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TOMSK POLYTECHNIC UNIVERSITY

N.V. Bogoryad
T.B. Lysunets
E.V. Shvagrukova

INSIGHTS INTO CULTURE OF CHINA, JAPAN AND KOREA

Recommended for publishing as a study aid by the Editorial Board


of the Tomsk Polytechnic University

Tomsk Polytechnic University Publishing House


2014
Федеральное агентство по образованию
Государственное образовательное учреждение высшего профессионального образования
«НАЦИОНАЛЬНЫЙ ИССЛЕДОВАТЕЛЬСКИЙ
ТОМСКИЙ ПОЛИТЕХНИЧЕСКИЙ УНИВЕРСИТЕТ»

Н.В. Богоряд
Т.Б. Лысунец
Е.В. Швагрукова

Экскурс в культуру Китая, Японии и Кореи

Рекомендовано в качестве учебного пособия


Редакционно-издательским советом
Томского политехнического университета

Издательство
Томского политехнического университета
2014
УДК 811.111:930.85(5)(075.8)
ББК Ш143.21-923.8+Т3(5)я73
Б74

Н.В. Богоряд, Т.Б. Лысунец, Е.В. Швагрукова.


Б74 Экскурс в культуру Китая, Японии и Кореи / Н.В. Богоряд,
Т.Б. Лысунец, Е.В. Швагрукова - Томск: Изд-во Томского
политехнического университета, 2014. С.123
Учебное пособие предназначено для студентов старших курсов
гуманитарных специальностей Томского Политехнического
Университета. Учебное пособие состоит из профессионально-
ориентированных текстов по теме литература, искусство, музыка, кино
и театр Китая, Японии и Кореи. Ко всем учебным текстам авторами
разработаны упражнения, которые предполагают индивидуальную,
парную и групповую работу.
Текстовый материал пособия позволит студентам получить
актуальную информацию в области культурных связей стран АТР,
пополнить словарь профессиональных терминов по своей
специальности, отработать написание аннотаций. Тексты являются
аутентичными и отобраны из современных англоязычных источников (в
том числе Интернет сайтов).

УДК 811.111:930.85(5)(075.8)
ББК Ш143.21-923.8+Т3(5)я73

Рецензенты
Кандидат филологических наук, доцент,
кафедры романо-германской филологии ФилФ ТГУ
М.В.Дубенко

Кандидат филологических наук, доцент


кафедры лингвистики ТГПУ
А.Ю.Казанцев

© ГОУ ВПО «Национально исследовательский


Томский политехнический университет», 2014
© Н.В. Богоряд, Т.Б. Лысунец, Е.В.
Швагрукова
© Оформление. Издательство Томского
политехнического университета, 2014

3
TO THE STUDENTS

Dear student!
We hope this book will help you to learn more about art and culture of three countries:
China, Japan and Korea. You will get acquainted with the history of literature, national
music and musical instruments, famous composers, writers and film directors.
The book is divided into 3 parts. Each part is devoted to one country and contains
three paragraphs: Theatre and cinema; Music and musical instruments; Literature.
Each paragraph opens with a few questions or some pictures which help you to
start thinking about the theme you will be studying.
Reading will improve your reading skills.
The Vocabulary sections will help you to enlarge and enrich your vocabulary.
These sections introduce and practice many words and expressions.
Translating and writing sections also contain a lot of factual information.

We very hope you will enjoy using INSIGHTS INTO CULTURE OF CHINA,
JAPAN AND KOREA.

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PART I CHINA
UNIT 1
THEATRE AND CINEMA OF CHINA

LEAD-IN

1 Dwell on the quotations given below. Do you agree with them?

 The theatre is a spiritual and social X-ray of its time. (Stella Adler, an
American actress and an acclaimed acting teacher)

 All the best performers bring to their role something more, something
different than what the author put on paper. That's what makes theatre
live. That's why it persists. (Stephen Sondheim, an American composer
and lyricist)

 In the language of an actor, "to know" is synonymous with "to feel".


(Konstantin Stanislavski, a Russian actor)

2 Look at the pictures and answer


the following questions:
 What do you know about theatre of
China?
 Have you ever watched any perfor-
mances of traditional Chinese theatre? If
yes, what was your impression?

Have you ever seen Chinese films? Who starred in them and
what were they about?
What world-famous Chinese actors and actresses do you know?

5
READING

3 Read the text and choose from the list A – F the sentence which
best fits each gap (1 – 5). There is one extra paragraph which you do not
need to use.

History of Chinese Opera


A In the beginning they were based on an oral story-telling tradition and
didactic Buddhist stories (bianwen).
B After the Cultural Revolution traditional theatre forms were revived
and now China has an abundance of theatrical forms, starting from Kun and
Peking Operas to hundreds of local opera forms, to spoken theatre and to
western-style opera and ballet groups, as well as, more recently, to experi-
mental theatre and dance.
C They were divided into two groups: wu dances performed by men and
xi (hsi) dances performed by women.
D In traditional Chinese theater no plays were performed in vernacular
Chinese or without singing.
E It was characterised by a tendency to combine dance-like movements
and also sometimes movements from the martial arts with sung text.
F In different parts of China local opera forms evolved with their own
characteristic dialects and types of melody.

In a giant country like China with its cultural continuity of several Mil-
lennia, there have understandably been and still are countless different forms
of the performing arts. Many of the basic elements of Chinese theatre, i.e.
poetry, music, dance, and martial
arts, are known to have flourished already during the first Millennium
BC. By approximately 1000 AD these early genres intermingled with each
other and evolved towards a sung theatre form with fixed role categories. (1)
_____. So in the West it is usually called Chinese “opera”.
It is known that during the Shang dynasty (1766–1066 BC) hunting
dances as well as dances imitating animals were performed. As has been al-
ready discussed on several occasions, the dances imitating animals and em-
ploying the so-called “animal movements” have been common in most cul-
tures. The so-called chorus dances were popular during the Zhou dynasty
(1066–221 BC). (2) ______. Besides religious rituals, there were less cere-
monial types of performances, such as comic numbers performed by clowns
and dwarfs as well as displays of acrobatic skills.

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(3) ______. A division into two major cultural regions, the northern and
the southern, occurred around 1000 AD, which led to a kind of competition
between the northern and the southern operatic styles. It was the southern
kunqu or Kun Opera (K’un-ch’ü) which regained the status of a “national”
style among the educated elite during the 16th and 17th centuries. The status
was inherited in the middle of the Qing dynasty (Ch’ing) (1644–1911) by a
new, more popular form of opera, the Peking Opera.
In the early centuries AD play scripts were written. (4) ______ These ar-
chaic “dramas” heralded the rich tradition of Chinese drama literature with its
heydays in the Yuan (Yüan) dynasty (1279–1368) and the Ming dynasty
(1368–1644).
The western impact started to be felt in theatrical life in the Republic of
China (1912–1949). During the early periods of the People’s Republic tradi-
tional opera was still performed, although the emphasis was on its didactic
use and propaganda value. During the Cultural Revolution (1966–1976) all
traditional arts were banned and a new form of theatre was created and
propagated by the Communist Party. It was the Revolutionary Model Opera.
(5) ______.

4 Explain the words and word combinations in bold in the text.

5 Read the text about the history of Peking Opera and decide if the
sentences are true or false. Correct those sentences which are false.
1. Kunqu Opera having been prominent in the capital for the past two
decades was replaced by the Ching Hsi.
2. In the process of constructing the new Peking Opera Anui style in-
herited a lot from the former “national style”.
3. Peking Opera used to lay stress on historical and military plays and
was quite patriotic.
4. Different regional styles share the same plots, though endings can
vary and additional characters be introduced.
5. The performances rely upon symbolic presentation, in which illu-
sions are created by non-realistic acting rather than by stage sets.
6. Since the beginning of the 1930th women have been allowed to per-
form in the opera.
7. Actors typically perform in any role within one category.
8. Exaggerated designs are painted on each performer's face to sym-
bolise a character's personality, role, and fate.
9. A lot of famous Chinese actors and actresses started their career on
the stage of Peking Opera.

7
10. In some feature films the Chinese Opera is presented as a signifi-
cant part of the plot.

Four theatre companies from Anhui arrived in Beijing, and their fresh
styles of music and theatre electrified the capital and eventually came to re-
place the Kunqu Opera style that had been pre-eminent in the capital for the
past two hundred years. Characteristics from other forms of opera, such as
Hopeh, Wuhan, and Shansi, were incorporated into the Anhui style. After a
while this form of opera became known as Ching Hsi, or 'Capital Play.' Ching
Hsi is what we know today as Peking Opera. Because of its long history,
Peking Opera encompasses a wide variety of drama, and a wide variety of
styles of acting. It emphasizes historical and military plays and can be quite
patriotic, and so quite popular.
Although there are many different regional styles, they all share many
similarities. Each has the same four role types: the female, the male, the
painted-face, and the clown. Performances consist of singing, poetry, music,
dance, and gesture. Emphasis is on costume and makeup rather than props or
scenery. The operas often tell the same stories, though with various regional
differences, such as alternate endings or additional characters.
Chinese opera has many strong female roles, though for most of its his-
tory, no females to play them. Women in China, especially of the upper class,
had to observe very reserved and controlled conduct, and for the most part
confined themselves indoors. Instead, men would play the female roles. At
certain times in opera history, these female impersonators were the greatest
stars of the stage. Beginning in the 1930s, it became acceptable for women to
perform in the opera.

The Four Opera Character Types


The Peking Opera inherited its four main role categories from Kunqu
and other earlier theatrical forms and yet enriched them by adding among
them martial role types with acrobatic skills. In the Chinese Opera, there are
generally four main categories of roles: sheng (the male roles), dan (the fe-
male roles), jing (the painted face roles), and chou (clowns). Each category is
further subdivided into distinct types. An actor typically trains for a single
type of role within one category. Actors who can play multiple types of roles
within a single category are considered especially talented. An actor almost
never plays roles outside his or her category.

Sheng:
There are three main male roles that an actor trains for. The first is Lao
Sheng, a middle-aged or old man, dignified and refined. They may be high

8
level scholors or officials, and wear a black hat with fins on either side to de-
note rank, or a general in a military play, wearing armour. In either case he
wears a beard (black or grey, depending on age). The second type of role is
Hsiao Sheng, or young man. The Hsiao Sheng sings in a warbling voice to in-
dicate adolescence, and does not wear a beard. The third type of role is Wu
Sheng, or acrobat, who performs much of the most exciting elements of Chi-
nese Opera.

Dan:
There are twice as many female role types as there are male. They are
divided according to character, status, and age. Lao Dan is the old woman
role. The costume is subdued, no make-up is worn, and the singing voice is
natural and therefore lower than that for the other Dan roles. Wu Dan is the
female acrobat, and is equivalent to the Wu Sheng role for the men. A Qing
Yi actress is the noblewoman, of good quality and character. She is the model
or ideal of the Chinese woman, faithful, proper, shy, and graceful…

Jing:
The Painted Face role is the most recognizable part of Chinese Opera.
This part is reserved for high-ranking army generals or bandits, warriors or
officials. All Jing characters have their faces painted elaborately, the colors
on the face indicating the personality and temperament of the character. A
white face means treachery, black means uprightness, red indicates courage
and virtue, blue denotes cruelty or wild temperament. A mix of multiple col-
ors indicates a more complicated personality.

Chou:
The clown is the only role that can break the 'fourth wall,' so to speak,
and reference current or local events and speak in colloquialisms. Male
clowns are easily recognizable because they all wear a distinctive white patch
of make-up around the nose and eyes. This same make-up is sometimes used
for mean-spirited villains as well. Female clowns do not have the white
make-up patch but instead have a reddened face with black eyebrows.
Costumes and Props
On the Chinese Opera stage, scenery and props are sparse. Often, only a
table and chairs are set on the stage and to signify various thrones, moun-
tains, and so on throughout the story. A character committing suicide by
jumping down a well may in performance simply be stepping

9
off a chair and walking off
stage. In Chinese Opera, it is the ac-
tor that must convey the story,
through voice, movement, and ges-
tures. Each character, furthermore,
wears a distinctive and traditional
costume and makeup which cues
the audience about their status, and
sometimes, about their personality.

Chinese Opera in Film


The ties between the Chinese Opera and the film industries of Hong
Kong, China, and Taiwan are thick and complex. The very first film made in
China was an adaptation of a Cantonese opera, Zhuangzi Tests His Wife, in
1913. Since then many different popular operas have been filmed over and
over again though the years, hundreds of times. These adaptations of Chinese
Opera to film are only the most visible aspect of their symbiotic relationship.
More importantly, many of the most famous actors and stuntmen work-
ing in show business were trained in the opera before coming to studios such
as Shaw Brothers and Golden Harvest to work. The list is a veritable who's
who of Hong Kong cinema: Jackie Chan, Yuen Biao, Sammo Hung, Yuen
Wah, Yuen Woo-Ping, Lam Ching-Ying, and countless others found their
training in the opera prepared them well for a career in the movies. Painted
Faces dramatizes the childhood of Jackie and Sammo in Master Yuen's opera
school. It's a rare Hong Kong movie from the fifties, sixties, seventies, or
eighties that does not have at least one current or former opera player in its
cast.
In addition, there are films in which the Chinese Opera is featured as an
important part of the story. The second theme is the blurring between life and
art, whether by the audience or by the performers.
http://www.illuminatedlantern.com/cinema/archives/a_short_history_of_chinese_op
era.php

10
6 Match the portraits with the character types of the Peking Opera.
1 2 3
2

4 5 6

7 8

Lao Sheng Hsiao Sheng Wu Sheng Lao Da

Wu Dan Qing Yi Jing Chou

7 Write the annotation to the text given (60-80 words).

11
VOCABULARY

8 Complete the gaps in the following sentences with the appropriate


words given below.

reviews screenplay performances set


costume sound-track audience cast
rehearse acted in

1. The director got very angry when the actor failed to turn up to___ .
2. The _____ for this film was written by a famous novelist.
3. The _____ applauded at the end of the performance.
4. Everyone in the _____ was very good apart from the leading lady.
5. The _____ of the film includes great songs.
6. The whole play was performed in seventeenth century _____.
7. The story was ______ in nineteenth-century France.
8. The play got really fantastic _____ from the critics.
9. He has already ______ several award-winning films.
10. His Othello was one of the worst _____ of his career. It was awful.

9 Read the first part of the text about Chinese Shadow Theatre be-
low and look carefully at each line. If a line is correct, put a tick by it. If
it has a word which should not be there, write this word at the end of the
line.

Several forms of shadow and puppet theatre have 1__


flourished in the China during the centuries. The history 2 __
of shadow theatre in China may indeed be much very long. 3 __
A legend from the 1st century of BC tells about an emperor 4 __
who he has lost his beloved and how a shaman brings her 5 __
back to the emperor in the form of a shadow. On the other 6 __
hand, it may be possible as that shadow theatre in China was 7 __
born during the Tang Dynasty (618–907), when the Buddhist 8 __
monks and missionaries have visualised their didactic 9 __
storytelling with shadow puppets. Chinese shadow puppets 10 _
vary in size from some 20 cm to the one meter. They are cut 11 _
from leather that is being treated and coloured so that they 12 _
became transparent. Their legs, waists, shoulders and elbows 13 _
can be bent, and their arms are constructed out from two 14 _
parts. Thus the puppets can imitate with human movements 15 _
when they are operated with rods behind of a paper or muslin 16 _

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screen. Their reflections on the screen are colourful and their 17 _
finer details are chiselled in the leather as if a kind of filigree 18 _
ornamentation.

10 Read the second part of the text about Chinese Shadow Theatre
and fill in the word which fits best.

The execution (1) _____ the puppet’s faces (which are usually shown
(2) _____ profile) is normally most delicate. They follow the conventions of
opera make-up. Thus the faces of beautiful ladies and handsome scholars are
usually cut so (3) _____ only a narrow outline of the face is (4) _____ from
the leather to reflect the shape of their faces on the screen.
The puppets also (5) _____ many fantasy figures and animals. Just as on
the opera stage, so also in the shadow theatre (6) _____ are props, cut of
leather, such as chairs, tables, bushes, etc. Special effects were created (7)
_____ pieces of coloured glass or mirrors. With a piece of red glass the spurt-
ing (8) _____ of a brave warrior can be projected while the cool moon (9)
_____ its rays can be projected onto the screen (10) _____ a metal cylinder.

11 Read the third part of the text about Shadow Theatre and cross
out the incorrect word in the text.

The puppets move (according/due) to the accompanying music just as


the opera actors do. The puppeteer, who often also sings and (delivers/holds)
the dialogue, sits with his assistants behind the screen. The instruments of the
orchestra (fluctuate/vary) according to the regional traditions. Shadow theatre
has often been performed at temple fairs and on market places. It was also the
entertainment of upper-class ladies, who often were not allowed to move
around freely or even (attend/be involved in) opera performances. The small
size of the shadow theatre stage was (available/suitable) for setting up in pri-
vate spaces, too. The plots of shadow plays are more or less similar to opera
(content/plots). They are often based on well-known epic stories telling about
great warriors, famous wars, crime stories, romantic love etc.
During the China mania or the so-called chinoiserie of the Rococo
(era/period) Chinese shadow theatre also became known in Europe. In China,
during the Cultural Revolution, shadow theatre was also used to (shoot/illus-
trate) revolutionary plays. In the late 20th century television and movies have
(cut down/reduced) shadow theatre’s popularity, and real traditional perfor-
mances are now rare. Many groups have (turned to/set to) modernised
shadow figures inspired by popular children’s comics or animations.
http://www.xip.fi/atd/china/shadow-and-puppet-theatre.html

13
12 Use the word given in capitals at the end of each line to form a
word that fits in the space in the same line.

Xiangsheng (Crosstalk) is a traditional (1)_____ comic CHINA


performance featuring jokes and funny dialogues. (2) ____ ORIGIN
in Beijing, the art is popular across the country. It is
widely (3) ____ that xiangsheng was formed during the BELIEF
Qing Dynasty, (4) _____ from the “imitating shows” DERIVE
of the Song Dynasty. It was mainly performed in Beijing dialect.
In the course of (5) ____, xiangsheng absorbed the DEVELOP
essence of different art forms like vocal (6) ____, storytelling IMITATE
etc. It rose as a performing art that implies (7) ____ in SOBER
humor, presenting the true, the good and the beautiful through
satirical puns and bringing (8) ____ to the audience. LAUGH
Modern xiangsheng is made up of four (9) ____ skills ART
– speaking, imitating, teasing and singing. Xiangsheng can be
(10) ____ in the form of a monologue, dialogue or a PERFORM
multi-player talk show. Traditional plays reflect (11) ___ VARY
social (12) ____ through humorous storytelling. There are PHENOMEN
a total of over 200 such plays. (13) ___, xiangsheng CURRENT
covers a wide range of subjects. (14) ____ from works PART
in traditional satirizing style, there are (15) ____ in praise CREATE
of new heroes and events, mirroring real life.
http://traditions.cultural-china.com/en/17Traditions1836.html

TRANSLATION

13 Translate from Russian into English.

1. Становление театрального искусства Китая принято относить к


началу XII века, однако в исторических источниках есть записи о суще-
ствовании в период «Весны и Осени» (772—481 годы до н. э.) артистов,
умевших петь, танцевать, копировать внешность и повадки людей. В
письменных памятниках последующих эпох часто встречаются термины
чан-ю (певец, поющий актер) и пай-ю (комик, шут, лицедей).
2. Китайский театр произошёл от различных песенно-танцеваль-
ных форм, народных, ритуальных и придворных представлений. В эпоху
Чжоу получили определённое распространение различные пантомимах
и выступления придворных шутов, а также цирковые представления

14
байси, или «сто игр» (Baixi или “A Hundred Entertainments”) с
вкраплениями поэтических текстов.
3. Показ картинок, спрятанных в ящик, был распространенным
уличным развлечением в Китае. Внутри ящика картинки передвигались
с помощью веревочного приспособления. Иногда картинки изготавлива-
лись самими уличными актерами, но чаще покупали дешевые напеча-
танные. Картины всегда были раскрашены.
4. Своим происхождением театр теней, по легенде, обязан импера-
торскому горю. В незапамятные времена, когда у императора Хань Уди
умерла жена, он так опечалился, что на время оставил даже управление
государством. Тогда-то, подсмотрев, как тенями играют дети на улице,
его сановник изобрел театр теней. Самое первое представление изобра-
жало жену императора. Увидев как будто ожившую тень любимой жены,
император был немного утешен.
5. Сначала кукла вырезается из бумаги. Бумага тонкая, потому
кукла получается хрупкой, и ей необходимо придать прочность. Для это-
го из дубленой бараньей, лошадиной или ослиной кожи вырезается точ-
но такая же фигурка, которую скрепляют с первой, бумажной.
6. В эпоху Сун были известны "плавающие куклы", потомки меха-
нических кукол древности. По традиции представления водяных кукол
устраивались в специальных лодках-балаганах, но управлялись они ку-
кловодами. Наряду с сюжетными пьесами в программу этих представле-
ний входили цирковые номера, разные фантастические сценки, вроде
"превращения рыбы в дракона".
7. В наши дни с появлением новых видов развлечений театру те-
ней, как и многим другим видам традиционного народного искусства,
угрожает исчезновение. В Китае уже говорят о необходимости внести
заявку на включение театра теней в Реестр объектов мирового наследия
ЮНЕСКО во избежание исчезновения этого вида восточного искусства.
8. Пекинская опера называется «оперой Востока». Она является
драгоценным национальным наследием Китая и называется так потому,
что как самостоятельный театральный жанр она родилась и сформиро-
валась в Пекине.
9. В Пекинской опере для мужских ролей установлен определен-
ный грим. Сочетая реалистичность и символичность, исходя из ду-
шевного состояния, моральных качеств, мыслей и чувств, а также внеш-
ности, возраста и гражданского состояния героя, гримеры-художники
обобщают все это в наиболее типичных чертах облика и характера и в
соответствии с этим создают различные образцы грима, давая характе-
ристику персонажа так же с помощью цвета. Обычно красный цвет в
гриме — это цвет верности и честности, черный — прямоты и смелости,

15
синий и зеленый — храбрости и решительности, желтый и матово-
белый — жестокости и хитрости; золотой же и серебристый цвета
используют для мифических героев.
10. В 2006 году на пекинских сценах состоялись премьеры более 40
пьес, большинство из которых рассказывает о реальной жизни простых
китайцев, затрагивая важнейшие проблемы китайского общества. Неко-
торые режиссёры пошли по пути соединения традиционных элементов с
современными, и их сразу стали называть авангардными режиссёрами.

14 Translate the text from English into Russian.

The Actor’s Skills

In traditional Chinese theatre the


acting technique or, to be precise, “ac-
tor’s skills” are called xigong. They refer
to the acting tradition and methods for-
mulated during the centuries. They are
divided, for example, into the hand, the
eye, the body, and the feet techniques, all
of them related to physical expression,
such as acting, mime, dancing, and acro-
batics. Besides those skills, actors must
also master very demanding singing and
recitation skills.
In addition to these main methods, the actor must have a command of
several sub-techniques or “supporting techniques”. They include, for exam-
ple, the skills related to the handling of certain parts of the costume, such as
the long white silken extensions of the sleeves, the so-called “water sleeves”
shuixiu. Though it seems very easy and natural, handling them is actually
very demanding, and students practise it for years. These silken strips extend
the actual movement of the actor. They can also indicate several things, such
as talking sides or presenting gifts, or they can simply express powerful emo-
tions.
Other supporting techniques are the fan skills, related to the handling of
the fan, which can be used in many ways, for example as a symbol of many
things, such as a wine cup, a butterfly etc. Further skills with a beard refer to
the many ways in which an artificial beard can be manipulated. Anger,
thoughtfulness, hesitation and many other moods can be expressed by the
handling of the beard. Further supporting skills are related, for example, to
the manipulating of the hair and the handkerchief.

16
In the non-naturalistic, symbolic acting style of the Chinese theatre,
many things can be told or illustrated by these supporting skills. A good ex-
ample is the riding whip skills. Riding a horse is indicated by a riding whip
the actor holds in his hand. The colour of the whip indicates the horse’s
colour, and the horse’s movements, such as galloping, running for a long
time, the horse’s tiredness etc., are indicated by the movements of the whip
combined with the actor’s other body movements.
Peking Opera professionals divide the acting skills into three realms.
“Being accurate” indicates a correct combination of the skills, while the sec-
ond realm, “being beautiful”, focuses not only on the technical execution, but
on the interpretation’s aesthetic values and the accuracy of the portrayal of
the character. The highest of the three realms, “having a lingering charm”, is
more difficult to put in words since the highest quality of artistic performance
often seems to avoid exact definitions. For example, the singing of a certain
star actor has been described as “being gentle as weeping and lingering as a
thread”.
http://www.xip.fi/atd/china/theatre-of-the-capital-or-the-peking-opera.html

WRITING

15 Read the article below and write the annotation (60-80


words).

Chinese Hamlet in 'Jackie Chan style'

Jackie Chan meets Hamlet. That's


how Edinburgh International Festival di-
rector Jonathan Mills summed up The
Revenge of Prince Zi Dan, a version of
the Shakespeare play performed by the
Shanghai Peking Opera Troupe.
Mr Mills said: "It is very much the story of Hamlet and his growing
anger and resentment but it is done rather in the style of Bruce Lee or Jackie
Chan, both of whom studied traditional Peking Opera. People who think they
don't know about Peking Opera, you've seen it in all those martial arts films
that people love. Under the surface of that is the same kind of skill, the same
kind of martial arts virtuosity that you need in the original Peking Opera
style." The festival director described it as "a totally crazy, levitating, won-
derfully dynamic, very energetic night out".

17
Peking Opera, also known as Jingju, is a form of traditional Chinese the-
atre which combines music, vocal performance, mime, dance and acrobatics.
Jackie Chan, who transformed himself from a Chinese film star into a Holly-
wood action comedy legend, trained at a Peking Opera school. He learnt
skills in martial arts, acrobatics and tumbling, music and dance.
Fu Xiru, who plays Zi Dan, the Hamlet part, at Edinburgh's Festival
Theatre, said the training for Peking Opera started at a very young age. Mr
Fu, who is now 30, began learning the complex rules and its rigorous training
when he was 10. He learned all the traditional skills including martial arts.
Mr Fu said: "It is very dangerous. Almost every actor who does the martial
arts has some kind of pain or injury in their body. In the ending of this show
Hamlet needs to fight the brother of Ophelia. At this part, the martial arts is
of great importance."
The sets in Peking Opera are virtually non-existent so that all focus is on
the performers, who are judged on the purity of their vocal performance and
the aesthetic beauty of their movements. Mr Fu also highlighted the impor-
tance of the elaborate costumes which the actors wear to convey emotion and
movement.
The show's producer Sun Chung Liang said public interest in Peking
Opera had revived after a fallow period in recent decades. "Peking Opera has
already experienced the glorious era - the peak - and now its development is
something like a wave," he said. "To be honest, today this traditional art is
not as popular as before. However, during the recent years things turned bet-
ter. More and more people are trying to save this traditional art and protect
it."
Shanghai Peking Opera Troupe artists have been going into colleges and
universities to attract new interest. For Mr Sun the most difficult period has
been overcome. "Things will get better and better," he said.
http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-scotland-14572524

18
UNIT 2
MUSIC OF CHINA.
TRADITIONAL MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS

LEAD-IN

1. Do you enjoy listening to Russian folk music? Why? What are your
favourite pieces of folk music?
2. Have you ever heard Chinese folk music? Can you compare and
contrast Russian and Chinese folk music?
3. Look at the pictures above, compare and contrast them, say what is
common and different in them and which of the concerts you would like to
attend and why.
4. Do you play any musical instruments? Did you take music lessons?
If yes, for how long?
5. Do you know any Chinese musical instruments? Are they similar to
any Russian musical instruments?

READING

1 Read the text about the history of Chinese music and make up a
suitable heading for each of the paragraphs (1 – 6). After reading the
text, answer the questions.

1
Chinese music has been known historically since the dawn of Chinese
civilization, with documents and artifacts providing evidence of a well-devel-
oped musical culture as early as the Zhou Dynasty (1122 BC – 256 BC). The
origins of Chinese music can be dated back to distant antiquity. Chinese writ-

19
ings claim that in 2697 BC the emperor Huangdi sent a scholar, Ling Lun, to
the western mountain area to cut bamboo pipes that could emit sounds match-
ing the call of the fenghuang, an immortal bird whose rare appearance sig-
naled harmony in the reign of a new emperor. By imitating the sound of the
bird, Huangdi made possible the creation of music properly pitched to harmo-
nize his rulership with the universe. The "Yellow Emperor" is said to have or-
dered the casting of bells in tune with those flutes.
2
At that time complete musical theory and sophisticated musical instru-
ments began to appear in China, owing largely to the orthodox ritual music
advocated by Confucius. He conceived of music in the highest sense as a
means of calming the passions and of dispelling unrest and lust, rather than as
a form of amusement.
3
By the Han Dynasty (206 B.C. - 220 A.D.), the imperial court had set up
the Imperial Music Bureau which was in charge of gathering and editing an-
cient tunes and folk songs. Because of commercial contacts China had with
Central Asia, foreign music entered the country in the form, for example, of
the Pipa, or lute, and the hu-qin, a vertically held violin. Composers of this
time modified and improved Chinese music because the foreign originating
music influenced them to do so.
4
By the time of the Tang Dynasty (713 - 755 A.D.) the court organised
the Pear Garden Academy song and dance troupe which cultivated a large
number of musicians, this then laid a firm foundation for Chinese music. Tra-
ditionally the Chinese have believed that sound influences the harmony of the
universe. Until quite recently the Chinese theoretically opposed music per-
formed solely for entertainment, accordingly, musical entertainers were rele-
gated to an extremely low social status.
5
Melody and tone color are prominent expressive features of Chinese
music, and great emphasis is given to the proper articulation and inflection of
each musical tone. Most Chinese music is based on the five-tone, or penta-
tonic, scale, but the seven-tone, or heptatonic, scale, is also used, often as an
expansion of a basically pentatonic core.
6
During the first half of the 20th century Chinese music was considerably
influenced by the music of the West. Three major schools of thought arose in
response to this influence. The first school aimed at reviving the old thou-
sand-piece orchestras that once delighted ancient princes and sages and re-
sisted the influence of Western music. The second school concerned itself al-
most exclusively with Western music. The last school of Chinese music took

20
great pride in traditional Chinese musical culture but did not hesitate to apply
it to Western techniques of composition and performance.
Today, the music continues a rich traditional heritage in one aspect,
while emerging into a more contemporary form at the same time.

1.To what dynasty does the first evidence of Chinese musical culture refer?
2.What sounds did the first musical instrument imitate?
3.What was the music aimed at in the time of Confucius?
4.What were the main responsibilities of the Imperial Music Bureau?
5.The Pear Garden was the first known royal acting and musical academy in
China, wasn’t it?
6.What scales is Chinese music based on?
7.What influence on the Chinese music did the Western trends have in the 20 th
century?

2 Read the following test giving description of the principle musical


instruments and match the instruments to their names. Work in groups.
Make presentations about one of the categories of Chinese musical in-
struments including instrument sounds if possible.

Ancient Chinese have left a wealth of music instruments and classic


tunes. Erhu, guzheng, guqin, xun, pipa, and other traditional Chinese music
instruments may alter your acquired definition of "music". The great works
that have been playing for hundreds or thousands of years may also echo in
you.
Chinese music instruments may be classified into the following three
categories, string, wind, and percussion instruments. String instruments may
be further divided into the two sub categories, bowed string instruments and
plucked string instruments. They were also traditionally classified by the ma-
terial of which they were made; they are stone, metal, silk, bamboo, wood,
skin, gourd and clay.

PLUCKED STRING INSTRUMENTS


The plucked stringed instruments are used to a great extent in a Chinese
traditional orchestra. There are many plucked stringed instruments compared
to a western orchestra. Plucked stringed instruments are played by using a
pick or finger nails to pluck the strings. The sound of this group of instru-
ments is lively and attractive. They can be performed in the forms of solo, en-
semble or in an orchestra.

21
1 2 3

4 5 6

Pipa (Pear Shaped Lute)


The word "Pi" meant "to play forward" and "Pa" meant "to play back-
ward". The pipa had a half pear shaped sound box, a crooked neck, and nor-
mally 4 or 5 strings. The Pipa arrived in China in the 4th century AD from
Central Asia. The history of pipa dates back more than 2000 years. Tang poet
Bai Juyi described the Pipa in his "Song of the Pipa" as "large pearls, small
pears tumbling onto a plate of jade", shown the great popularity in the Tang
and Song period.
The number of frets (bridges) has gradually been increased over the
years, up to 23, 25 even 30 frets in the modern type. This has expanded the
instrument range chromatically. The range is over three and a half octaves.
The modern Pipa also use steel strings instead of silk. The musician tapes
picks (fake fingernails or small plectra attached) to all right hand fingers on
the hand except for the thumb, although all five are used. The pipa is clear,
bright and mellow in tone and has a variable volume.

Liuqin (Small Lute, Treble Lute)


The Liuqin looks like a miniature pipa, but it has the shape of a willow
leaf. It also has two sound holes on both sides of the strings. The performer
plays it with a pick made traditionally of horn, but more commonly today,
plastic. A modern Liuqin's front is made of tung wood and the reverse side, of

22
red sandal. The four strings are steel wires. The frets, increased from 7 to as
many as 24, are arranged in half step intervals. The sound of Liuqin is a little
like mandolin, high pitched, bright and it can produce an exciting and agitat-
ing tune when played loudly, and a sweet and touching tune when played
softly.

Ruan (Long-necked Lute)


Commonly referred to as "Chinese guitar", this instrument is an ancient
four-stringed moon-shaped lute with long and straight neck and various num-
ber of frets, dated back at least to Qin Daynasty (around 200 BC). The name
is a shortened form of Ruan Xian who was a musician in the 3rd century. Pic-
torial evidence, excavated from a tomb of his time in Nanjing, depicting
Ruan Xians performance of this instrument, confirms that its construction
was roughly the same as that of today.

Sanxian (Three-string Lute/Banjo)


The sanxian is a Chinese lute — a three-stringed fretless plucked musi-
cal instrument. It has a long fingerboard, and the body is traditionally made
from snakeskin stretched over a rounded rectangular resonator. It is made in
several sizes for different purposes and in the late 20th century a four-
stringed version was also developed. The northern sanxian is generally larger,
at about 122 cm in length, while southern versions of the instrument are usu-
ally about 95 cm in length. The sanxian has a dry, somewhat percussive tone
and loud volume similar to the banjo.

Guzheng (Half- tube Zither)


Also called "Zheng", it was popular as early as in the Warring States
(475-221 BC), especially in the state of Qin in west China. That betrays the
origin of the name qin zheng. The Guzhengs sound box is constructed of
wood, red sandal for its sides and bottom and wutong wood for the arched
soundboard. According to the historical texts, firstly it was described as hav-
ing 12 strings , in succeeding periods the number of strings kept increasing:
from 13 after the Tang and Song (618-1279) up to 24 or 26 at present. Each
string is suspended over the upper soundboard by a single adjustable bridge
as a device for fine tuning. The strings are traditionally silk, or steel wire. The
instrument is rich in playing techniques. Sounding melodious and elegant, it
is an important solo instrument now, and often in accompaniments as well. It
has a loud and bright tone. If its strings are struck consecutively, it produces a
sound like flowing water.

Guqin (small Guzheng)

23
The guqin is the modern name for a plucked seven-string Chinese musi-
cal instrument of the zither family. It has been played since ancient times, and
has traditionally been favored by scholars and literati as an instrument of
great subtlety and refinement, as highlighted by the quote "a gentleman does
not part with his qin or se without good reason," as well as being associated
with the ancient Chinese philosopher Confucius. It is sometimes referred to
by the Chinese as "the father of Chinese music" or "the instrument of the
sages".
BOWED STRING INSTRUMENTS
Bowed-stringed instruments became popular in China during the Sung
Dynasty (960 to 1279 AD). The instruments are played using a bow made of
horse hair to vibrate the strings. They generally have a soft, elegant tone,
which is often used to produce a feeling of weeping or complaining.

1 2

Erhu (Two- string Fiddle, Chinese violin)


The Erhu has a small body and a long neck. There are two strings, with
the bow inserted between them. With a range of around three octaves, it's
sound is rather like the violin, but with a thinner tone due to the smaller res-
onating chamber. In the orchestra they are usually divided into 1st and 2nd
parts.

Gehu (large four-string base fiddle)


The Gehu is a new instrument developed in response to the needs of the
modern Chinese orchestra for a bass bowed instrument. It has a horizontal
round tubular resonating chamber, whose later variant is a large square box
with curved sides. The design was inspired by an old grammophone pick-up.
The Gehu has a deep and mellow tone and is mainly used in ensemble.
Its four strings are tuned in fifths.

24
BLOWN-WOODWIND INSTRUMENTS
Blown-woodwind instruments produce sound by blowing to vibrate the
tube and reeds of the instruments. The tone produced depends on the strength
of the wind. Different strengths can produce pitches that differ by a perfect
fifth or an octave.

Dizi (Di, Transverse Flute)


The dizi is a side-blown, six-hole flute made of bamboo, its structure
rather simple compared with that of other Chinese musical instruments. It has
12 holes: one blowhole, one membrane hole, six finger holes, and two pairs
of holes in the end to correct the pitch and hang decorative tassels. The mem-
brane hole located between the blowhole and sixth finger hole is widely con-
sidered as the key feature of the dizi.
Made from the inner tube of a bamboo 1
or reed plant, the membrane vibrates when
the instrument is played, producing a sweet,
bright tone.

Suona (Trumpet)
Suona, a very expressive reed instru-
ment with a conical metal bell, is very
popular in China's vast countryside in fu-
neral, wedding, and other celebrative occa- 2
sions. Meanwhile, it is also an indispensable
part of a number of local operas. Suona,
with a strong rustic and grass-roots flavor
nowadays, was also an imported instrument
as early as in the Jin dynasty (265-420). As
a result of its high-pitched timbre, Suona is
good at depicting the joyous, noisy, and
magnificent scene.

Sheng (Mouth Organ)


3
The sheng is another ancient Chinese
musical instrument that emits sound by the
vibration of reed. It became very fashion-
able during the Zhou, as it played accompa-
niment for court singers and dancers. The
sheng consists of two parts: reed and pipes
and can be used for accompaniment, solo

25
performance and ensembles. Nowadays the
most common type has 17 pipes and the
improved one for the contemporary com- 4
positions has 21-37 pipes, with keys and a
metal resonating pot for the pipes to insert.

Xun (Clay Vessel Flute)


The Xun is said to be as old as 7000
years and made of baked clay. Xun flutes
varied in shape ranging from an olive, a
ball, a fish, or an egg, most with flattened 5
bottoms. Its construction was standardised
in the Shang dynasty (1766-1122BC). It is
generally pear shaped with five finger holes,
three at the front and two at the rear.

Guan or Bili (Oboe)


The guan is a Chinese double reed wind instrument. It is classified
as a bamboo instrument in the ancient Chinese instrument classification.
It has a cylindrical bore, giving it a clarinet-like tone. Its deep and melan-
cholic tone gives the instrument another name, belili, which means the
"sad oboe".

PERCUSSION
The history of percussion instruments in China is longer than any other
category of traditional instruments. The character of 'drum' was first found in
the inscriptions on bones and tortoise shells of the Shang Dynasty. At that
time (BC 1562 - 1066) more than 50% of instruments were percussion.
The percussion section is the most important section in Chinese opera,
particularly in "martial" scenes known as wu-chang. The player of the bangu
directs the rest of the orchestra through his different methods and positions of
striking his instrument. He has control over the overall development of the
action and creation of atmosphere, and is equivalent to the conductor of a
western style orchestra.

26
1 2 3

4 5

Bangu (Single-headed Frame Drum)


The bangu, often simply gu, is a Chinese frame drum that, when struck
by one or two small bamboo sticks, creates a sharp dry sound essential to the
aesthetics of Chinese opera. The percussion section is very important in Chi-
nese Opera, with battle or 'martial' scenes, which are called wu-chang. The
bangu player is the director or conductor of the orchestra. He works with the
other members of the percussion section to create the right mood for the audi-
ence and actors on stage. The drum, which is about 25 cm (10 inches) in di-
ameter and 10 cm (4 inches) deep. The frame of the Bangu drum is made of
wedges of hard wood glued together to form a circle. Animal skin is then
stretched over the frame of wedges, which is then secured by a metal band.
The wedges do not reach the small area in the centre (the drum’s heart or
"guxin") where the drum is struck. The bangu is held in its own stand with
four iron rings.

Luo (Gong)
Chinese gongs are made of high-tin bronze, hammered into a sifter
shape. Its central resonating area can be either flat or convex. At least its long
history can be traced back to the early Western Han period (206BC-AD 24)
according to an archaeological find from a tomb of that period. Modern vari-
eties are great in number with varying tone qualities. The largest type (over
120cm in diameter) called Dachaoluo, with the name from its deep and grave
tone, is used in weddings, funerals and temple ceremonies. The smallest luo

27
(dog-call gong), only 8cm in diameter, can often be seen in theatre instrumen-
tal ensembles.

Tanggu (Medium-sized Barrel Drum)


The drum is listed as "hide" in the traditional bayin classifications. The
common type is similar in shape to a barrel. Its wooden shell, entirely painted
red with decorative patterns, is covered with two drumheads of cowhide or
pig skin. Four lateral iron rings around the shell allow the drum to be verti-
cally suspended in a frame. It is struck with a pair of wooden beaters. Tone
quality can be modified by moving the point of striking closer to the centre of
the surface, with varying dynamics.

Muyu (Woodblock or Slit drum)


It was used originally to accompany Buddhist chant only. The muyu is
carved from a block of wood and into the shape of a fish, and then its interior
is hollowed out. Sounds can be produced by striking. The muyu is mostly
made of mulberry or Chinese toon wood. The larger type is primarily used in
Buddhist temples, but recently appears in sets, varying in diameters and tone
qualities. The set is mainly used for regular rhythms in the accompaniment.

Bianzhong (Collected Bronze Bells)

These are percussion musical instruments unique to ancient China. The


zhong is made of bronze while the qing generally of stone. They may be
played either individually or in groups. In the latter case, they are hung in
rows on wooden racks and known respectively as bianzhong and bianqing.
Struck with wooden hammers, they produce melodious sounds of various
notes. In their time, they were the important instruments played - either in
solo performance or in ensemble or as accompaniment - during imperial au-
diences, palace banquets and religious ceremonies.
http://www.chinesemusic.co.uk/traditional-chinese-instruments/

VOCABULARY

1 Match the words and word combinations to their definitions.

28
1 to pluck a a small thin device (of metal or plastic or ivory)
the strings used to pluck a stringed instrument
2 fingerboard b improving or perfecting 2 R
3 resonator c a narrow strip of wood on the neck of some e
stringed instruments where the strings are held a
against the wood with the fingers d
4 reed d articulate in a very careful and rhythmic way
5 percussion e pull lightly but sharply t
6 pick f anything which resounds h
7 fine tuning g a vibrator consisting of a thin strip of stiff material e
that vibrates to produce a tone when air streams
over it"the clarinetist fitted a new reed onto his t
mouthpiece" e
8 beater h a stroke with a curved piece of wood with taut x
horsehair strands that is used in playing stringed t
instruments
9 chant i a musical instrument in which the sound is a
produced by one object striking another n
10 bow j drumstick d

fill in the gaps using the words given.

literally peasant mouth vary


excluding produced artistry including
wind-and-percussion bowed instruments

There is a saying that 99 percent of all Chinese are farmers, and it's true
that most Chinese music – (1) _____ the classical, operatic and art music tra-
ditions – originates with rural, (2) _____ traditions, and has deep regional
roots.
For centuries, farmers in the north have practiced (3) ______ ensembles.
Ding County of Hebei is famous for (4) _____ in the double reeds: the guanzi
(double-reed pipe), the haidi (small oboe) and the suona (Northern oboe). In
Xian, the Western Capital of China, musicians for centuries practiced the
sheng (a free-reed (5) _____ organ) and di (reeded transverse flute) for join-
ing ensembles called Xian drum music. In the early 1960s, Liu Mingyuan and
the Xinying Traditional Orchestra wrote the popular "Years of Happiness"
based on rural traditional music.
Eastern China is "fiddle" country, and (6) _____ such as the erhu,
zhonghu, and the gaohu are popular as both solo and ensemble instruments.
The Zhejiang, Jiangsu, Shandong provinces have (7) _____ a lot of fiddlers,

29
including Wang Dianyu, Zhao Yuchai and the influential A Bing (1893–
1950), a street musician famous for his many compositions, (8) _____ his
most famous "Listen to the Pine."
In the south, folk music is often combined with dance. The huadeng is a
large class of regional dance. Huadeng is known in the West as the "lantern
dance" and translates (9) ______ as "flower lantern". The steps (10) _____
from place to place, but the dancers all carry lanterns or fans and they also
sing.

3 Read the text about modern Chinese music and choose the option A,
B, C or D, which best fits each gap.

Today's Chinese music is very (1) _____ to modern Western music. Like
young Westerners, young Chinese adults (2) _____ the concerts of famous
Chinese pop stars. Modern Chinese orchestras still play (3) _____ versions of
traditional pieces, but they also play classical and modern symphonic compo-
sitions. Popular modern music (4) _____ many aspects of Western music
from electric keyboards to guitars. Much of today's popular music can be
classified as soft rock, rock, or dance music.
_____ many aspects of popular Chinese music are similar to those of
popular Western music, many traditional facets to modern music remain.
Many traditional Chinese instruments are used in (6) _____ with popular in-
struments of Western cultures. The mixing of traditional instruments with
other instruments (7) _____ a wide variety of euphonious sounds and
rhythms. In (8) _____ , the mixing of traditional instruments with Western
styles of singing creates unique Chinese sounds. Many modern artists also in-
corporate traditional Chinese melodies into their songs, so even music using
only popular Western instruments sounds different. The mixing of Western
styles and Chinese styles with traditional Chinese instruments and other in-
struments (9) _____ for the creation of an endless scope of expression with
modern Chinese music.

1 a) same b) similar c) alike d) corresponding


2 a) attend b) hold c) go into d) make a visit
3 a) adopted b) ready c) adapted d) altered
4 a) consists b) merges c) forms d) incorporates
5 a) So b) In spite c) Though d) Even
6 a) conjunction b) coincidence c) unit d) company
7 a) creates b) establishes c) constructs d) sets up
8 a) consequence b) accord c) conclusion d) addition
9 a) lets b) allows c) enables d) provides

30
6 Match the idioms with their definitions and find the Russian equiva-
lents to them.
1 arrange some music for a a welcome sound to someone;
something news that someone is pleased to
hear
2 chin music b stop everything!; hold it!

3 to face the music c talk; conversation

4 music to someone's ears d to be in an excellent state of health


or physical condition
5 to stop the music e pleasant but boring recorded music
that is played in public places
6 elevator music (Am.) f humorous way of talking about
playing the piano
7 to ring a bell g to prepare or adapt music for par-
ticular instruments or for a particu-
lar musical key
8 to be as fit as a fiddle h to sound familiar, but one doesn't
remember the exact details
9 to jazz something up i to receive punishment; to accept
the unpleasant results of one's
actions
10 to strike a false note j to do something wrong or
inappropriate
11 tickle the ivories k to say the same thing again and
again
12 (sound) like a broken l to add something to try to improve
record it or make it more stylish

7 Fill in the sentences with the correct idiom in the correct form
from the exercise above.

1 This piece ______ by Frank's brother.


2 John Bentley? The name _____ but I don't remember him.
3 The news of his resignation was _____.
4 You can't get away from _____ in some shopping malls.
5 Whenever those two get together, you can be sure there'll be plenty of
_____.

31
6 My grandfather loves playing the piano. He ______ whenever he gets
the chance.
7 Mary crashed her Daddy’s car and had _____ when her father got
home.
8 Dad! Stop telling me to be careful when I drive. You ______!
9 John (entering the room):_____ ! There's a fire in the kitchen!
Mary: Good grief! Let's get out of here!
10 My grandfather is nearly ninety but he's _____ .
11 The dress needs a scarf or a necklace _____ it ___.
12 He _____ when he arrived at the cocktail party wearing old jeans.

TRANSLATION

8 Translate from Russian into English.

1 Музыкальное искусство Китая формировалось и развивалось в


течение нескольких тысячелетий. Его основная идея оставалась единой
для всех эпох и династий – слияние человека с природой, постижение
принципов бытия и духовное самосовершенствование личности.
2 Особое место занимают обрядовые и религиозные компози-
ции, в основном, инструментального характера. Благозвучные мелодии
помогали в медитации и постижении места человека во Вселенной.
3 Баньгу – деревянный барабан в форме чаши, по кожаной мем-
бране которого ударяют двумя бамбуковыми палочками.
4 Ди – флейта, по мнению археологов, изобретенная еще в 8 ты-
сячелетии до н. э.
5 Пипа – четырехструнная лютня, звук извлекается путем движе-
ния пальцев вниз («пи») и вверх («па») по струнам.
6 В ходе длительной истории развития музыки китайский народ
создал разные музыкальные инструменты со своей национальной специ-
фикой. В настоящее время китайцы используют более 400 видов музы-
кальных инструментов, которые делятся на духовые, щипковые, струн-
ные и ударные.
7 Муюй — самозвучащий музыкальный инструмент, который
представляет собой деревянный колокол без языка, напоминающий со-
бой коробочку. Корпус муюя часто покрывали причудливой резьбой,
прорезь в основании напоминает пасть рыбы, собственно, благодаря
этому инструмент и получил свое название — деревянная рыба. Корпус
обычно покрывали лаком, а иногда даже позолотой. Во время игры
муюй либо держат одной рукой за рукоятку, либо кладут на подушечку и

32
бьют по нему деревянной палочкой. Также при игре муюй иногда носят
на шнурке через плечо.
8 Эрху – один из важнейших китайских струнных инструментов.
Он является одной из «составляющих» большого семейства струнных
инструментов. Всем известные скрипка и виола также входят в это се-
мейство.
9 Звучный и внятный, этот инструмент идеально подходит для
исполнения изумительно живых и приятно поражающих слух номеров и
часто бывает ведущим инструментом в духовых и оперных оркестрах.
Его громкий звук легко различить среди других инструментов. Он так
же способен задавать ритм и имитировать щебетание птиц и стрекот на-
секомых. Сона является по праву незаменимым инструментом для на-
родных празднеств и фестивалей.
10 Глиняный сюнь - один из древнейших духовых музыкальных
инструментов Китая. Археологические исследования показывают, что
около 8000 лет назад глиняный сюнь использовался в качестве оружия
для охоты. Во время правления Иня династии Шан (17 - 11 вв. до н.э.)
сюнь вытачивался из камня, костей животных и слоновой кости.

9 Translate the text from Russian into English.

Итак, китайская культура характеризуется культурным единством,


своеобразием и замкнутостью. Она почти без изменений просущество-
вавшей вплоть до XVII в. н.э. и это позволяет нам, в частности, устано-
вить особенности музыки Древнего Китая. Музыка играла большую
роль в жизни древних китайцев. В процессе длительного развития по-
степенно сформировалось пять основных видов традиционной музыки:
песни, танцевальная музыка, музыка песенных сказов, музыка местных
опер и инструментальная музыка.
Для китайской народной песни характерен гилозоизм, лежащий в
основе культуры и мировоззрения китайцев, выражающийся в видении
природы как живого организма. Человек в этой культурной системе
стремится к жизни во всей ее природной полноте и рациональной
устроенности.
Характерные черты древнекитайской народной музыки – богатство
и своеобразие мелодики, быстрые переходы из высокого регистра в низ-
кий и наоборот, использование фальцета, своеобразный метро-ритм и
продуманная, применяемая с большим мастерством структура. Одной из
важных особенностей китайской музыки – неразделимое единство поэ-
тического текста и музыки, а также связь музыки с жестом и пляской,
взаимосвязь вокальной музыки с фонетикой народной речи.

33
Своеобразно и сочетание вокальной музыки с инструментальной.
Инструменты либо создают шумовой фон, либо следуют за вокальной
мелодией, либо создают своего рода «заставку» или «концовку» для во-
кальной мелодии.
Значительное своеобразие китайской народной музыке сообщает
пятизвуковая музыкальная система — пентатоника, которая была уста-
новлена китайскими музыкальными теоретиками около IV века до н. э.
Своеобразие китайской музыки проявляется и в использовании раз-
нообразных музыкальных инструментов, выполненных из природных
материалов. Китайские музыкальные инструменты охватывают все
группы и подгруппы инструментов в современной их классификации.
В период средневековья происходит дальнейшее развитие ки-
тайской музыкальной культуры на основе народной песенной и танце-
вальной музыки. Возникают первые ростки музыкально-театрального
искусства. XII и XIII века ознаменованы зарождением китайской «опе-
ры», классического китайского театра, сохранившего свои основные
эстетические принципы до наших дней. Китайский театр был в полном
смысле народным. У большинства традиционных спектаклей неизвестен
был композитор. Обычно он попросту отсутствовал, так как спектакль
создавался целым коллективом музыкантов-исполнителей и актеров.
Музыкальная сторона классического театра отличается неразрыв-
ным единством звука, слова и танца. Круг образов, настроений, приемов
актерской игры характеризуется определенным типом мелодики, ритми-
ки, составом оркестра, оживляющих действие. Особенно велика была
роль ударных инструментов, которые призваны усиливать сценическую
игру и выразительность движения актеров и концентрировать на этом
внимание зрителей.
http://www.atexnik.ru/neopredeleno/osobennosti_narodnoj_muzyki_kitaya.php

WRITING

10 Read the article below and write the annotation (60-80 words).

Utah band blends American folk music with Chinese instruments

34
When four Mormons
went on their mission trips to
China, they unlocked a passion
for Chinese music. They
learned new instruments that
have allowed them to present a
completely different type of music from anything heard in the United
States. The band Matteo, from Salt Lake City, plays songs that blend tradi-
tional Chinese and American folk music. While their inspiration is old, the re-
sults are something new. It’s Western songs interpreted on Chinese instru-
ments.
Matteo is made up of four 20-somethings: Eric Chipman, his wife Brinn
Bagley-Chipman, Luke Williams and Jordan Riley. Eric, Brinn and Jordan all
speak fluent Mandarin Chinese. They were raised in the Church of Jesus
Christ of Latter Day Saints and they did Mormon missions in Taiwan.
“You just agree, I’m going to be a missionary and wherever you send
me, I’ll go,” Bagley-Chipman said. “You just get a letter and you open it up
and you realize you are going to be in Taiwan for a year and a half or two
years.”
Bagley-Chipman is a talented violinist, but in Matteo she is often called
upon to play the erhu — an iconic Chinese instrument, a fretless fiddle with a
slender neck and just two strings. She'd been to China, as an English teacher,
but for her husband Eric, the thought of going to a crowded Asian city was
overwhelming.
“Before I got assigned, I couldn’t have thought of a place I wanted to go
least,” Chipman said. “I hated big cities, I hated crowds. I was honestly terri-
fied of it.”
When he wasn’t proselytizing, Chipman spent a lot of time hanging out
in music shops, checking out traditional Chinese instruments. One of them
caught his eye. “The guzheng is the one I would always go to because I
sounded better playing it than the other ones,” Chipman said. Shipping it
home to Utah wasn’t easy or cheap, but Chipman began using the guzheng in
his music. The first song it really worked in was “Sweet Sweeping Joy,”
which is on the band’s first album, “The Morning Market.” When they
recorded it, they weren’t exactly experts on Chinese instruments. “We knew
these instruments, we already felt like we were hacks at them,” Chipman
said. “We were not trained in any way and so we wanted to do more justice to
the instruments.”
Chipman and the rest of the band spent six weeks last summer studying
music at Sichuan University in Chengdu, China, and they learned just how

35
incorrectly they’d been playing their Chinese instruments. “There is just a
very certain way to play the instrument,” Bagley-Chipman said. “Innovation
and trying a different way isn’t necessarily valued. When we played things
that were new or different it was just confusing to them, rather than being
cool.”
Chipman said his teacher was a particularly demanding drill sergeant.
“The first four or five lessons I was sitting on this liuqin,” he said, plucking
one string, “and thought that I am not going to learn anything except how to
pluck the string over and over.”
The members of Matteo did eventually learn to play their Chinese in-
struments better and more authentically. They also recorded a new EP, which
they called “The Sichuan Project.” The songs on the album are still rooted in
American indie folk music, but Chipman isn’t scared of Taiwan or China
anymore. He says on this new album, China’s just bigger. “There is this thing
in Chinese aesthetic that we really like, where if like you look at a Chinese
landscape, it’d just be these big mountains and mists and waterfalls and just a
really small person on some cliff,” he said. “We wanted this to be bigger than
our personal lives.”
http://www.pri.org/stories/arts-entertainment/music/utah-band-blends-american-
folk-music-with-chinese-instruments-12988.html

36
Unit 3
LITERATURE OF CHINA. CALLIGRAPHY

1 Answer the questions.


1 What kind of things do you like to
read?
2 What was the last thing you read for
pleasure?
3 Look at the pictures, which show
people reading in different situations. What
is each person reading and why? How use-
ful or important is it to be able to read in
these situations? Which type of reading is
most important for you?

2 Work with a partner. Discuss


the following questions.
1 Do you often read articles or emails
on a computer?
2 Do you often use the Internet to find
information for your studies or work?
3 How far do you think television and
the Internet have changed people’s reading
habits?
4 Do you think that people will still
read books in thirty years' time? Why?
/Why not?

3 You will read five people’s


opinions about what they read. You have
to choose one statement that matches

37
what each speaker says.

A I am prepared to try reading books that seem difficult.


В I think that some of what I read is a waste of time.
С I like reading books that are part of a series.
D I find that reading is a way of relaxing.
E I enjoy reading books that have been made into films.
F I choose books connected with the career I want to follow.
1
I read quite a lot but I can't really say I prefer one sort of thing to another. I
like to flick through the celebrity magazines, tike Hello to see how people
who are rich and famous actually live and see the sort of clothes they wear. I
feel a bit guilty because it’s useless stuff really, you don't actually get any-
thing out of it. I do read fiction as well but if it’s a bit difficult I have this bad
habit of looking at the last chapter to find out what happens, then it doesn't
seem worth reading to the end ... and I have a look at the newspapers most
days, though it might be just the headlines or to find out what’s on TV.
2
Well, I read a lot but I don't really go for fiction, I tend to prefer non-fiction
like real-life crime ... gangland stuff and so on. In the future I'd like to be-
come a criminal psychologist, trying to find out what makes people commit
crimes - so I guess that’s how I got interested in reading about that kind of
thing. And for the last few months I've been really into biographies. At
present I’m halfway through a book called Raging Bull by Jake La Motta. It’s
about a crazy boxer – they made a film of it with the same name starring
Robert De Niro in the lead role. It’s a great film.
3
A lot of my friends won't read anything if it was written more than five or ten
years ago. They say old books aren't worth reading really, but I don’t agree. I
mean, if people have kept on buying them and reading them for 50 or a 100
years, they can’t be that bad. Of course, it depends on the book; some of them
can be a bit complicated and hard to read, but it’s worth carrying on to the
end. I mad Jane Eyre, that was written over a 100 years ago and it’s wonder-
ful. And of course Lord of the Rings was written over 50 years ago and that's
a masterpiece, even better than the film.
4
I really started getting into reading with the Harry Potter books. Actually I
still enjoy them, but nowadays I mostly read science fiction, writers like
Terry Pratchett. I like his books because they're all connected, they're all set
in the same universe called Discworld, so you can get to know it better end
better as you read more books. The last book I read was called Solaris –I

38
can’t remember the author’s name – about a planet which is completely cov-
ered by water and it turns out to be… Well, I won’t tell you the end. It’s actu-
ally a great book although it was really depressing. It's been made into a film
but I don't think I’ll be going to see it.
5
When I was small my parents used to read to me a lot, especially at bedtime.
I used to like reading comics, and books with lots of pictures like the Asterix
series. Nowadays I actually prefer reading to watching movies. You’ve got
more time to think, you can get into the ideas more deeply. I work in the mu-
sic business, which is great but it can be stressful and I find a good novel just
helps me to escape from everything for a while. I suppose I'm a reading ad-
dict... I usually have several books on the go at any one time. And as well as
that I like reading music magazines to keep up with what's going on in the
music world.
Which speakers’ views do you agree with most?

READING
4 Read the text and match the sentences (A – G) to the gaps (1 -7).
There is one extra sentence which does not match any gap. Then, explain
the words and phrases in bold. Make up 5 questions to the text for the
groupmates to answer.

Review of the Chinese Literature

China is the only country in the world with a


literature written in one language for more than 3,000
consecutive years. (1) _____. The characters stand for
things or ideas and so, unlike groups of letters, they
cannot and need never be sounded. Thus Chinese could
be read by people in all parts of the country in spite of
gradual changes in pronunciation, the emergence of
regional and local dialects, and modification of the characters.
The dominance of the written language has had significant effects on the
development of the literature. In handwriting or in print, a piece of literature
has visual appeal. (2) ______. The main disadvantage of written Chinese is
the great number of characters it contains: even basic reading and writing re-
quire knowledge of more than 1,000 characters. This has often made it diffi-
cult to spread the skills of reading and writing into certain areas of the coun-
try. But even with this disadvantage, Chinese has been a potent factor in
shaping and maintaining a cultural continuity for millions of people. (3)
______.

39
China has a very old and rich tradition in literature and the dramatic and
visual arts. Early writings generally derived from philosophical or religious
essays such as the works of Confucius (551-479 BC) and Lao-tzu (probably
4th century BC). (4) _____. A strong tradition of historical writing also
evolved. After the fall of a dynasty, for example, a grand history of the late
dynasty was commissioned and written by scholars in the next dynasty.
(5) _____. Poetry became well established as a literary form during the
T'ang Dynasty, from AD 618 to 907. One of China's greatest poets, Li Po,
wrote during this period. This tradition of poetry, often dealing with the rela-
tionship of humans to their natural surroundings, has continued.
Drama is another old and important literary form. Chinese drama usu-
ally combines vernacular language with music and song and thus has been
popular with the common people. (6) _____. Chinese opera is a favorite artis-
tic and cultural medium.
Early Chinese novels often stressed character development and usually
centered on an adventure or supernatural happening; an example is the
classic Ming version of `Shui-hu chuan' (The Water Margin). Historical
themes were also popular, as in the `Romance of the Three Kingdoms', writ-
ten in the late Yuan period. There were also love stories such as the extremely
popular.
"Dream of the Red Chamber', probably China's most famous novel.
Many of the early novels were written anonymously. (7) _____.
China's literary tradition continues to the present, though much 20th-
century writing has concentrated on efforts to reform or modernise China.
Probably the most famous 20th-century writer is Lu Xun, a poet, essayist,
and novelist whose work focused on the need to modernise through revolu-
tion. Under Communism, writers have been expected to uphold the values of
the socialist state, though the degree of control over their output has varied.
http://academic.brooklyn.cuny.edu/core9/phalsall/texts/chinlit.html

A These writings were often about how people should act and how the soci-
ety and political system should be organized and operated.
B A variety of popular and standard themes are presented in Peking Opera,
which is probably the best known of several operatic traditions that devel-
oped in China.
C This continuity results largely from the nature of the written language it-
self: it is the use of characters, not letters as in Western languages, that is
most important in the Chinese language.

D Often these works were written in the vernacular, and many authors felt it
was beneath their station to be associated with this type of writing.

40
E Because the written characters tend to keep the language stable, Chinese
never developed into distinctly separate languages as did Latin in southern
Europe with the formation of the several Romance languages.

F This has given rise to the great respect that calligraphy enjoys in China,
where it has been regarded for at least 16 centuries as a fine art comparable
to painting.

G In addition to philosophical, religious, and historical writings, China also


produced poetry, novels, and dramatic writings from an early date.

5 Read the first part of the text about the great classic novel ‘Dream
of the Red Chamber’. Use the word given in capitals to form a word that
fits in the space in the same line.

Dream of the Red Chamber, (1) ____ by Cao Xueqin, COMPOSE


is one of China's Four Great Classical Novels. It was written
in the middle of the 18th century during the Qing Dynasty.
It is considered a (2) ___ of Chinese literature and is PIECE
generally (3) ____ to be the pinnacle of Chinese fiction. KNOWLEDGE
"Redology" is the field of study devoted (4) ____ to this EXCLUDE
work. The title has also been translated as Red Chamber
Dream and A Dream of Red Mansions. The novel
circulated in manuscript copies with various titles until its
print (5) _____, in 1791. The first 80 chapters were PUBLIC
written by Cao Xueqin. Gao E, who prepared the first and
second printed editions, added 40 (6) _____ chapters ADD
to complete the novel in 1791-1792.
Red Chamber is believed to be semi-(7) _____, mirroring BIOGRAPHY
the rise and decay of author Cao Xueqin's own family and,
by(8) _____, of the Qing Dynasty. As the author details in EXTEND
the first chapter, it is intended to be a (9) _____ to the MEMORY
women he knew in his youth: friends, relatives and servants.
The novel is (10) ____ not only for its huge cast of MARK
Characters and psychological scope, but also for its precise
and detailed (11) _____ of the life and social OBSERVE
structures typical of 18th-century Chinese (12) __. ARISTOCRAT

41
6 Read the second part of the text. If a line is correct, put a tick by it.
If it has a word which should not be there, write this word at the end of
the line.

The novel is most often titled "Red Chamber Dream". "Red 1__
chamber" is an idiom with several definitions; one in the 2__
particular refers to sheltered chambers where as the daughters of 3__
prominent families reside. It is also refers to a dream in Chapter 4__
5 that Baoyu has, set up in a "red chamber", where the fates of 5__
many of the characters are foreshadowed. 6__
The novel's tone is both metaphysical and realistic, and which 7__
was constructed in a way that reality and illusion are often hinted 8__
side by side and difficult to be differentiate. It has been hailed as 9__
one of the most psychologically penetrating works than in all 10_
world literature. The novel also provides on great insight in its 11_
depiction of the Chinese culture of the time, including many 12_
description of the era's "manners, expectations, and consequences. 13_
Many aspects of Chinese culture, such as like medicine, cuisine, 14_
tea culture, proverbs, mythology, the Confucianism, Buddhism, 15_
Taoism, filial piety, an opera, music, painting, classic literature, 16_
the Four Books, are vividly portrayed. Among from these, the 17_
novel is particularly notable but for its grand use of poetry. 18_
Two major themes that they are prevalent throughout the novel 19_
are the nature of ‘reality’ and of the ‘truth’. 20_

7 Read the final part of the text about ‘Dream of the Read Cham-
ber’ and cross out the incorrect word given in brackets.

The novel provides a detailed, episodic (record/note) of the two


branches of the wealthy and aristocratic Jia clan – the Rongguo House and
the Ningguo House – who (inhabit/reside) in two large, adjacent family com-
pounds in the capital. Their ancestors were made Dukes and given imperial
titles, and as the novel begins the two houses are (between/among) the most
illustrious families in the city. One of the clan’s offspring was made an Impe-
rial Consort, and a lush landscaped garden was built to (pay/receive) her visit.
The novel describes the Jias’ wealth and influence in great naturalistic detail,
and charts the Jias’ fall from the (height/altitude) of their prestige, following
some thirty main characters and over four hundred (tiny/minor) ones. Eventu-
ally the Jia clan (falls/gets) into disfavor with the Emperor, and their man-
sions are raided and confiscated.

42
In the novel's frame story, a sentient Stone, abandoned by the goddess
Nüwa when she mended the heavens aeons ago, (pleads/begs) a Taoist priest
and a Buddhist monk to bring it with them to see the world. The Stone, ac-
companied by a character named Divine Attendant-in-Waiting, was given a
chance to learn from the human existence, and (penetrates/enters) the mortal
realm.
The main character of the novel is the carefree adolescent male heir of
the family Jia Baoyu. He was born with a magical piece of "jade" in his
mouth. In this life he has a special bond with his sickly cousin Lin Daiyu,
who (devides/shares) his love of music and poetry. Baoyu, however, is pre-
destined to marry another cousin, Xue Baochai, whose grace and intelligence
exemplifies an ideal woman, but with whom he (comes short/lacks) an emo-
tional connection. The romantic rivalry and friendship among the three char-
acters against the backdrop of the family's declining fortunes forms the main
story in the novel.
‘Dream of the Red Chamber’ (comprises/consists) an extraordinarily
large number of characters: nearly forty are considered major characters, and
there are almost five hundred additional ones.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dream_of_the_Red_Chamber

8 Complete the chart for ‘The Dream of the Red Chamber’ using
the information from Activities 5 – 7.

Title
Author’s name
Year of publication
Genre
Major themes
Characters
Plot
Additional
information

9 Choose two or three pieces of Chinese literature from the list be-
low and make a report or presentation about them. Complete the chart
as in Activity 8.
 Water Margin by Shi Naian
 Romance of the Three Kingdoms by Luo Guanzhong
 Journey to the West by Wu Cheng'en
 Strange Stories from a Chinese Studio by Pu Songling

43
 Jin Ping Mei (or The Plum in the Golden Vase) by Lanling Xiaoxiao
Sheng
 Flowers in the Mirror by Li Ruzhen
 The Scholars by Wu Jingzi
 The Master of Huai-nan by Liu An
 The Romance of the Eastern Zhou edited by Cai Yuanfang
 The Story of the Western Wing by Wang Shifu
 The Peony Pavilion by Tang Xianzu
 The Peach Blossom Fan by Kong Shangren
 The Palace of Eternal Life by Hong Sheng
 The Orphan of Zhaoy by Ji Junxiang

TRANSLATION

10 Translate the sentences from Russian into English.

1 Китайская литература – одна из древнейших и богатейших в


мире. Самым ранним, крупным литературным памятником является ан-
тология древней китайской поэзии – "Шицзин" – "Книга песен", относя-
щаяся к VI в. до н.э. Она включает 305 произведений крупнейших
поэтов Китая.
2 Самые ранние свидетельства китайской письменности были обна-
ружены на так называемых гадальных костях, на черепашьих панцирях
и лопаточных костях животных. На них высказывались пожелания
узнать о погоде, предстоящем урожае или об исходе сражений. Затем эти
кости бросали в огонь и по характеру трещин, образующихся под воз-
действием жара, делали предсказание. Возраст подобных форм письма
превышает 4 тыс. лет, и, конечно, такие надписи не могут быть причис-
лены к литературным памятникам, хотя и дают информацию о развитии
китайской письменности.
3 Бросается в глаза отсутствие древнейшего пласта эпического
устного творчества и разрозненность мифологических представлений.
Предполагается, что в их искоренении также участвовала конфуци-
анская идеология.
4 Самые древние китайские книги были написаны на бамбуковых
пластинках, соединенных вместе наподобие оконных жалюзи. Этим
объясняется и старинный способ китайского письма сверху вниз и спра-
ва налево.
5 В древности китайские прозаики и поэты были также и каллигра-
фами, и художниками, и их книги часто являют собой впечатляющую

44
комбинацию различных художественных форм, чью изысканность редко
удается превзойти современным издателям и типографам, слепо
полагающимся на механические, электронные и фотографические
достижения печати.
6 Пожалуй, наиболее известными из ранних китайских литератур-
ных памятников для европейцев стали творения Конфуция (551—479 до
н.э.). В число сводных трудов, собранных воедино его учениками, во-
шли: "Летописи весны и осени"; "Книга перемен', представляющая со-
бой систему предсказаний; "Книга церемоний" и, наконец, "История
княжества Лу" — родины Конфуция.
7 Поэмы, написанные в лирическом или эпическом стиле, играют
исключительно важную роль в китайской литературе. Умение читать и
писать поэтические произведения было неотъемлемой частью курса на-
чального обучения представителей высших социальных слоев. В период
династии Тан (618—907) началась золотая эпоха китайской поэзии. Ни-
какой другой период в истории страны не мог похвастать таким
большим числом поэтов и поэтических произведений высочайшего
класса, как этот. Наиболее полно поэзия периода Тан представлена в
сборнике "Цюанъ Танши", включающем около 50 тыс. поэм и стихов,
принадлежащих перу 2200 поэтов.
8 Устойчивые образы использовались в китайской поэзии на протя-
жении многих столетий. Древняя китайская история, китайская литера-
тура, система верований, включая буддизм, конфуцианство и даосизм,
сформировали китайскую систему ценностей, которая нашла свое отоб-
ражение в художественной литературе. В лирических произведениях
описывается китайская система строения окружающего мира, Небесных
Владык и Фей, драконов и других мифических животных, звёзд и небес-
ных светил, времён года, ветра, воды, деревьев, цветов, соответствия
цвета различным периодам жизни человека, поклонения государям и
уважения к старшим, забота о семье, дружба и верность. В современных
китайских стихах также отмечается обращение поэтов к традиционным
ценностям и символам, которые были присущи Китаю на протяжении
тысячелетий.
9 Серьёзной проблемой для перевода «Сна в красной комнате» яв-
ляется использование автором несколько стилей разговорного и литера-
турного языка и включение форм классической поэзии, которые являют-
ся неотъемлемой частью романа. По оценке Энн Лонсдейл, приведённой
в Литературном приложении «Таймс», роман «общеизвестен как труд-
ный для перевода». Тем не менее, многие, по разным причинам, взяли
на себя задачу перевести это произведение.

45
10 Традиционная китайская драма относится скорее к музы-
кальным, нежели разговорным видам искусства. Хотя это и не опера в
западном представлении, ее развитие всегда шло в русле эволюции
национальной музыки. Составными элементами китайской драмы в
равной степени являются танец, диалог, пение и инструментальная
музыка. Язык китайского театра представляет собой сочетание стихов и
прозы, литературного и разговорного стиля, причем за каждым
компонентом закреплена определенная функция. Содержание пьес,
порой весьма запутанное, составляют, как правило, темы и сюжеты,
заимствованные из легенд и исторических хроник. Изображение
происходящего далеко от реализма: декорации, за исключением задника,
отсутствуют, реквизит сведен к минимуму, время и место действия
трактуются произвольно.

10 Translate the text about Chinese calligraphy and painting from Rus-
sian into English.

История китайской живописи и каллиграфии

Китайская живопись и каллиграфия отличаются особым


своеобразием. Оно определяется даосизмом, последователями которого
были многие художники. Каллиграфия здесь не просто умение красиво
писать, но и искусство, позволяющее мастеру в рамках традиции
наиболее полно проявлять свою индивидуальность.
Оглянувшись на историю китайской каллиграфии, насчитывающей
пять тысяч лет, мы увидим, что она всегда развивалась в тесной взаимо-
связи с китайским обществом и отражала духовное состояние каждой
эпохи. Каллиграфия — прекрасный цветок китайского общества,
выдающееся наследие мировой культуры. Каллиграфия воплотила в
себе сущность восточной культуры и красоту восточного искусства. Это
искусство — предмет гордости китайского народа. Это одна из основ
мировой художественной истории. Сейчас Китай переживает период
своего расцвета, и интерес к каллиграфии также растёт.
Во время раскопок в Банпо были обнаружены примитивные глиня-
ные изделия, датируемые 4 тысячелетием до н. э. Эта глиняная утварь
была украшена изображениями, похожими на иероглифы. Первые знаки
не передавали точного значения, а несли лишь обобщённый или прибли-
зительный смысл. Эти знаки являются не буквами, а, скорее всего, пред-
ками китайских иероглифов. Знакам на костях животных и черепашьих
панцирях более 3000 лет. Эти надписи — первая веха в истории ки-

46
тайской каллиграфии. Знаки очень разнообразно оформлены: одни глу-
боко врезаны, другие очень порывисты, третьи округлы в линиях. В це-
лом они более гармоничные и мягкие, чем знаки на глиняной посуде,
они как бы подстраиваются под природные формы костей и панцирей.
Сегодня при письме используются «четыре сокровища
мастерской»: бумага, кисть, тушь и пемза. Тушь в виде палочек растира-
ется пемзой в чашечке и разводится водой. Густоту задает нужная ин-
тенсивность тона - от светло-серого до густо-черного, главного цвета
каллиграфии. Бумага легко впитывает тушь, передавая малейшие оттен-
ки цвета, характер. Каждое прикосновение кисти к бумаге создает рису-
нок, который, в отличие от европейской живописи, уже невозможно из-
менить и исправить. Это относится и к иероглифике, и к живописи. За-
мысел должен полностью созреть в голове художника, прежде чем он
возьмется за кисть.
Каллиграфия и живопись в Китае тесно связаны друг с другом. Обе
основаны на одних и тех же принципах и часто дополняют одна другую.
Иероглифы очень напоминают рисунок, а на картинах
чаще всего присутствуют стихи и другие надписи.
Главное место в китайской живописи занимает пей-
заж. Заоблачные горы создают вертикаль, река или озеро
- горизонталь. Иногда встречаются крошечные фигурки
людей. Изображение плоскостно, лишено центральной
перспективы и глубины.
Обучение живописи сводилось к копированию ра-
бот старых мастеров. Достигшие в этом совершенства
могли создавать свою собственную манеру, минимально
отклоняющуюся от канона. И сегодня взгляды на
проблему оригинала и копии в Китае и на Западе диа-
метрально противоположны.
Китайские художники часто изображают зверей, особенно лоша-
дей, во всевозможных видах, а также птиц и животных, имеющих сим-
волическое значение, например черепах, цапель и цикад. В цветочных
композициях на первом плане выделяются «четыре благородных»: орхи-
дея, цветок сливы мэй, хризантема и бамбук, символизирующие времена
года. Изображения людей - это чаще всего портреты знатных особ, а
также типажи, например отшельник или монах.
Китайские мастера часто творили просто для себя, если речь идет о
чиновниках, и искусство было для них усладой взора и души, или, буду-
чи ремесленниками, они стремились создать нечто новое и прекрасное.
Но верхом совершенства считались резьба по нефриту, камню и слоно-
вой кости и каллиграфические надписи на рисовых зернышках.

47
Кто испытывает страх перед огнедышащим драконом? Все, кроме
китайцев. Для них это чудище - добрый, приносящий удачу зверь, по-
кровитель гор и рек, владыка Востока, откуда восходит дарующее жизнь
солнце. На картинах и рельефах драконов часто изображают играющим
с жемчужиной, символом грома, и эта игра считается источником дождя.
Дракон - символ мужской силы. Начиная с эпохи Хань пятипалый дра-
кон олицетворял императора, четырехпалый - принца, а трехпалый -
высших чиновников. Драконы извивались на императорских одеждах,
обвивали колонны дворца, украшали потолки, мебель, фарфор и все что
угодно.
Спутником императорского дракона считается Феникс, мифическая
птица, в древности связывавшаяся с мужским началом, а начиная с эпо-
хи Мин Драконы считались стражами рек и озер и стали атрибутами им-
ператрицы.
Символическое значение других животных определяется их свой-
ствами. Взять хотя бы долгожительницу-черепаху. Выпуклый ее пан-
цирь воплощает Небо, плоское брюхо - Землю, а черепаха в целом - дол-
голетие. Могучий лев олицетворяет стражу, конь - силу воли, павлин -
красоту, а обезьяна - хитрость. Если же подходящего животного в при-
роде нет, его попросту создают. Так, присевшие на задние лапы цили-ни
(мифологические существа с головой оленя, хвостом быка, чешуйчатой
кожей и мягкими рожками) символизируют мудрых искусных прави-
телей, так сказать идеальных чиновников.
http://www.fusion-tour.ru/tours/china/about/country/art.php

WRITING

12 Read the article below and write the annotation (60-80 words).

Mo Yan: China's reluctant Nobel laureate


On 11 October, when the Nobel Committee announced that they had de-
cided to award this year's Nobel Prize for Literature to Mo Yan, the Chinese
writer was in hiding in his hometown Gaomi, of Shandong province, some
600km (370 miles) from Beijing. As there had already been intense specula-
tion that he was the front-runner, Mo Yan braced himself for the media storm
that confirmation of the win would bring. With lightning speed it came. In the
evening, up to 100 Chinese and foreign journalists converged on the village,
some camping outside his house, all eager to hear from the first Chinese No-
bel winner that the country could openly celebrate.
In a hastily-convened press conference, Mo Yan expressed his happiness
and surprise at the win; he thought his works might have struck a chord with

48
the committee because they reflected ordinary people's lives, Chinese culture
and the national spirit.
A man who shuns the limelight, Mo Yan hoped that the hype would die
down in a month so he could return to writing. But the country of 1.3bn peo-
ple appears determined to celebrate him for as long as possible. Messages of
congratulation have poured in from high-ranking officials, fellow writers and
ordinary people alike.
His village plans to renovate the Mo Yan Literature Museum, name the
local primary school after him, and build a statue; they also hope to develop a
themed tourist route, with lots of red sorghums planted along the way in a
nod to one of his most famous novels. A post office issued commemorative
stamps, and Mo Yan's name and image have appeared in a wide range of
products, from T-shirts to spirit bottles.
Within days, his novels and short stories were flying off the shelves so
quickly that they were out of stock in quite a few cities. And there have been
two cases of copyright violations, in an attempt to cash in on his fame.
Fame has brought benefits as well headaches. A recent rich list of Chi-
nese writers shows Mo Yan as the second richest writer in China, with annual
royalties of $3.45 million in 2012. So what does the man himself make of it
all? When asked by the Chinese Central TV station if he was happy, Mo Yan
replied: "I don't know. I am under a lot of pressure, and feeling very anxious.
How can I be happy? But if I say I am not happy, then it is a bit disingenuous.
I just won the Nobel Prize, how can I say I am not happy"?
At his press conference on 6 December in Stockholm, he stressed that
the Nobel Prize is a personal honour given to an individual rather than a
country. This has gone down well with Chinese microbloggers who wel-
comed it as a departure from the default mode of "thanking my country".
Mo Yan was born in 1955 into a large peasant family, and like many of
his generation he suffered the pain and anguish brought about by political tur-
moil as well as natural disasters. He is quoted as saying that hunger and lone-
liness are his inspiration for writing, and indeed the majority of his writing is
about rural life. In a prolific career spanning 30 years, Mo Yan has produced
11 major novels, some 30 long stories and around 80 short stories.
There is no question that Mo Yan is held in high regard by many of his
fellow writers. Famous Chinese author Wang Meng says that Mo Yan is a
representative writer of his generation; while Gao Hongbo says that Mo Yan's
understanding of the Chinese culture is second to none. Writer Su Tong
thinks Mo Yan won entirely on the merits of his writing. But there has been
criticism too. Liao Yiwu, a dissident writer in Germany, says he is shocked
that Mo Yan won, because he is too closely associated with the establishment.
UK-based writer in exile Ma Jian criticizes Mo Yan for not shouldering social

49
responsibilities, as a famous writer can. Others feel Mo Yan is too eager to
please the authorities, citing his offer to copy Mao Zedong's work by hand in
2012 as an example.
Yet others try to understand Mo Yan as a writer and as a human being.
They think that Mo Yan avoids taking a political stand or criticising the gov-
ernment in order to survive in China, but he seems to be extremely critical of
government policies in many of his literary works. Isn't that the way the ma-
jority of intellectuals live in China, they ask.
Mo Yan seems to be fully aware of the criticism and comments. He said
in the Gaomi press conference that if the critics had read his works, they
would have realised that he was writing under tremendous pressure, and he
was taking a huge risk. At the press conference in Stockholm on 6th Decem-
ber, Mo Yan refused to comment on Liu Xiaobo. When pressed on the matter
by a Taiwanese journalist a stern-faced Mo Yan replied: "I have always been
independent; if people want to force me to express an opinion, I won't do it".
This will be disappointing for those who hoped that with the Nobel under his
belt, he would be more willing to take risks and take a stand on social issues.
The huge expectations piled on a Chinese Nobel laureate will be something
Mo Yan just can't shake off.
http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-asia-china-20598875

50
PART II Japan

UNIT 1
THEATRE AND CINEMA OF JAPAN

LEAD-IN

1 Look at the pictures and answer the following questions:


 What do you know about Japanese theatre?
 Have you ever watched the performance of traditional Japanese the-
atre? What was your impression?
 What are the favourite genres of Japanese movie?
 What famous Japanese movies can you enumerate?

2 Look at the list of words below. Explain the meaning of the


words that you know.
film-maker kabuki hanamichi
puppet make-up animation
kyogen narration interlude

READING

3 Read the texts and do the exercises.

Theatre of Japan

51
There are three major forms of traditional Japanese theater that are fa-
mous around the world. These are Kabuki, Noh, and Bunraku. They are
presented in the spidergram below.

4 Read the text. For questions 1-5, choose the best answer, A, B, C or
D.
Kabuki (歌舞伎)
Kabuki is a traditional Japanese form of theater with roots tracing back to
the Edo Period. It is recognized as one of Japan's four major classical theaters
and has been named as a UNESCO Intangible Cultural Heritage. Kabuki is
an art form rich in showmanship. It involves elaborately designed costumes,
eye-catching make-up, outlandish wigs, and arguably most importantly, the
exaggerated actions performed by the actors. The highly-stylized movements
serve to convey meaning to the audience; this is especially important since an
old-fashioned form of the Japanese language is traditionally being used, which
is difficult even for some Japanese people to understand.
Dynamic stage sets such as revolving platforms and trapdoors allow for
the prompt changing of a scene or the appearance/disappearance of actors.
Another specialty of the kabuki stage is a footbridge (hanamichi) that leads
through the audience, allowing for a dramatic entrance or exit. Ambience is
aided with live music performed using traditional Japanese instruments. The
various elements are combined to produce a visually stunning and captivating
performance.
Plots are usually based on historical events, warm-hearted dramas,
moral conflicts, love stories, tales of tragedy of conspiracy, or other well-

52
known stories. A unique feature of a kabuki performance is that what is on
show is often only part of an entire story (usually the best part). Therefore, to
enhance the enjoyment derived, it would be good to read a little about the
story before attending the show.
When it originated, kabuki used to be acted only by women, and was
popular mainly among common people. Later during the Edo Period, a re-
striction was placed forbidding women from participating; to the present day
it is performed exclusively by men. Several male kabuki actors are therefore
specialists in playing female roles (onnagata).
http://www.japan-guide.com/e/e2090.html

1. Japanese culture has …


A) three major classical theatres.
B) five major classical theatres.
C) four major classical theatres.
D) one major classical theatre.

2. At Kabuki performances … is used.


A) modern Japanese language.
B) no language.
C) gesture language.
D) old-fashioned Japanese language.

3. The footbridge is necessary for …


A) speaking louder.
B) playing better.
C) entering and exiting dramatically.
D) for technical needs.

4. A unique feature of a kabuki performance is that …


A) it shows a part of a long story.
B) it shows several short stories.
C) there are no logical links between parts of the play.
D) there are several main heroes.

5. Kabuki used to be acted by … till the Edo Period.


A) children.
B) men.
C) both men and women.
D) women.

53
5 Read the text. Decide, if each statement (1-5) is true or false.

Noh (能)
Noh is a form of theater involving music, dance and drama, originating in
the 14th century. It was developed together with kyogen, which are comical
pieces performed during interludes of the main noh performance. The dual art
of noh and kyogen is known as nogaku.
During the Tokugawa Period (1603-1867), the shogunate made noh its
official ceremonial art and issued regulations for its governance. Noh thus be-
came increasingly standardized, with an emphasis on tradition rather than in-
novation. A fifth troupe was added during this time, making five main noh
troupes which survive and perform till this day.
Noh theater is structured around song and dance. Movement is slow,
language is poetic, tone is monotonous, and costumes are rich and heavy.
Plots are usually drawn from legend, history, literature and contemporary
events. Themes often relate to dreams, supernatural worlds, ghosts and spir-
its. All performers in noh are male.
One key element of noh are the masks. They tell the audience what kind
of character is being portrayed. Frequently used masks represent demons,
spirits, as well as women and men of various ages. The masks are carved
from blocks of Japanese cypress.
http://www.japan-guide.com/e/e2090.html

1. Main features of a noh performance are music, dance and drama. T/F
2. The dual art of noh and kyogen is known as hanamichi. T/F
3. Because of being ceremonial art, noh became bright
and picturesque. T/F
4. Masks in noh are used in order to explain who the character is. T/F
5. Noh became ceremonial art during the Edo Period. T/F

4 Read the text and answer the questions below.

Bunraku (文楽)
Bunraku is a traditional puppet theater of Japan. It started of as popular
entertainment for the commoners during the Edo Period in Osaka and evolved
into artistic theater during the late 17th century.
Bunraku puppets are about one-half life size and each operated by three
performers: a principal operator and two assistants. Strings are not used, but
rather, the puppeteers co-operate to maneuver the limbs, eyelids, eyeballs,
eyebrows and mouths of the puppets, thereby producing life-like actions and

54
facial expressions. The puppeteers are in full view of the audience, but are
dressed in black to symbolize that they are to be taken as "invisible".
The story is narrated by a single person, who also speaks the voice of all
the puppets, and therefore must have a diverse repertoire of vocal expressions
to represent both genders and all ages. The pace of the narration is dictated by
accompanying music, played on the shamisen. Bunraku often depicts stories
based on adaptations of scripts with similar themes. Classic tragic love sto-
ries, heroic legends and tales based on historical events are popular.
(from http://www.japan-guide.com/e/e2090.html)

1. What was the first audience of bunraku?


2. Who are the main actors of bunraku?
3. Why are the puppeteers dressed in black?
4. Why must the puppeteer have a diverse repertoire of vocal expressions?
5. What are favourite genres of bunraku?

VOCABULARY

7 Fill in the correct word(s) from the list below in the proper form.

narration interlude emphasis to originate


to depict genre invisible warm-hearted
comical monotonous wig to participate

1. As far as she had serious problems with her hair, he decided to buy a ….
2. Don’t try to pretend to be …! I see what you are going to do!
3. When old friends met, they greeted each other with a … smile.
4. His speech was too … . The lack of notional … spoilt the whole impres-
sion.
5. My sister doesn’t want to … in a … play, performed by her class.
6. The artist … in his canvas a battle scene.
7. While studying at the philological faculty she preferred the following …:
drama and poetry.
8. There will be two … during this long performance.
9. The … develops very slowly in the books of this author, because he needs
to keep his readers in suspense.
10. This unusual tradition … in the atmosphere of total joy and happiness.

8 Match the synonyms from columns A and B.

A B

55
1. to depict 1. atmosphere
2. to show 2. public
3. ambience 3. to contain
4. unique 4. marionette
5. to involve 5. to display
6. ceremony 6. to concur
7. audience 7. to escort
8. puppet 8. to paint, to potray
9. to cooperate 9. rite
10. to accompany 10. unequalled

9 Cross out the incorrect word in the text.

Kyogen

Kyogen are the comic 1 (pieces/parts) performed at intervals between


the main Noh 2 (play/performance). They utilize satire and witty 3 (fan-
tasies/jokes) and are often performed with rhythmical language and some-
times exaggerated actions to inspire 4 (crying/laughter) from the audience.
Most kyogen pieces 5 (last/continue) for about 15 to 20 minutes and involve
two or three 6 (actors/persons). Plots are usually about stories that evolve in
(routine/everyday) life, such as men expressing their desire to find wives or
farmers praying for good fortune. (from http://www.japan-guide.com/e/e2090.html)

10 Match the numbers (1-8) with the letters (A-I), then join the sen-
tences.

1. In the postwar period, A that combines music, drama,


and dance.
2. The most famous form of B by the high level class.
3. Formal dress code is not re- C when attending a kabuki play.
quired
4. Kyogen was used as an inter- D to participate in kabuki per-
mission formances.
5 Noh was only attended E there was a phenomenal
growth in creative new drama.
6. Kabuki is a kind of a stylized F between Noh acts.
art
7. Women are forbidden G that needs to be performed
only a certain way.

56
8. Kabuki is a type of theatre H Japanese theatre is Kabuki.

11 Read the article and choose the right word to fill in each gap.

Japanese Movie

First Japanese movies were filmed at the end of the 19 th century. Since
that time Japanese cinema 1… has become one of the most famous and large
film industries in the world. In 2…, over 400 Japanese films were 3… in
2011. The cinema of Japan has 4… specific 5…: Japanese horror movies
(Battle Royal, suicide Club, etc.), Japanese samurai movies (Zatoichi, Seven
Samurai, etc.), and, 6…, one of the most 7… Japanese genres, Japanese ani-
mation movies (My Neighbour Totoro, Spirited Away, etc.). This is not a full
Japanese movies 8…, also there are a lot of good Japanese romance movies
(Hana Kimi, etc.), Japanese action movies (Godzilla, etc.). Akira Kurosawa,
Masaki Kobayashi, Takeshi Kitano – just 9… names from a number of tal-
ented, innovative, ironic and original Japanese 10… who made extraordinary
movies
http://www.mymoviemarket.com/country/Japan

1. A production B industry C assiduity D factory


2. A rule B usual C fact D turn
3. A generated B made C done D produced
4. A several B little C many D few
5. A topics B genres C ideas D plots
6. A certainly B surely C of course D for instance
7. A general B understandable C common D popular
8. A list B catalogue C enumeration D specification
9. A many B a few C few D several
10. A directors B film-makers C artists D actors

TRANSLATION

12 Translate the sentences from Russian into English.


1. Традиции и история японского театра уходит корнями в очень
далёкое прошлое, которому посвящено множество исследований.
2. Важнейшие атрибуты традиционного японского театра, маски и
танцы использовались ещё в добуддийском, напоминающем шаманские
пляски лицедействе Кагура.

57
3. Рождение японского театра обычно связывают с появлением пан-
томимы Гигаку ("актерское искусство") и танцев Бугаку ("искусство тан-
ца"), заимствованных из континентальной культуры в VII веке.
4. Традиционный японский театр - это сложный и многоцветный
мир, компонентами которого являются актерское мастерство, музыка,
сценография, маски, декорации, костюмы, грим, куклы, парики и т.д.
5. Современная драма сингэки появилась в Японии в начале ХХ
века под влиянием европейского театра.
6. Правительство Японии в 1629 году запретило женские театраль-
ные труппы, мотивируя это необходимостью охраны общественной
нравственности и порядка.

13 Translate the text from English into Russian.

Western plays in Japan

Many Western plays, from those of the Ancient Greek theatre to William
Shakespeare and from those of Fyodor Dostoevsky to Samuel Beckett, are
performed in Tokyo. An incredible number of performances, perhaps as many
as 3,000, are given each year, making Tokyo one of the world's leading the-
atrical centers.
The opening of the replica of the Globe Theatre was celebrated by im-
porting an entire British company to perform all of Shakespeare's historical
plays, while other Tokyo theaters produced other Shakespearean plays in-
cluding various new interpretations of Hamlet and King Lear. The Globe
Theatre, located in Shin-Ōkubo in Tokyo, now belongs mostly to Johnny's
Entertainment and the promotion of pop idols in the acting field.
Yukio Ninagawa is an internationally known Japanese director and play-
wright who often turns to elements of Shakespeare for inspiration. In 1995 he
performed the "Shakespeare Tenpo 12Nen", an interpretation of the wildly
popular British theatre Shakespeare Condensed: all of Shakespeare's plays in
two hours. Famous actors such as Natsuki Mari and Karawa Toshiaki were
involved.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Theatre_of_Japan)

14 Translate the text from English into Russian.

Movies

58
Although the first home-grown movies appeared before the end of the
last century, it wasn't until after World War I that they became something
more than adaptations of stage plays and kabuki. The Nikkatsu and Shochiku
film companies started at this time. From about 1920, Japanese film was di-
vided into two main categories: Jidai-geki, or period films and Gendai-geki,
or films with modern settings. The jidai-geki usually centered on a lone
swordsman, who struggled to reconcile the conflict between his obligations
(giri), and his true feelings (ninjo). This theme later became central to the
gangster, or yakuza genre, originated by the Toei company in the 1960's.
Gendai-geki reflected social changes of the day and individual director's
views on life and society.
Censorship by the increasingly militaristic government continued
through the 1930's and World War II, although its guidelines were largely ig-
nored. The US occupation temporarily banned pre-1945 films and clamped
down on the sword-wielding jidai-geki. But after control of the movie indus-
try was handed over to the independent Motion Picture Code Committee in
1949, they soon came back in force.
http://www.japan-zone.com/modern/movie.shtml

WRITING

15 Read the text below and write the annotation to the text.

The History of Anime

The history of anime begins at the start of the 20th century, when Japa-
nese filmmakers experimented with the animation techniques that were being
explored in France, Germany, the United States, and Russia. The oldest
known anime in existence was screened in 1917; it was a two minute clip of a
samurai trying to test a new sword on his target, only to suffer defeat.
By the 1930s, animation became an alternative format of storytelling
compared to the underdeveloped live-action industry in Japan. Unlike Amer-
ica, the live-action industry in Japan remained a small market and suffered
from budgeting, location, and casting restrictions. The lack of Western-look-
ing actors, for example, made it next to impossible to shoot films set in Eu-
rope, America, or fantasy worlds that do not naturally involve Japan. Anima-
tion allowed artists to create any characters and settings.
The success of Disney's 1937 feature film "Snow White and the Seven
Dwarfs" influenced Japanese animators. Osamu Tezuka adapted and simpli-
fied many Disney animation techniques to reduce the costs and number of

59
frames in the production. This was intended to be a temporary measure to al-
low him to produce material on a tight schedule with an inexperienced ani-
mation staff.
During the 1970s, there was a surge of growth in the popularity
of manga—which were often later animated—especially those of Osamu
Tezuka, who has been called a "legend". His work and that of other pioneers
in the field, inspired characteristics and genres that are fundamental elements
of anime today.
In the 1980s, anime became more accepted in the mainstream in Japan
(although less than manga), and experienced a boom in production. Follow-
ing a few successful adaptations of anime in overseas markets in the 1980s,
anime gained increased acceptance in those markets in the 1990s and even
more in the 2000s.
http://en.academic.ru/dic.nsf/enwiki/139

16 Read the text below and write the annotation to the text.

Modern theatre

Japanese modern drama in the early 20th century, the 1910s, consisted
of Shingeki (experimental Western-style theater), which employed naturalistic
acting and contemporary themes in contrast to the stylized conventions of
Kabuki and Noh. Hōgetsu Shimamura and Kaoru Osanai were two figures in-
fluential in the development of shingeki.
In the postwar period, there was a phenomenal growth in creative new
dramatic works, which introduced fresh aesthetic concepts that revolution-
ized the orthodox modern theater. Challenging the realistic, psychological
drama focused on "tragic historical progress" of the Western-derived
shingeki, young playwrights broke with such accepted tenets as conventional
stage space, placing their action in tents, streets, and open areas and, at the
extreme, in scenes played out all over Tokyo.
Plots became increasingly complex, with play-within-a-play sequences,
moving rapidly back and forth in time, and intermingling reality with fantasy.
Dramatic structure was fragmented, with the focus on the performer, who of-
ten used a variety of masks to reflect different personae.
Playwrights returned to common stage devices perfected in Noh and
Kabuki to project their ideas, such as employing a narrator, who could also use
English for international audiences. Major playwrights in the 1980s were Kara
Juro, Shimizu Kunio, and Betsuyaku Minoru, all closely connected to specific
companies. In contrast, the fiercely independent Murai Shimako won awards

60
throughout the world for her numerous works focusing on the Hiroshima
bombing, which were frequently performed by only one or two actresses. In
the 1980s, stagecraft was refined into a more sophisticated, complex format
than in the earlier postwar experiments but lacked their bold critical spirit.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Theatre_of_Japan

17 Read the text below and make a reference in English.

Японские аниме как способ привлечения туристов

Сегодня практически каждый знает, что «манга» по-японски озна-


чает «комикс», а японские аниме покорили весь мир. Манга и аниме со-
здали мировой бум в популярной японской культуре, и поклонники со
всего мира едут посмотреть на родину своих любимых комиксов и гра-
фических романов, а также анимационных фильмов и сериалов. Теперь
некоторые предприимчивые туристические агентства наживаются на
этой тенденции путем организации поездок в Японию специально для
поклонников Манга и аниме.
Япония начала экспорт манга, анимационных фильмов и сериалов
в США и юго-восточную Азию в 1970-х годах. С того времени японские
мультфильмы во многих станах имеют постоянно расширяющуюся фан-
базу. Мультфильмы породили огромное распространение видео-игр,
карточных игр, игрушек и других товаров, которые являются такими же
популярными среди молодежи.
В 2002 году японский анимационный фильм получил Премию «Зо-
лотой Медведь» - главный приз на берлинском кинофестивале. Фильм
«Унесенные Призраками» режиссер Хаяо Миядзаки выиграл Премию
«Оскар» в номинации «Лучший Анимационный Фильм». Это междуна-
родное признание подтвердило, что манга и аниме выросли в добросо-
вестных культурных ценностях, и что Япония может ими гордиться.
В последнее время, благодаря использованию японского аниме как
средства привлечения туристов, люди со всего мира стали стекаться в
Японию, чтобы посетить «землю манга и аниме». Путешествия включа-
ют остановки на анимационных студиях, посещение аниме-магазинов и
музея Гибли, посвященного работе Миядзаки. Этот музей, расположен-
ный в городе Митака, не только показывает фильмы Миядзаки и других
аниматоров, но также имеет реплики объектов и персонажей из фильмов
на дисплее. Конструкция здания включает в себя мотивы из популярных
мультфильмов. Участники аниме-тура также имеют возможность посе-
щать анимационные ярмарки и другие специальные мероприятия. Идея

61
этого тура на родину культуры манга и аниме была принята с большим
энтузиазмом.
Магазины с товарами аниме расположены в районе Токио Акихаба-
ра. Акихабара также широко известен как предлагающий в Японии наи-
большую концентрацию электронных товаров и является популярным
местом для туристов, привлекая аудио- и видео-любителей, компьютер-
ных и игорных фанатов со всего мира. По данным японской Националь-
ной Туристической Организации, 6.6% иностранных туристов,
приезжающих в Японию, посетили Акихбара.
Многие потенциальные адресаты для туризма по маршруту манга и
аниме существуют вне Токио. Сайты, связанные с известными художни-
ками комиксов, аниматорами и их работами разбросаны по всей Япо-
нии. Так, в музее Бандай в Матсудо открыли большую секцию, посвя-
щенную сериалу Гандам. Япоское аниме как средство привлечения ту-
ристов оказалось очень эффективным, и туристические фирмы Японии
находятся в предвкушении еще большего наплыва туристов из-за рубе-
жа.
http://www.zametkituristov.ru/yaponskie-anime-kak-sposob-privlecheniya-turistov

62
UNIT 2
MUSIC OF JAPAN. TRADITIONAL MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS

LEAD-IN

A B C

D E F

G H

1 Look at the pictures and answer the following questions:


 Do you know these musical instruments?
 How are they called?

2 Match the name of the instrument with the picture.

taiko shamisen shakuhachi koto


sanshin biwa shinobue tsuzumi

63
READING

3 Read the text. Answer the questions below.

Japanese Folk Music

There are four main kinds of Japanese folk songs (min'yō): work songs,
religious songs (such as sato kagura, a form of Shintoist music), songs used
for gatherings such as weddings, funerals, and festivals (matsuri, especially
Obon), and children's songs (warabe uta).
In min'yō, singers are typically accompanied by the 3 stringed lute
known as the shamisen, taiko drums, and a bamboo flute called shakuhachi.
Other instruments that could accompany are a transverse flute known as the
shinobue, a bell known as kane, a hand drum called the tsuzumi, and/or a 13
stringed zither known as the koto. In Okinawa, the main instrument is the
sanshin. These are traditional Japanese instruments, but modern instrumenta-
tion, such as electric guitars and synthesizers is, also used in this day and age,
when enka singers cover traditional min'yō songs (Enka being a Japanese
music genre all its own).
Terms often heard when speaking about min'yō are ondo, bushi, bon uta,
and komori uta. An ondo generally describes any folk song with a distinctive
swung 2/2 time rhythm. The typical folk song heard at Obon festival dances
will most likely be an ondo. A bushi is a song with a distinctive rhythm. In
fact, its very name means "rhythm" or "time," and describes the ostinato pat-
tern played throughout the song. Bon uta, as the name describes, are songs
for Obon, the lantern festival of the dead. Komori uta are children's lullabies.-
Many of these songs include extra stress on certain syllables, as well as
pitched shouts (kakegoe). Kakegoe are generally shouts of cheer, but in
min'yō they are often included as parts of choruses. There are many kakegoe,
though they vary from region to region. In Okinawa Min'yō, for example, one
will hear the common "ha iya sasa!" In mainland Japan, however, one will be
more likely to hear "a yoisho!," "sate!," or "a sore!" Others are "a donto koi!,"
and "dokoisho!" A guild-based system exists for min'yō; it is called
iemoto. Education is passed on in a family, and long apprenticeships are com-
mon.
http://www.gojapango.com/culture/japanese_music_folk.html

1. What types of Japanese folk songs can you enumerate?


2. What are the traditional musical instruments used for accompanying
in min'yō ?

64
3. What is the Japanese name for a transverse flute?
4. What is the main instrument in Okinawa?
5. What is ondo?
6. What is the Japanese name for a song with a distinctive rhythm?
7. What is a traditional name for a lullaby?
8. What sounds are used as a part of a chorus?
9. Where is it possible to learn playing musical instruments?
10. What is enka?

VOCABULARY

4 Fill in the correct word(s) from the list below in the proper form.

lullaby flute chorus cheer


lantern swing apprenticeship rhythm
syllable drums pattern gatherings

1. I like very much family …, because I am fond of … and communicat-


ing with my relatives.
2. -The baby is crying! - Don’t worry, let’s sing him a ….
3. It is very dark outdoors, we need to switch our … on.
4. When you are singing in a …, you need to listen to your partners very
carefully.
5. For learning vocalism you need to have a good sense of … and ear for
music.
6. Could you, please, hum this musical … to me?
7. If we invite a … in our group, we will sound tenderer.
8. If you dream to learn playing the violin, you should keep in mind a
long….
9. Firstly children read …, and then they start reading a whole word.
10. For playing a real … we should strengthen our … .

5 Match the synonyms from columns A and B.

A B
1. to include A tension
2. apprenticeship B definite
3. a copy C training
4. certain D to involve
5. to lead E a list
6. pressure F a replica

65
7. chart G famous
8. well-known H to tend to
9. ultimately I humbleness
10. simplicity J mainly

6 Cross out the incorrect word in the text.

Electronica (J-Synth) and Ska

The past decade has seen a huge revolution in electronic music around
the globe. Japan is no 1 (exception/expulsion). Often blending with the other
genres, 2 (peculiarly/particularly) j-pop and j-rock, Japanese electronic mu-
sic, sometimes 3 (mentioned/referred) to as J-Synth, has flourished both in
Japan and 4 (abroad/outdoors) in 5 (late/recent) years. Japanese artists such
as Takako Minekawa, Fantastic Plastic Machine, and Kahimi Karie are creat-
ing some of the most ground-breaking beats in the world today. These girls
attempt to 6 (emulate/compete) in their particular styles.
Although far less 7 (popular/well-known) than J-pop, J-rock, or Elec-
tronica, ska music has a definite presence in Japan. 8 (Emerging/appearing)
about a decade ago with 9 (predecessor/forerunner) bands Ska-Flames and
Tokyo Ska Paradise Orchestra, the Japanese ska scene saw a huge popular
surge in 1997, which quickly died out. However, many Japanese ska bands
continue to persist despite a lack of 10 (centre/mainstream) support. The De-
terminations, The Side Burns, and Blue Beat Players are Japanase ska bands
popular among fans of the genre.
http://web.mit.edu/21f.066/www/theisen/music/genres.html

7 Read the text and put the words into the correct forms.

Dance and Disco Music

In 1984, American 1_______Michael Jackson's al- 1 music


bum _________ 2 «… » became the first album by a 2 thrill
Western artist to sell over one million copies in 3 3 Japan
_______Oricon charts history. His style is cited as one of
the models for Japanese dance music, 4 ________ the 4 to lead
popularity of Avex Group and Jonny&Associates.
In 1990, Avex Trax began to release the Super Eu-
robeat series in Japan. Eurobeat in Japan led the 5 5 popular
_______ of group dance form Para Para. While Avex's

66
artists became popular in 1990s, new names in the late 90s 6 to include
6 ____Hikaru Utada and Morning Musume. Hikaru
Utada's debut album, First Love, went on to be the highest-
selling album in Japan with over 7 million copies 7 _____, 7 to sell
whereas Ayumi Hamasaki became Japan's top selling fe-
male and solo 8 _____, and Morning Musume remains 8 art
one of the most 9_________ girl groups in the Japanese 9 to know
pop music 10_______ . well
10 industrial

8 Match the numbers (1-10) with the letters (A-J), then join the sen-
tences.

1. As is the case in many non-West- A Japanese punk


ern countries,
2. Another less-mainstream genre is B dating back to the late 1970's
3. The punk scene has existed in C Western artists tend to maintain a
Japan about as long as it has in theconstant position in the popular music
U.S, of Japan.
4. The teen idols of Japan are just D comes in various sizes and is used
as big (if not bigger) to play a variety of musical genres.
5. The music of Japan includes a E to make it a part of their own artis-
wide array of performers tic culture.
6. Traditional Japanese music is F in distinct styles both traditional
based on and modern.
7. The taiko is a Japanese drum thatG to intimidate the enemy and to
communicate commands.
8. Japanese studied classical music H popularity abroad as well as at
earnestly home
9. Taiko drums were used during I the intervals of human breathing
battle rather than mathematical timing.
10. A number of Japanese jazz mu- J as the Britney Spears and Nsync's
sicians have achieved of the U.S.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Music_of_Japan

TRANSLATION

9 Translate the sentences from Russian into English.

67
1. Косаку Ямада являлся выдающимся японским композитором, ди-
рижером, музыкальным педагогом, а также основоположником японской
композиторской школы.
2. Как классическая, так и современная японская музыка – это за-
гадка, пространство звуков, где необходимо не просто слушать, но при-
слушиваться.
3. Особый колорит в инструментальную музыку вносят звуки элек-
тронного барабана.
4. Этот талантливый молодой музыкант создает чрезвычайно
необычную музыку, смешивая множество звучащих инструментов и
превращая живой звук в электронный.
5. В данной телевизионной программе будет представлен сольный
проект известного японского гитариста и композитора Smidzuko.
6. Придворный ансамбль японского императора исполнял Gagaku –
древнюю придворную и танцевальную музыку.
7. Кото – это традиционный японский инструмент, позволяющий
исполнять музыкальные произведения, полные медитативной созерца-
тельности.
8. Музыка в аниме состоит из песен, музыкального фона, музыкаль-
ных тем, используемых в начальной и конечной заставках, и звуковых
эффектов.
9. В Средневековье слепые женщины путешествовали по землям
Японии, исполняя песни и аккомпанируя себе на маленьких барабанах.

10 Translate the text from English into Russian.

Koto

68
The koto is one of the most popular Japanese traditional musical instru-
ments. To many, the character of koto music is evocative of traditional Japan
with the attributes of the western harp, dulcimer and lute.
Many Japanese legends refer to the origins of the koto. A popular one
says that the koto was formed in the shape of crouching dragon, a charmed
and mythical creature of ancient Japan and China.
The koto was brought to Japan around the end of the 7th century by Chi-
nese and Korean musicians who came to play in the Japanese court orchestra,
gagaku. By the 15th century, solo repertoires for koto, sookyoku began to
emerge. In the early Edo period (around the 17th century), sookyoku was a
popular source of entertainment for the wealthy merchant classes.
The thirteen strings of the koto are stretched along a soundboard of
nearly two metres made of hollowed-out paulownia timber. The strings were
traditionally made of silk, nowadays synthetic. It is tuned for different songs
by movable bridges of ivory or plastic.
The koto is played with ivory plectrum on the
thumb and the first two fingers of the right hand, the left
hand applying pressure to vary the pitch. The music
ranges from the simplicity of the traditional to the
melodic as well as challenging contemporary pieces.
http://www.gojapango.com/culture/koto.html

11 Translate the text from English into Russian.

J-Rock and Visual Rock

J-Rock is a rather broad genre encompassing a sound similar to the al-


ternative/rock sound of the West. Most of the bands are guitar and/or drum
driven. Similar to the music industry of the U.S. and Europe, many rock
bands work their way up through the ranks of the "indies," or lesser-known
bands signed to Independent labels. If they gain a strong popularity among
Japanese youth they are likely to get signed to a major label.
Visual Rock is a sub-genre of J-Rock that is as much about visuals as it
is about sound. Visual Rock artists often wear vibrant costumes and sport
bright, flamboyant hair and makeup, using their appearances and movements
to play a role just as important as the music they create. Some of the male
Visual Rock artists dress androgynously or in drag. Dir En Grey and Malice
Mizer are popular Visual Rock bands. The line between being Visual Rock or
just a part of the larger category of J-Rock is often sketchy, with the catego-

69
rization of popular bands such as GLAY and L'Arc-en-Ciel up for debate.
http://web.mit.edu/21f.066/www/theisen/music/genres.html

WRITING

12 Read the text below and write the annotation to the text.

Shamisen History and Genres

The shamisen derives from the sanshin (a close ancestor from the south-
ernmost Japanese prefecture of Okinawa and one of the primary instruments
used in that area), which in turn evolved from the Chinese sanxian, itself de-
riving ultimately from Central Asian instruments.
The shamisen can be played solo or with other shamisen, in ensembles
with other Japanese instruments, with singing such as nagauta, or as an ac-
companiment to drama, notably kabuki and bunraku. Both men and women
traditionally played the shamisen.
The most famous and perhaps most demanding of the narrative styles is
gidayū, named after Takemoto gidayū (1651-1714), who was heavily in-
volved in the bunraku puppet-theater tradition in Osaka. The gidayū shamisen
and its plectrum are the largest of the shamisen family, and the singer-narra-
tor is required to speak the roles of the play, as well as to sing all the com-
mentaries on the action. The singer-narrator role is often so vocally taxing
that the performers are changed halfway through a scene. There is little no-
tated in the books of the tradition except the words and the names of certain
appropriate generic shamisen responses. The shamisen player must know the
entire work perfectly in order to respond effectively to the interpretations of
the text by the singer-narrator. From the 19th century female performers
known as onna-jōruri or onna gidayū also carried on this concert tradition.
In the early part of the 20th Century, blind musicians, including Shi-
rakawa Gunpachirō (1909-1962), Takahashi Chikuzan (1910-1998), and
sighted ones such as Kida Rinshōe (1911-1979), evolved a new style of play-
ing, based on traditional folk songs ("min'yō"), but involving much improvi-
sation and flashy finger work. This style - now known as Tsugaru-jamisen,
after the home region of this style in the north of Honshū - continues to be
relatively popular in Japan. The virtuosic Tsugaru-jamisen style is sometimes
compared to bluegrass banjo.
http://www.gojapango.com/culture/shamisen.html

70
13 Read the text below and write the annotation to the text.

Taiko performing

The taiko is a Japanese drum that comes in various sizes and is used to
play a variety of musical genres. It has become particularly popular in recent
years as the central instrument of percussion ensembles whose repertory is
based on a variety of folk and festival music of the past. Such taiko music is
played by large drum ensembles called kumi-daiko. Its origins are uncertain,
but can be stretched out as far back as the 7th centuries, when a clay figure of
a drummer indicates its existence. China influences followed, but the instru-
ment and its music remained uniquely Japanese. Taiko drums during this pe-
riod were used during battle to intimidate the enemy and to communicate
commands. Taiko continue to be used in the religious music
of Buddhism and Shintō. In the past players were holy men, who played only at
special occasions and in small groups, but in time secular men (rarely
women) also played the taiko in semi-religious festivals such as the bon
dance.
Modern ensemble taiko is said to have been invented by Daihachi
Oguchi in 1951. A jazz drummer, Oguchi incorporated his musical background
into large ensembles, which he had also designed. His energetic style made
his group popular throughout Japan, and made the Hokuriku region a center for
taiko music.
During the 1970s, the Japanese government allocated funds to preserve
Japanese culture, and many community taiko groups were formed. Later in
the century, taiko groups spread across the world, especially to the United
States.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Music_of_Japan

14 Read the text below and make a reference in English.

Японская Музыка

Какие ассоциации возникают у вас при словосочетании «японская


музыка»? Что-то японское народное и классическое, к примеру, испол-
нения на струнном щипковом инструменте сямисэн или на бамбуковой
флейте сякухати? Несомненно, классическая японская музыка превос-
ходна, однако в современной Японии достаточно много различных му-
зыкальных стилей: рок, электро, панк, фолк, метал, регги, сальса, танго,
кантри и хип-хоп. По объемам продаж музыкальный рынок Японии за-

71
нимает второе место в мире, уступая лишь США. Недаром огромной по-
пулярностью среди японцев пользуются караоке-бары.
Классическая музыка Японии создавалась при непосредственном
влиянии культур Китая, Индии, государств Корейского полуострова. За-
имствовав многое из этих стран, и с течением времени придав собствен-
ный национальный колорит, сформировалась традиционная музыка
Японии, к которой, в первую очередь, относятся буддийские песнопения
сёмё и придворная оркестровая музыка гагаку. Японская традиционная
музыка близка к звукам природы, часто в ней слышится трель птиц, ду-
новение ветра, шум дождя.
Гагаку является древнейшим уникальным исполнительным искус-
ством при императорском дворе Японии и включает в себя музыкальные
и танцевальные стили различных стран Востока. Музыка гагаку подраз-
деляется на инструментальную кангэн, танцевальную бугаку и вокаль-
ную утаимоно. Буддийские песнопения сёмё появились в Японии с при-
ходом буддизма более 1000 лет назад, исполнялись буддийскими мона-
хами и оказали огромное влияние на образ японской национальной му-
зыки.
Современная музыка Японии не менее разнообразна и интересна и
включает в себе все популярные музыкальные стили от рока, рэпа и т. д.
до поп музыки.
Для слушателя из России наиболее понятен и приятен для восприя-
тия японский рок, в силу того, что остальная современная японская му-
зыка своеобразна. Японский рок сложился из американского рока, кото-
рый японцы переняли и переделали на свой лад. В результате получился
ни на что не похожий национальный рок. Японский рок отличается
очень качественной музыкой и качественным подходом к исполнению
музыкантов, в силу жесткой конкуренции в музыкальном мире в Япо-
нии. «В музыканте все должно быть прекрасно» – под таким девизом
выходят на сцену японские рокеры. Поэтому и макияж, и временами су-
масшедшие стрижки, накрашенные ногти или эффектные костюмы точ-
но такие же атрибуты шоу, призванные развлечь зрителя.
http://japangid.ru/muzyka-yaponii

UNIT 3
LITERATURE OF JAPAN

LEAD-IN

72
1 Look at the pictures and answer the following questions:
 What do you know about Japanese literature?
 What are the favourite genres of Japanese literature?
 What are the traditional genres of Japanese poetry?
 Have you ever read the books, written by a Japanese author?
What was your impression?
 What famous Japanese writers can you enumerate?

2 Look at the list of words below. Explain the meaning of the


words that you know.

syllable inspiration genre fiction


non-fiction tanka verse prominent
contribution epos origin tremendously

READING

3 Read the text. For questions 1-7 choose the best answer, A, B, C or
D.
Types of Japanese Poetry

Renga
Throughout history, Japanese poetry was continually changing. Over
time, a technique developed so that two poets could enjoy creating one poem
at the same time, this concept was known as the Renga. The idea behind the
Renga is that one poet writes a section on their own ideas and the next poet
adds the next section. Two poets combining their own ideas forming one
poem, soon became a popular pass time and a form of entertainment. Many
people thought of Renga as playing a competitive game. In order to partici-
pate in this game-like fashion, being a fast thinker with a good sense of hu-
mor was a requirement. People had parties were they used this form of entert-

73
ainment. Renga poems are known to be longer than other types of Japanese
poetry and they can reach up to 100 verses. Renga poetry is a fun form of
entertainment that anyone can enjoy.
Haiku
The form of Haiku poetry originated from the Renga. The Haiku is a
type of Japanese poetry that is short in length and has been around the long-
est. Basho, the famous Japanese poet, contributed to making this type of po-
etry well known. Even though it's survived all these years, people still enjoy
writing this form of poetry today.
The structure of the Japanese Haiku has changed tremendously over-
time. In the 15th century, the original form contained up to one hundred
verses. Each verse still had a specific number of syllable, similar to the
Renga. The first Haikus were created by two poets working together on one
poem. The more recent Haiku consists of 17 syllables. Over time, the Haiku
has changed it's structure, but one thing that has never changed is the set
number of syllables.
Need some help and ideas to create your Haiku? In order to write a
Haiku you must be in a state of relaxation. You might want to listen to some
Japanese inspirational music to help your ideas start flowing. Haikus can be
written about anything. Most people write their Haikus on nature and their
daily lives. The three lines of the Haiku create a feeling which describes a
poet's emotions.
Tanka
Another type of Japanese poetry is the Tanka. It's older than the famous
Haiku, but not as well known. The Tanka has been a well known type of po-
etry in Japan for about 1300 years. After every special event or occasion a
Tanka was written about the event. Tanka tends to be longer than the Haiku
so it allows the poet to express his or her feelings in more depth. Typically
the Tanka is written about one's feelings. In order to write this type of poetry,
one must write about something they have a great love for and are passionate
about. For example, nature, a place, family, a loved one, or their own daily
life, most likely whatever you feel is right. A well written Tanka creates a
vivid image which is related to emotions. This type of poetry gives poets the
opportunity to express their own feelings in a unique way.
http://library.thinkquest.org/C0126526/history.html
1. Renga was created …
A) when a poet was alone.
B) by two persons, in a pair.
C) by a group, consisting of several people.
D) by women.

74
2. In order to participate in writing Renga,
A) you need to work at the theatre.
B) you should be able to make rhymes.
C) you need to count very quickly.
D) you should think fast and have a good sense of humor.

3. The length of Renga poems …


A) is shorter than in other types of Japanese poetry.
B) is the same as in Tanka.
C) is longer than in other types of Japanese poetry.
D) accounts to 90 verses.

4. Basho is …
A) a famous type of Japanese verse.
B) a famous Japanese poet.
C) a place in Japan, famous for its verses.
D) an ancient Japanese epos.

5. In order to write a Haiku …


A) you need to a quick-minded person.
B) you must be a genius.
C) you must be stressed.
D) you must be relaxed.

6. Tanka was written, …


A) when a person was free to think.
B) at night.
C) for special occasions.
D) when a person felt bored.
7. Tanka gave poets the opportunity …
A) to become famous.
B) to earn money.
C) to express their emotions.
D) to live in peace with the surrounding world.

4 Read the examples of Japanese poetry.

Matsuo Basho
A caterpillar A bee First snow

75
A caterpillar, A bee First snow
This deep in fall Staggers out Falling
Still not a butterfly Of the peony On the half-finished
bridge
http://www.poetrysoup.com/poet/Matsuo_Basho

Kobayashi Issa

A huge frog and I, Children imitating cormorants With my father


Staring at each other, Are even more wonderful I would watch dawn
Neither of us moves. Than cormorants. Over green fields
http://www.poetrysoup.com/poet/Kobayashi_Issa

3 Read the text. Decide if each statement (1-10) is true or false.

Yukio Mishima: a Mini- Biography

Yukio Mishima was born in Tokyo in 1925. He attended the University of


Tokyo. His first work of fiction, a short story, was published, when he was a
first-year student. For the rest of his life he wrote - to enormous popular and
critical acclaim - plays, poetry, essays, and novels.
His first full-length novel, the autobiographical "Confessions of a
Mask," is considered a classic of modern Japanese fiction. In it, a young man
grapples with his homosexuality, the intensity of his inner states, the ways he
must conceal himself, and the difficulties of not conforming to Japanese soci-
ety.
Mishima, educated in Japan and deeply influenced by European and
Russian literature, developed his consuming obsession: a longing for unvan-
quished, imperial Japan; its samurai traditions, and heroic ideals of beauty,
nationalism, and honor, including the traditionally enviable fate of dying for
one's country.
Mishima led by example. Along with writing energetically and passion-
ately, he founded an elite right-wing organization for 100 males, the Shield
Society, dedicated to 'Bushido,' the Samurai code of honor. Mishima became
an expert in traditional martial arts, despaired of modern Japan and bemoaned
the post-war suppression of its traditional past. Control - of the self, of art and
of society - was of the utmost importance to Mishima.
On travel, Mishima wrote in "Mask" : "...at no time are we ever in such
complete possession of a journey, down to its last nook and cranny, as when

76
we are busy with preparations for it. After that, there remains only the jour-
ney itself, which is nothing but the process by which we lose our ownership
of it. This is what makes travel so utterly fruitless."
Twenty-six years later, Mishima, intense and disturbed as ever, and in
complete 'possession' of his life, committed suicide in a shocking and interna-
tionally-reported public event. He was forty-five.
http://www.imdb.com/name/nm0592758/bio

1. Yukio Mishima is one of the most famous Japanese writers. T/F


2. He wrote many novels, essays and plays, but he never wrote poetry. T/F
3. Mishima scorned samurai traditions, nationalism and imperial state of
Japan. T/F
4. Mishima was greatly influenced by French and Chinese literature. T/F
5. The most important things for the writer were the control of the self, art
and society. T/F
6. The members of the elite Mishima’s society were both men and women.
T/F
7. Mishima had lived a long intense life and died peacefully at advanced age.
T/F
8. Mishima published his first prose, when he was a third-year student. T/F
9. The most famous text of Yukio Mishima has a title “Confessions of a
Mask”. T/F
10. Yukio Mishima and his creative works were always in the public eye. T/F

VOCABULARY

6 Fill in the correct word(s) from the list below in the proper form.

to acclaim to grapple despair passionate


requirement to scorn to disturb to inspire
verse unvanquished syllable to contribute

1. Usually co-workers … lazy, unreliable and deceitful colleagues.


2. And the last …: you need to have a driving license, if you want to get this
job.
3. My little brother was in …, when he lost his favourite toy.
4. For … people every day at a work place bring joy and excitement of
labour.
5. Firstly, children are learnt to read in ….
6. Don’t … me, while I am working! I am going to write ….

77
7. Our company has … in the development of our native town, and we hope
that this action will … a lot of other companies to do the same.
8. The President was … by the crowds of people, gathering in the hall.
9. Our society needs to … with terrorism, if we want to live in peace.
10. The heroes of ancient legends fought with enemies and died ….

7 Match the synonyms from columns A and B.

A B
1. to vanquish 1. huge
2. obsession 2. occasion
3. enormous 3. to achieve
4. relaxation 4. to accomplish
5. to conceal 5. inhibition
6. event 6. rest
7. to commit 7. to cry
8. to bemoan 8. to conquer
9. to reach 9. to hide
10. suppression 10. mania

5 Cross out the incorrect word in the text

Japanese Post-war literature

World War II, and Japan's defeat, influenced Japanese 1


(literature/style). Many authors wrote stories of disaffection, loss of purpose,
and the coping with 2 (defeat/deprivation). Dazai Osamu's novel «The Set-
ting Sun» tells of a returning soldier from Manchukuo. Yukio Mishima, well-
known for both his nihilistic writing and his 3 (questionable/controversial)
suicide by seppuku, began writing in the post-war 4 (time/period). Prominent
writers of the 1970s and 1980s were identified with intellectual and moral is-
sues in their attempts to raise social and political 5 (consciousness/mind).
One of them, Kenzaburo Oe wrote his most well-known work, «A Personal
Matter», in 1964 and became Japan's second winner of the Nobel 6
(Award/Prize) for Literature. Inoue Mitsuaki had long been concerned with
the atomic 7 (missile/bomb) and continued in the 1980s to write on problems
of the nuclear 8 (age/era), while Endo Shusaku 9 (depicted/drew) the reli-
gious dilemma of the Kakure Kirishitan, Roman Catholics in feudal Japan, as
a springboard to address 10 (mental/spiritual) problems.
http://www.gojapango.com/culture/japanese_literature.html

78
9 Read the text and put the words into the correct forms.

Japanese Meiji and Taisho Literature (late 19th Century - WW II)

The Meiji era marks the 1____ of Japan to the West, 1 to re-open
and a period of rapid 2_____ The introduction of 2 industry
3 ______ literature brought free verse into the 3 Europe
4 ______ repertoire; it became widely used for longer 4 poetry
works embodying new intellectual themes. Young Ja-
panese prose 5 _______ and dramatists have struggled 5 to write
with a whole galaxy of new ideas and artistic schools,
but novelists were the first to 6 _____ assimilate some 6 success
of these concepts. A new colloquial literature devel-
oped centering on the "I novel," with some 7______ 7 usual
protagonists. Shiga Naoya, the so called "god of the
novel," and Mori Ogai were instrumental in 8_____ 8 to adapt
Western literary conventions and techniques. Akuta-
gawa Ryunosuke is known especially for his 9_____ 9 history
short stories.

War-time Japan saw the debut of several authors best 10 to know


10 ______ for the beauty of their language and their 11 sensual
tales of love and 11______, notably Tanizaki Junichiro
and Japan's first winner of the Nobel Prize for Litera- 12 psychology
ture, Kawabata Yasunari, a master of 12 _____ fiction.

http://www.gojapango.com/culture/japanese_literature.html

10 Match the numbers (1-10) with the letters (A-J), then join the
sentences.

1. Manga (comic books) have pene- A all flourished in urban Japan in the
trated 1980s.
2. Popular fiction, non-fiction, and B the Japanese experience in modern
children's literature terms without using either interna-
tional styles or traditional conven-
tions
3. Avant-garde writers, such C from crime to politics.
as Kōbō Abe, wanted to express
4. Haruki Murakami is one of the D almost every sector of the popular
most popular market.

79
5. In Japanese fiction, plot develop- E which led to the development of a
ment and action warrior class.
6. Non-fiction covers everything F and controversial of today's Japa-
nese authors.
7. Cell phone novels, written by and G Japanese had no writing system.
for cell phone users, appeared
8. Japan experienced many civil H through the diffusion of Buddhism
wars during the Medieval period, in Japan.
9. Before the introduction I in the early 21st century.
of kanji from China,
10. Indian literature also had an in- J have often been of secondary inter-
fluence on Japan est to emotional issues.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Japanese_literature

TRANSLATION

11 Translate the sentences from Russian into English.


1. Словно нить драгоценных жемчужин протянулась из глубины ве-
ков вереница немеркнущих сокровищ литературного наследия Страны
восходящего солнца.
2. Произведения поэтической и художественной прозы японских ав-
торов отличаются непередаваемым изяществом и утонченностью вкуса
и несут особую эстетическую атмосферу императорского двора.
3. Время феодальных междоусобиц и кровавых сражений породило
произведения военного характера.
4. Успехи книгопечатания в начале ХVII в. способствовали распро-
странению грамотности.
5. С наступлением 20-го века японская литература начинает прони-
кать на Запад, и западные читатели, благодаря переводам, знакомятся с
произведениями японских авторов.
6. Мураками одним из первых открыл глаза сотням тысячам чита-
телей на современную Японию с её альтернативной молодёжной суб-
культурой.
7. В ХVI в. вместе с повышением роли городов в экономике Японии
начала развиваться городская литература.
8. В 1968 г. Япония обретает своего первого Нобелевского лауреата
в области литературы - японскому писателю Кавабата Ясунари (1899-
1972) присуждается Нобелевская премия за успехи в области литератур-
ного творчества.

80
9. Старинный классический роман на протяжении веков являлся
гордостью и славой японской литературы.
http://www.japanes-page.kiev.ua/rus/hobby-literature.html

11 Translate the text from English into Russian.

Japanese Early-Modern Literature (17th Cent. - mid-19th Cent.)

Literature during this time was written during the largely peaceful Toku-
gawa Period (commonly referred to as the Edo Period). Due in large part to
the rise of the working and middle classes in the new capital of Edo (modern
Tokyo), forms of popular drama developed which would later evolve into
kabuki. The kabuki dramatist Chikamatsu Monzaemon became popular start-
ing at the end of the 17th century. Matsuo Bashō, best known for Oku no Ho-
somichi (奥の細道, 1702: a travel diary variously rendered 'Narrow Road to
the Far North', 'Narrow Road to Oku', and so on into English), is considered
to be one of the first and greatest masters of haiku poetry. Hokusai, perhaps
Japan's most famous wood block print artist, illustrated fiction aside from his
famous 36 Views of Mount Fuji.

Many genres of literature made their debut during the Edo Period, helped by
a rising literacy rate that reached well over 90% (according to some sources),
as well as the development of a library system. Ihara Saikaku might be said
to have given birth to the modern consciousness of the novel in Japan. Jip-
pensha Ikku wrote Tokaido chuhizakurige (東海道中膝栗毛), a mix of trav-
elogue and comedy. Ueda Akinari initiated the modern tradition of weird fic-
tion in Japan with his Ugetsu Monogatari, while Kyokutei Bakin wrote the
extremely popular fantasy/historical romance Nanso Satomi Hakkenden.
Santō Kyōden wrote tales of the gay quarters until the Kansei edicts banned
such works. Genres included horror, crime stories, morality stories, comedy,
often accompanied by colorful woodcut prints.
http://www.gojapango.com/culture/japanese_literature.html

13 Make a literary translation of a Japanese legend from English


into Russian.
The White Butterfly

An old man named Takahama lived in a little house behind the cemetery
of the temple of Sozanji. He was extremely amiable and generally liked by
his neighbors, though most of them considered him to be a little mad. His

81
madness, it would appear, entirely rested upon the fact that he had never mar-
ried or evinced desire for intimate companionship with women.
One summer day he became very ill, so ill, in fact, that he sent for his
sister-in-law and her son. They both came and did all they could to bring
comfort during his last hours. While they watched, Takahama fell asleep; but
he had no sooner done so than a large white butterfly flew into the room and
rested on the old man's pillow. The young man tried to drive it away with a
fan; but it came back three times, as if loath to leave the sufferer.
At last Takahama's nephew chased it out into the garden, through the
gate, and into the cemetery beyond, where it lingered over a woman's tomb,
and then mysteriously disappeared. On examining the tomb the young man
found the name "Akiko" written upon it, together with a description narrating
how Akiko died when she was eighteen. Though the tomb was covered with
moss and must have been erected fifty years previously, the boy saw that it
was surrounded with flowers, and that the little water tank had been recently
filled.
When the young man returned to the house he found that Takahama had
passed away, and he returned to his mother and told her what he had seen in
the cemetery.
"Akiko?" murmured his mother. "When your uncle was young he was
betrothed to Akiko. She died of consumption shortly before her wedding day.
When Akiko left this world your uncle resolved never to marry, and to live
ever near her grave. For all these years he has remained faithful to his vow,
and kept in his heart all the sweet memories of his one and only love. Every
day Takahama went to the cemetery, whether the air was fragrant with sum-
mer breeze or thick with falling snow. Every day he went to her grave and
prayed for her happiness, swept the tomb and set flowers there. When Taka-
hama was dying, and he could no longer perform his loving task, Akiko came
for him. That white butterfly was her sweet and loving soul."
http://www.pitt.edu/~dash/japanlove.html

WRITING

14 Read the text below and write the annotation to the text.

No Escape

Kobo Abe's novel «The Woman in the Dunes» appeared in 1962, to


spontaneous acclaim, was translated into 20 languages and adapted for a
Cannes festival award-winning film directed by Hiroshi Teshigahara and

82
scored by Toru Takemitsu. Each of the seven subsequent novels that Abe
wrote before his death, aged 68, in 1993 earned him plaudits as a writer of
the avant-garde and sales of over 100,000 in Japan alone.
In Abe's novels, plot and character are usually subservient to idea and
symbol. This makes «The Woman in the Dunes» something of an anomaly.
Its plot is devious, addictive yet straightforward. An amateur entomologist ar-
rives in a remote area of sand dunes with hopes of identifying a type of sand
beetle. Night falls and the villagers offer him shelter in a ramshackle house at
the bottom of a funnel-shaped pit of sand. Descent is possible only by means
of a rope ladder. The occupant of the house, a young woman, spends most of
the night shovelling sand into buckets, which are then raised by the villagers:
her house is one of a bulwark that prevents the village being swallowed by
the advancing sand dunes. When he awakes, the man finds the rope ladder is
gone. His attempts to climb out of the pit repeatedly fail, and he comes to re-
alise, first with incredulity, then outrage, then fear, that he is now a conscript
in this Sisyphean labour. Nor is he the first outsider to be press-ganged into
the battle against the encroaching dunes: but the villagers allow inadequate
specimens to die, rather than risk detection by the distant authorities.
The novel pits the man's will to escape this sun-fried nightmare against
the villagers' will to keep him where he is, and it is never less than compul-
sive. Abe populated his novels with loners, doctors, loner-doctors, maudlin
scientists and shifty vagrants who tend to be delineated more by what they
think or the ideas they symbolise than by a fleshing out of personal histories.
He names his characters with apparent reluctance. In «The Woman in the
Dunes» the protagonist's name - Niki Jumpei - is revealed on a missing per-
sons form filed by his mother, but for the most part he is simply "the man".
Likewise, the eponymous woman is simply "the woman". This lends its sub-
jects an archetypal quality and an independence from Japanese culture, but
risks making the characters seem sterile, abstract and difficult to empathies
with. «The Woman in the Dunes», however, manages to avoid this. Its pro-
tagonist could by no means be described as endearing, but he is plausible
enough for the reader to believe in and care about.
Sand is the prison: literally, symbolically; and not just for the man. We,
too, must spend a lifetime doing a job as meaningless as shovelling never-
ending deposits of sand into buckets. As we read about the man's predica-
ment, existentially speaking, we are reading about our own.
http://www.guardian.co.uk/books/2006/oct/07/featuresreviews.guardianreview26
15 Read the text below and make a reference in English.

Харуки Мураками

83
Харуки Мураками - популярный современный японский писатель
и переводчик. Он родился в Киото, древней столице Японии, в семье
преподавателя классической филологии. Потом его семья переехала в
Кобе - крупный японский морской порт. Тогда же у него пробудился ин-
терес к зарубежной литературе. Учился по специальности
«классическая драма» на отделении театральных искусств университета
Васэда. В студенческие годы принимал участие в антивоенном
движении, выступал против войны во Вьетнаме.
В 1974 году открыл свой джаз-бар «Питер Кэт» и продержал его 7
лет. После закрытия своего джаз-бара бросил курить и начал заниматься
сразу несколькими видами спорта. Ежегодно по два-три раза участвует в
марафонских забегах в самых разных городах мира
В апреле 1974 года во время бейсбольного матча понял, что мог бы
написать книгу. До сих пор не знает, почему именно. По словам самого
Мураками: «Я просто понял это — и всё».
В 1979 году опубликована повесть «Слушай песню ветра» — пер-
вую часть «Трилогии Крысы». Получил за неё литературную премию
«Гундзо синдзин-сё» — престижную награду, ежегодно присуждаемую
журналом «Гундзо» начинающим японским писателям. А чуть позже —
премию «Нома» от ведущего литературоведческого журнала «Бунгэй» за
то же самое. Уже к концу года роман-призёр был распродан неслыхан-
ным для дебюта тиражом — свыше 150 тысяч экземпляров в твёрдой об-
ложке.
Народное признание на родине и финансовое процветание пришло
к Харуки с публикацией в 1987 году романа «Норвежский лес», продан-
ного тиражом в 2 миллиона копий. Этот роман был написан во время
длительного путешествия Мураками в Грецию и Рим. Именно эта книга
утвердила его славу не только в Японии, но и в других странах. «Нор-
вежский лес» по праву считается одним из самых лучших романов Ха-
руки Мураками.
Мураками любит путешествия, а проведя три года в Греции и Ита-
лии, он приехал в США и обосновался в Принстоне, где преподает в
местном университете. За последние 25 лет перевел на блестящий
японский произведения Фитцджеральда, Ирвинга, Сэлинджера, Капоте,
Пола Теру, Тима О'Брайена, все рассказы Карвера, а также сказки Ван
Альсбурга и Урсулы Ле Гуин.
Выпустил несколько «гурманских» фотоальбомов и путеводителей
по западной музыке, коктейлям и кулинарии. До сих пор любит джаз, и

84
хотя «в последнее время классики стало больше», известен своей кол-
лекцией из 40.000 джазовых пластинок.
http://bookmix.ru/authors/index.phtml?id=15)

85
PART III SOUTH AND NORTH KOREA
UNIT 1
THEATRE AND CINEMA OF KOREA

LEAD-IN

1
1 Answer the questions.
 What is Korean culture famous for?
 Does the culture of South and North Koreas differ?
 What national composers, dancers, directors, and actors do you know?
 Do you know anything about the performances in the pictures?

2 Look at the list of words below. Explain the meaning of the


words that you know.

86
Kkoktukaksi concubine kyabang dances Salpuri
and the Monk’s Dance Talchum Pansori Daehakro

READING

3 Read the texts, and do the exercises.

The development of South Korean theatre and dance in the 20th century
has been dominated by two, apparently contradictory trends. On the one
hand, Western influence has been adopted and adapted enthusiastically,
while, at the same time, serious attempts have been to study and revive ori-
ginal forms of the Korean performing arts.
These seemingly completely opposing trends have, in fact, created a
fruitful basis from which a new kind of aesthetics, at the same time interna-
tional and modern as well as instinctively Korean, has grown.
Spoken Theatre
Western-type spoken theatre found its way to Korea via Japan, where
many Korean intellectuals studied during the Japanese occupation in the early
20th century. Even after the occupation the contacts between the countries re-
mained close.
As in Japan, so too in Korea, among the earliest staged Western dramas
were plays by Shakespeare, Ibsen, and Strindberg. The first productions re-
flected Western stage realism and even naturalism. Later the repertoire also
included plays by Maeterlinck and O’Neill. Later the expressionism was ad-
apted to Korean theatre, again through Japan.
The rise of the Korean drama literature began in the1930s. An important
pioneering work was The Clay House, written by Yu Chi-jin in 1934. It dis-
creetly hinted at a politically extremely sensitive topic, the Japanese occupa-
tion of Korea.
At that time Japanese censorship dictated much of the contents of art.
The renaissance of Korean culture began when the occupation ended in 1945.
The Korean National Theatre, the first of its kind in the whole of Asia, was
founded in 1950. Somewhat later the first Western-type theatre hall with a
proscenium stage, sponsored by the Rockefeller Foundation, was built in
Seoul. Gradually, large theatre houses and cultural centres have mushroomed
all over the country.
The official cultural policy in the 1960s focused on the revival of
Korea’s own cultural heritage. Both the important forms of the traditional
performing arts and their praiseworthy performers were proclaimed “National
Cultural Treasures”.

87
Many of the traditional forms of music and dance were adapted to the
huge, modern stages by multiplying the dancers and the musicians. Experi-
ments were also made by combining features of the traditional theatrical arts,
such as masks, with modern stage aesthetics. In the field of Western spoken
theatre, avant-garde and absurd dramas gained popularity.
Strict political censorship overshadowed the cultural life of the 1970s
and the early 1980s. All political topics were forbidden. Sensitive themes
were sometimes touched upon in the form of a physical, Artaud-inspired, al-
legorical style.
The 1970s was the beginning of the triumph of American musicals in
Korea. The influence of the United States is also felt in the teaching of arts,
which, to a great extent, follows the American models.
http://www.xip.fi/atd/korea/south-korean-theatre-and-dance-in-the-20th-century.html

1. What were the trends which dominated the development of South


Korean theatre and dance in the 20th century?
2. How did Western-type spoken theatre enter Korea?
3. What were the earliest staged Western dramas?
4. How did the repertoire change?
5. What was the role of censorship in 30s? 70s?
6. What influence did the Korean theatre undergo?

4 Read the text and decide, if each statement (1-5) is true or false.

Trends in Dance
The most famous of the kyabang dances, Salpuri and the Monk’s Dance,
were created at the beginning of the 20th century by a famous dancer, Han
Song-jun. They were based on traditional material, although they were meant
to be performed on a modern stage. These early 20 th century dances are still
very popular, while new generations of dancers give them new emphases.
Just as in the case of modern spoken theatre, Korean modern dance ar-
rived in Korea, during the Japanese occupation, from Japan. The “father of
modern dance” in Japan was Baku Ishihi, who was inspired by the German,
expressionistic Ausdrucktanz. The Korean students who had been his pupils
are credited as pioneers of the modernistic movement in Korean dance.
Possibly the most famous of Baku Ihsihi’s Korean students was the le-
gendary beauty Choe Sunghui, who, following her teacher’s advice, started to
formulate a modern dance style, which still echoed the Korean tradition.
Later, Choe Sunghui moved to North Korea.

88
The dance life in South Korea has clearly two, almost contradictory
trends. On the one hand, traditional forms of dance are carefully studied and
performed while, on the other hand, the art universities teach dance much ac-
cording to American models, including the Graham technique.
New concepts have been coined, such as “creative dance”, meaning
completely new creations employing different techniques, and “creative
Korean dance”, which refers to basically Korean forms of dance although, for
example, adapted for large, modern stages.
“Korean creative dance” has been widely propagated by the dance de-
partments of art universities. Several choreographers have been active in this
field, such as Mun Il-jo, Kwi-ja, and Kim Mae-ja.
There are numerous dance companies in South Korea. The National
Dance Troupe was founded in 1962. The classical ballet group was separated
from it to form its own independent troupe in 1973, and nowadays Korea pro-
duces many top quality ballet dancers, who are appreciated around the world.
The Seoul Dance Festival was founded in 1973.

1. Salpuri and the Monk’s Dance are ancient Korean dances.


2. Salpuri and the Monk’s Dance being based on traditional material
can be adopted to the modern stage.
3. These early 20th century dances are still very popular.
4. Korean modern dance took in much from Japanese and German
dance culture.
5. The most famous of Baku Ihsihi’s Korean students, the legendary
beauty Choe Sunghui, always lived in South Korea.
6. “Korean creative dance” has features of basically Korean forms of
dance and dance according to American models.

VOCABULARY

5 Match the phrases with their translation.

1 apparently contradictory trends A Тайно намекать на


2 be adopted and adapted B цензура
3 revive C Найти способ достичь
чего-л через
4 performing arts D Дать чему-либо новое зна-
чение
5 opposing trends E Отодвигать на второй план
6 create a fruitful basis F Явно противоположные

89
течения
7 find one’s way to smth via smth G Быть признанным и при-
способленным к
8 hint discreetly at H Создать плодотворную
базу
9 censorship I Противоположные течения
10 overshadow the cultural life J Исполнительские виды ис-
кусства
11 give smth new emphases K возрождаться

6 Match the synonyms from columns (1-5) and (A-B):

1 Hint at A opposing trends


2 revive B approve
3 apparently contradictory trends C adjust to
4 adopt D give a wink
5 adapt E regenerate

7 Translate the following sentences:


1. Даже эти явно противоположные течения были приняты и при-
способлены к народным традициям.
2. Возрождение исполнительских видов искусств стало важной за-
дачей восстановления постреволюционной страны.
3. Многие путешественники прошлого пытались найти путь чтобы
добраться в Индию по суше, через многие враждебные государства.
4. Пытаясь обойти цензуру, авторы намекают на революционное со-
держание пьес.
5. Задача правительства – создать плодотворную базу для возрожде-
ния исполнительских видов искусств.
6. После объявления войны, все исполнительские виды искусств
были отодвинуты на второй план.
7. Цензура непроизвольно способствовала возникновению течений,
явно противоположных государственному курсу.

8 Fill in the correct word(s) from the list below:

In a pansori (performance/action/play)____1, the kwangdae sings,


(standing/sitting/kneeling)_____2 with a folding fan held in one hand. The
fan is waved to (distract/ diminish/ emphasize)______3 the singer's motions
and unfolded to (proclaim/announce/confirm)______4 changes of scene. The
gosu gives (rhythm/tempo/pitch)_____5 not only by beats but also by chuim-

90
sae (Korean:), verbal sounds. A chuimsae can be a simple meaningless (diph-
thong/vowel/sonorants)_____6, but short words of encouragement are also
given. The (viewers/spectators/audience)______7 is also supposed to give
chuimsae during the performance, similar to kakegoe and the shouts of "Ol?"
during flamenco performances.
Pansori has been compared in (influence/impact/effect_____ 8) to the
American Blues. There are various singing styles, such as the more "femi-
nine" sopyonje of south-western Korea (inspiration of the film Sopyonje Ko-
rean:) and the more "masculine" tongp'yonje Korean:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pansori

9 Match the numbers (1-8) with the letters (A-I), then join the sen-
tences.

Korean Theatre is very vibrant today: being one of the largest musical
markets and the country that brings us some of the delightful Kpop bands that
are at their truest hearts theatrical machines.
1 Prior to the 19th century A is supported by chanters, mu-
sicians and a chorus.
2 Pansori, a Korean opera, where a B uses the medium to exploit a
central main character's journey social issue.
3 Talchum a Masked Drama, C there were basically two
which was more politcal in types of Korean theatre
nature,
4 Pansori tells a story, D are not necessarily theatre,
such as Namsadang which is
Korean Circus.
5 The main difference between the E is a mixture between song,
Talchum and the Pansori dance and poetry
6 Talchum has a larger cast and F to entertain the emperor and
his family.
7 There are also things that are re- G although most of the stories
lated to theatre in Korea's theatre do have an underlying theme
history that to them.
8 It was created during the Joseon H is subject matter and cast
Dynasty size.

91
After the 19th Century the art form began to develop. The first indoor
theatre called the Hypolyul-sa was built in 1902. Shakespeare and other west-
ern dramas were introduced around this time and performed on this stage.
There are now three directions that the modern Korean theatre takes:
1. Government supported theatre: through grants, typically performed at the
National Theatre in Seoul.
2. Daehakro (off, off broadway): independently funded and supported by
local producers, more avant-garde work.
3. Popo (Popular Theatre or Regional Theatre): individually run companies
that buy and produce in their own location. Extremely similar to American
Regional Space.
http://www.hkeld.com/articles/view/korean-theatre-for-dummies

10 Read the article and choose the right word to fill in each gap.

Today, theatrical ________1 is conceived not as a comprehensive out-


come of drama text or synthetic arts, but as an independent structure retaining
its own features. This characteristic _____2 that theatre is a form of reasoning
and a cultural phenomenon as well as an artistic form of a certain culture. A
specific form of theatre of an age or a community is shaped in close ______3
with the contemporary society and culture. In this context, it is ______ 4 to
explore how ideologies and ideas of an era _____ 5 formation of the theatre
of the time, and which cultural circumstances made it possible.
In the early days of the 20th century when Korea began opening itself to
the Western culture, Korean intellectuals and artists paid _____ 6 to the tradi-
tional Western ______ 7 of theatre. In other words, what they heeded were
well-organized fine scripts, on-stage performance _____8 through practice,
and harmonious orchestration by directors. Their interest was largely motiv-
ated by social and cultural factors. The discourse-centred theatre ______ 9 by
logos felt like a must for them to arouse critical thinking and national identity
among the Korean people. The early 20th century _____ 10 of paradigm led
to coinage of a term “new-theatre,” which connotes severance from the per-
formance-oriented form (i.e. old theatre) of the past.
http://www.gokams.or.kr/Data/GKBM29/publication_Theatre%20in%20Korea.pdf

1. A stage B performance C act D drama


2. A implies B implements C introduces D means
3. A conditions B ties C tension D relationship
4. A meaningless B meanyful C meanful D meaningful
5. A interfered B influenced C correlated D interrupted
6. A influence B affection C attention D attraction

92
7. A concept B content C conduct D contest
8. A moulded B formed C honed D shaped
9. A reined B dominated C presumed D overwhelmed
10. A move B stir C lift D shift

TRANSLATION

11 Translate the text into Russian

Chan E. Park
Based on their own concept of what “play” (nori) is, Koreans had for
generations cultivated styles of storytelling and enactment such as p’ansori,
t’alch’um, and other folk as well as ritual performances.
In the beginning of the twentieth century, Koreans were exposed to the
Western concepts of play, namely, drama and theatre . Often interchangeable,
the terms are to be distinguished: drama as literature designed for enactment,
and theatre, an art of enactment. With the new import, Koreans broke loose
from their indigenous resources to diversify their theatrical experiences.
Throughout the twentieth century, the efforts to model after Western drama
and theatre by translating or adapting them in Korean continued.
Sampling and shadowing outside influences continue to dominate the
mainstream Korean stage into the twenty-first century. In the domain of p’an-
sori, singers attached to the central and regional government -run centers con-
tinue their work s to preserve the art and to creatively develop ch’angg?k ,
p’ansori drama , simultaneously.
From yet another angle, some playwrights and directors since the 1960s
began to incorporate into their works the indigenous Korean traditional theat-
ricalities .
First it was mostly the satiric function of the characters and situations
from the t’alch’um tradition , then characters and contexts from such indi-
genous healing rituals as Princess Pari and ssitkimkut were recruited or re-
constructed .
Fusing or mixing old with new, native with foreign, art with technology,
are now some of the routine practices on Korean stage aspiring to be recog-
nized as “national brand.” This paper attempts to historicize and critique the
twentieth century search for Korean theatrical modernity, and the challenges
encountered between tradition and modernity, convention and freedom from
convention, and storytelling and story – enacting among others.
http://www.gwu.edu/~eall/hms/hms19/abstracts/cp_abstract.pdf

WRITING

93
12 Read the text below and write the annotation to the text.

A Classic Puppet Play

Kkoktukaksi is the name of Korea's favorite puppet play; it is presented


in a form as old as mask drama and shares many of the same origins in Chi-
nese theater. The characters are the hero, Pak Ch'omji, his wife Kkoktukaksi,
his concubine, his younger brother, a nephew, a monster, four Buddhist
monks, a pair of female shamans, the provincial governor, and the governor's
entourage. There are also musicians who act as extras.
In scene 1, Pak Ch'omji goes on a sight-seeing tour and checks into a
village inn to spend the night. He is awakened by a loud gambling game go-
ing on outside his door and when he gets up he begins singing songs about
the wonders he has seen on his trip.
In scene 2, one of the monks is dancing with one of the shamans. Pak
starts flirting with the shamans but discovers that they are actually his own
nieces. He is very upset and has his nephew come in to break up the scene. In
the third scene, an ugly monster starts gobbling up the birds in a rice paddy
and then turns on Pak Ch'omji and tries to eat him. Once again the nephew
comes to the rescue and after considerable struggle, punctuated by all kinds
of noise from the orchestra, manages to kill the monster.
In the fourth scene Pak Ch'omji goes looking for his missing wife. When
he doesn't find her he takes up with the concubine and is caught by his wife
who has just returned. The two women start fighting and the hero is forced to
give them equal shares of everything he owns in order to get them to stop.
However, the concubine gets all the valuable things while the wife only
gets the junk. She vents her fury in song and dance and then heads for the
mountains to join a nunnery.
In scene 5, the concubine breaks up with Pak Ch'omji and his neighbors
persuade him to go retrieve his wife.
In scene 6, the provincial governor arrives at the capital and decides to
go pheasant hunting.
Scene 7 is a funeral for the governor's mother, who oddly is not
mourned by her son. Others have to carry the coffin, and one of the carriers
drops it.
Pak Ch'omji's nephew reappears to carry the coffin the rest of the way.
At the end of the play is an eighth scene in which a temple is built on the
mountainside to honor the spirit of the governor's dead mother.

94
13 Render the text from Russian into English

Рождение театра

Опубликовано в газете "Сеульский вестник" в 2006 г


Театру в Корее, скажем прямо, не повезло. Традиционная Корея те-
атра как такого не знала, хотя некоторые «театроподобные жанры» там,
конечно же, существовали с давних времён. Однако театра со сценой,
декорациями, многочисленными актёрами и, главное, пьесами в Корее
на было до самого начала XX века. Сейчас некоторые националистиче-
ски настроенные историки пытаются с этим спорить, но показательно,
что сами корейцы былых времён на этот счёт особо не заблуждались. В
книгах корейских путешественников, которые в 1880-е и 1890-е гг. посе-
щали загадочную и экзотическую Европу, часто говорилось о театре как
о явлении для Кореи необычном и интересном, как о некоей зарубежной
экзотике.
И всё-таки, как же появился в Корее театр? К началу XX века ко-
рейские реформаторы, которые хотели подражать Западу во всём, при-
шли к выводу, что без театра современное общество существовать никак
не может. В этом отношении реформаторы мог всегда полагаться на под-
держку Его Величества, так как король Кочжон был известным поклон-
ником всяческих новинок.
Таким образом, в 1902 г. было решено завести королевский театр,
который, в частности, предполагалось использовать для празднования
приближающейся 40-й годовщины правления Кочжона. Театр должен
был также служить местом для проведения официальных государствен-
ных мероприятий, своего рода «дворцом съездов». Вскоре по королев-
скому указу было создано новое придворное учреждение Хёпрюльса, ко-
торое и должно было заведовать театром. Также стали называть и сам
театр. Большинство будущих актрис было выбрано из числа куртизанок-
кисэн, которые, во-первых, в обязательном порядке учились прению и
танцам, а во-вторых, в те времена являлись единственной группой жен-
щин, привычных к выступлению перед публикой.
Театр разместился в кирпичном здании довольно специфического
вида. Сами его создатели искренне полагали, что их детище напоминает
Колизей. Действительно, здание театра в плане имело необычную круг-
лую форму, но оно куда больше походило на склад или паровозное депо,
чем на Колизей.
Театр Хёпрюльса считался государственным учреждением, и его
персонал получал зарплату как государственные служащие. Труппа

95
должна были организовать представления для короля и придворных, то
есть заниматься тем же, чем дворцовые певицы и танцовщицы занима-
лись в Корее на протяжении столетий. Однако уже изначально предпола-
галось, что некоторые представления будут открыты и для публики, ко-
торая будет покупать на них билеты. В этом случае первые корейские
театральные менеджеры вполне сознательно подражали западному опы-
ту. Первый спектакль (или, точнее, концерт) для частной публики состо-
ялся в декабре 1902 года.
В театре Хёпрюльса имелось около 500 мест, которые делились на
три разряда. Самыми дорогими считались "жёлтые" места. Билет на та-
кое место стоил 1.00 вону (в те времена чиновник средней руки зараба-
тывал 20 вон в месяц). "Красные" места продавались за 0.70 воны, а са-
мые дешёвый "зелёные " (или "синие" – оба цвета обозначаются одним
иероглифом, а цветных фотографий зала не существовало) стоили 0.50
вон.
Однако Хёпрюльса был театром специфическим – в нём поначалу
вообще не ставили пьес! Все его выступления в наше время считались
бы «концертами». На его сцене танцевали красавицы кисэн, появлялись
исполнители традиционных баллад пхансори. Именно театр Хёпрюльса
стал местом, где кинофильмы были в первый раз показаны большой ко-
рейской аудитории. Кинопроектор был по тем временам машиной небез-
опасной, так что во время одного из таких сеансов случился пожар. Всё
обошлось, но некоторое время театр Хёпрюльса был закрыт.
Затем его здание некоторое время использовалось как клуб для чи-
новников. Однако это длилось недолго. В начале 1908 года здание опять
стало театром, и на сей раз в нём стали действительно ставить пьесы.
http://lankov.oriental.ru/d123.shtml

KOREAN CINEMA

1 Match the posters or descriptions (1-4) to the titles of the films


(a-d). Have you ever watched any of them?

96
2

3. North and South Korean superspies battle and fall in love.


4. It has been described in Koreanfilm.org as a "consensus pick as one
of the top three Korean films of all time".

A Yellow sea B Na Un'gyu's Arirang C 1999, Shiri D The


Housemaid

READING

1 Read the texts, and do the exercises.

Only fragments remain of Korea's early film history. The vast majority
of Korea's early film footage was lost due to neglect or the destruction
brought about by the Korean War, and not a single feature produced before
1934 survives in complete form today. Nonetheless, historical records paint a
picture of a lively and creative industry that produced over 160 features from
the early twenties until Japan's surrender to Allied forces in 1945.
From 1909 to 1920, a series of theatres were built in Seoul and in re-
gional cities such as Pusan and Pyongyang. Most of these theatres were
owned by Japanese businessmen, but a few Korean theatre owners built up a
significant amount of capital screening European and American imports. This
capital would eventually be used to help finance the first domestic produc-
tions. Korea's first "film" (The Righteous Revenge), a kinodrama in which
actors performed against the backdrop of a projected feature, debuted at
Seoul's Danseongsa Theater in 1919.
Korea's first silent feature was produced in 1923, and over the next few
years, seven Korean film companies would appear. The masterpiece of this
era is considered to be Na Un-kyu's Arirang (1926, pictured left). Na, only 25
years old at the time, produced, directed and starred in this film about a men-
tally unstable man who kills a wealthy landowner's son who is linked to the
Japanese police. The title is taken from a popular folk song, which in its

97
newly re-arranged form would become an anthem of sorts for the Korean
independence movement. The film, admired for its aesthetic qualities as well
as for its hidden political messages, became an inspiration for a wave of
young filmmakers who hoped to make films based on principles of realism
and resistance to Japanese power.
1945-1955
Only five films have survived from the period between the U.S. occupa-
tion of Korea and the end of the Korean War. Of them, the most famous is
Choi Un-gyu's Chayu Manse! ("Hoorah! Freedom"), released in 1946. An
ode to patriotism with strong anti-Japanese sentiments, the film proved to be
a hit with audiences.
During the Korean War, much of the country's film re-infrastructure was
destroyed and the centre of the industry temporarily moved to Busan. Many
filmmakers became involved in shooting newsreels and war documentaries.
Following the armistice agreement in 1953, President Rhee Syngman de-
clared cinema to be exempt from all tax, in hopes of reviving the industry.
Foreign aid programs provided South Korea with film technology and equip-
ment, setting the stage for the rebirth of Korean cinema in the late-fifties and
sixties.
1955-1969: A Golden Age for Korean Cinema
The latter half of the 1950s can be considered a period of revival for the
Korean film industry, as the number of domestic productions increased from
8 in 1954 to 108 in 1959. The public also returned to the theatres, embracing
such features as the now-lost 1955 version of Chunhyang-jeon, which drew
200,000 viewers in Seoul (over a tenth of the city's population), and Madame
Freedom (1956), based on a scandalous novel that had been published the
year before in a local newspaper.
The late 1950s and early 1960s saw the emergence of some of Korea's
most talented directors. These filmmakers worked during a time when the do-
mestic film industry enjoyed an unprecedented surge in box office receipts.
However in 1962, military dictator Park Chung Hee instituted a highly con-
strictive Motion Picture Law which caused a severe consolidation in the
number of film companies, and which strengthened government control over
all aspects of the industry. Although accomplished films continued to be
made up until the end of the decade, such restrictive policies would ulti-
mately have a severe effect on the industry's creativity.
The 1970s
In the seventies, the film industry entered a long period of declining ad-
missions and increased levels of government censorship. In 1973 the Korean
Motion Picture Promotion Corporation (the precursor to the Korean Film

98
Council) was formed in an effort to revive the industry, and in the following
year the Korean Film Archive was founded, but as an industry Korean
cinema would not reverse its commercial slide until the mid-1990s.
1980-1996
In the 1980s, the Korean film industry undertook the first steps of a ma-
jor transformation with several important developments. Firstly, military
leader Roh Tae-woo enacted a new constitution in 1988 which led to the
gradual easing of political censorship. One early film to take advantage of
this was Park Kwang-soo's Chilsu and Mansu (1988), which cleverly invokes
images of a street demonstration in its memorable final scene. Park would go
on to direct more acclaimed films, such as Black Republic (1990), To the Starry
Island (1993) and A Single Spark (1995).
Meanwhile back in 1984, a revision to the Motion Picture Law loosened
some of the regulatory restrictions on Korean filmmakers. Independent pro-
duction, which had formerly been illegal, was permitted under certain cir-
cumstances, and the government also repealed laws which had kept the film
industry consolidated under a few large companies. The end result of this is
that by the late 1980s a new generation of young producers had entered the
film industry, and their new approaches to filmmaking would eventually have
a major effect on Korean cinema.
1996-present
However beginning in 1996, a new generation of directors began to take
over the industry. Arthouse master Hong Sang-soo made his debut with the
award-winning The Day a Pig Fell Into the Well (1996, pictured right), which
weaves the experience of four characters into a single story. In this and his
subsequent films, Hong built a reputation for his honest depiction of the
cruelty and baseness of human relations. The year 1996 also saw the debut of
controversial filmmaker Kim Ki-duk, known for his rough but visually strik-
ing film style (largely self-taught) and his tendency to shoot films very
quickly on a shoestring budget. Unlike most other leading Korean directors,
Kim's films such as The Isle (2000) were first championed internationally,
rather than by local critics. Then in 1997, Lee Chang-dong made his debut
with Green Fish. A former novelist, Lee would eventually win a Best Director
award at Venice for Oasis (2002), and also served as Korea's Minister of
Culture and Tourism from 2003-2004.
At the same time, a group of younger, more commercially minded film-
makers were also making their debut. In 1997, the release of the hit film The
Contact by Chang Yoon-hyun marked a resurgence of box-office popularity
for domestic features, leading up to the unprecedented success of Kang Je-
gyu's 1999 film Shiri. Since then, Korea has entered a boom period that ranks

99
as one of the most sudden and notable developments in recent world cinema.
Local audiences have rushed to embrace local films, so that by 2001 the 60-
70 Korean films made each year sold significantly more tickets than the 200-
300 Hollywood and foreign titles that were released. In the international
arena as well, festival screenings and international sales expanded at
breathtaking speed, as more and more directors began to make a name for
themselves.
One could argue, however, that the current boom being enjoyed by
Korean cinema is less of an extraordinary circumstance, than a case of the in-
dustry finally reaching its natural state. Since its earliest beginnings, Korean
cinema has been hampered by Japanese colonization, national division, civil
war, authoritative military governments, strict censorship, and highly restrict-
ive, distorting film regulations. Only in the 1990s did Korean cinema finally
enjoy a supportive government, a stable economic environment and a sens-
ible film policy. Although the amazing commercial boom that has powered
the film industry in recent years may well fade to more modest levels, one
hopes that Korean cinema will never again face such extreme disruptions as it
did in the 20th century.
http://koreanfilm.org/history.html
2 Fill in the table.
Periods Types of Titles of the Directors Specific
films most features
prominent
films

3 Answer the questions.


1. Why there are very few, if any, old Koreans films left?
2. Give an example of an old film where attempts of realism, seeking of
independence and respect of traditions interweaved?
3. How many films have survived from the period between the U.S. oc-
cupation of Korea and the end of the Korean War?
4. Why are the years 1955-1969 called “the Golden age for Korean
cinema”?
5. What effect did easing of political censorship have on the film in-
dustry?
6. When did a boom period of film industry started? How is it charac-
terized?

Vocabulary

100
4 Match the phrases with their translation.

1 early film footage A Выпускать кинохронику


2 bring about B Немой фильм
3 shoot newsreels C Остановить коммерческое
падение
4 silent feature D Вызывать, быть причиной
5 to be exempt from all taxes E Чрезмерно сдерживающие,
деформирующее кино,
инструкции
6 reverse its commercial slide F Первые фильмы, киноленты
7 be hampered by G Освободить от уплаты налог-
ов
8 highly restrictive, distorting H Задерживать развитие, тор-
film regulations мозить

5 Fill in the gaps with the necessary words or phrases.


1. Most ________ run from under an hour to just over an hour.
2. Latest in _____ is one distributed nationally, once a month, for
home movie projectors.
3. This publication provides an understanding of the ______ .
4. Never been seen before! Old reel _______found in Nova Scotia
fleamarket.
5. It may ______ a change of the Cabinet.
6. President Barack Obama took to the airwaves Saturday to promote
his plan how to ________ in what's-it-mean-to-me terms: thousands of better
schools, lower electricity bills, health coverage for millions who lose insur-
ance.
7. We must not _______ yesterday's myths in concentrating on today's
needs.
8. The goal would be to address market-_____ with the same focus
that is applied to domestic regulation.

6 Translate the sentences into English.

1. Сохранившиеся до наших дней первый фильмы Кореи, конечно,


же немые и чёрно-белые.
2. Киноиндустрия, как и многие стороны жизни диктаторского го-
сударства, подверглась сдерживающему и деформирующему влиянию
инструкций.

101
3. Для того, чтобы остановить коммерческое падение, киноинду-
стрия была освобождена от уплаты налогов.
4. Сдерживающим фактором развития киноиндустрии служили
чрезмерно строгие инструкции и нормативы.
5. Во время Корейской войны многие режиссеры отдавали все
силы выпуску кинохроники и документальных фильмов.
6. . Причиной экономического спада стал неуправляемый рост ин-
фляции.
7. Многие выдающиеся ленты первых немых фильмов были поте-
ряны или уничтожены в годы Корейской войны.
8. Каковы будут дальнейшие шаги правительства по сдерживанию
экономического падения и задержки темпов роста?

7 Translate the text into Russian.

Kkoktukaksi is very much a traditional Korean folk play with a village


theme that belongs to an earlier era. In the postwar era, movies have become
a staple of Korean entertainment. The first Korean movie was shown in 1919.
Before long, Korean directors were testing the limits of free expression
under Japanese rule by presenting movies about beloved Korean stories such
as the story of Ch'unhyang, the first sound movie. Though Koreans produced
more than 140 movies before 1945, during the war years they were entirely
controlled by the Japanese authorities and were mostly propaganda. After
World War II, the Korean film industry struggled back to life and the first
color movie, The Diary of a Woman, came out in 1949. The Korean War then
set the industry back again, and it was not until the mid-1950s that Koreans
were able to produce major works of cinema art, the first of which, again,
was the Cinemascope version of the Ch'unhyang story (1955).
In the decades since then, Korean cinema has overcome its troubled be-
ginnings and has developed into a vibrant and popular medium enjoyed by all
Koreans, at least in the south. Facing economic hardships, low budgets, diffi-
culties in importing film and equipment, Korean moviemakers nonetheless
were managing to produce numerous films even in the 1950s. They devised
their own styles and themes, portraying the experiences of Koreans under
wartime conditions, adapting works of literature, and even lightening the
mood with comedies. Among the genres of Korean moviemaking was
"women's movies," about the powerlessness of womanhood in a militarized
society dominated by a system of male privilege. Another genre was the
"road movie," about leaving home and somehow finding it again. "Road
movies" (kil yonghwd) were especially appealing in light of the audiences'
own twentieth-century experience of being relocated to Japan, or being

102
refugees from North Korea, of being separated during war, of leaving the
farms and moving to the cities, and even emigrating to faraway countries to
start new lives. Korean moviemakers entered their works in international film
festivals, winning awards in the Asian region and then in world competitions.

8 Render the text from Russian into English.

Фильмы новой волны

Существуют три основных периода новой волны корейского кино.


Первый период - это 1992 г. когда был выпущен фильм "Свадебная исто-
рия" ("Marriage Story"). Впервые кино финансируется не правитель-
ством, а крупным частным конгломератом "Самсунгом". Далее кинолен-
та "Шири" вышедшая в свет в 1999 г. И, наконец, 2001 г. фильм "Моя
дерзкая девочка" стала самым популярным экспортным фильмом в исто-
рии корейской киноиндустрии. Каждая картина добавила новые силы
для создания уникального корейского кинопроизводства, которое
больше не копируется у Голливуда.
Мощная правительственная поддержка корейского кинопроиз-
водства, полный контроль над пиратством и незаконным распростране-
нием, позволили производить достаточное количество качественных и
профессиональных фильмов, а также получать прибыль от их продаж.
Режиссеры новой волны корейского кино обучаются в США, Франции,
Испании, Нидерландах, Китае и других странах, создают сценарии о
современной корейской жизни, приглашают молодых актеров, отходят
от стереотипов Голливудского клише и временных 90-минутных рамок.
Влияние Кинофестивалей в г. Пусане и г. Чончжу привело к новизне в
основных шаблонах мировой киноиндустрии.
В настоящее время южнокорейское кино можно охарактеризовать
как по-новому концептуальное, хотя оно, разумеется, и не избежало
влияния современной западной культуры. Ныне южнокорейский кине-
матограф становится известен благодаря своей необычности, не освоен-
ности, оригинальности, самобытности, которая существует благодаря
талантливым режиссерам, стремящимся сохранить собственную уни-
кальность, найти новые решения в традиционном однообразии сюжетов
и в различных художественных приемах. Поэтому картин, сделанных по
западным моделям, становится все меньше, что является весьма пози-
тивным фактором.
Кино всегда было с нами. Кино является массовым искусством, к
которому с удовольствием приобщается весь мир. Посредством кино
разные страны испытывают общие эмоции, оно является единой культу-

103
рой современного мирового общества. Корейское кино изменилось в
лучшую сторону. Благодаря неустанным стараниям корейских режиссе-
ров, фильмы обрели интересный сюжет и жанровую разноплановость,
что в конечном итоге изменили отношение отечественных зрителей к ко-
рейскому кино. Зрители, расставшись с устоявшимся мнением о слабо-
сти постановки и малоинтересном сюжете корейского кино, проявляют
все больший интерес к отечественной киноиндустрии.
http://world.lib.ru/i/ibraewa_z_n/massowajakulxtura.shtml

9 Make up presentations basing on the following topics:

1. North and South Koreas cinema development.


2. he masterpieces of Korean cinematograph of different periods.
3. Art of Koreans directors.
4. Koreans folk culture and traditions.
5. Korean Theatre and its types.
6. Reflection of folk traditions in Korean cinematograph and theatre.
7. Foreign influence on the Korean cinema and theatre.
8. Cinema festivals and contests in Korea.

UNIT 2
MUSIC OF KOREA. TRADITIONAL MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS

LEAD-IN
1 Match the pictures of the musical instrument with the titles

2
6
3
7
4

104
Changgo Kayagum Piri
Senap Yanggum
Choktae Tanso
Hae Gum
8

1. What musical group do they belong to?


2. Are they of one musical ensemble?
3. What kind of music is played on these instruments?
4. Are they popular and widespread nowadays?

http://www.hartford-hwp.com/archives/55a/176.html

2 Read the text, and answer the questions below.

The Importance of Rhythm

Nongak is a form of folk music, a genre that includes folk songs


(minyo) that express the joys and sorrows of rural life in traditional Korea.
But whereas folk songs stress storytelling and melody (and most of the songs
were never written down and are long forgotten), the rhythms of the folk
songs have endured in a kind of national subconscious, being repeated and
learned over and over again by successive generations. Some of the rhythms
had to do with work, for example, cooperative projects like plowing and dig-
ging and pounding. Though vestiges of work songs continued into modern
times, as in the "Oisha, oisha" chant of men rocking a car to get it free of the
mud, for example, the mechanization of work in Korea has made rhythmic
singing and chanting less a part of daily life.
One of the most unforgettable styles of rhythm in the countryside was
the funeral chant used by pallbearers as they carried the coffin of their friend
or loved one to the burial site. These chants differed from village to village,
but they normally consisted of verses and a refrain that gave the leader a
chance to sing short stanzas about the deceased and for everyone else to join
in on the chorus. Villagers learned the community chant in early childhood
and grew up hearing and watching the organized grief that accompanied vil-
lage funerals, with rhythms and singing as essential components. The night
before the burial itself the strong men of the village would rehearse their
chant by torchlight, sending chills up and down the spines of onlookers. In
the morning the body in the coffin would be carried on a bier through the al-
leyways of the village and out across the fields that the dead man had owned,

105
and finally to a carefully selected site on a hill above the village for burial.
The prescribed ritual gave everyone a role to play and impressed upon the
participants the importance of family life and community support. Among the
important lessons for the children was the inculcation of music as a part of
life and death.
In 1978, a musician named Kim Toksu started a percussion troupe called
SamulNori (meaning "Four Things Playing") that uses a kkwaenggwari
(small gong), a ching (large gong), a changgo (hourglass-shaped two-head
drum), and a puk (barrel drum). SamulNori compressed the many players of
farm music bands into a four-musician troupe, creating a kind of musical
"team." The word samulnori quickly became the generic word for this kind of
combination, which remains wildly popular across Korea and has toured the
world introducing other people to Korea's elegant and intricate rhythms.
http://www.hartford-hwp.com/archives/55a/176.html

1. What is Nongak?
2. What is the role of rhythm in Nongak?
3. How did the rhythms differ?
4. What is Kim Toksu famous for?
5. Which instruments were there in the percussion troupe?
6. What does the word “samulnori” mean?

3 Read the text and decide, if each statement (1-5) is true or


false.

Folk music is related to folk dancing and folk drama, genres that come
together in the much-loved dramatic form of mask dance dramas. These are
vestiges of village festival entertainment that go back as far as the Silla king-
dom. Though it began as a form of court entertainment, it evolved into a dis-
tinctly plebeian type of theater that nearly died out before being revived in
the national effort at cultural recovery in the late twentieth century. There are
only a few types of mask dramas. One, called sandae, has an all-male cast
who change masks to play the various characters in scenes that detail the mis-
adventures of a typical yangban nobleman, his wife, his concubine, and an
assortment of villagers and monks who are supposed to be celibate but are
actually very interested in women. This combination makes for many running
jokes, giving the audience much merriment. Accompanying the action and
dialogue is a musical troupe that plays and chants and sings folk songs, Bud-
dhist music, and other religious incantations and shamanist invocations.
Like the equally famous mask dance that is performed in the village of
Hahoe, near Andong in southeastern Korea, the performance was designed to

106
be a holiday event to amuse rural people taking a rare break from toil in the
fields. The dramas, which were long and drawn out and full of jokes and
satirical references familiar to the onlookers, were intended to consume an
entire afternoon. The plots were rather disjointed but the actors made up for
this by their generous use of slapstick and exaggerated dialects and gestures.

1. There is no connection between folk dancing and folk drama.


2. There is nothing left to remind us of the entertainment forms of an-
cient times.
3. Folk music has ever been a plebeian type of entertainment.
4. There are many types of mask dramas.
5. Sandae has an all-male cast who change masks to play the various
characters.
6. Music accompanying the action and drama is of various types.
7. Watching drama may take a long time.
8. The plots were edifice.

VOCABULARY

4 Match the phrases with their translation.

1 endure in A Повторять рифмовку


2 successive generations B Прижиться
3 vestiges C Куплет и припев
4 verses and a refrain D внушение
5 rehearse one’s chant E Собрать музыкантов
6 inculcation of F Последующие поколе-
ния
7 Compress the musicians G Остатки, пережитки

5 Translate the following sentences from Russian into English.

1. Снова и снова повторяли они текст, словно заклинание, в наде-


жде восстановить забытые слова.
2. Чтобы передать последующим поколениям слова припева и ку-
плета народных песен, в деревнях, старшее поколение многократно ис-
полняло ту или иную рифмовку.
3. Очень мала вероятность того, что народные песни и рифмовки
приживутся в творчестве последующих поколений.

107
4. Основной заслугой дирижера можно назвать то, что ему уда-
лось собрать состав уникальных музыкантов и оставить записи народ-
ных произведений для следующих поколений.
5. К сожалению, современная молодежь считает национальную
культуру и народную музыку, чем-то вроде пережитком прошлого.

6 Read the article and choose the right word to fill in each gap.

Singing is an ______1 part of social life in Korea. Like all civilizations,


Korea has its own rich _______2 of children's songs, love songs, folk ballads,
and chants. These tunes and lyrics are part of the bond that unites Koreans
and makes them feel like part of their _____ 3 community. There are chil-
dren's songs about bunnies, Buddhist songs about going to the "Western Par-
adise" in a boat made of a _____4 moon, romantic songs about being away
from home, drinking songs, and songs about being in love. Koreans love to
sing.
Karaoke is only the latest version of informal _______ 5 that Koreans
have always provided for each other, taking turns singing solos for friends at
virtually any social occasion. Korean children are often told to sing for their
elders and then are _____6 lavishly for doing so, and they grow up confident
in their singing skills and ability to entertain others with their individual
______ 7.

1. A essexite B essential C essence D exercise


2. A store B collection C bunch D menu
3. A united B common C divided D shared
4. A horseshoe B cornetto C croissant D crescent
5. A interference B entertainment C enlightenment D indulgence
6. A probed B proved C praised D approved
7. A repertoires B content C set D stock

7 Fill in the correct word(s) from the list below:

Without _____ 1 (dubiety/doubt/hesitation) the most famous Korean


folk song is "Arirang," a lyric ______2 (ostensibly/as if/defiantly) sung by a
girl whose lover is about to leave her to ______3 (cross/head/top/) over the
mountains via "Arirang Pass":
Arirang, Arirang, Ara-ri-yo, Heading over Arirang Pass,
If you cast me away and leave me,
You'll get footsore before you go ten li.

108
The words to "Arirang" are amusing because of their ______4
(rouser/numero uno/petulance), but it is the haunting melody that ______5
(enchants/enraptures/enthuses) Koreans and has inspired variations and
elaborations so that there is a special version of the song for many of Korea's
different regions and counties. Composers have written adaptations for every-
thing from brass______6 (ensembles/bands/groups) to full orchestras.

8 Translate from Russian into English

Что представляют собой корейская музыка и танцы?


Сегодня гугак – сокращённый термин, обозначающий корейскую
классическую музыку. Его также используют как термин для обозначе-
ния и корейской традиционной музыки, которая отличается от западной
музыки и зарубежной поп-музыки. Однако, это не значит, что гугак яв-
ляется синонимом традиционной музыки Кореи. В современной музыке
появились композиции, которые обозначаются термином новый гугак.
Корейский танец это движения и эмоции людей, посредством кото-
рых передаются на-строение и образность танца. Корейский танец – та-
нец безмолвных движений, танец радости и удовольствия, гармонии Ин
и Ян.
Танец Кореи – это передача человеческих эмоций, подобных плачу-
щей иве. Наш танец не является специально придуманным или стан-
дартным, он передаёт дух катарсиса. Через танец выражаются чувства
радости, гнева, печали и удовольствия. Посредством восприятия движе-
ний танцоров, зрители воспринимают их, как глубоко личные чувства. В
настоящем корейском танце традиционные динамичные движения не со-
провождаются песней. Корейский танец, захватывающий внимание зри-
телей, передаётся через движения тела и лексику танца!
http://soundsofeurasia.baikal.net/content/2008/articles2008.pdf

WRITING

9 Read the text below and write the annotation to the text.

The question remains whether the k_mun’gow as completely unrelated


to the Chinese qin, contrary to the account given in the History of the Three
Kingdoms. Chinese characters were used for writing in Korea at that time,
and there are many passages in his writings that emphasize the relationship
with China. From the view point of a historian who sought to “serve the
great” and had studied and absorbed the aesthetics of China, the question

109
whether the k_mun’go had originally been modelled on the qin might not
seem very important. In those days when music was no mere source of pleas-
ure but a governing principle of the country itself, a musical instrument like-
wise was more than a tool for making sound. The Chinese qin was played not
for personal amusement but for the cultivation and edification of the charac-
ter. This aesthetic concept of the ancient qin has dominated the aesthetics of
the Korean ruling class from the time when Kim Pusik wrote the History of
the Three Kingdoms right down to modern times: all that changed in Korea
was that the k_mun’go replaced the qin. Thus, from Kim Pusik’s point of
view , wherever the k_mun’go originally came from, it was to be described in
relation to the Chinese qin. Despite its long history, the deep aesthetic tradi-
tion of the qin is now lost in China, while the k_mun’go holds a pre-eminent
place among traditional Korean instruments, and continues to be well loved
by Koreans. Moreover, those who seek to preserve the ancient aesthetics of
the k_mun’gostill use it as an instrument of self-cultivation.-III-Korea’s me-
dieval period can be said to extend from the Kory_ dynasty (918-1392) to the
middle of the Chos_n era (1392-1910). The most important musical activities
in this period took place in connection with national events centred on the
royal court, and among these, especially noteworthy is the importation of
Confucian ritual music (aak) from China. In this medieval period, and espe-
cially in the Chos_n era, the ruling ideology of the state was Confucianism.
Having overthrown the previous dynasty and established a new one, the
rulers felt the necessity not only to justify their own revolution and stabilize
public sentiment, but also to win the support of their powerful neighbour
China. Accordingly, they adopted an ideology that met the needs of the time,
the Chinese doctrine of ceremony (yeak). Representing a Confucian view of
music, this doctrine of ceremony had been the dominant theory of music in
China since the beginning of the Han dynasty (206 B.C.)The Confucian view
of music that this doctrine of ceremony upheld was a heteronymous theory
that treated music as a tool for the highest ruler. It sought to use music to el-
evate public sentiment, improve morality and ethical sense, and edify the
people socially and politically. Of course, this Confucian approach was not
the only philosophy of music in China, but because it was well suited to an
era that respected Confucianism , it exerted a continuous influence on the
Korean peninsula over a long period. Since the nation itself was founded on
Confucian philosophy, the national rites that were considered most important
in Confucianism used music imported from China’s ancient tradition of
yayue ceremonial music. In Korean, this music is called aak. Thus, Korean
aak developed out of music imported from China to meet the needs of the
time and the nation. Aak was first introduced in the 12th century during the
Kory_ dynasty, but its golden age was in the 15th century during the reign of

110
King Sejong (1418-1450),known as Korea’s greatest monarch. In that period,
numerous scholars strove to revive the ceremonial music of China’s ancient
Chou dynasty (fell 256 B.C.), and eventually, a new aak was created and
performed as a successor to the ancient Chinese tradition. It was a great and
laborious work, since no contemporary model was available and many
Chinese literary sources had to be consulted. Almost 600 years later, this
revived version of ancient Chinese ritual music is still performed unchanged
when the rites in honor of Confucius are held twice a year at the Confucian
Temple in S_nggyun’gwan University. What is most important, however, is
that the Chinese Confucian philosophy of music exerted a profound influence
on Korean court music as a whole. As a result, in modern times the word aak
has come to be used in reference to all the music performed at court,
including the hyangak repertoire of Korean origin. But while this broad usage
of aak seems intended to tie all Korean court music to the Chinese
philosophy, the music itself is unique in style and cannot be found in China,
the original source of aak. In the traditional music performed today in China,
there is nothing resembling Korean court music. True to the musical
aesthetics of Confucianism, a music was born that was no less impressive
than it was subdued, slow, and simple in form, that was quite unlike Chinese
music, or that was at one and the same time the most Chinese and the most
un-Chinese of musics. What was special about this Korean aak was that it
arose from the music of the Korean ruling class outside the court itself.
Conceptually, this elite musical tradition had been shaped by Chinese
influence, but in its actual sounds – its melodies, rhythms, and tone colour –
it was an original Korean creation.

10 Render the article from Russian into English.

История корейской музыки начинается в древности. Люди стреми-


лись заручиться поддержкой мира богов, чтобы защитить себя от есте-
ственных опасностей. Поэтому, танец являлся «божественным ритуа-
лом» и сопровождался корейской музыкой для достижения формы цере-
монии. Танцы и религиозные ритуалы приобрели особенное значение во
времена теократического общества. Описание танцев и музыки периода
федерации трёх феодальных государств можно найти в сочинениях Сам-
кукти и Вэйсух Дун-е-чун. Ежегодно проводились мероприятия, на кото-
рых деревенские жители совершали религиозный ритуал, а затем пели и
танцевали в Буео, Гогурю и Дунье. Это Ёонго, Доньмаен и Мучун.
Позднее корейский танец развивался, как придворный танец. Наряду с
придворными и народными танцами появились танцы, которые пред-
ставляли культуру знатных людей. Эта культура трансформируется в

111
Кибань, которая продолжается под названием традиционного танца. Ко-
рейский танец произошёл от шаманского обрядового танца, затем на-
полнялся радостью, изменялся под воздействием придворных танцев,
народных и традиционных танцев. Все они легли в основу корейского
танца, существующего до нашего времени.
В 1900-е годы под влиянием западного танца, корейский танец мо-
дернизировался, способствуя появлению нового танца. В 1905 году был
открыт Национальный театр Вонгакса, в программах которого новый та-
нец исполнялся наряду с придворным и народным танцами. Однако в
1910 году японские завоеватели вернули свои национальные права и
власть, что ограничило исполнение традиционного танца рамками теат-
ров. Японский империализм гарантировал развитие нашего традици-
онного танца, но реформированный корейский танец получил своё раз-
витие на сцене после введения западного танца в 1919 году.
Лучшим исполнителем народных танцев того времени был Хан
Сунь Цюн. Он исполнял народные танцы во многих областях страны,
создал буддийский танец, танец Таепюнь и Хак. Его танцы были призна-
ны неосязаемым культурным достоянием нации. Танцы Хан Сунь Цюн
получили дальнейшее развитие под руководством его внучки Хан Юн
Сук. Среди танцевальной общественности возникла оппозиция по во-
просу интерпретации танца после обретения Кореей независимости 15
августа 1945 года. В связи со сложностью воспроизведения танцеваль-
ной лексики работа над формированием корейского танца обрела осо-
бую актуальность.
http://soundsofeurasia.baikal.net/content/2008/articles2008.pdf

11 Make up presentations basing on the following topics.


1.Famous composers of Korea.
2.Works of famous composers of Korea.
3.The pentatonic scale of musical works.
4.The traditions of Nongak (or Pungmul).
5.Popular modern music and bands of Korea.
6.Musical festivals and contests: Korea as a participant and estab-
lisher.
7. Korean folk music.

List of Korean musicians


http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Korean_musicians

112
UNIT 3
KOREAN LITERATURE

LEAD-IN

1. What genres of Korean literature do you know?


Do you know the names of famous writers and poets of Korea?

Explain the meaning of the words:

idu system sijo p'ansori kwangdae Ch'unhyang yangban


gul script munjip

READING

2 Read the text and answer the questions.

The earliest form of literature in Korea was probably a type of ritual


poem or song that was used in worship, and probably was related to ritual
dance and music. The absence of a writing system meant that these expres-
sions were passed down the generations in oral form and there is no way to
recover them. Koreans started writing with Chinese characters sometime in
the early Three Kingdoms era, probably in the first or second century A.D.
when Chinese influence came through Lolang, a Chinese colony that existed
in northwestern Korea between 108 B.C. and A.D. 313. Though they spoke to
each other in their own Korean language, they wrote things down in Chinese.
Mastery of written Chinese was an expensive luxury and helped draw a line
between educated Koreans, who were an elite minority, and the masses, who
remained illiterate. An attempt to adapt Chinese characters to the Korean lan-
guage was made during the Silla period, when the idu system was created.
The idu system used certain Chinese characters possessing the range of
Korean sounds to write things in Korean pronunciation. This made it possible
to write down Korean words and expressions, though literacy remained an as-
set exclusively for the upper class.

P'ansori Epics
Both Yun Sondo and Kim Sujang took liberties with the syllable-count
rules of sijo, extending the line and inventing a variant form. In time, many
sijo writers did likewise, and many sijo were really drinking songs, sung by

113
revelers around a table, vying with each other for the best rendition, using
chopsticks as percussion tools on the table's edge. Their poems (or songs)
verged toward another great genre of Choson-era poetry-singing called p'an-
sori, a narrative form that seemed to have no length constraints at all.
P'ansori folk opera, as it developed in the form of a literary genre, was
an epic performance by a single singer called a kwangdae, with no props
other than a handkerchief and a fan to wield as disguises, tools, weapons, or
whatever the moment called for. Accompanied by a percussionist keeping
rhythm on a drum and punctuating the singer's points with contrapuntal
sounds of agreement, shock, encouragement, and disapproval, the p 'ansori
performer would enthrall audiences for hours with operatic versions of much-
loved folktales. P'ansori singing required a formidable vocal range, since the
performer not only had to sing but also had to express the gamut of emotions
in the voices of all the different characters in the story. The performance typi-
cally took many hours and usually left the performer (and the audience) ex-
hausted.
A good example of the p'ansori genre is the story of the girl named
Ch'unhyang, meaning "Spring Fragrance," known in Korean as Ch'un-
hyangjon. The Ch'unhyang story was ideally suited for p'ansori. The young
lovers' dilemma, their tragic separation, the arrival of the evil governor and
his abuse of the innocent heroine, Ch'unhyang's faithfulness, the suspense
about whether Yi Mongnyong would ever find out what had happened to his
wife, and his miraculous return to liberate her and punish the evildoer all
were themes that made for a highly emotional presentation, using action,
comedy, satire, many kinds of voices, and long expositions on morality and
on the arrogance of the ruling yangban as they abused common people. The
story was popular enough to be sung and told in forms other than p 'ansori,
and in modern times there have been several opera and movie versions.

2 Answer the questions:


1. What was the earliest form of Korean literature?
2. What was the written language in the fourth century A.D.?
3. What changes did the idu system bring?
4. What is sijo?
5. Who changed the syllable-count rules of sijo?
6. How can a P'ansori folk opera be characterized?
7. What is the most popular plot of P'ansori folk opera?

3 Read the text and decide, if each statement (1-5) is true or false.

114
Women wrote fictional works, including historical novels, in the seven-
teenth and eighteenth centuries using the loan gul script that most educated
male writers tried to avoid. The authors were court ladies; that is, wives and
mothers of powerful men who had to keep their silence while observing the
cruelties and injustices of court politics. Since they were not writing for pub-
lication at the time and were in effect keeping secret diaries for their own use,
they were not bound by the rigid forms and conventions that stripped so
much of the men's writing of emotion and color. As a result, in modern times
their ban 'gul writings have reappeared as popular novels about court life, full
of characters and judgments about right and wrong. Like the Ch'unhyang
story these have made good screenplays, and television series based on them
have been wildly popular. The Tale of Queen Inhyon (Inhyon wanghujon) is
one that concerns a manipulative royal concubine who tries to remove the
reigning queen in order to get her own son in line for the throne and has to
commit multiple murders in the process. Eventually the king realizes the evil
of the concubine and has the queen restored to her rightful place.
The most famous court novel by a woman is The Memoirs of Lady Hye-
gyong (the Hanjung-nok). The writer, Princess Hyegyong (1735-1815), tells
the story of the court of King Yongjo (r. 1724-76) and the tragic fate of her
husband, Crown Prince Sado. Written in diary form, the Hanjung-nok tells
about the plots against Princess Hyegyong's husband, Prince Sado, how the
plotters convinced King Yongjo that the prince was a criminal and deserved
to die, and how the king had him locked in a box to starve to death. Like
many other Korean classics the theme of the novel is one of miscarried jus-
tice — of unfair and arbitrary treatment and the abuse of power. King Yongjo
was a great ruler but his blindness in the affair of his own son and heir was a
great national tragedy. Princess Hyegyong's written record not only kept the
historical event in the minds of the Korean people but also contributed a
work of literature that is a Korean equivalent of a Shakespearean epic in the
West.

1. Women have always been free to express their ideas in pen.


2. Women writing fictional historical novels were usually the relations
of court men.
3. It took long for women to have the work published due to the compe-
tition with men.
4. Nowadays the ban 'gul writings have reappeared as popular novels
about court life.
5. The Tale of Queen Inhyon used to be a very popular novel but it was
lost during the Korean war.

115
6. The most famous court novel by a woman is The Memoirs of Lady
Hyegyong about the tragic fate of her husband.
7. Like many other Korean classics the theme of the novel is one of
miscarried justice.
8. Princess Hyegyong's written record can be compared to a Shake-
spearean epic in the West.

VOCABULARY

4 Match the phrases with their translation.

1 vernacular A Злоупотребление должностными


полномочиями
2 reckon B Письменное свидетельство
3 restore C высокомерие
4 arbitrary treatment D Родной язык
5 the abuse of power E восстанавливать
6 written record F Диапазон эмоций
7 the gamut of emotions G произвол
8 arrogance H Считать, принимать во внимание

5 Translate the following sentences.

1. Письменные свидетельства существования литературы VIII-IX


веков на родном языке стали важным открытием историков.
2. Диапазон эмоций и проблем, затронутых в ранних произведени-
ях автора впечатляют.
3. Следует принять во внимание произвол, высокомерие и злоупо-
требление должностными полномочиями, царящими в то время.
4. По крупицам, работники архивов восстанавливали первые пись-
менные свидетельства написанные на родном языке.
5. Вам не следует принимать во внимание его слова.

6 Fill in the correct word(s) from the list below.

Han'gul Novels

The first Korean vernacular ______1 (saga/novel/romance) was The


Story of Hong Kiltong by Ho Kyun (1569-1618). Like the story of Ch'un-
hyang it is a _______ 2 (buffoonery/grotesque/satire) in which commoners
outdo the upper class. The _______ 3 (hero/character/knight), named Hong

116
Kiltong, is the leader of a band of _______ 4 (pickpockets/thieves/robbers)
who ______ 5 (set up/make up/bring in) a classless community on an isolated
island and succeed in ______ 6 (getting acquainted/making friends/getting
along) without the yangban and their laws and _______ 7
(privileges/bonuses/perks). Nearly a century later, the novelist Kim Manjung
(1637-92) wrote The Cloud Dream of the Nine (Ku'unmong), based on the
Buddhist idea of dreams and clouds that hide reality. It too concerned the
conflict between pretense and reality in the lives of the _______ 8 (govern-
ing/ruling/mastering) class.

7 Fill in the gap with the necessary form of the word from the right
column.

Modern Literature

Korea's ancient relationship with China ended in 1895


and Korean intellectuals _____ 1 their search for authentic 1 new
Korean avenues of expression. The idea of writing novels
was new in Korea and the first "modern" novel, _____ 2 2 title
Tears of Blood (Hydl ui nu) by Yi Injik (1862-1916), was a
blend of romantic Chinese-style storytelling and modern
ideas, told in themes of_________ 3, the thirst for modern 3 modern
knowledge, and the quest for individual and national ___ 4. 4 liberty
A decade later, the novelist Yi Kwangsu (1892-?) took
Korean fiction to a new level with his The Heartless (Mu-
jong), a romantic story about the clash between traditional
and modern lifestyles, the ______ 5 conflict of true love 5 generate
versus arranged marriage, the experience of studying
abroad, and the need to sacrifice patriotically for the Korean
nation. Yi Kwangsu was a "nationalist," one whose work in-
spired _____ 6 against Japanese colonial rule and contrib- 6 resist
uted to the March 1, 1919, Independence Movement in Ko-
rea. The failure of the __7 against Japan in 1919 left Korean 7 rise
intellectuals in a quandary about whether to accept Japanese
rule or continue what appeared to be a ____ 8 resistance. 8 hope
Many writers became "cultural nationalists, "looking for
ways to preserve "Koreanness" and the _______ 9 of Ko- 9 conscious
rean culture through study and ________ 10. In the 1920s, 10 strong
Korean intellectuals founded a variety of literary journals,
trading ideas through short stories and novellas that were
influenced by comparable movements in China, Russia, and

117
the West.

8 Match the numbers (1-8) with the letters (A-I), then join the sen-
tences.

Japanese colonialism
1 These works welled up out of A writers continued to discuss the
a national soul that had been human cost of Korea's political
shattered by plight.
2 The overriding theme of B where Japanese was the language
most Korean literature in the of instruction, and "literature"
twentieth century has been classes were about Japanese, not
Korean, writers.
3 When government censors C the search for national wholeness,
blocked most avenues of ex- first under foreign rule and then,
pression, after 1945, in a divided country
with two bitterly hostile regimes
poised on the verge of civil war.
4 Simply by writing literature D it took more and more courage to
in Korean between 1910 and preserve the Korean language at
1945 they performed acts of the heart of Korean national con-
resistance, sciousness.
5 As the war years approached E the death of the monarchy and the
and Japan's grip on Korea Japanese conquest.
tightened,
6 Writers such as Ch'ae Mansik F since Korea's "national language"
and Yi Kwangsu were risking officially was Japanese, and the
a great deal to keep Korean speaking and writing of Korean
literature alive. was, in effect, an act of rejection
and even subversion against
Japan.

9 Read the article and choose the right word to fill in each gap.

When the Allies liberated and divided Korea in 1945, there was a ____ 1
moment when Korean writers thought they might be free to _____2 their own
literature in their own land. But very soon it became clear that certain kinds
of writing would be illegal, depending upon whether the writer ______ 3 in
North or South Korea. Korean literature, which had been shaped and dis-
torted by Japanese rule, now was distorted further by the needs of the two

118
Korean regimes. In North Korea, literature had to _____ 4 socialism and the
myths of Kimilsungism. In the south, left-wing writers were _____ 5. Both
sides insisted on government-approved interpretations on all portrayals of the
nation's central _____ 6, the Korean War of 1950-53. As a result, in both
North and South Korea, Korean literature continued to be a literature that was
_____ 7 from reality. Writers felt it whenever they dared not say certain
things. Readers knew it when they read stories that ____ 8 events and situa-
tions of which they had personal knowledge.

1. A short B brief C little D abrupt


2. A establish B implement C introduce D imply
3. A located B colonized C settled D resided
4. A fame B praise C auspicate D glorify
5. A banned B blacklisted C prohibited D cancelled
6. A probatian B assay C ordeal D trial
7. A estranged B removed C withdrawn D devested
8. A whited B bleached C whitewashed D blanched

WRITING

10 Read the text below and write the annotation to the text.

Literature in a Divided Korea

Between 1945 and 1950, the Korean literary world was thrown into tur-
moil by the reckoning that followed "liberation" from Japan. Intellectuals in
general were subjected to charges and countercharges of collaboration. Being
educated, they were elite people with privileges that had come from cooperat-
ing with the Japanese. Opposed to them were writers who had risked their ca-
reers and freedom by joining left-wing groups. More than 100 of Korea's
best-known writers migrated to North Korea during this period, with some,
like Han Sorya, becoming committed supporters of the Communist regime.
South Korean writers who were associated with those who had moved north
were themselves subjected to severe political persecution, partly because of
their left-wing views and partly because of their record of friendship with the
turncoats. The names of those who went north were expunged from public
discourse. Their works were suppressed as the anti-Communist South Korean
government organized a national forgetting of what they had written before
they went, and nothing they wrote afterwards was allowed into South Korea.

119
It took many years for the literary community in South Korea to recover
from the events surrounding the Korean War. Not being able to write about
the central conflict between North and South Korea, writers in the south in-
stead wrote about earlier times under the late monarchy and the Japanese, a
genre that became known as Modern Fiction (kundae munhak). Mature writ-
ers like Oh Yongsu who had already established reputations in the 1930s led
with stories about the goodness of common farmers. Kim Tongni (1913-)
wrote about the "soul" of Koreans, a kind of "humanistic nationalism" ex-
pressed largely through religious undercurrents and critiques of modern mate-
rialism. Hwang Sunwon (1915-) is Korea's most-translated novelist, with sev-
eral anthologies of his own in English. Hwang is a more romantic writer, con-
cerned with the beauty of the human world and the expression of human feel-
ing.
Contemporary Korean fiction [hyondae munhak) is the work of writers
who were born too late to experience life under the Japanese or even to re-
member the Korean War and who received their educations in the Korean
language. Their writing used more han gul and fewer Chinese characters and
referred to life in the divided Korea of their own experience. They were the
first to tackle the subject of the Korean War, albeit within limits imposed by
the South Korean government. Thus they wrote about suffering and victim-
ization, painting the North Koreans as the villains, and later broadening their
criticism to assign responsibility to the United States and the distortions that
had been forced on Korea by the international Cold War. Social and political
criticism landed certain especially outspoken writers in trouble with the mili-
tary governments that followed the 1961 coup d'etat. Under Presidents Park
Chung-hee and Chun Doo-hwan the government closed down literary maga-
zines and blacklisted writers regarded as unfriendly to the regime. Some writ-
ers became known for underground writings that were passed around campus
and read by members of literary societies. When the pressure eased in the late
1980s and South Korea underwent "democratization," there was a trickle and
then a torrent of contemporary literature reviewing and revising the national
consciousness of what had happened in the 1940s and 1950s. Cho Chong-
nae's epic The T'aebaekMountains (T'aebaek sanmaek) renewed the discus-
sion of the Korean War as a struggle between common people and privileged
elites. Set in southwestern Korea in the late 1940s, it revolved around at-
tempts by patriotic left-wing Koreans to resist the division of the country
through separate elections for governments in Seoul and P'yongyang. That
period in that area of the country had been a time of endemic violence and
brutality, and Cho's novel was a popular starting point for a reassessment of
the horrors of the Korean War era.

120
TRANSLATION

10 Translate the text into Russian.

Documentary Literature
Korea is rich in government records and documents that tell the coun-
try's history from the point of view of the royal court and ruling class. When
the historian Kim Pusik and the monk Ilyon wrote their separate accounts of
the Three Kingdoms era (the Samguk Sagi and Samguk Yusd) they wrote in
classical Chinese, and formal history thereafter always followed Chinese
models, which included "annals" that told the story of what happened more or
less chronologically, followed by "biographies" of the most important people
in the government and leading families, and additional sections that rear-
ranged the material in the annals to tell the stories of individual provinces and
counties. The Choson Wangjo Sillok, or "Veritable Records of the Choson
Dynasty," was a compilation many thousands of pages long that was at once a
historical narrative and an encyclopedia of the dynasty with sections covering
agriculture, the economy, defense, music, and fiscal matters. In addition, cen-
sus documents recorded the names and functions of everyone at intervals dur-
ing the dynasty. Gazetteers served as records of particular locales including
geography, famous people, leading families, and important events.
And the government kept meticulous records of who passed the civil
and military service examinations and thereby won access to the two com-
partments of the ruling yangban class.
It was therefore necessary for anyone concerned with the public busi-
ness to be adept at classical Chinese, and for anyone aspiring to become an
official at any level to study Chinese and learn the conventions associated
with it. This of course was the reason for Korean education to be Chineses-
tyle education stressing mastery of the Confucian canon. The Confucian clas-
sics were models for Korean students, full of stories and examples drawn
from Chinese, and not Korean, history. The letters and essays that they wrote
in the course of their lifetimes were collected into personal anthologies called
munjip that together constitute an essential part of Korea's literary heritage.

11 Render the text from Russian into English

КОРЕЙСКАЯ ЛИТЕРАТУРА. — Устная Корейская литература мало


исследована; внимание европейской науки привлекали гл. обр. ко-
рейские сказки (перев. 1893). На развитие письменной Корейской ли-

121
тературы оказала огромное влияние экономическая и культурная зависи-
мость Кореи от Китая.
Подлинную историю Корейской литературы надо начинать с конца
XIX, начала XX вв., с момента появления буржуазной литературы. Пер-
вым шагом на пути к созданию самостоятельной Корейской литературы
явились переводы классических европейских и японских литературных
произведений писателями Ли Инсиг, Цой Намсен, Чо Ильзай, Лисанхев.
Вслед за этим стали появляться самостоятельные произведения самих
корейских писателей, отличающиеся от прежних литературных произве-
дений по стилю и сюжету: Ли Куансу, Хен Сосен, Зин Сун Сен, Мин
Убо. Нужно отметить особо важную роль Ли Куансу в деле оформления
нового литературного течения. Еще в произведениях раннего периода
(«Золотое зеркало», «Горе юноши», «Куанхо», повести «Письма молодо-
му другу», «Без пощады» и «Предшественник») Ли Куансу высоко под-
нял знамя борьбы против разлагающейся старой феодальной морали,
проповедуя полную свободу личности. Это было первой стрелой,
направленной против старых традиций. Его проповедь свободы любви
встретила самый горячий отклик со стороны тогдашней молодежи.
Цой Намсен и Ли Куансу явились созидателями нового стиля. Их
заслуги в этом деле громадны. Но оба эти писателя, начиная примерно с
1920, пошли в национально-освободительном движении по пути рефор-
мистского соглашательства и, таким образом, потеряли весь свой авто-
ритет. В последнее время оба они работают преимущественно над исто-
рическими темами. Ли Куансу в своих произведениях периода после
1919 («Проводник», «Золотой крест», «Кровавое Письмо», «Святая
смерть» и ряд других) приходит все более к гуманизму; кроме повестей
и романов Ли Куансу известен своими стихами и публицистическими
статьями и является самым плодовитым из всех современных корейских
писателей. Ким Донин, Ием Сансеф, Ден Ентак, Хен Динген, Ла Бин, Чу
Иохан, Ким Соуол, Бен Сучу, Янг Муай, Ким Ансе вместе с Ли Куансу
— созидатели и крупные представители современной корейской буржу-
азной литературы. Из поэтов нужно отметить Чу Иохан («Дождь», «Со-
кровище» и др.), Ким Соукол («Гора», «Дорога» и др.), Бен Сучу («Лон-
гай», имя героини поэмы, «Река»), Янг Муай («После разлуки», «Через
три года» и др.), Ким Ансей («Весенний ветер», «Остров Ольми», «Гора
Самгак»). Однако поэзия далеко отстает от прозы и в количественном и
в качественном отношении.
Что касается драматургии, то можно назвать Ким Унден, Юн Пяк-
нам, Ким Иенпар, Ю Дино, Ким Тайсу и др., но пока что нет налицо се-
рьезных успехов в этой области. В области «сизо» видными авторами
являются Цой Намсен, Ли Куансу, Чу Иохан, Чоун, Уйданг, Карам и др.

122
Также популярны в области рассказа Бан Ингун, Юн Боктин, Ким Кано,
Дин Дансеф и др.
Начало становления пролетарской литературы в Корее следует от-
нести к 1924-1925. Буржуазные писатели проповедовали «необходи-
мость создания самостоятельной национальной литературы для каждой
нации на основе учета специфических условий прошлого и настоящего
каждой нации». На другом полюсе раздались голоса о необходимости
создания классовой пролетарской литературы как одного из средств
борьбы за интересы своего класса, борьбы, связанной с задачами защи-
ты национальных интересов угнетенной нации. Это движение возглав-
лял поэт и публицист Ким Кидин. В стихотворениях «Горе белых рук»,
«Жданное сердце» и в статье «У крестового моста» и др. он первый по-
ставил вопрос в полном объеме. Откликнулись на его призыв Нак Енхи,
Чо Менхи, Ким Донхван Ким Лесу, Цой Сехай, Ли Киенг, Хан Селья Ли
Йксанг и объединились в лигу пролетарских писателей.
Часть пролетарских писателей принимает непосредственное уча-
стие в революционном движении рабочего класса. Поскольку пролетар-
ская литература находится пока что в стадии формирования, она есте-
ственно отстает от националистической литературы в смысле чисто ху-
дожественном, но однако по энергии и энтузиазму во много раз превос-
ходит ее. Пролетарские писатели провозглашают так наз. «диалектиче-
ский реализм». Конечно говорить о корейской пролетарской литературе
можно только условно, ибо она пока еще развивается в значительной
мере под знаком мелкобуржуазного радикализма.
http://dic.academic.ru/dic.nsf/enc_literature/2417/%D0%9A%D0%BE%D1%80%D
0%B5%D0%B9%D1%81%D0%BA%D0%B0%D1%8F

12 Make up presentations basing on the following topics:


1. Literature of divided Korea.
2. Women in Korean literature.
3. Korean poetry.
4. Awards and prizes of Korean literature.
5. History of Korean literature.

List of Korean writers


http://www.ranker.com/list/famous-writers-from-korea/reference

123
Bibliography

1. The guardian. - Режим доступа:


http://www.guardian.co.uk/books/2006/oct/07/featuresreviews.guardianreview26
2. “Theatre of the Capital” or the Peking Opera. – Режим доступа:
http://www.xip.fi/atd/china/theatre-of-the-capital-or-the-peking-opera.html
3. A Short History of Chinese Opera. – Режим доступа:
http://www.illuminatedlantern.com/cinema/archives/a_short_history_of_chinese_o
pera.php
4. An overview of Korean perfoming art. Theatre in Korea. - Режим
доступа:
http://www.gokams.or.kr/Data/GKBM29/publication_Theatre%20in%20Korea.pdf
5. Anime. – Режим доступа: http://en.academic.ru/dic.nsf/enwiki/139
6. Chan E. Park. Korean Drama in search of Korean theatre, Past and
Present. - Режим доступа:
http://www.gwu.edu/~eall/hms/hms19/abstracts/cp_abstract.pdf
7. Chinese Hamlet in 'Jackie Chan style'. – Режим доступа:
http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-scotland-14572524
8. Chinese instruments. – Режим доступа:
http://www.chinesemusic.co.uk/traditional-chinese-instruments/
9. Darcey Parket. A short History of Korea Film. - Режим доступа:
http://koreanfilm.org/history.html
10.Dream of the Red Chamber. – Режим доступа:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dream_of_the_Red_Chamber
11.Go Japan Go. Koto. - Режим доступа:
http://www.gojapango.com/culture/koto.html
12.Go Japan Go. Shamisen. - Режим доступа:
http://www.gojapango.com/culture/shamisen.html
13.Japanese folk music. - Режим доступа:
http://www.gojapango.com/culture/japanese_music_folk.html
14.Japanese literature. – Режим доступа:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Japanese_literature
15.Japanese literature. – Режим доступа:
http://www.gojapango.com/culture/japanese_literature.html
16.Japanese music. - Режим доступа:
http://web.mit.edu/21f.066/www/theisen/music/genres.html
17.Kabuki. – Режим доступа: http://www.japan-guide.com/e/e2090.html
18.Kobayashi Issa Poems. – Режим доступа:
http://www.poetrysoup.com/poet/Kobayashi_Issa
19.Korean Thetre for Dummies. - Режим доступа
http://www.hkeld.com/articles/view/korean-theatre-for-dummies

124
20.Matsuo Basho Poems. – Режим доступа:
http://www.poetrysoup.com/poet/Matsuo_Basho
21.Movies. – Режим доступа: http://www.japan-zone.com/modern/movie.shtm
22.Music of Japan. - Режим доступа:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Music_of_Japan
23.Oraacle education foundation. - Режим доступа:
http://library.thinkquest.org/C0126526/history.html
24.Pansory. - Режим доступа: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pansori
25.South Korean Theatre and Dance in the 20th century. - Режим
доступа: http://www.xip.fi/atd/korea/south-korean-theatre-and-dance-in-the-
20th-century.html
26.Theatre of Japan. – Режим доступа:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Theatre_of_Japan
27.Theatre of Japan. Traditional form of theatre. - Режим доступа:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Theatre_of_Japan
28.Utah band blends American folk music with Chinese instruments. –
Режим доступа: http://www.pri.org/stories/arts-entertainment/music/utah-band-
blends-american-folk-music-with-chinese-instruments-12988.html
29.Yukio Mishima. Biography. – Режим доступа:
http://www.imdb.com/name/nm0592758/bio
30.Yuwen Wu. Mo Yan: China's reluctant Nobel laureate. – Режим
доступа: http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-asia-china-20598875
31.Ибраева Ж.Н. Киноиндустрия Южной Кореи: от истоков
становления - до международного признанияю - Режим доступа:
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32.Китай. Китайская живопись и каллиграфия. – Режим доступа:
http://www.fusion-tour.ru/tours/china/about/country/art.php
33.Корейская литература. - Режим доступа:
http://dic.academic.ru/dic.nsf/enc_literature/2417/%D0%9A%D0%BE%D1%80%
D0%B5%D0%B9%D1%81%D0%BA%D0%B0%D1%8F
34.Ланьков А. Корея: страна и люди. - Режим доступа: http:\\
www.lankov.oriental.ru
35.Особенности народной музыки Китая. – Режим доступа:
http://www.atexnik.ru/neopredeleno/osobennosti_narodnoj_muzyki_kitaya.php
36.Умбебрто Эко. Биография. - Режим доступа:
http://bookmix.ru/authors/index.phtml?id=15)
37. Японские аниме как способ привлечения туристов. – Режим
доступа: http://www.zametkituristov.ru/yaponskie-anime-kak-sposob-
privlecheniya-turistov

125
Учебное издание

БОГОРЯД Наталия Владимировна


ЛЫСУНЕЦ Татьяна Борисовна
ШВАГРУКОВА Екатерина Васильевна

ЭКСКУРС В КУЛЬТУРУ
КИТАЯ, ЯПОНИИ И КОРЕИ

Учебное пособие

Издано в авторской редакции

Компьютерная верстка Д.В.Сотникова

Дизайн обложки: Т.В.Буланова

Подписано к печати 11.08.2014. Формат 60х84/8. Бумага «Снегурочка».


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