (sell)
He.......................................................the house.
3. Jerry is travelling to Moscow on Tuesday. (book)
He .................................................a plane ticket.
4. Samantha is reading a letter from Maureen. (receive)
She .......................................................from her.
5. John started fixing the washing machine this morning. (repair)
He ...................................................it since 9am.
6. Rachel is getting out of bed. (Just/wake up)
She .......................................................................
7. Lisa started working for us in 1992. (work)
She .........................................for us since 1992.
8. Elaine is still waiting for the bus. (come/yet)
It............................................................................

Ex.49 Put the verbs in brackets into the correct Present forms.

Dear Mr and Mrs Williams,

I 1) ...am writing... (write) to thank you for coming to our wedding last month, I hope you enjoyed
yourselves. Sheila and I 2).................................. (just/return) from our honeymoon in Kenya and
3)................................... (now/look forward to) starting our new life together. We 4) ................
(just/move) into our new house and since our honeymoon we 5) ................... (spend) all our free
time decorating. The house 6) .......................................(actually/begin) to feel like home now and
we 7)............................ (gradually/settle) into a routine. We 8)..........................(have) breakfast
together in the morning, but then we 9) .......................................... (not/see) each other until late in
the evening when we 10).......................... (get) home from work, I hope both of you
11)................................ (be) well since we last saw you.

Love,
David and Sheila

Ex.50 Put the words in brackets into the appropriate Present forms.
1) George Smith___has been training____ (train) for this match for months. He ____________
(practice) at least four hours a day for the last two weeks and he ____________ (say) tha
now he _____________(feel) confident. However, he ________________ (face) a difficult
opponent tonight. Palmer ______________ (win) several games recently, and he
_____________ (look) determined to win this one too. The match _______________ (be)
about to start, so let’s watch and see what ________________ (happen).
2) Louisa usually ________________ (go) to work by tube, but today she ______________
(go) there in a chauffeur-driven limousine. The reason for this _______________ (be) that
she _____________ (just/win) the young business person award, and as part of the prize
people ______________ (treat) her like royalty.
3) Mary _____________ (dye) her hair for years. She _______________ (go) to the
hairdresser once a week and ______________ (try) every colour you can imagine. She
__________ (say) she ______________ (want) to match her hair with her clothes. I
_____________ (ask) her for ages why she ______________ (not/keep) her natural colour
but she ______________ (say) she ______________ (forget) what it is!

Ex.51 Put the verbs in brackets into the correct Present form.
1. A: Tortoises _______live______(live) to be very old.
B: I've heard of one which is over a hundred years old.
2. A: Are you still busy?
B: Yes. I ____________(read) this article for an hour and I still_____________(not/finish).
3. A: More and more people____________________(go) to university these days.
B: Yes. I think it's a good thing.
4. A: I ________________(have) a party tonight. Do you want to come?
B: Yes. What time does it start?
5. A: Why are your shoes wet?
B: I _______________(wash) the car.
6. A: What's the matter?
B: I ___________________ (break) my ankle.
7. A: What do I need to do next?
B: You ____________(add) the sugar to the mixture and you ______________(mix) it well.
8. A: Who ______________(use) my car?
B: I have.
9. A: Are you new here?
B: No. Actually, I ____________(live) here for almost ten years.
10. A: Pete is playing his music very loud.
B: Again! He_____________(always/do) that!
11. A: Have you made plans for Saturday yet?
B: I _____________ (go) to the cinema with Jack.
12. A: Mr Collins is a very good teacher.
B: Well, he _______________(teach) Maths for twenty-five years, you know.
13. A: Are you going to the concert on Saturday night?
B: Yes. Actually, I _____________(already/buy) the tickets.
14. A: Hello, Simon.
B: Oh! We _______________(always/meet) each other in this supermarket.

Ex.52 Put the verbs in brackets into the correct tense.

Dear Kathleen,

I 1)___‘m writing___ (write) to tell you my news. My school 2)______________(choose) me to


spend six weeks at a school in the USA. I'm very happy about it!
At the moment, I 3)_________________(pack) things for my trip, because I
4)_________________ (leave) next week. My mother 5)__________________(book) the ticket.
I 6)__________________(wait) for this opportunity for ages, so I'm very excited. I
7)_______________ (finish) reading two books about the USA and I 8)__________________
(borrow) another one from the school library. I 9) ________________ (become) more and more
nervous every day!
Well, I must go now. I've got a lot of things to do. I’ll write to you from the USA.
Love,
Tracy
Questions

Yes/No Questions
To form questions we put the auxiliary or modal (can, be, will, have etc) before the subject. We use
do/does to form questions in Present Simple and did to form questions in Past Simple.
He is ready. →Is he ready?
She likes reading. →Does she like reading? (not: Does he likes reading?)
Ann went out yesterday. →Did Ann go out yesterday? (not: Did Ann went out yesterday?)

Wh-questions (special questions)


Wh- questions begin with a question word (who, what, where, why, when, whose, which, how etc).
Whose cat is this? It's Ted's.
Where did you stay? At the Park Hotel.
When there is a preposition, it usually goes at the end of the question.
Who does this car belong to?

We use questions to ask for information or permission. We also use questions to make suggestions,
requests, offers or invitations.
Asking for information: Where did you meet her? At a party.
Asking for permission: Could I borrow your pen? Yes, you can.
Making suggestions: Shall we go out? Yes, alright.
Making requests: Could you help me, please? Yes, of course.
Making offers: Would you like some cake? No, thanks.
Making invitations: Would you like to come to my wedding? Yes, I'd love to.
We normally use the following question words to ask about:
people things/animals/actions place time quantity manner reason
Who What Where When How much How Why
Whose Which How long How many
Which What time
What How often

• Who is used without a noun to ask about people. Who told you the truth?
• Whose is used to express possession. Whose pen is this? It's his.
• Which is used for people, animals or things before nouns, one/ones, of or alone. Which car is
yours? There are two newspapers here. Which one would you like to read? Which of the students
will come on the school trip? Which is your bag?
• Which is normally used when there is a limited choice. Which is your favourite writer - Charles
Dickens or Mark Twain? (there are only two writers to choose from - limited choice)
Which can also be used with the comparative and superlative. Which is faster, a Porsche or a
Fiat? Which is the best composition of all?
• What is used before a noun or alone to ask about things. What day is it today? What did he say?
What's this?
What is also used for people, animals and things when there is an unlimited choice. What books do
you prefer reading? (there are many books to choose from - unlimited choice)
What can also be used in these patterns: What... like?, What... for?, What colour?, What size?,
What time?, What is he like?, What is it used for? etc. What's the weather like today?
• What and which are sometimes both possible. What/Which day did he leave?

Subject/object questions
If who, which or what are the subject of the question, the word order is the same as in statements. If
they are the object of the question, the verb is in question form.

subject object subject object


Ted called Ann. Ann called Mary

Who called Ann? Who did Ann call?

Question Tags
• Question tags are short questions which we add at the end of a statement. We use them to ask for
confirmation of, or agreement with, our statement. It's hot today, isn’t it?
• Question tags are formed with an auxiliary verb and an appropriate pronoun. They take the same
auxiliary verb as in the statement if there is one, otherwise they take do/does (Present Simple) or
did (Past Simple). She was at home, wasn't she? He left late, didn't he?
• A positive statement is followed by a negative question tag, whereas a negative statement is
followed by a positive question tag. She plays tennis well, doesn’t she? He hasn't come yet, has
he? He's always late, isn’t he? She is never late, is she?
• Everyone/someone/anyone/no one form their question tags with an auxiliary verb + they.
Somebody should help her, shouldn't they?
• Question tags can be said with a rising intonation (when we are not sure and we expect an answer)
or a falling intonation (when we don't expect an answer).
He works in a bank, doesn't he? (not sure) He looks horrible, doesn't he? (sure)

Study the following question tags.


1. "I am" "aren't I?" I am older than you, aren't I?
2. "I used to" "didn't I?" They used to work here, didn't they?
3. Imperative "will you/won't you/ Please help me, will you/won't you/
can you/could you?" can you/could you?
4. "Let's" "shall we?" Let's play tennis, shall we?
5. "Let me/him" etc "will/won't you?" Let him buy it, will you/won't you?
6. "Don't" "will you?" Don't do that again, will you?
7. "I have" (= possess) "haven't I?" She has your book, hasn't she?
8. "I have" (used idiomatically) "don't I?" She had an operation yesterday, didn't
she?
9. "There is/are" "isn't/aren't there?" There are some seats left, aren't there?
10. "This/That is" "isn't it?" That pen is Mary's, isn't it?

Ex.53 Rewrite the sentence as a yes/no question.


11. The Nile is the longest river.
___________________________________________________________________?
12. Earthquakes have occurred in this country.
___________________________________________________________________?
13. The volcano had erupted before.
___________________________________________________________________?
14. 200 million years ago there was only one continent.
___________________________________________________________________?
15. People were expecting a tsunami in 2004.
___________________________________________________________________?
16. Our climate will be different in 50 years’ time.
___________________________________________________________________?
17. The capital city has continued to grow.
___________________________________________________________________?
18. The Arabian Desert and the Gobi Desert are similar in size.
___________________________________________________________________?
19. The ice at the Poles has started to melt.
___________________________________________________________________?
20. Many people were injured in the earthquake.
___________________________________________________________________?

Ex.54 How much do you know about Britain today? Do the quiz to find out.
1. Which countries form Britain?
a) England and Scotland.
b) England, Scotland and Wales.
c) England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland.

2. What does Cymru [kum'ri] mean?


a) It's Welsh for 'Good morning’.
b) It's Welsh for 'Goodbye’.
c) It's Welsh for 'Wales'.

3. Where did Shakespeare live?


a) In Manchester.
b) in Stratford upon Avon.
c) In York.

4. What is the most popular restaurant dish in Britain?


a) A curry dish called Chicken Tikka Masala.
b) Roast beef.
c) Fish and chips.

5. What famous building does the Queen officially open every year with a speech?
a) Parliament.
b) Buckingham Palace.
c) The White House.
6. What ancient language do some people in Scotland speak?
a) Gaelic ['geilik].
b) Celtic.
c) Basque.

Which of the questions are subject questions (S) and which are object questions (O)?

Ex.55 Choose the correct verb form to complete the questions.


1. Who did write /wrote Hamlet?
2. How many countries do belong /belong to the European Union?
3. What does BBC stand /stands for?
4. How many people do live /live in Britain?
5. Who did win /won the last general election?
6. What percentage of seats in parliament do women hold /hold women?

Match the answers a-f to the questions 1-6.

a) The British Broadcasting Corporation.


b) The Labour Party.
c) There are 25 member states.
d) 20%.
e) 58 million.
f) Shakespeare.

Ex.56 Write a question for every answer.


1. What__________________________________________?
Spiders and horror films frighten me.

2. Who__________________________________________?
My favourite British writer is Charles Dickens.

3. Where_________________________________________?
I live in Cardiff, the capital of Wales.

4. Which party_____________________________________?
I voted for the Green Party.

Ex.57 Write questions to which the words in bold are the answers.
1. Mark is decorating the living room.
__________________________________________________________________________
2. She found Steven's wallet.
__________________________________________________________________________
3. Mum made these cakes.
__________________________________________________________________________
4. Fiona's dress was ruined at the party.
__________________________________________________________________________
5. Melissa is wearing a blue dress.
__________________________________________________________________________
6. Bob is the older of the two brothers.
__________________________________________________________________________
7. Stacey has bought a new bag.
__________________________________________________________________________
8. I like the blue jumper best.
__________________________________________________________________________
9. The roof was blown off in the storm.
__________________________________________________________________________
10. I ran into Jason the other day.
__________________________________________________________________________
11. I spoke to the manager's secretary about my complaint.
__________________________________________________________________________
12. The Ethiopian runner won the 1500m race.
__________________________________________________________________________

Ex.58 Complete the questions.


1. Ryan won two races
a) 'Who_________________________________?' 'Ryan.'
b) 'How many____________________________?' 'Two.'
2. Stanley goes swimming three times a week.
a) 'Who_________________________________?' 'Stanley.'
b) 'How often___________________________________?' 'Three times a week.'
3. There are two shirts. The yellow one is mine.
a) 'Which________________________________?' 'The yellow one.'
b) 'Whose________________________________?' 'Mine.'
4. Steven has broken Jim’s mug.
a) 'Whose________________________________?' 'Jim's.'
b) 'Who__________________________________?' 'Steven.'
5. Linda is going to the theatre this evening.
a) 'Who__________________________________?' 'Linda.'
b) 'Where_________________________________?' 'To the theatre.'
6. Anne bought Ralph a present yesterday.
a) 'Who__________________________________?' 'Anne.'
b) 'Who__________________________________?' 'Ralph.'
7. There are two bags. The one on the chair is Fay’s.
a) 'Whose_________________________________?' 'Fay’s.'
b) 'Which_________________________________?' 'The one on the chair.'

Ex.59 Use the prepositions in brackets to write questions to match the statements.
1. She bought some flowers. Who____________________________________? (for)
2. I got an invitation this morning. Who_______________________________? (from)
3. Pedro comes from Spain. Where exactly________________________________? (from)
4. I read an interesting article yesterday. What______________________________? (about)
5. Lisa is excited. What________________________________? (about)
6. Linda played tennis. Who__________________________________? (with)
7. Sam wrote a letter. Who___________________________________?(to)
8. I went to a restaurant last night. Who_________________________________? (with)

Ex.60 Fill in who, whose, what, which, where, when, how long, how often, what time, why, how
much, how many or how long ago.
1. '_______________ do you play football?' 'Twice a week.'
2. '_______________does the train leave?' 'Nine o'clock.'
3. '_______________is Martin?' 'In the garden.'
4. '_______________is it?' 'Half past ten.'
5. '_______________does he earn?' £1,000 a month.'
6. '_______________sisters have you got?' Two.'
7. '_______________is this book?' '£5.'
8. '_______________did he call?' 'To invite me out to dinner.'
9. '_______________is the new driver like?' 'He's very friendly.'
10. '_______________shall we do this evening?' 'Let's go out.'
11. '_______________is the office party?' 'On Saturday.'
12. '_______________have you been waiting?' 'About half an hour.'
13. '_______________is that briefcase?' 'I think it's Tom's.'
14. '_______________of these rings do you prefer?' 'The gold one.'
15. '_______________spilt coffee on the desk?' 'I did. Sorry.'
16. '_______________did you get your exam results?' 'Last Friday.'
17. '_______________did you meet Jessie?' Two years ago.'
18. '_______________is the easiest way to get to the cinema?' 'Go through the city
centre.'

Ex.61 Write questions to which the words in bold are the answers.
1. They live near the beach.
_________________________________________________________________________
2. It takes ten minutes to drive to the supermarket.
_________________________________________________________________________
3. George is selfish.
_________________________________________________________________________
4. Mary is tall, with dark hair and green eyes.
_________________________________________________________________________
5. I go swimming twice a week.
_________________________________________________________________________
6. The joke made them laugh.
_________________________________________________________________________
7. They are Miss Drake's books.
_________________________________________________________________________
8. The shoes cost twenty pounds.
_________________________________________________________________________
9. The film starts at 7 pm.
_________________________________________________________________________
10. Mr Samson wants to open a shop.
_________________________________________________________________________
11. Todd has been to Spain.
_________________________________________________________________________
12. She is happy because she has won the competition.
_________________________________________________________________________
13. Alan is a very serious person.
_________________________________________________________________________
14. They moved here six months ago.
_________________________________________________________________________

Ex.62 Make negative questions using the words given.


1. A: I'm really tired today.
B: Why?_________________________ (go) to bed early last night?
2. A: ________________________(know) what time the film starts?
B: No, but I'll phone the cinema and ask now.
3. A: Let's go to see the new Brad Pitt film tonight.
B: _________________________(already/see) it?
4. A: _________________________(help) me make dinner?
B: No, sorry. I'm very busy at the moment.
5. A: __________________________(type) the reports yet?
B: No. sir. I'll finish them before I go home, though.
6. A: ___________________________(cold)?
B: No. Actually I think it's quite warm in here.

Ex.63 Underline the correct answer.


1. A: You're new here, are you/aren't you?
B: Yes. I started work here yesterday.
A: Ah. Well, you've met everyone in the office, hadn't you/haven't you?
B: Yes. There are a lot of people working here, aren't they /aren't there?
2. A: You will remember to lock all the doors when you leave, will you/won't you?
B: Of course. I'm not stupid, am I/aren't I?
A: No. But you forgot to lock the doors last week, didn't you/did you?
B: You're not going to let me forget that, aren't you/are you?
3 A: You haven't seen Linda lately, have you/haven't you?
B: I saw her today. I told you, did I/didn't I?
A: Oh, yes! She didn't mention the party, did she/didn't she?
B: No, she didn't. It's tomorrow night, is it/isn't it?

Ex.64 Fill in the correct question tags and short answers.


1. A: You've seen that film, _______________?
B: Yes, _______________.
2. A: They want to go skiing this year, _______________?
B: No, _______________.They want to go on an adventure holiday.
3. A: He'll probably be hungry when he comes in, _______________?
B: Yes, _______________. I'll make him some sandwiches.
4. A: She likes going to the cinema, ________________?
B: No, _______________. She prefers going to the theatre.
5. A: You've been to university, ________________?
B: Yes, _______________.
6. A: I'm a bit younger than Sally, ________________?
B: Yes, _______________.
7. A: They aren't moving, _______________?
B: Yes, _______________.
8. A: You won't forget to call me, _______________?
B: No, _______________. Don't worry.
9. A: You took some photographs at the ceremony, _______________?
B: Yes, ______________. They're in this album.
10. A: He knows I'm planning a party for him, _______________?
B: No, _______________. He doesn't suspect a thing.
11. A: They have bought a new car, ________________?
B: Yes, ________________. It's a Volvo.
12. A: He works for his father, _______________?
B: Yes, ______________. His father owns a large company.
13. A: I'm not late, _______________?
B: No, _______________. You're just on time.
14. A: They'll be here in a minute, _______________?
B: Yes, _______________. We'd better tidy up.
15. A: You did the washing-up, _______________?
B: Yes, _______________ and I cleaned the kitchen.

Ex.65 Fill in the question tags.


1. You haven't got any money, _________________?
2. There’s some water in the jug, __________________?
3. She will be here n time, __________________?
4. Mum can give me a lift, ___________________?
5. You know my brother, __________________?
6. They live together, _________________?
7. We have plenty of time, _________________?
8. That boy is very clever, _________________?
9. You have a car, _________________?
10. The train will arrive soon, _________________?
11. He has finished his homework, ________________?
12. That’s my wallet, ________________?

Ex.66 Correct the mistakes.


1. 'Paul doesn't like going to the theatre.' Neither I don't.’
2. Sally is good at Maths, isn't Sally?
3. She never writes to you, doesn't she?
4. 'Mark is going to the supermarket.' 'So I am.'
5. Who did make all this mess?
6. Could you tell me when does the bus leave?
7. Come back soon, don't you?
8. She seldom receives visitors, doesn't she?
9. Everybody is here now, isn't they?

Ex.67 Cross out the unnecessary word.


1. Who did gave you this wonderful ring?
2. That was Martha's sister, wasn't it she?
3. How far is it the sports centre?
4. You don't really mean that, do you mean?
5. Didn't they not pay for the damage?
6. Don't forget to give him a call, will you not?
7. How long ago have you been studying Japanese?
8. Have you any idea what time does the train leaves?
9. They haven't got a green car, do have they?
10. 'Is Tom going away this weekend?' 'I'm not afraid so.'
11. Didn't we tell you to not watch that film?
12. We need to find out where does Bob lives.
13. Who did travelled to Portugal last month?
14. 'What is Rod look like?' 'He's generous and kind.'

Ex.68 Read the text about earthquakes. Then complete the question for each answer.

Earthquakes
When an earthquake occurs, part of the Earth's surface moves. In fact, the surface of the Earth
moves all the time. The tectonic plates which make up the surface press against each other very
slowly. Over thousands of years, this movement creates great stress. In some places where the
layers of rock are weak, this eventually causes a sudden movement - an earthquake. Thousands of
earthquakes happen every day, but most are very small and cause no damage. A large earthquake
shakes buildings to the ground, or causes a tsunami wave. The effects are usually very serious.
Severe earthquakes are common in southern Europe, and on 1 November 1755 a powerful
earthquake hit the city of Lisbon in Portugal. Between 60,000 and 100,000 people died. After the
earthquake a tsunami struck the city, and there was also a fire, which caused nearly total
destruction. People as far away as Finland felt the shock, and the tsunami reached Barbados in the
West Indies. Geologists now believe that the strength of the earthquake was as high as 9 on the
Richter scale. This is the same strength as the Indian Ocean earthquake of 26 December 2004.

1. What
___________________________________________________________________?
Part of the Earth’s crust moves when an earthquake occurs.
2. What
___________________________________________________________________?
The movement of tectonic plates creates this stress.
3. How many
______________________________________________________________?
Thousands happen every day.
4. What
___________________________________________________________________?
It shakes buildings or causes a tsunami wave.
5. When
__________________________________________________________________?
On 1 November 1755.
6. How many
______________________________________________________________?
Between 60,000 and 100,000.
7. In which distant country ___________________________________________________?
In Finland.
8. What
___________________________________________________________________?
That the strength of the earthquake was as high as 9 on the Richter scale.

Answers to ex.17.
1 B; 2 A; 3 A; 4 B; 5 C; 6 C; 7 C; 8 A; 9 B; 10 B
Consolidation

Unit 1

Active vocabulary list

Approach – подход; приближение


To approach – подходить, приближаться; граничить

Arrogant – заносчивый, высокомерный, надменный


Arrogance – заносчивость, высокомерие, надменность
ex.: He had the arrogance to ask for more money. — И у него хватило наглости просить еще
денег.

Challenge – трудная, но интересная задача; вызов


To accept / meet / respond to / take up a challenge – принять вызов
To challenge – ставить под сомнение; бросать вызов
Challenging – требующий напряжения (сил); испытывающий (способности, стойкость)

To consider – полагать, считать; обдумывать; рассматривать, обсуждать


Considerable – значительный, важный, существенный; большой
Consideration – размышление, обсуждение, рассмотрение, разбор
To take into consideration – принимать во внимание

Decent – подходящий; приличный, благопристойный


Decency – благопристойность, приличие; вежливость
To observe the decencies – соблюдать приличия, правила хорошего тона

To define – определять (напр. значение слова), давать определение (какому-либо понятию)


Definition – определение, формулирование, дефиниция
To give definition to sth– дать определение

Expense – затрата, расход


At the expense of sth/ sb – ценой чего-то, за счет чего-то/ кого-то
To reduce expenses – сократить расходы
To cover expenses – покрыть расходы

Eye-opener – шокирующей разоблачение, откровение


ex.: Her confession was a real eye-opener – Ее признание было для нас настоящим
откровением.

Imaginary – вымышленный
To imagine – воображать, представлять себе
Imagination – воображение, фантазия

To impress – производить впечатление


To impress sb with sth
To be impressed
Impression – впечатление
To gain an impression – получать впечатление
To make a good/ bad impression on sb – произвести хорошее/ плохое впечатление
Irrelevant – неуместный, неподходящий, не относящийся к делу
≠ Relevant – релевантный, значимый, существенный, важный

Judge – судья, эксперт


To judge – оценивать, судить; считать, полагать
To judge by appearances – судить по внешнему виду
Judging by/ from sth – судя по

To lie – лгать, обманывать


To lie in one's throat – бесстыдно лгать
Liar – лжец
Lie – ложь
A white lie – невинная ложь, ложь во спасение
To tell a lie – говорить неправду, врать, обманывать

Political – политический
Politician – политик
Politics – политика, политическая деятельность
Policy – политика, линия поведения

To pretend – притворяться, делать вид, симулировать


Pretender – притворщик, лицемер
Pretenсe – притворство, обман

Pride - гордость
To take pride in smth – гордиться чем-либо
To pride oneself on – гордиться чем-либо, хвастаться
To be proud of smth – гордиться чем-либо
To be (too) proud to do smth – быть (слишком) гордым, чтобы что-либо сделать

To replace sth by/ with sth else – заменять, замещать

Scary – страшный, жуткий, ужасный


To scare – пугать, испугать
To be scared to death – испугаться до смерти

Sincere – искренний, чистосердечный


≠ Insincere – лицемерный, неискренний, притворный
Sincerity – искренность, откровенность

Telltale – предательский, выдающий что-либо


Telltale – ябедник, доносчик; болтун

Tension – напряжение, напряженность; натянутость


To ease/ to reduce tension – ослабить напряжение
To cause/ to create tension – создать напряженную ситуацию
Tense – напряженный, натянутый
Word combinations

To cope with smth – справиться, выдержать

To get away with smth – легко отделаться, остаться безнаказанным; сойти с рук

To give away – выдавать секрет, проговориться; разоблачать (кого-либо)

To have a soft spot for smb – питать к кому-либо нежные чувства, испытывать симпатию

To specialize in smth – специализироваться на чем-либо

To stick to – держаться, придерживаться; быть верным чему-то


To stick to one’s word – держать слово, сдерживать обещание

To stand for – означать, обозначать

Ex.1 Translate the sentences using your active vocabulary, prepositional phrases, phrasal
verbs, idioms and grammar from the unit.
1. Я всегда интересовался новыми подходами к решению важных вопросов.
2. Самолет прибывает в Москву в 10 часов утра, и я уже давно пытаюсь уговорить папу
взять меня в аэропорт.
3. Его воспитывают две бабушки, и обе гордятся его успехами в школе.
4. Он всегда притворяется и говорит неправду о других людях, а его родители – очень
честные и порядочные люди. Он позор своей семьи.
5. Меня всегда пугала мысль о том, что может начаться пожар.
6. Он слишком много хвастается своей успешной карьерой в политике. Этим он похож
на своего отца.
7. Посмотри на себя! Ты весь мокрый! Ты опять плавал в речке? На это раз тебе это с
рук не сойдет!
8. Он занимается продажей поддельных картин уже пять лет, и до сих пор ему это
сходило с рук.
9. Он пытается справиться с несколькими делами за счет других.
10. Я не знаю, как к ней подступиться! Она такая надменная!
11. - Ты когда-нибудь говорил неправду? – Да, но это была невинная ложь.
12. Мое мнение о нем до сих пор не изменилось. Он вырос, но все еще производит
впечатление неискреннего человека.
13. – Ты слышишь этот звук? – Нет, я ничего не слышу! Это плод твоего воображения!
14. Он не спешит принять ее вызов. Не сомневаюсь, что он боится ее.
15. Я всегда считал тебя надежным человеком, а ты выболтал мою тайну, что мне
нравится Джейн!
16. Они обдумывают варианты решения проблемы.
17. Ты когда-нибудь думал о том, что должен соблюдать приличия?
18. Его всегда волновала только его карьера в бизнесе. Я не могу сказать, что он
порядочный человек.
19. Когда я пытаюсь объяснить ему детали нашего плана, он притворяется, что не
слышит меня! А на самом деле он просто меня не слушает!
20. Они специализируются на производстве деталей для автомобилей уже много лет.

Ex.2 Complete the text with the Present Simple or Present Continuous form of the verb in
brackets.

European traffic accident rates fail to meet targets


Although the number of deaths caused in traffic accidents in the EU a (go down) is going down,
experts b (still try)________________to find ways of reducing the number throughout the EU to
around 25,000 fatalities per year by 2010. Traffic safety c (improve)______________but experts d
(believe)________________that achieving the 2010 goal will prove difficult. Recent statistics e
(show)________________that in 2005 in the EU 41,600 people were killed in road accidents.
Although progress has been made, most experts f (agree)________________that this figure will
have fallen to only around 32,000 by 2010, which g (mean)________________that the EU target
will be missed by about 7,000. On the other hand, as the amount of traffic h (increase)
_______________it is possible to argue that the situation is not really as bad as it i (look)
_______________. However one j (interpret)______________the statistics, it k (remain)
_______________ true that as time goes on, it l (become)______________harder and harder to
reduce the figures, especially since accident-reduction schemes m (cost)________________ a lot of
money. Many countries have tried and failed to reduce the number of accidents, and in the EU as a
whole, only Sweden n (pursue)_______________the goal of zero accidents. Accident reduction is
more difficult for newer EU members who o (currently face)________________very rapid growth
in traffic and p (have)________________difficulty in building new roads and in introducing safety
measures at a fast enough rate. To complicate matters, most new members q (have)
___________________very little experience in dealing with the demands of heavy traffic. Experts
r (suggest)_______________that any safety programme must also set about changing the way
drivers s (behave)_________________. Despite what people often t (say)__________________ it
u (seem)_________________to be the younger generation that v (cause)_______________most
accidents. In line with this research, many countries w (introduce)_______________tougher
driving tests, and x (concentrate) _________________ on the main causes of accidents: speed,
reckless overtaking, alcohol, and over-confidence.

Ex.3 Put the verbs in brackets into the correct Present form.
1. A: Linda ____is learning____ (learn) to drive at the moment.
B: I know. She told me last week.
2. A: Has Alan got a job?
B: Oh yes. He _____________(be) the manager of a leisure centre.
3. A: Do you want to have a break now?
B: Not yet. I ______________(write) a report for tomorrow's meeting.
4. A: It's ten o'clock. Have you given the manager his letters?
B: Yes, and I _________________(also/type) six reports so far this morning.
5. A: Is Jeff still in the garden?
B: Yes. He _________________(plant) flowers all afternoon.
6. A: That author is very well-known, isn't she?
B: Yes. She ________________(write) twenty novels so far.
7. A: You look very happy today.
B: I am. I________________________(just/hear) some good news.
8. A: What time___________________(the play/start) tonight?
B: Seven o'clock, I think.
9. A: Are you new to this company?
B: Not really. In fact, I ___________________(work) here for almost two years.
10. A: Are you ready for the concert?
B: Yes. I __________________(practise) for weeks.
11. A: Do you do any exercise at all?
B: Yes. Actually, I ____________________(go) swimming three times a week.

Ex.4 Write questions to which the words in bold are the answers.
Louise is eight years old. She lives in Brighton, England, and she has lived there since she
was two years old. Louise goes to school every day and her favourite subjects are English and
History. She has two brothers. Their names are Steven and James. Louise has several hobbies,
such as collecting wild flowers and playing the violin. She practises the violin every evening.
Her mother enjoys this, because she likes listening to music.
Supplementary reading
Read the article.

You never get a second chance


to make a first impression
When two people meet for the first time, physical impressions are immediate. Before they have
a chance to say a word, their senses are in overdrive; they are picking up and storing information
about each other. They register looks, smell and body language. They use eye contact to support the
process and to establish a relationship. Within a few seconds, they have made a mental picture of
each other. On the basis of this tiny amount of data, they form opinions which they use in the
future.
But just how reliable are first impressions? Take the story of Jake and Caroline. Jake didn't like
Caroline when he first met her. 'She seemed cold and distant. She made almost no eye contact and
she didn't seem to listen to me.' Six months later, they met again. 'Caroline was a completely
different person. She was warm, friendly and smiled a lot. When she told me that her father had
died two days before we first met, that explained everything. It taught me to be more careful about
making assumptions about people based on first impressions.'
However wrong they can be, first impressions are a necessary survival mechanism. Thousands
of years ago they helped people decide how to react in potentially dangerous situations. That is still
true today, although in most cases it is not a question of life and death. According to some, we can
learn to read first impressions better. We can also learn to create more powerful first impressions.
Professor Helen Trent, a specialist in interpersonal relations, has studied the practice of good
communicators. 'Research shows that people who can make others feel good about themselves are
excellent at creating positive first impressions. We call these people 'Powerful Communicators' or
PCs. You can tell when you meet one; you feel really good afterwards and you think "What a nice
person." PCs immediately get in sync with the other person; they coordinate their body language
and smiles with their partner. They also maintain eye contact and sound and look as if they are
interested, although sometimes they are not. These actions make the other person feel good about
the experience.' PCs are winners in the first-impressions race. So if you want to be a PC, start
training and remember, you only get one chance to make a great first impression!

Ex.1 Read the article. Complete the sentences 1-5 with the best answers a-c.

1. The moment two people first meet they


a) look at and talk to each other,
b) look at each other,
c) they look at each other and build a picture of each other.

2. The story about Jake and Caroline shows that


a) problems stop communication,
b) we can make mistakes based on first impressions,
c) they liked each other in the end.

3. Studying good communicators tells us that they


a) make us feel positive,
b) make us feel friendly,
c) make us feel like good communicators too.

4. Powerful communicators
a) do not always know the effect they have on the other person,
b) are never honest,
c) are not always honest.

5. PCs are
a) the best at running,
b) the best at winning,
c) the best at creating positive first impressions.

Ex.2 Match the words and phrases 1-6 to the definitions a-f.

1. are in overdrive
2. data
3. reliable
4. get in sync
5. survival mechanism
6. assumptions

a) make two or more things happen at the same time


b) something that helps you stay alive
c) be very active or too active
d) information
e) something (or someone) that you can depend on
f) things that you think are true, but you cannot be certain

Ex.3 Make up 10 questions to the text.

Ex.4 Retell the text.