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Coal To Electricity

K. Bhanu Prakash

Coal To Electricity K. Bhanu Prakash

Presentation Overview

Presentation Overview • General statistics of coal based generation • Coal and its issues with generation

• General statistics of coal based generation

• Coal and its issues with generation

• Coal handling and transportation

• Coal combustion

• Chemical Energy to thermal energy

• Thermal to mechanical energy

• Mechanical to electrical energy

to thermal energy • Thermal to mechanical energy • Mechanical to electrical energy Presentation Overview Page

Coal To Electricity

Coal To Electricity Presentation Overview Page 3
Coal To Electricity Presentation Overview Page 3

Power scenario in India

Power scenario in India Date | Title of Presentation Page 4

Generation

Generation • Total Installed Capacity is 156092.91 MW Thermal Power • Current installed capacity of Thermal

• Total Installed Capacity is 156092.91 MW

Thermal Power

• Current installed capacity of Thermal Power (as of 12/2008) is 93,398.84 MW which is 64.7% of total installed capacity.

• Current installed base of Coal Based Thermal Power is 77,458.89 MW which comes to 53.3% of total installed base.

• Current installed base of Gas Based Thermal Power is 14,734.01 MW which is 10.5% of total installed base.

• Current installed base of Oil Based Thermal Power is 1,199.75 MW which is 0.9% of total installed base.

• The state of Maharashtra is the largest producer of thermal power in the country

base. • The state of Maharashtra is the largest producer of thermal power in the country

Presentation Overview

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Power generation in the country

Power generation in the country The government has estimated that India will require an installed capacity

The government has estimated that India will require an installed capacity of over 200,000 megawatt (MW) by 2012 to meet the electricity demand, which will be 60 percent more of what the country has at present.

At present, about 26 percent of installed power generation capacity in India is hydropower against 50 percent in the 1960s, while around 66 percent is thermal generation including gas.

Hydropower projects based in south India account for 30% or 11,400MW of the country’s installed capacity of 38,000MW of such power. Country’s total installed capacity of 147,000MW, only around 85,000MW is operational at any given point of time.

India plans to add 78,577MW by 2012,

India’s track record in adding power generating capacity ,in the five years to 2007, the country added 20,950MW of capacity, against a target of 41,110MW

Electricity in India

Electricity in India India's peak power deficit is expected to widen in the current fiscal year

India's peak power deficit is expected to widen in the current fiscal year to 12.6 percent from 11.9 percent in the 2008/09 fiscal year that ended in March

Per capita electricity consumption rose from merely 15.6 kWh (kilowatt-hours) in 1950 to.

In 2007-08 per capita consumption of power in India was about 717 kilowatt every hour.

However, it is a matter of concern that per capita consumption of electricity is among the lowest in the world.

Electricity generation in India

Electricity generation in India Date | Title of Presentation Page 8
Electricity generation in India Date | Title of Presentation Page 8

Demand of Electricity in India

Demand of Electricity in India Date | Title of Presentation Page 9
Demand of Electricity in India Date | Title of Presentation Page 9

Electricity generation in India

Electricity generation in India Date | Title of Presentation Page 10
Electricity generation in India Date | Title of Presentation Page 10

Transmission capacity in India

Transmission capacity in India Date | Title of Presentation Page 11
Transmission capacity in India Date | Title of Presentation Page 11

Power stations in India

Power stations in India Date | Title of Presentation Page 12

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Power stations in India Date | Title of Presentation Page 12

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Coal in India

Coal in India Date | Title of Presentation Page 13

Coal

Coal •India ranks third amongst the coal producing countries in the world. • It accounts for

•India ranks third amongst the coal producing countries in the world.

•

It accounts for 55% of the country’s total energy supplies.

•Production of coal increased from about 70 MT (million tonnes) in early 1970s to 534 million tonnes in 2009/10

Most of the coal production in India comes from open pit mines contributing to over 81% of the total production while underground mining accounts for rest of the national output .tonnes) in early 1970s to 534 million tonnes in 2009/10 • Despite this increase in production,

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Despite this increase in production, the existing demand exceeds the supply.

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India's coal consumption will reach 604.3 million tonnes in the fiscal year to March 2010, leaving a shortfall of 70 million tonnes

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Coal Mines in India

Coal Mines in India Date | Title of Presentation Page 17
Coal Mines in India Date | Title of Presentation Page 17

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Cost Comparison Of Electricity Produced By Various Fuels/Sources

Comparison Of Electricity Produced By Various Fuels/Sources Hydro Coal Diesel/solar 3-4 rs/unit 4-5 rs/unit

Hydro

Coal

Diesel/solar

3-4 rs/unit

4-5 rs/unit

12/20 Rs/unit

Basic Thermodynamics

Basic Thermodynamics Date | Title of Presentation Page 19

First law of thermodynamics

First law of thermodynamics The first law of thermodynamics is the application of the conservation of
First law of thermodynamics The first law of thermodynamics is the application of the conservation of

The first law of thermodynamics is the application of the conservation of energy

Energy conservation

Energy conservation Date | Title of Presentation Page 21
Energy conservation Date | Title of Presentation Page 21

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Second law of thermodynamics

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Second law of thermodynamics Date | Title of Presentation The second law of thermodynamics asserts that

The second law of thermodynamics asserts that energy has quality as well as quantity, and actual processes occur in the direction of decreasing quality of energy. For example, a cup of hot coffee left on a table eventually cools, but a cup of cool coffee in the same room never gets hot by itself (Fig. 1-3). The high-temperature energy of the coffee is degraded (transformed into a less useful form at a lower temperature) once it is transferred to the surrounding air.

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Carnot Cycle

Carnot Cycle The Carnot cycle when acting as a heat engine consists of the following steps:

The Carnot cycle when acting as a heat engine consists of the following steps:

Reversible isothermal expansion of the gas at the "hot" temperature, T H (isothermal heat addition). Isentropic (reversible adiabatic) expansion of the gas (isentropic work output). For this step (B to C on Figure 1, 2 to 3 in Figure 2) the piston and cylinder are assumed to be thermally insulated, thus they neither gain nor lose heat. The gas continues to expand, working on the surroundings. The gas expansion causes it to cool to the "cold" temperature, T C . Reversible isothermal compression of the gas at the "cold" temperature, T C . (isothermal heat rejection) (C to D on Figure 1, 3 to 4 on Figure 2) Now the surroundings do work on the gas, causing quantity Q 2 of heat to flow out of the gas to the low temperature reservoir. Isentropic compression of the gas (isentropic work input). (D to A on Figure 1, 4 to 1 in Figure 2) Once again the piston and cylinder are assumed to be thermally insulated. During this step, the surroundings do work on the gas, compressing it and causing the temperature to rise to T H . At this point the gas is in the same state as at the start of step 1.

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The total amount of thermal energy transferred between the hot reservoir and the system total
The total amount of thermal energy transferred between the hot reservoir and the system total

The total amount of thermal energy transferred between the hot reservoir and the system

energy transferred between the hot reservoir and the system total amount of thermal energy transferred between
energy transferred between the hot reservoir and the system total amount of thermal energy transferred between

total amount of thermal energy transferred between the system and the cold reservoir will be

between the system and the cold reservoir will be The efficiency η is defined to be

The efficiency η is defined to be

Rankine cycle

Rankine cycle There are four processes in the Rankine cycle, Process 1-2 : The working fluid

There are four processes in the Rankine cycle, Process 1-2: The working fluid is pumped from low to high pressure, Process 2-3: The high pressure liquid enters a boiler where it is heated at constant pressure by an external heat source to become a dry saturated vapor. The input energy required can be easily calculated using mollier diagram or h-s chart or enthalpy-entropy chart Process 3-4: The dry saturated vapor expands through a turbine, generating power. This decreases the temperature and pressure of the vapor, and some condensation may occur. The output in this process can be easily calculated using the Enthalpy-entropy chart Process 4-1: The wet vapor then enters a condenser where it is condensed at a constant pressure to become a saturated liquid. In an ideal Rankine cycle the pump and turbine would be isentropic, i.e., the pump and turbine would generate no entropy and hence maximize the net work output. Processes 1-2 and 3-4 would be represented by vertical lines on the T-S diagram and more closely resemble that of the Carnot cycle. The Rankine cycle shown here prevents the vapor ending up in the superheat region after the expansion in the turbine,which reduces the energy removed by the condensers.

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The Steam Engine

• In 200 B.C., a Greek named Hero designed a simple machine that used steam as a power source.

•

A cauldron of water, placed above an open fire, And heated, the cauldron shell transferred the heat to the water. When the water reached the boiling point of 212F (100C), it changed into steam.

The steam passed through two pipes into a hollow sphere, which was pivoted at both sides. As the steam escaped through two tubes attached to the sphere, each bent at an angle, the sphere moved, rotating on its axis.the boiling point of 212F (100C), it changed into steam. • Hero, labeled the device aeolipile,

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Hero, labeled the device aeolipile, meaning rotary steam engine.

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Even today, the basic idea has remained the same – generate heat, transfer the heat to water, and produce steam.

has remained the same – generate heat, transfer the heat to water, and produce steam. Presentation
has remained the same – generate heat, transfer the heat to water, and produce steam. Presentation

History of electric generation

History of electric generation • During the first two decades of the twentieth century, there was

• During the first two decades of the twentieth century, there was an increase in steam pressures and temperatures to 275 psi (1.9 MPa) and 560F (293C), with 146F (81C) superheat.

• In 1921, the North Tess station of the Newcastle Electric Supply Company in northern England went into operation with steam at 450 psi (3.1 MPa) and a temperature of 650F

(343C).

•

The steam was reheated to 500F (260C) and regenerative feed water heating was used to attain a boiler feed water temperature of 300F (149C).

Previously, as power generating stations increased capacity, they increased the number of boilers, but attempts were being made to increase the size of the boilers as well.to attain a boiler feed water temperature of 300F (149C). • Soon the size requirement became

•

Soon the size requirement became such that existing furnace designs and methods of burning coal, primarily stokers, were no longer adequate.

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Pulverized coal was the answer in achieving higher volumetric combustion rates and increased boiler capacity.

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The first use of pulverized coal in furnaces of stationary steam boilers had been demonstrated at the Oneida Street plant in Milwaukee,Wisconsin, in 1918.

Coal

Coal Date | Title of Presentation Page 31

What is coal

What is coal Coal is a fossil fuel. It is a combustible, sedimentary, organic rock, which

Coal is a fossil fuel. It is a combustible, sedimentary, organic rock, which is composed mainly of carbon,hydrogen and oxygen.

Coal

Coal • Coal is a fossil fuel formed in ecosystems where plant remains were preserved by

Coal is a fossil fuel formed in ecosystems where plant remains were preserved by water and mud from oxidization and biodegradation.

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Coal is a readily combustible black or brownish-black rock. It is a sedimentary rock,

• It is the largest single source of fuel for the generation of electricity world-wide, as well as the largest world-wide source of carbon dioxide emissions.

Coal is extracted from the ground by coal mining, either underground mining or open pit mining (surface mining).the largest world-wide source of carbon dioxide emissions. • Coal is primarily used as a solid

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Coal is primarily used as a solid fuel to produce electricity and heat through combustion.

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World coal consumption is about 6.2 billion tons annually, of which about 75% is used for the production of electricity .

The Advantages of Using Coal to Make Electricity

Cost

The Advantages of Using Coal to Make Electricity • Cost • One of the biggest advantages

• One of the biggest advantages of electricity produced by burning coal is its low cost.

• Even compared to other non-renewable resources such as natural gas and oil, coal is an economical energy source.

Availability

• Another major benefit of coal is its availability.

• Coal deposits are present around the world, making it easy to mine regionally. This means less cost and energy used to transport it

Chemical Energy to Heat Energy Coal To Steam

Chemical Energy to Heat Energy Coal To Steam • Coal from the coal wagons is unloaded

• Coal from the coal wagons is unloaded in the coal handling plant.

This Coal is transported up to the raw coal bunkers with the help of belt conveyors.from the coal wagons is unloaded in the coal handling plant. Truck and overland conveyor transportation

Truck and overland conveyor transportation are used primarily for delivery of coal to plants near the mines or coal mine-mouth plantsThis Coal is transported up to the raw coal bunkers with the help of belt conveyors.

Coal Handling

Presentation Overview

Coal Handling Presentation Overview Page 36
Coal Handling Presentation Overview Page 36

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Coal Handling – Bottom Unloading

Coal Handling – Bottom Unloading Presentation Overview Page 37
Coal Handling – Bottom Unloading Presentation Overview Page 37

Coal Unloading

Coal Unloading Presentation Overview Page 38
Coal Unloading Presentation Overview Page 38

Wagon Tippler

Wagon Tippler Presentation Overview Page 39
Wagon Tippler Presentation Overview Page 39

Wagon Tippler

Wagon Tippler Presentation Overview Page 40
Wagon Tippler Presentation Overview Page 40

Sea Transportation

Sea Transportation Presentation Overview Page 41
Sea Transportation Presentation Overview Page 41

Coal crushing

Coal crushing • In general, the size of the coal received at power plants is typically

• In general, the size of the coal received at power plants is typically (0.30 m) or higher. The size required for the pulverizers used with most pulverized coal steam generators (0.03 m). This requires the coal to be reduced by crushing before it is transported to the unit silos.

• The ring granulator crusher is normally selected for power plant application, since its maximum product size can be controlled while minimizing the amount of fines and dust produced.

Coal Crusher

Coal Crusher Presentation Overview Page 43
Coal Crusher Presentation Overview Page 43

Coal Handling Layout

Coal Handling Layout Presentation Overview Page 44
Coal Handling Layout Presentation Overview Page 44

Steam Generators

Steam Generators Presentation Overview Page 45

Coal To Electricity

Coal To Electricity Presentation Overview Page 46

Chemical To Heat Energy-Boilers

Chemical To Heat Energy-Boilers The function of a steam generator is to provide controlled release of

The function of a steam generator is to provide controlled release of heat in the fuel and efficient transfer of heat to the feed water and steam. The transfer of heat produces main steam at the pressure and temperature required by the pressure turbine.

Chemical To Heat Energy

Chemical To Heat Energy • Coal from the coal wagons is unloaded in the coal handling

Coal from the coal wagons is unloaded in the coal handling plant. Unloaded Coal is crushed and transported upto the raw coal bunkers with the help of belt conveyors.

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Coal is fed to Bowl Mills by Coal feeders. Coal is pulverized in Mill, to a powder form.

This crushed coal is taken to the furnace with the help of hot and cold air mixture from P.A. Fan. Atmospheric air from F.D. Fan is heated in the air heaters and sent to the furnace as combustion air.Coal feeders. Coal is pulverized in Mill, to a powder form. • Water from the boiler

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Water from the boiler feed pump passes through economiser and reaches the boiler drum. From drum it passes through down-comers and goes to bottom ring header. Bottom ring header is divided to all the four sides of the furnace.

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Density difference drives the water up in the water wall tubes "Water is partly converted to steam as it rises up in the furnace. From the water mixture , steam is separated in drum.

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Water follows the same path while the steam is sent to superheaters for superheating. The superheaters are located inside the furnace and the steam is superheated ( 540"C) and finally it goes to turbine.

Presentation Overview

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Coal To Electricity Contd

Coal To Electricity Contd • These flue gases emits their heat energy to various superheaters in

• These flue gases emits their heat energy to various superheaters in the pant house and finally passes through air preheaters and then goes to electrostatic precipitator where the ash particles are extracted.

Electrostatic precipitator consists of metal plates which are electrically charged. Ash particles are attracted on to these plates, so that they do not pass through the chimney to pollute the atmosphere.precipitator where the ash particles are extracted. Regular mechanical hammers blows cause the accumulation of

Regular mechanical hammers blows cause the accumulation of ash to fall to the bottom of the precipitator where they are collected in a hopper for disposal. This ash is mixed with water to form a slurry and is pumped to ash pond.to these plates, so that they do not pass through the chimney to pollute the atmosphere.

Early Boiler Designs – 1920-1933

Early Boiler Designs – 1920-1933 Presentation Overview Page 50
Early Boiler Designs – 1920-1933 Presentation Overview Page 50

Presentation Overview

Early Boiler Designs – 1920-1933 Presentation Overview Page 50

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Modern Boiler

Modern Boiler Presentation Overview Page 51
Modern Boiler Presentation Overview Page 51

Combustion

Combustion • Combustion can be defined as the rapid chemical reaction of oxygen with the combustible

• Combustion can be defined as the rapid chemical reaction of oxygen with the combustible elements of a fuel.

• Chemical union of the fuel combustibles and the oxygen of the air, at a controlled rate produces useful heat energy.

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Coal is a hydro carbon comprising of CHNOS as its elemental constituents

Combustion Heat Release

Combustion Heat Release Presentation Overview Page 53
Combustion Heat Release Presentation Overview Page 53

Coal Combustion

Coal Combustion Various Equipments involved in coal combustion are: • Furnace; • Drum; • Boiler circulating

Various Equipments involved in coal combustion are:

• Furnace;

• Drum;

• Boiler circulating pumps;

• Convection pass

• Superheater,

• Reheater,

• Economizer;

• Air heater;

• Air preheat coils;

• Soot blowers;

• Coal feeders;

• Pulverizers;

• Coal piping;

• Burners;

• Igniters and warmup burners;

• Ductwork; and

• Insulation.

Basic Rankine Cycle –Recap

Basic Rankine Cycle –Recap Presentation Overview Page 55
Basic Rankine Cycle –Recap Presentation Overview Page 55

Superheating

• The amount of work done in a turbine depends is limited by the moisture content in the steam.

• A super heated steam improves cycle efficiency and reduces the moisture content in the steam.

The super heater heat transfer surface may be radiant surface in the furnace or convective surface in the convection pass.efficiency and reduces the moisture content in the steam. Tube materials typically are selected by the

Tube materials typically are selected by the boiler manufacturer based on the temperature of the tube surface during operating conditions.surface may be radiant surface in the furnace or convective surface in the convection pass. Presentation

Presentation Overview

manufacturer based on the temperature of the tube surface during operating conditions. Presentation Overview Page 56
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Superheat Reheat Regeneration

Superheat Reheat Regeneration Presentation Overview Page 57
Presentation Overview
Presentation Overview

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Rankine Reheat Cycle

Rankine Reheat Cycle Page 58 Presentation Overview
Rankine Reheat Cycle Page 58 Presentation Overview

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Presentation Overview

FD Fan

FD Fan Presentation Overview Page 59
FD Fan Presentation Overview Page 59

Coal Mill

Coal Mill Presentation Overview Page 60
Coal Mill Presentation Overview Page 60

Economizer

Economizer • Economizers are heat exchange devices that heat water, up to but not normally beyond

• Economizers are heat exchange devices that heat water, up to but not normally beyond the boiling point of that fluid.

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Economizers make use of the enthalpy in flue gas that are hot, but not hot enough to be used in a boiler, thereby recovering more useful enthalpy and improving the boiler's efficiency.

They are fitted to a boiler which saves energy by using the exhaust gases from the boiler to preheat the cold water used to fill it.useful enthalpy and improving the boiler's efficiency. • The economizer is composed of low-temperature convection

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The economizer is composed of low-temperature convection pass surface.

Boiler Auxiliaries – Air Preheater

Boiler Auxiliaries – Air Preheater Presentation Overview Page 62
Boiler Auxiliaries – Air Preheater Presentation Overview Page 62

Air pre heaters

Air pre heaters • The purpose of the air pre heater is to recover the heat

• The purpose of the air pre heater is to recover the heat from the boiler flue gas.

It increases the thermal efficiency of the boiler by reducing the useful heat lost in the flue gas. Two types Tubular and Plate type

by reducing the useful heat lost in the flue gas. Two types Tubular and Plate type
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by reducing the useful heat lost in the flue gas. Two types Tubular and Plate type
by reducing the useful heat lost in the flue gas. Two types Tubular and Plate type

Presentation Overview

Electrostatic precipitator

Electrostatic precipitator Date | Title of Presentation Page 64
Electrostatic precipitator Date | Title of Presentation Page 64

Steam To Mechanical Power

Steam To Mechanical Power • Steam from the control valves enters the high pressure cylinder of

• Steam from the control valves enters the high pressure cylinder of the turbine, where it

passes through a ring of stationary blades fixed to the cylinder wall. These act as nozzles and direct the steam into a second ring of moving blades mounted on a disc secured to the turbine shaft. This second ring turns the shafts as a result of the force of the steam. The stationary and moving blades together constitute a 'stage' of the turbine and in practice many stages are necessary, so that the cylinder contains a number of rings of stationary blades with rings of moving blades arranged between them. The steam passes through each stage in turn until it reaches the end of the high pressure cylinder and in its passage some of its heat energy is changed into mechanical energy.

• The steam leaving the high pressure cylinder goes back to the boiler for reheating and returns by a further pipe to the intermediate pressure cylinder. Here it passes through another series of stationary and moving blades.

Finally, the steam is taken to the low pressure cylinders, each of which it enters at the centre flowing outwards in opposite directions through the rows of turbine blades -an arrangement known as double flow - to the extremities of the cylinder.through another series of stationary and moving blades. As the steam gives up its heat energy

As the steam gives up its heat energy to drive the turbine, its temperature and pressure fall and it expands. Because of this expansion the blades are much larger and longer towards the low pressure ends of the turbine.turbine blades -an arrangement known as double flow - to the extremities of the cylinder. Presentation

Types Of Turbine

Types Of Turbine Presentation Overview Page 66
Types Of Turbine Presentation Overview Page 66
Types Of Turbine Presentation Overview Page 66

Turbine

Turbine Presentation Overview Page 67
Presentation Overview
Presentation Overview

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Turbine

Turbine Presentation Overview Page 68
Turbine Presentation Overview Page 68

Condenser

Condenser • When as much energy as possible has been extracted from the steam it is

• When as much energy as possible has been extracted from the steam it is exhausted directly to the condenser.

• The condenser consists of a large vessel containing some 20,000 tubes, each about 25mm in diameter.

Cold water from the river, estuary, sea or cooling tower is circulated through these tubes and as the steam from the turbine passes round them it is rapidly condensed into water condensate. Because water has a much smaller comparative volume than steam, a vacuum is created in the condenser.containing some 20,000 tubes, each about 25mm in diameter. • This allows the steam to reduce

• This allows the steam to reduce down to pressure below that of the normal atmosphere and more energy can be utilized.

From the condenser, the condensate is pumped through low pressure heaters by the extraction pump, after which its pressure is raised to boiler pressure by the boiler feed pump.It is passed through further feed heaters to the economiser and the boiler for reconversion into steam.down to pressure below that of the normal atmosphere and more energy can be utilized. Presentation

Condenser

Condenser Presentation Overview Page 70
Condenser Presentation Overview Page 70

Heat Balance Diagram

Heat Balance Diagram Presentation Overview Page 71
Heat Balance Diagram Presentation Overview Page 71

Feed Water Heaters

Feed Water Heaters Presentation Overview Page 72
Feed Water Heaters Presentation Overview Page 72

De-aerator

De-aerator Presentation Overview Page 73
De-aerator Presentation Overview Page 73

Generator

Generator • The rotational mechanical energy is converted to electrical energy in the generator by the

• The rotational mechanical energy is converted to electrical energy in the generator by the rotation of the rotor's magnetic field. The rotation of the turbine turns the rotor of the generator, producing electrical energy in the stator of the generator.

• The generator rotor consists of a steel forging with slots for conductors that are called the field windings. An electrical direct current is passed through the windings, causing a magnetic field to be formed in the rotor. as this magnetic field is rotated by the turbine. The rotor is surrounded by the generator stator that includes copper conductors. The magnetic field of the rotor passes through the stator, setting electrons in the stator conductor in motion.

•

The flow of electrons is called current. As the rotor's north pole passes through the stator conductors, the current flows in one direction. When the south pole of the rotor's magnetic field passes through the same conductor, the current flows in the opposite direction. This type of electrical current is called alternating current (ac) and is the type of current produced in most power plants.

Switching and Transmission

Switching and Transmission • Electricity is usually produced in the stator windings of large modem generators

• Electricity is usually produced in the stator windings of large modem generators at about 25,000 volts and is fed through terminal connections to one side of a generator transformer (1) that steps up the voltage to 132000,220000 or 400000 volts.

•

From here conductors carry it to a series of three switches comprising an isolator (2), a circuit-breaker (3) and another isolator (4).

• From the circuit-breaker the current is taken to the busbars (5)- conductors which run the length of the switching compound - and then to another circuit-breaker (6) with its associated isolators (7), before being fed to the Grid (8). Each generator in a power station has its own transformer, circuit-breaker and associated isolators but the electricity generated is fed into a common set of busbars.

Switching and Transmission

Switching and Transmission Presentation Overview Page 76
Presentation Overview
Presentation Overview

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Thank You

Thank You Presentation Overview Page 77

Presentation Overview

Thank You Presentation Overview Page 77

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