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PROPERTIES OF BONDS

PROPERTIES OF COVALENT BONDS


 BOND ORDER
 number of bonds between two nuclei

bond order
1 single C–C
2 double C=C
3 triple CC
BOND LENGTH

 distance between the nuclei of the


atoms joined in a covalent bond
 decreases as bond order increases

H H
BOND LENGTH
BOND AVERAGE BOND
LENGTH (pm)
C–O 143
C=O 120
C–C 154
C=C 134
C≡C 120
H–H 74
BOND STRENGTH
 related to the energy required to break a bond
 directly proportional to bond order
 inversely proportional to bond length
Energy required to break the following bonds:
Bond Energy (kJ/mol)
order
1 single C–C 348
2 double C=C 614
3 triple C≡C 839
BOND POLARITY

a measure of how the electrons are shared between


two atoms of the bond
determined by comparing the electronegativity of the
atoms involved in bonding
ELECTRONEGATIVITY
EN = |EN of atom 1 – EN of atom 2|

As EN increases bond polarity increases:

EN Bond Polarity


< 0.5 non-polar covalent bond
0.5 – 1.9 polar covalent bond
> 1.9 rather form ionic bond
BOND POLARITY
 when the electron pair is shared
unequally, the bond:
 is polar
 exhibits charged separation
 possesses a dipole moment
 indicated by crossed arrows ( )
 Which bond is more polar?

a. N–O or C–O?
C–O

b. S–F or O–F?
S–F

c. O–H or C–H?
O–H
TYPES OF SUBSTANCES BASED ON CHEMICAL BONDS
PRESENT
IONIC SUBSTANCES

 positive and negative ions


are held in the crystal
arrangement by
electrostatic attraction
 ionic bonds extend
throughout the crystal -
 particles in fixed positions - + -
in solid state -
IONIC SUBSTANCES
 IONIC CRYSTAL

Cl- K+ Cl- K+

K+ Cl- K+ Cl-

Cl- K+ Cl- K+
IONIC SUBSTANCES
 PROPERTIES
 non-conductor in solid phase
 conductor when molten & in aqueous
soln
 high melting point
 hard
 brittle
IONIC SUBSTANCES
 EXAMPLES
SUBSTANCE MP (OC) USES
NaCl 801 flavoring, preservative
CaO 2580 steel, pulp and paper
manufacture
PbCrO4 884 yellow pigment in paint
IONIC SUBSTANCES
Lattice Energy
 Whenever a new bond forms, energy is released. The
stronger the bond, the more energy that is released.

 For ionic bonds, this energy is called lattice energy.


IONIC SUBSTANCES
Born-Haber Cycle
Five-step method for finding the lattice energy of NaCl.
1. Sublime one mole of solid Na.
2. Dissociate 0.5 mole of Cl2(g) into one mole of Cl(g).
3. Ionize one mole of Na(g) to Na+(g)
4. Convert one mole of Cl(g) to Cl-(g)
5. Allow the Na+(g) and Cl-(g) to form one mole of NaCl(s).
BORN-HABER PROCESS
BORN-HABER PROCESS
process Energy change
• Since the sum of the (kJ)

five processes yields Na(s)→Na(g) 107.3


the desired overall ½ Cl2(g)→Cl(g) 122
reaction, the sum of
the individual energy Na(g)→Na+(g)+e- 495.8
changes gives the
overall energy change. Cl(g)+e-→Cl-(g) -348.6
Na+(g)+Cl-(g)→NaCl(s) -787
Na(s) + ½ Cl2(g) →NaCl(s) TOTAL -410.5
COVALENT MOLECULAR SUBSTANCES
C O
 the structural units are
neutral molecules or C O
atoms
 weak forces of attraction
between molecules
COVALENT MOLECULAR SUBSTANCES

 PROPERTIES
 low density
 low melting points
 low strength
 thermal insulators
 electrical insulators
COVALENT NETWORK SUBSTANCES

 structural units are atoms


 strong covalent bonds exist between
atoms
COVALENT NETWORK SUBSTANCES

 PROPERTIES (EXCEPT GRAPHITE)


 very high MP
 very hard
 brittle
 thermal insulators
 electrical insulators
COVALENT NETWORK SUBSTANCES
COVALENT NETWORK SUBSTANCES
 EXAMPLES
SUBSTANCE MP (OC) USES

Diamond 2200 jewelry, tool for cutting

Silicon oxide 1470 glass making


Silicon
>1000 grinding tool
carbide
METALLIC SUBSTANCES

 metallic bonding
 “sea” of moving valence
electrons which
collectively hold the
nuclei of the metal metal cation
+
cations together
delocalized
valence e-
METALLIC SUBSTANCES
 PROPERTIES
 high density
 high melting point
 thermal conductors
 electrical conductors
 lustrous

 malleable and ductile


METALLIC SUBSTANCES
FORCE

atoms slide along slip planes making metals


malleable and ductile