Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 28

Table 1: Final Commercial Energy Demand1 By Source

1990 1995
PJ % PJ %
Source
Petroleum Products 414 74.9 676 72.8
Natural Gas2 45.7 8.3 81.1 8.7
Electricity 71.8 13.0 141.3 15.2
Coal & Coke 21.5 3.9 29.8 3.2
Total 553 100 928.2 100
Per Capita Consumption (GJ) 29.9 44.3
Source of compilation: Malaysia Seventh (1996-2000), Eighth (2001-2005) and Ninth (2006-2010) Plan, Economic Planning Unit (EPU),
1
Refers to the quantity of commercial energy delivered to final consumers but excludes gas, coal and fuel
2
Includes natural gas used as fuel and feedstock consumed by the non-electricity sector

Table 2: Final Commercial Energy Demand by Sector

1990 1995
PJ % PJ %
Sector
Industrial1 213.5 38.6 337.5 36.4
Transport 220.9 39.9 327.8 35.3
Residential & Commercial 67.3 12.2 118.8 12.8
Non-Energy2 18.5 3.3 125.4 13.5
Agriculture & Forestry 32.8 5.9 18.7 2.0
Total 553 100.0 928.2 100.0
Source for compilation: Malaysia Seventh (1996-2000), Eighth (2001-2005) and Ninth (2006-2010) Plan, Economic Planning Unit (EPU),
1
Includes manufacturing, construction and mining
2
Includes natural gas, bitumen, asphalt, lubricants, industrial feedstock and grease

Table 3: Primary Commercial Energy Supply1 by Source

1990 1995
PJ % PJ %
Source
Crude Oil & Petroleum Products 520.2 71.4 702.2 54.3
Natural Gas 2 114.4 15.7 459.5 35.5
Hydro 38.3 5.3 64.5 5.0
Coal & Coke 55.5 7.6 67.5 5.2
Total 728.4 100 1293.7 100.0
Source for compilation: Malaysia Seventh (1996-2000), Eighth (2001-2005) and Ninth (2006-2010) Plan, Economic Planning Unit (EPU),
1
Refers to the supply of commercial energy that has not undergone a transformation process to produce e
Non-commercial energy such as biomass and solar have been excluded
2
Excludes flared gas, reinjected gas and exports of liquefied natural gas
2000 2005 2010
PJ % PJ % PJ % 1990 1995
Industry Energy 213.5
Demand, PJ
337.5
820 65.9 1023.1 62.7 1372.9 61.9 GJ/Capita 29.9 44.3
161.8 13.0 246.6 15.1 350 15.8 Energy Demand, PJ
553 928.2
220.4 17.7 310 19.0 420 18.9
41.5 3.3 52 3.2 75 3.4
1243.7 100 1631.7 100 2217.9 100
52.9 62.2 76.5
Plan, Economic Planning Unit (EPU), Malaysia
ut excludes gas, coal and fuel oil used in electricity generation
ricity sector

2000 2005 2010


PJ % PJ % PJ %

477.6 38.4 630.7 38.7 859.9 38.8


505.5 40.6 661.3 40.5 911.7 41.1
162 13.0 213 13.1 284.9 12.8
94.2 7.6 118.7 7.3 144.7 6.5
4.4 0.4 8 0.5 16.7 0.8
1243.7 100 1631.7 100 2217.9 100
Plan, Economic Planning Unit (EPU), Malaysia

2000 2005 2010


PJ % PJ % PJ %

988.1 49.3 1181.2 46.8 1400 44.8


845.6 42.2 1043.9 41.3 1300 41.6
104.1 5.2 230 9.1 350 11.2
65.3 3.3 71 2.8 77.7 2.5
2003.1 100.0 2526.1 100.0 3127.7 100.0
Plan, Economic Planning Unit (EPU), Malaysia
ormation process to produce energy.

1090

990

890

790

Energy, PJ

690

590

490

390
490

390

290

190
1985
2000 2005 2010 2015 2020 1990 1995 2000 2005
477.6 630.7 859.9 L1 186.8 345.4 504 662.6
52.9 62.2 76.5 E1 26.7 -7.9 -26.4 -31.9
1243.7 1631.7 2217.9 L2 31.78 42.89 54 65.11
E2 -1.88 1.41 -1.1 -2.91
L3 500.4 903.7 1307 1710.3
E3 52.6 24.5 -63.3 -78.6

Industry Energy Demand


GJ/Capita
Energy Demand, PJ
EE Impact

1
1980 1985 1990 1995 1996 1997 1998
Phillipines 175 149 130 175 170 85 95
Thailand 149 100 100 135 140 140 130
re 1: Industrial Malaysia
Fuel Intensity
220 205
in Selected
200 165
ASEAN
170 168
Countries
190
1
toe/GDP Industrial 1995 US Million

450 Vietnam 390 375 330 300


400 Indonesia 250 220 198 125 175 150 165

350
300
250 Phillipines
Thailand
200
Malaysia
150 Vietnam
100 Indonesia

50
0
1980 1985 1990 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000
Year
1990 1995
Industry Energy 213.5
Demand, PJ
337.5
EE1 Impact on Industry
213.5 (PA)337.5
EE2 Impact on Industry
213.5 (Ref)
337.5
EE3 Impact on Industry
213.5 (SR)337.5

Figure 4: Energy Demand Estimates with E

1090

990

890

790
Energy, PJ

690

590

490

390
490

390

290

190
1985 1990 Industry Energy Demand,
1995 PJ Linear 2000
Regression for Industry Energy
2005
Demand, PJ
EE2 Impact on Industry (Ref) Linear Regression for EE2 Impact
Year on
Industry (Ref)
2010 2015 2020
821.2 979.8 1138.4 x 1
38.7 -979.8 -1138.4 ±2~5% y 2
76.22 87.33 98.44
0.28 -87.33 -98.44 ±5~6%
2113.6 2516.9 2920.2
104.3 -2516.9 -2920.2 ±5%

1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2015 2020


213.5 337.5 477.6 630.7 859.9 979.8 1138.4
29.9 44.3 52.9 62.2 76.5 87.33 98.44
553 928.2 1243.7 1631.7 2217.9 2516.9 2920.2
213.5 337.5 477.6 630.7 802.62 922.52 1081.12

Industry consumes 60% of total energy demand; 50% from electricity and 39% fr
1999 2000
93 75
127 120
Countries
168
1980-2000
160
290 290
175 180

Phillipines
Thailand
Malaysia
Vietnam
Indonesia

1999 2000
2000 2005 2010 2015 2020
477.6 630.7 859.9 979.8 1138.4
477.6
477.6
630.7
630.7
802.6
800.0
922.5
919.9
1081.1
1078.5
Figure 3: Energy Demand
477.6 630.7 750.0 869.9 1028.5 3500

3000

2500
mates with EET Impact from 2010 to 2020

2000

Energy, PJ
1500

1000

500

0 Industry Energy Dem


1985 1990 1995
Linear Regression fo
Energy Demand, PJ
n for Industry Energy
2005 EE1 Impact on Industry (PA)
2010 Linear
2015 Regression for EE1 Impact on
2020 2025
Industry (PA)
n for EE2 Impact
Year on EE3 Impact on Industry (SR) Linear Regression for EE3 Impact on
Industry (SR)
2 3 4 5 6 7 8
4 6 8 10 12 14 16

rom electricity and 39% from primary energy. Electricity generation consumes 30% of primary energy.

Figure 2: Energy Demand Curve (with


2500
f(x) = 80.67x - 160017.1
R² = 0.99
f(x) = 2.22x - 4390.84
R² = 0.99

2000

1500
y, PJ
2000

1500

rgy Demand Estimates (without EET ) from 2010 to 2020

Energy, PJ
120

1000
f(x) = 31.72x - 62936.16
R² = 0.98 100

80
500

60

0 Industry Energy Demand, PJ Linear Regressio


40
1985 1990 1995 2000
Energy Demand
Linear Regression for Energy GJ/Capita
Demand, PJ Year

20

Industry Energy Demand, PJ Linear Regression for Energy Demand, PJ 0


1990 1995 2000 Industry Energy
2005 Demand, PJ
2010 2015 2020 2025
Linear Regression for GJ/Capita Linear Regression for
Energy Demand, PJ Year GJ/Capita
2025
Curve (without EET) from 1990 to 2010
90

80

70

60

50
70

60

50
o 2020
120
40

100
30

80 20

60 10

PJ Linear Regression for Industry Energy Demand, PJ 0


40
2000
Energy Demand, PJ 2005 2010 2015
gy GJ/Capita Linear Regression for
Year GJ/Capita

20

0
2025
Table 5: Applicable Energy Efficient Technology for Malaysian Industry (MIEEIP Model)

No. Sector
1 Cement

2 Ceramic
3 Food

4 Glass

5 Iron & Steel

6 Pulp & Paper

7 Rubber

8 Wood
pplicable Energy Efficient Technology for Malaysian Industry (MIEEIP Model)

Energy Saving Application


High insulating bricks in rotary kiln burning zone; and/or
Rotary kiln combustion control and management system
Ceramic recuperator in sanitary ware muffle kiln
Compact immersion tube juice pasteurisation; and/or
Mechanical vapour recompression evaporator
Energy efficient food blanching through steam recirculation
Electric heating or glass furnace forehearth; and/or
External sprayed-applied insulating fibers for furnace refrigerator
Use of low excess air recuperative burners; and/or
Improved ladle drying and preheating in small foundaries
Radio frequency drying
Improved paper drying system
Drying air recirculation; and/or
Insulation jackets for rubber injection press mold
Flash steam and condensate recovery; and/or
Automatic solid fuel feeding and combustion system
Wood dust burning system
Table 6: Energy Efficient Application in MIEEIP Industry Model (Case Studies)

Plant 1:
Product:
Capacity:
Sub-sector:
Energy Efficient Application:

Total Energy Saving


Total Cost Saving

Plant 2:
Product:
Capacity:
Sub-sector
Energy Efficient Application:

Total Energy Saving


Water Saving
Total Cost Saving
Source: MIEEIP, PTM
ent Application in MIEEIP Industry Model (Case Studies)

Cargill Palm Products Sdn Bhd Plant 3:


Refined palm oil Product:
450 kMTA Capacity:
Food Sub-sector:
Heat Recovery System Energy Efficient Application:
Process control of Stearin Hold-up Tank heating
Boiler fuel switching to Natural Gas
Other maintenance activities (non-related)
24,522 GJ/annum Total Energy Saving
USD 0.546 million/annum Total Cost Saving

JG Container Sdn Bhd Plant 4:


Glass container Product:
120 MTD Capacity:
Glass Sub-sector
Replacement of 1970's with new glass furnace Energy Efficient Application:
Annealing lehrs replaced with energy efficient
LPG/NG fired lehr
Recycle of cullet washing water
60,100 GJ/annum Total Energy Saving
8,250 m3/annum Fuel Saving
USD 0.514 milliom/annum Total Cost Saving
Pan-Century Edible Oils
Refined Palm Oil
1000 kMTA
Food
Steam system optimization (using vacuum pump,
pressure regulating valves, etc.)
High efficiency motors
Cooling tower modifications for thermal efficiency
35,000 GJ/annum
USD 0.285 million/annum

Malayawata Sdn Bhd


Steel
700 kMTA
Iron & Steel
Two stage recuperator installation
VSD for process cooling water pump
Reheating furnace burner fuel atomisation
Fuel pre-hetaing using flue gas
19,724 GJ/annum
2,210 T/annum
USD 0.572 million/annum
Table 6: Potential Energy and Cost Saving Identified from the Factories Audited Under the MIEEIP, Malaysia

Sectors Food Wood

Annual Energy Consumption (GJ/annum) 1,835,430 1,031,528


Annual Energy Cost ('000 USD1/annum) 12,067 3,861
Total Energy Savings (Total GJ/annum) 373,587 360,561
Total Cost Saving ('000 USD1/annum) 2,433 1,486
Source of Data: PTM Findings of the Energy Audits
1
1USD = RM 3.5

Table 7: List of EE Project for Second Phase of MIEEIP's Demonstration Project

Project Sector Energy Saving (annual)


Energy GJ
Boiler economiser & waste heat recovery Food 167,087
Electrode Regulating System for EAF Iron & Steel 26,222
Energy Leakage Reduction Cement 9,180
Gob monitoring & fuel substitution Glass 1,780
Improve in fractionation plant cooling Food 1,900
Steam absorption chiller Pulp & Paper 13,116
Diesel generator flue gas drying Wood 39,955
Low thermal kiln Ceramic 16,107
Total 275,347
Source: Reference (8)
dited Under the MIEEIP, Malaysia 2004

Ceramic Cement Glass Rubber Pulp &


Paper
774,061 21,556,595 4,000,370 611,307 5,080,208
6,875 58,328 27,951 4,831 24,057
155,356 345,508 104,095 162,472 811,547
1,712 9,643 710 1,232 5,648

Energy Saving (annual)


Energy Cost USD
620,000
3,123,429
257,143
400,571
111,429
213,143
284,571
137,143
5,147,429
Iron & Total
Steel
4,223,247 39,112,746
45,752 183,721
270,053 2,583,179
1,499 24,363
Using Pareto Analysis
1
Total Consumer of Energy in Industry (Electrical
Cons.) 33740

Pareto Rule: 80% of inefficient use of energy in


industry is caused by 20% of the energy consumer

Number of consumers audited 43


2
Energy saving reported in the Audit (for electricity) 0.37 PJA
Percentage of this consumer 0.127 %
Saving from 20% of the Industry 57.28 PJA Electricity

Simple Ratio Method


Total Energy Consumed by 43 Consumers 39.11 PJA
Total Energy Demand by Industry 630 PJA
2
Energy Saving reported in the Audit (Total) 6.82 PJA
Total potential saving 109.92 PJA

PJA - Peta Joule per Annum


2
Based on reference (8)
1
0.5 % of Electricity Consumer - Refer Chart 5 & 6