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....,.

И.В. Баранова, Е.Ю. Борисова,


С.В. Контримович, О.А. Прохорова

THEVERBALS

НЕЛИЧНЫЕ
ФОРМЫ ГЛАГОЛА

Учебно-методическое пособие

Москва
Издательство <<Флинта>>
Издательство <<Наука>>
2009
УДК 811.111'36(075.8) CONTENTS
ББК 81.2Англ-923
Б24

Р е ц е н з е н т ы:

канд. пед. наук, доцент Л.А. Барановс"ая (СибГГУ);


Предисловие ............................................................................................. 5
канд. филол. наук, доцент М.В. Савельева (СибГАУ)
Section one: Theory .................................................................................... 7
Verbals. The Non-finite Forms ofthe Verb ........................................... 7
The Infmitive ............................................................................... ;....... 9
Баранова И.В. Infinitive Constructions ...................................................................... 14
Б24 The Verbals: Неличные формы глагола: учеб.-метод. The Gerund ........................................................................................ 20
пособие 1
И.В. Баранова, Е.Ю. Борисова, С.В. Контри­
Gerundial Constructions 24
мович, О.А. Прохорова.- М.: Флинта: Наука, 2009.-
The Genшd and the Verbal Noun 26
264 с.
The Gerund and the lnfinitive 27
ISBN 978-5-9765-0734-0 (Флинта)
ISBN 978-5-02-034826-4 (Наука) The Participle .................................................................................... 30
В пособии представлено максимально полное описание форм, зна­ Participial Constructions .................................................................... 34
чений и функций неличных форм глагола (инфинитива, герундия, при­
The Gerund and Participle 1 --- _____ ........................... 39
частил), на многочисленных примерах показавы их особенности. Цель
пособия - сформировать навыки употребления нели•шь1х форм глагола. The Infinitive and the Participle 41
Для самостоятельной работы студентов факультета иностранных языков.

Section two: Practice ................................................................................ 42


УДК 811.111'36(075.8)
The Infinitive ...................................................................................... 42
ББК 81.2Анrл-923
The Gerund ....................................................................................... 82
The Partici ple .. .. ... .. .... . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ... .. .. .... .. .. .. .. .. ... .. . .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. . l 02

1
,~1
Section three: Tests ................................................................ ·: ............... 134
The Jnfinitive 134

Test 1 134
137
© Баранова И.В., Test 2 139
Борисова Е.Ю., The Gerund ...................................................................................... 139
Контримович С.В.,
Test 1
ISBN 978-5-9765-0734-0 (Флинта) Прохорава О.А., 2009
JSBN 978-5-02-034826-4 (Наука) © Издательство «Флинта», 2009 Test 2 ......................................................................................... 143

3
проверки правильиости ответа ·по ключу лист бумаги пере­
Section one: THEORY
двигается на одну-две строки вниз. Все предложения обяза­
тельно проговариваются вслух.
Данные упражнения могут быть использованы в парной
работе студентов в аудитории, давая тем самым возможность
преподавателю индивидуально заниматься с отдельными сту­
дентами группы. При таком виде работы один из студентов VERBALS.
пары выступает в роли преподавателя, имея перед собой ТНЕ NON-FINITE FORMS OF ТНЕ VERB
текст пособия. Второй студент воспринимает задание-сТИМУЛ
со слуха. Затем студенты меняются ролями. TI1e verb has finite and non-finite forms. Non-finite forms are
Раздел Tests содержит тестовые задания и может быть ис­ called verbals. There are three non-finite forms ofthe verb: the infi-
пользован как средство самоконтроля уровня знаний при са­ nitive, the participle,and the gerund. They differ from finite forms
мостоятельной подготовке к контрольным работам по нелич­ in that they lack some grammatical categories that finite verbs
ным формам глагола. Выполните тест и сверьте свои варианты have: they have no category of person, number, tense and mood,
ответов с ответами в конце раздела пособия (раздел Кеу). they can't Ье used alone as the predicate of the sentence. They can
Если вы сделали ошибку, прочитайте соответствующий раздел Ье used as part of the predicate.
грамматики (раздел Theory) еще раз и постарайтесь понять, в
чем была ваша ошибка. Проделав данные тесты, вы еще раз Тhе DоиЫе Nature of the Verbals
сможете закрепить пройденный грамматический материал. The verЬals have mucl1 in common: they all соmЬiпе the cha-
Раздел Translation включает перевод предложений с не­ racteristics of the verb with those of some nominal part of speech.
личными формами глагола с русского языка на английский. Thus, the Participle may Ье defined as а verbal form displaying
Упражнения на перевод не только закрепляют грамматичес­ some adjectival features. Both the infinitive and the gerund are
кие навыки употребления неличных форм глагола, но и обу­ characterized not only Ьу purely verbal features, but also Ьу those
чают навыкам перевода. of а noun (especiaJJy, the gerund). That's why grammarians usually
Авторы надеются, что работа с пособием принесет пользу speak of their douЬle nature.
студентам и позволит им достичь успехов в овладении таким
Тhе Verbal Features
непростым граммат~ческим материалом, как неличные фор­
мы глагола. 1. Each non-finite form may take а direct object.
Разделы учебного пособия разработаны: Tbeory (Прохоро­ ( 1) Не sat in an armchair reading а book.
ва О.А.), Practice (Контримович С.В.), Tests (Прохорова О.А.,
Контримович (:.В.), Translation (Баранова И.В., Борисова Е.Ю.).
(2) Reading books is useful.
(3) То read works of scholarship broadens one's field of know-
ledge.
2. Each non-finite form may Ье modified Ьу ап adverb.
( 1) She stood пеаr the classroom, talking excitedly with а friend
of miпe.
(2) Talking aloud at а lecture is prohiЬited.
(3) I had to repeat my words louder, so that sl1e could hear me.
7
(1) 1 don't know where to jind this book (а verbal phrase).
3. Each non-finite form may have а subject of its own, which,
though not agreeing with that non-finite form in person or (2) The porter saw you enter the hotel (а verbal construction).
number, still differs from the subject of the sentence.
(1) 1 saw your daughter playing in the yard.
ТНЕ INFINITIVE
(2) 1 want him to take те to the cinema.
(3) Do you mind ту smoking here? · Тhе infinitive in present-day English is а verbal non-finite form,
4. Each non-finite form may express time, aspect and voice dis- which at the same time preserves certain nominal features. Being
tinctions. once а noun and having developed numerous verbal features in the
course of time, it has still retained tl1e abllity to fill those syntac-
(1) Не seems to Ье sleeping. tic positions which are typical of а пoun.
(2) Не seems to have been sleeping.
Тhе
Verbal Features
ТhеNominal Features 1. The 1nfinitive may take а direct object:
The nominal features of non-finite forms can Ье best traced in Не likes to read poems.
their syntactic "characteristics". 2. The 1nfinitive may Ье modified Ьу an adverb:
1n accordance with its adjectival nature the Participle can Ье
1 had to repeat my words louder.
used in the functions of an attribute, both in preposition and
postposition, and а predicative. The infinitive and the gerund, in 3. The Infinitive may have а subject of its own:
their turn, may Ье used in all the syntactic positions which are I expect Апп to wash up.
typical of а noun, i.e. as subject, object, predicative, attribute 4. The lnfinitive may express time, aspect and voice distinctions.
(mostly in postposition).
There are altogether six forms of the infinitive: four for each
А Verbal Construction and а Verbal Phrase group of verbs iп the active voice, and two for the passive voice.
The non-finite forms may have words depending on them gram- Aspect· Active Voice Passive Voice
matically and logk:ally. 1n such cases they are said to form either
Indefinite to give to Ье given
phrases or constructions.
А phrase consists of а non-finite form as its head word and of Continuous to Ье giving -
words which follow it and are connected with this non-finite form to have given to have been given
Perfect
in meaning. Thus we distinguish infinitive, participial and gerun-
dial phrases. Perfect Continuous to have been giving -
1n а construction the non-finite form (i.e. an infinitive, partici-
ple or gerund) stands in predicate relation to а noun or pronoun, Being а non-finite form of the verb, the infinitive has no tense
distinctions. Nevertheless its forms express, to а certain extent, the
thus forming а more or less independent unit called а predicative
ideas of time and aspect. ·
construction. Both the indefinite (passive and active) infinitive and the con-
The difference between а verbal construction and а verbal
tinuous infinitive denote an action which is simultaneous with
phrase lies in the fact that the verbal phrase has no nominal ele-
that of the finite verb. The only difference between the two forms
ment denoting the doer of the action.
8
9
is that the continuous infinitive gives an additional aspect charac- The function Comments Examples
teristic: it represents an action as being in progress, while the in-
definite infinitive represents an action as а fact. troductory end of the sentence, it may stand t11ing to he/p
"lt" after the predicate. In such cases him
( 1) The expedition is determined to cross the desert. the sentence begins with the formal
(2) It was strange to Ье talking like this to а woman whom she subject it which is called the intro-
had never seen before. ductory "it"
The perfect infinitive (passive and active) denotes an action which 3. Part of the The infinitive is used after link The most im-
Complex verbs portant thing Ш
took place before the action expressed Ьу the finite verb. Nominal to read а \ot
James was glad to have been of any help to this brave woman. Predicate
The perfect continuous infinitive shows that the action, ex-
pressed Ьу an infinitive, was prior to that of the finite verb and at 4. Part of the l) The infinitive is used after the They began to
the same time had been in progress for а certain period of time. Complex verbs denoting the beginning, discuss а matter
The period of previous duration is usually indicated Ьу an adver- Verbal As- the continuation and the end
pect Predi- of the action: to begin, to start,
Ьial modifier of time.
cate to get, to grow, to соте, to сот-
lt is annoying to have been waiting here so long. тепсе, to continue, to cease. -·
The voice distinctions of the infinitive need hardly any commen- 2) after tl1e expression used to They used to Ье
tary. They arejust the same as those ofthe finite forms ofthe verЬ. friends
Note 1. After the Past lndefinite of the verbs to expect, to hope, to 5. Part of the The infinitive is used after moda\ You must say it
intend, to теап, to try the Perfect Infinitive indicates that Complex Ver- verbs. liOW
the action was not carried out, though it was expected, bal Modal It is quite well-known that after
hoped for or planned. Predicate many modal verbs the infinitive is
used without its particle to. But one
1 lюped to have visited ту sick friend (but 1 didn't). should рау special attention to the
'Ihe Nominal Features modal verbs after which the parti-
cle to is preserved. These are the
The infinitive may Ье used in all the syntactic positions which modal verbs ought (to), to have (to),
are typical of а nощ~. to Ье (to)
\

The Syntactical Functions of the Infinitive 6. An Object Не didn't want


to know the
The function Comments Examples news.
1. The subject The Infinitive as the subject. of the То visit her is - An object - This is especially often found l'm curious to
sentence may Ье only used in af- always а pleasure to а predica- after the adjectives: glad, happy, know the news.
firmative sentences. lt is always pla- tively used delighted, anxious, ea'ger, pleased,
ced at the head of the sentence, it adjective wrong, right, afraid and some
is never preceded Ьу any secon- others.
dary parts - An infinitive phrase which fills 1 think it useless
the syntactic position of an to teach him
2. TI1e subject When used as the subject, the infi- It was а proper object may stand not immedi- English
with the In- nitive may Ье shifted nearer to the and natural ately after the finite verb, but

10 11
The function Comments Examples The function Comments Examples
after an adjective in tЦе func- presses excess, i.e., а kind of nega-
tion of an objective predicative. tive idea, while enough expresses
ln such cases the formal object sufficiency, i.e. а kind ofpositive
expressed Ьу the pronoun it idea
should Ье put between the. fi- - An adverЬial 1 suppose l was
nite verb and t\1e adjective. The modifier of rude to say 1
pattern of the whole sentence, reason didn 't trust her
then, is as follows:
Subject + predicate + formal оЬ- - An adverЬial You would do
ject (expressed Ьу it) + objective modifier of much better to
predicative (expressed Ьу an adjec- condition say that he was
tive) + real object (expressed Ьу wrong
an infinitive pl1rase) .. - An adverЬial In .this case the iпfinitive is always Не opened his
Tl1is pattern is mostly used when modifier of preceded Ьу the coпjunctions as if, mouth as if to
the position of the predicate is comparison as though, than speak
filled Ьу such verЬs as to find, to
consider, to think, to make - An adverblal In this functioп the iпfiвitive dепо- Не opened the
modifier of tes an action that fol\ows the one door to see те.
7. An attribute Wl1en an infinitive is used attribu- There was no- subsequent denoted Ьу the predicate (Он открыл
tively, it qualifies а class noun, an 12QQy there to events дверь и увидел !

abstract noun, an indefinite pro- show him the меня)


noun, or the words the first, the way.
- An adverЬial Нis farther lived
last, the one, the оп/у one, much.
modifier of to Ье 90. (lived
In Russian the attributively used in- Who was the
time till he was).
finitive is often rendered Ьу means 1Ш person to
(Его отец до-
of an attributive clause with the arrive? жил до 90 лет)
words expressing modality, such
as "можно, нужно, следует" 9. Parenthesis The infinitive may Ье used in ра- То te/1 the truth,
renthesis, especially in some set it was my mis-
8. An adverblal The idea of purpose may Ье empha- 1 listen to them phrases: to tell the ttuth, to cut а take
modifier of sized Ьу in order or so as placed to improve ту
long story short, to speak frankly,
purpose befor~'the infinitive pronunciation
so to speak, etc.
- An adverblal In tl1is case the words enough and You are !QQ -----
modifier of too ('слиШком') often correlate young to know
result with the infinitive. such things. Тhе Bare Infinitive
Тоо usually precedes an adjective l know him well In certain cases the infinitive is used without its particle, i.e. as
or an adverb, expressing certain enough to trust bare (plain) infinitive. The bare infinitive is used in the following
quality, whi\e enough fol\ows them. cases:
There is а certain difference in mea-
nipg between too, on the one hftnd, after modal verbs, with the exception of the verbs ought (to),
----
and enough - on the other: too ех- have (to), Ье (to).

12 13
Му hands are dirty. I тust wash them. The who1e construction performs the function of an object
with the verbs dare and need when they are used as modal verbs: since the object in this case consists of at least two words it is
called the сотр/ех object.
(1) How dare you соте here? The objective-with-the-infinitive construction is used after:
(2) You needn't go there. 1. verbs of sense perception: see, hear, feel, watch, notice, perceive,
after the expressions had better, would rather, would sooner, can- observe. After these verbs the infinitive is used without to. With
not but, could do nothing but: these verbs on1y а bare non-peifect, non-continuous, active infini-
tive is used.
(1) I'd rather go оп,
if you don't mind.
She watched hiт таkе tea.
(2) She could do nothing but agree to these terms.
after than in comparisons: Note 1: When the verb to see is used in the meaning to realize, to
understand or the verb to hear is used in the meaning to
Не said he'd rather die than surrender. learn, the objective-with-the-infinitive construction can-
in questions beginning with why and why not: not Ье used. In such cases а subordinate clause is used.
Why not go to а museum? I saw that he didn't understand me.
Я видел (понял), что он меня не понимает.
after the verbs of inducement and permission: to /et, to таkе, to
have ('заставлять'), to Ыd in the Active Voice: I hear that l1e lives in St. Petersburg again.
Я слышал (узнал), что он снова живет в Санкт-Петербурге.
They made the Ьоу work hard at an early age.
sometimes after the verb to he/p: Note 2: after the verb to fee/ the infinitive of the. verb to Ье is used
with the partic1e to:
Не he1ped her сапу her basket.
I fe1t it to Ье very unjust.
after verbs of sense perception in the Active Voice: to feel, to
hear, to see, to watch, etc. 2. verbs expressing mental activity: believe, think, exf)ect, know, find,
rea/ize, consider, iтagine, understand, guess, suppose.
I heard him speak at the meeting.
They expected те to arrive on Monday.
3. verbs of inducement and permission: to let, to таkе, to have
INFINITIVE CONSTRUCTIONS ('заставлять'). After tl1ese verЬs the infinitive is used without
its partic1e to, with the only exception of tl1e verb to get, after
"'
1. Тhе Objective-With-The-lnfinitive Construction which the infinitive may Ье used either with or without to.
The term the objective-with-the-infinitive construction is applied (1) 1 won't have you talk to your father in such а way.
to groups consisting of:
(2) Can you get your husband (to) тend the 1ock?
1) а nomina1 e1ement (а noun in the common case or а pronoun in
the objective case); 4. verbs expressing feelings and emotion: like, /ove, hate, dislike, etc.
2) and an infinitive, both components standing in predicate rela- I'd 1ove her to соте and see те any day.
tion to each oth,er. 5. verbs ofwish and intention: want, wish, desire, теап, intend, etc.
I know hiт to Ье а good companion. 1 didn't mean you to соте so early.

14 15
(

6. after such verbs as cause, bear, staпd. in predicate relation to each other. Unlike the previous construc-
А comblna1ion of circumstances caused hiт to chaпge his co-
tion, the infinitive here is always used with to.
urse. The subjective infinitive construction consists of:
7. verbs of declaring: to declare, to report, to рrопоипсе, etc. 1) а nominal element - а noun in the common case or а pronoun
in the nominative case and
They reported the р/апе to have laпded.
2) the infinitive, both components standing in predicate relation
8. some verbs requiring а prepositional object: to couпt оп, to wait
for, to rely оп, to listeп to.
to each other.
Не is supposed to Ье very good at tennis.
1 rely on you to соте in time.
But unlike other infinitiye constructions this one does not form
Ways of Translating the Construction into Russian one part of the sentence and does not make one whole as it is split
The construction is translated into Russian таiпlу Ьу an object into two parts Ьу а finite verb which is placed between them. The
clause where the subject corresponds to the nominal element of the first part of the construction (the nominal one) forms the subject
construction and the predicate - to the infinitive. The Russian object. of the sentence and the infinitive makes part of а compound verbal
clause may Ье introduced Ьу the conjunctions что, как, апd чтобы. predicate of douЬie orientation.
Philip stood where he was and watched his wife go. The finite verb grammatically joins the elements of the con-
Филипп стоял, не двигаясь, и смотрел, как его жена ухо­
struction, but semantically it has no reference to the subject.
дила.
Forming together with the infinitive the predicate of the sen-
tence, the finite verb denotes some attitude to the action or state
After the verbs to таkе, to сотреl, to force, to cause, to get, to have expressed Ьу the infinitive. This attitude or judgement or com-
· (the so-called, causative verbs) the construction may Ье translated ment does not come from the person (or non-person) expressed
Ьу part of а simple sentence, sometimes we may see literal trans- Ьу the subject, but it comes from someone outside the sentence
lation when the English verb is translated Ьу the corresponding or in fact someone not mentioned in the sentence. It explains the
Russian verbs заставлять, вынуждать, побуждать. fact that the whole predicate is termed as а compound verbal pred-
What made you give up sтokiпg? icate of douЬie orientation (one semantic connection existing be-
Что заставило вас бросить курить? tween the subject and the infinitive part and the other between
the finite verb and someone not mentioned in the sentence).
In some cases due to the context there may Ье different lexical
ways of rendering the construction into Russian, especially after Не seemed to Ье sleepiпg now.
the verb to таkе: Не is the subject of the sentence and the construction.
То Ье sleepiпg- makes part of а compound verbal predicate of
What makes you thiпk so?
Почему ты так думаешь?
douЬle orientation.
The infinitive within this predicative construction may Ье used
Jack made hisfrieпds laugh. in all its forms:
Джек рассме.шил своих друзей.
( 1) 1 chanced to Ье passiпg Ьу just at the time of the events des-
2. Тhе Subjective Injinitive Construction cribed above.
As it is shown ·Ьу the name of this predicative construction, its (2) Не is known to have Ьееп workiпg in this field for the last
parts are the subject of the sentence and the infinitive, which stand two years.
16 г621 17
The subjective infinitive construction is uscd with а number of fi- 1 l1appened to pass this village last year (Случилось так, <по
nite verbs which can: Ье either active or passive. They all have the я был проездом в этой деревне в прошлом году).
general meaning of attitude or comment when used with this con- Не appears not to have heard anything about our plans (Ока­
struction. зывается, что он ничего не слышал о наших планах).

1. The verbs used in the passive voice fall into four groups: III. The subjective infinitive construction is used witl1 some mo-
1) verbs of sense perception; dal phrases (to Ье likely, to Ье unlikely, to Ье sure, to Ье certain).
2) verbs of mental perception; Sentences of this kind are rendered in Russian Ьу а simple
sentence witl1 а modal word (обязательно, наверняка, несом­
3) verbs of saying and reporting; ненно - to Ье certain, to Ье sure; вероятно - to Ье likely;
4) verbs of inducement, compulsion and permission. вряд ли - to Ье unlikely).

1) Verbs of sense perception (to hear, to see, to observe, to watch). Не is sure to marry her (Он, несомненно, женится на ней).
When in the passive form these verbs are followed Ьу а to-infin- She is not likely to give up smoking (Вряд ли она бросит ку­
itive. With this construction they express the idea of evidence of рить).
some fact. Here also belong some other verbs which in the pas-
Ways of Translating the Construction into Russian
sive voice express the idea of evidence (to find, to discover, etc.).
The sentence with this construction is rendered in Russian
Не was seen to cross the river.
with the help of а complex sentence. The predicate (is supposed in
(Видели, как он пересек реку.)
this case) makes а subjectless (indefinite in meaning) main clause,
2) Verbs of mental perception (to think, to know, to consider, to be- while the subject and the infinitive correspond to the subject and
lieve, to suppose, to expect, etc.). АН ofthem express some kind of the predicate of the Russian subordiпate (object) clause:
expectation, of opinion or of attitude to the action expressed
Не is supposed to Ье very good at tennis.
Ьу the infinitive. With the verb to expect the infinitive in this
(Полагают, <по он хорошо играет в теннис.)
construction can refer to а future action.
Не was supposed to marry her. 3. Тhе For- То- /nfinitive Construction
3) verbs of sayiпg and reporting (to say, to report). The for-to-infinШve construction coпsists of
The plane is reported to have landed. 1) а nouп iп the commoп case or а pronoun iп the objective case
4) verbs of inducement, compulsion and permission. and
She was allowed to read the book. 2) an iпfiпitive which is in predicate relation to the noun or pro-
noun. The construction is preceded Ьу tl1e preposition for, and
II. The verbs used in the active voice are: that explains the name of the construction.
to seem, toappear кажется, по-видимому,
It's bad for him to smoke (Плохо, что он курит).
похоже;
The whole construction makes one sentence-component. The
to happen, to chance случаться, случайно for-to-infinitive construction may Ье used in different syntactical
(the latter is literary) цроизойти;
functions similar to those of а single infinitive.
to prove, to tum out оказаться. Thus, it may Ье used as:
18 1• 19
Functions Examples ., Active Voice Passive Voice
1. the subject For те to drive the car wi\1 Ье Non-Perfect taking being taken
dangerous
Perfect having taken .having been taken
2. the subject with the introduc- lt will Ье d.angerous for те to dri-
tory 'it' ve the car The Non-Perfect gerund denotes an action simultaneous with
3. an object The old man knocked at the door that expressed Ьу the finite form of the verb.
and waited patiently for the door Не dreams of Ьесотiпg an actor.
to open
The Perfect gerund denotes an action prior to the action de-
4. an attribute 1 have а bookfor you to read on noted Ьу the finite form of the verb.
the train
Не is proud of haviпg wоп the first prize.
5; а predicative That was for you to do
6. an adverЬial modifiet of pur- Не stopped for the girl to catch up
Note 1: The passive form of the gerund is never used after the
pose with hiт verbs waпt, пееd, deserve, require and after the expression
it's (was) worth. We shall always find an active form with
7. an adverblal modifier of result The fog was too thick for us to passive meaning here.
go оп
Му shoes want тепdiпg.
Ways of Translating the Construction into Russian Note 2: The non-perfect gerund may denote а prior action thanks
This construction is translated into Russian Ьу either а subor- to the lexical meaning of the verb or. the preposition
diпate clause or ап infiпitive: · suggesting priority, so the non-perfect gerund is general-
lt's badfor him to smoke (Плохо, что он курит). ly used after verbs of recollectioп, gratitude, Ыате, reproach,
It's easy for те to aпswer this questioп (Мне легко было puпishmeпt апd reward and prepositions оп, ajter, at.
ответить на этот вопрос).
Thank you for helpiпg те.
Оп reachiпg the end of the street we turned towards the forest.

ТНЕ GERUND
Тhе Nominal Features
Тhе Verbal Features 1. The gerund may Ье used after prepositions.
1. The Gerund may take а direct object: I insist оп goiпg there now.
Avoid тakiпg such reтarks. 2.. lt may Ье modified Ьу а possessive pronoun or а noun in the
2. The Gerund may Ье modified Ьу an adverb: possessive case, which precedes it.
Excuse my calliпg you up so late. Do you mind ту smokiпg here?
3. The Gerund may have а subject of its own: We were surprised at ту father's сотiпg so late.
Do you mind our beiпg preseпt?
3. The gerund may Ье used in all the syntactic positions which are
4. The Gerund has time and voice distinctions. 1t has four forms. typical of а noun.
20 21
Тhе Syntactical Functions of tbe Gerund The function Comments Examples
The function Comments Examples appreciate, avoid, consider, defer, de- Avoid catching
/ау, dепу, detest, dis/ike, eпdure, enjoy, cold
1. The subject In this function the gerund stands Шdiпg а Ьicycle
escape, excuse, fапсу, forbld, forgive,
in front position is my favourite imagiпe, meпtioп, miпd ('object to'),
pastime miss, pardoп, postpoпe, practise, put off,
2. The subject А gerund (or а gerundial phrase) It's no use cryiпg recol/ect, risk, suggest, uпderstaпd.
with the In- may Ье used in а sentence with the over spilt milk Note 1. - After the verbs to соп-
troductory iпtroductory 'it '. This usage is аЬ- Тhere is no de- sider, to fancy one can use
"lt" or solutely parallel to that of the in- пуiпg it the objective-with-the~in
"There" finitive finitive construction, but
never а simple infinitive
3. Part of the 1. The gerund is used after link 1. All he wanted or an infinitive phrase.
Complex verbs. was gettiпg Note 2. - The verbs to fапсу, to
Nominal out of here. mind followed Ьу а gerund
Predicate 2. After like. 2. 1 don't feel mostly occur in нegative
li.G goiпg to or inteпogative senteнces
bed
6. А prepositio- When used as а prepositional оЬ- We were sur-
4. Part of the 1. After some verbs denoting the 1. The ЬаЬу nal object ject, the geruнd is found after prised at heariпg
Complex Ver- beginning, continuation, or ~cryiпg. such expressions: the нews.
bal Aspect end of an action it may succes- 1. Verb + prep. (to lookforward to, Не insisted on
Predicate sfully compete with the infiniti- to rely оп); goiпg home
ve, or even Ье used as the only 2. Partici ple + prep. (to Ье tired oj,
possiЬle form. With the verbs to
to Ье surprised at);
сопtiпие, to begiп, to cease, to
start both, an infinitive and а 3. Adjective + prep. (to befoпd oj,
to Ье sick oJ, to Ье сараЬ/е оЛ;
gerund, can Ье used without
any difference in meaning. 4. Noun + prep. (to Ье iп the hablt
Here are the verbs after Не kept on
oJ, to Ье оп the poiпt оЛ
which only gerunds are used to askiпg till he 7. Attribute The gerund is used after abstract Не gave up the
form а complex verbal predicate: agreed nouns with prepositions oJ, iп, at, idea of becomiпg
to fiпish, to stop, to keep (оп), to for, about. an actor
go оп, to give up, to /eave off, to -·
Note: When used as an attribute in А sleeping-car =
burst out. preposition, the gerund im- 'а car which is
2. After the expression сап 't help 2. I ~.";i!D'1 b~IP parts to the noun modified а intended for
and the adjectives worth апd busy admiriпg her. special meaning: it says what sleeping in'
He~traпs- the thing (or person) is in-
latiпg this artic\e teнded for

5. А non-prepo- The following verЬs always take а ge- Nobody risked 8. An adv.erblal After, before, on, in, at She looked at
sitional object rund in the function ofa non-pre- askiпg the modifier of him steadily Ье-
positional object: ·1
question. time fore aпsweriпg
. --- --·------

22 23
The function Comments Examples Since, however, not every noun in English сап lщve the pos-
An adverblal for, for fear of, for the sake of, They sent tl1e sessive form, this pattern is restricted entirely to nouns, denoting
modifier of for the purpose of papers for the huтan beings. With nouпs deпoting lifeless tllings а parallel pattern
purpose director signing is used where the subject of tl1e gerund stands iп tl1e соттоn case.
them The carrying out of tl1ese plaпs depends оп the document be-
ing signed iп time.
An adverblal without, but for iYJCIJ$ Не won't go
modifier of а~'ау without Tllis pattern has Ьесоте quite соттоn iп colloquial English,
condition saying good-bye so that the subject of tl1e gerund еvеп if it deпotes а human beiпg
is now very often expressed Ьу а nouп iп the соттоn case or а
Ав adverblal for, through, owing to, for fear Не felt better
pronouп iп the objective case.
modifier of of, due to, because of for having writ-
cause ten the letter 1. Do you miпd them coming too?
An adverblal witlюut, instead of They danced 2. I doп't much like the idea of Магу going home alone.
modifier of without speaking
attendant cir- Tllis patterп is used exclusively wheп the subject has а тоге
cнmstaвces
complicated form.
I iпsist оп Mary and Cyril passing theiг vacatioп at hоте.
Ав adverblal iв spite of, despite ln spite of being
Wl1eп the subject of the geruпd is гepreseпted separately from
modifier of busy, sl1e mana-
concession ged to traпslate the subject of the finite verb, they forт а geruпdial coпstructioп.
the text Such gerundial coпstructioпs as l1ave their subject expressed Ьу а
. nouп in the соттоn case or а pronouп iп tl1e objective case are
An adverblal iп, Ьу, withoнt Her eveпing soтetiтes called ' half-gerundial' constructions.
modifier of was spent in
manпer reading Note. Tl1e so-called 'half-gerundial' construction is пever used af-
Ап adverЬial thaп Tl1ecoнntry is ter the verbs avoid, consider, defer, postpone, delay, deny, enjoy,
modifier of пшс\1 better for put o.ff, risk, suggest. After tl1ese verbs only one patterп сап
comparisoп you than working Ье found, viz. "а поuп iп tl1e possessive case (о г aposses-
in the hot city sive pronoun) + а geruпd".
а\1 summer
1 couldп't dепу his having made а reasoпaЬle ехснsе.
Ways of Translating the Gerund into Russian
GERUNDIAL CONSTRUCTIONS
Tl1e geruпd has по correspoпdiпg forт iп the Russian lan-
gнage апd is rendered iп Russian iп different ways:
The gerund iп а giveп sепtепсе тау refer to the same subject
as tl1e fiпite verb, or each тау refer to а subject of its own. The Tl1e Ways
geruпd being essentially тоге а noтinal forт than any other of of Translatiпg the Eng\ish Russiaп
the three verbals, its subject is normally expressed Ьу а possessive Gerund iпto Rнssian
pronoun or а noun in tbe possessive case. 1. Ьу а nouп or 1 couldn't aпswer for Я не могла отвечать
Do you object to our smoking l1ere? Do you object to John's а prepositioп + coughing из-за кашля
smoking here? а ПОlШ
1
--..:

24 25
The Gerund The Verbal Noun '

The Ways
of Translating the English Russian 1. has the verbal categories of · 1. has no verbal categories
voice and perfect
Gerund into Russian
Doing is better than Делать лучше, чем 2. cannot Ье used with an artic1e 2. can Ье used with an article
2. Ьу an infinitive
saying говорить the readiпg
Войдя в дом, он ·3. has no plural form 3. has the plural form
3. Ьу "деепричастие" On entering the house goings, coтings
'
he heard some noise услышал какой-то
upstairs шум наверху
4. can take а direct object 4. can take only а prepositional
Она не помнила, (tl1e gerund of transitive verЬs) object
4. Ьу аfinite verЬ in а She didn't remember
чтобы когда-нибудь reading the book the reading of the book
subordinate clause ever feeling really
lonely or unhappy чувствовала себя 5. can Ье modified Ьу an adverb 5. canЬе modified Ьу an adjective
действительно reading aloиd а loиd reading
одинокой или
несчастной

Не left without saying Он ушел и не с ка- ТНЕ GERUND AND ТНЕ INFINITIVE
5. Ьу а finite verЬ
good-bye зал «до свидания»
А number of verbs can Ье followed Ьу either а gerund or an
А hunting season Охотничий сезон infinitive. Here is а list of such verbs: advise, agree, allow, atteтpt, be-
6. Ьу an adjective
giп, cease, coпtiпue, dread, forget, hate, iпtend, leave, like, love, теап, per-
Gerundial constructions are almost always translated Ьу а sub- тit, prefer, propose, regret, reтember, start, study, tfy.
ordinate clause (а gerund is translated Ьу а finite verb): The difference in meaning between the gerund and the infin-
I couldn't understand him for his lisping. itive after these verЬs may Ье stated basically in the following way:
Я не понимал его, потому что он ш(!nелявU/1.
the gerund is more general in meaning, while the infinitive sug-
gests some particular case.
Тhе passive gerund is nearly always rendered Ьу а finite verb in 1 prefer stayiпg at home to goiпg to а cinema (i.e. in general).
а subordinate clause. "Let's go to the cinema tonight." - "No, thariks. 1 prefer to stay
Her father didn't like being sent away. at home." (i. е. on this particular occasion).
Ее отцу не нравилось, что его отсылают прочь.
But sometimes this basic difference in meaning doesn't hold
good. With some verbs а gerund and an infinitive imply а greater
and more special difference in meaning. This difference may Ье
traced only Ьу way of comparing the two particular constructions.
THEGERUND
ANDTHEVERBALNOUN Verbs Followed Ьу Either the Infinitive or the Gerund
with а Difference in Meaning
Though coinciding in form with the non-perfect active ger-
und, the verbal noun differs from the gerund in that it is not а verb Try to do - to attempt, to make \ Many people try to keep fit.
an effort Многие люди стараются
and has no verbal features. It shouldn't Ье confused with the ger- поддерживать форму
und for the following reasons:
27
26
Have you ever tried cooking Go оп to do - finish doing so- On graduating from high school
Try doing - to test (Ьу making
meat in wine? mething and move to somethiпg he weпt on to study at Harvard.
an experiment)
Вы когда-нибудь пытались different Окончив школу, он продолжил
готовить .мясо в вине? уче~у в Гарварде

Regret to do - denotes а future We regret to inform уо11 that Go оп doiпg - coпtiпue doiпg Не weпt оп studying medicine
уонr subscription is overdue. фе same thing though his father objected.
action
С сожалениf!hl сообщаем вам, что Он продолжал изучать медицину,
срок вашей подписки закончился несмотря на возражения отца

Regret doing - qenotes а past 1 regret losing the job. То Ье afraid to do - to Ье frigh- 1 am afraid to disturb him at this
Мне жаль, что я потерял работу tened to do something late hour.
action
·Remember to send а telegram. Я боюсь беспокоить его в такой
Remember, recollect to do - de-
Не забудь отправить телеграмму поздний час
notes а future action
1 remember sending the telegram. То Ье afraid of doiпg - not to 1 can't play the piano to you
Remember, recollect doing - de-
notes а past action Я помню, что отправил теле- want to do something now as I'm afraid of disturblng
грамму him.
Я не могу сыграть тебе сейчас
Forget to do - denotes а fнtше I forgot to post the letter.
на фортепиано, потому что не
Я забыл отправить письмо
action хочу потревожить его

Forget doiug - denotes а past 1 forgot posting the letter.


Я забыл, что отправил письмо
То Ье ashamed to do - to feel I am ashamed to borrow money.
action ashamed because one will have Мне стыдно брать деньги
Stop to do - the infinitive de- Не stopped to buy а newspaper. to do something взаймы
notes а purpose Он остановился, чтобы купить
газету То Ье ashamed of doing - to feel 1 am ashamed of borrowing mo-
ashamed because of something ney again.
Stop doing - to interrupt an ас- Не stopped buying newspapers. one has already done Мне стыдно, что я снова занял
Он перестал покупать газеты
tion in progress деньги
I meant to get up early.
Mean to do - to intend r wouldn 't advise you to go there.
Я собирался встать рано
МПR
allow } Я бы не советовал идти тебе
Меап doiпg- to signify Getting this job would mean get- eпcourage + object + infinitive туда
ting нр early. permit
Если согласиться на эту работу, recommend

-}
придется вставать рано
1 wouldn't advise going there.
Propose to do - to intend 1 propose to start tomorrow. allow Я бы не советовал идти туда
Я намереваюсь отправиться
encourage + gerund
завтра утром
permit
Propose doiпg - to suggest 1 propose waiting till the police recommend
get here.
Я предлагаю подождать, пока Some verbs апd phrases take either оп/у· а to-iпjiпitive or оп/у
сюда приедет полиция а geruпd:

28 29
+ infinitive + gerund ging Ьу the traditional names applied to tl1em, but rather in voice
justify
distinctions, Partici ple 1 being an active form and Partici ple II - а
agree learп admit
passive one. In Russian Participle J corresponds to 'причастие (or
aim manage appreciate mention деепричастие) действительного залога' and Participle П corre-
appear neglect avoid mind sponds to 'причастие страдательного залога'.
Partici ple 1 is formed Ьу adding tl1e suffix -ing to the stem of
arraпge offer can't face miss the verb, and Participle II - Ьу adding the sнffix -ed to the stem
ask omit can't l1elp pardon of the regнlar verbs, while the irгegнlar verbs l1ave special forms
of Partici ple I J.
attempt plan postpoпe

beg prepare can't endure practise Тhе Verbal Features


сап 't afford preteпd coпfess prevent 1. Partici ple I of а transitive verb may take а direct object.
Opening the door, he entered the room.
can't wait promise consider . proi1iblt
2. Participles I and II шау Ье modified Ьу an adverb:
cl1oose prove delay propose Opening the door quickly, he entered tl1e room.
А play is well acted.
claim refuse defer put off
dепу
3. Participles I and П шау l1ave а subject of tl1eir own:
decide seek resent
I saw him crossing the street.
demand seem detest resist We foнnd the pictшe stolen.
expect swear dislike resume 4. Participle II l1as only passive form (asked, loved, spoken).
fsil teпd enjoy risk Partici ple 1 has time and voice distinctions, it has 4 forms.
guarantee threaten escape save Active Passive Voice
Voice (of transitive verbs) 1

happen train excuse suggest


Iпdefinite taking being taken
l1esitate turn out fапсу tolerate
Perfect l1aving taken haviпg been takeп
hope undertake forgive lt's no good
inteпd waпt imagine It's по use
The indefinite j01ms, both active and passive, are used to ex-
press an action or а state simнltaneous with that expressed Ьу the
loпg wis\1 involve It's wortl1 predicate of tl1e sentence.
include Playing chess we kept watclling eacl1 otl1er.
The peifect forms, botl1 active and passive, express an actioп
prior to tl1e actioп expressed Ьу tl1e predicate of tl1e senteпce.
ТНЕ PARTICIPLE
Опе day l1e саше iп having just received some letters.
Т11еrеare two types of participles in English: Participle 1 (or Note 1: А prior action is not always expressed Ьу Partici ple
present participle) апd Participle 11 (or past participle).The differ- Perfect: with verbs of sense perception and motion, sнcl1
ence between them lies not in time distinctions, as it may seem jud- as see, lzear, соте, look, arrive, seize, ente1~ close, ореп, pass,
30 31
etc. Partici ple 1 Indefinite is used even when priority is The functioп Comments Examples
meant. 3. An adverblal After coпjunctions whi/e and when. Having c/imbed
Arriving at the station she called me up at once. modifier of the hill, he sat
time dowп to have а
Note 2: Though both the participles express а passive action, tl1ere
rest.
is still а certain difference in meaning: Partici ple 11 expres-
ses merely а state, while Participle I indefinite passive An adverblal Being а stranger,
expresses rather а progressive passive action represented nюdifier of he was the most
reason (cause) suspicious.
as а state.
An adverblal Не was standing
17re Adjectival Features modifier of near the win-
The Participles may Ье used in all the syntactic positions attendant cir- dow admiring
cumstances the beautiful
which are typical of an adjective. (manner) view.
The Syntactical Functions of Participle 1 An adverblal After conjunctions as if, as though. She looked at
Examples modifier of him as if waiting
Tl1e function Comments comparison for an answer.
1. Part of the 1. After link verbs. 1. The story lli
exciting. 4. Parenthesis Generally speaking, strict/y speaking, Frankly spea-
Complex 2. Tl1ere is an increasing tendency roughly speaking, granting it to Ье king, J don't
Nominal in present-day English to use 2. Не sat writing. true, judging Ьу, judgingfrom, and know tl1e ans-
Predicate partici ple 1 after а пumber of so on. wer.
intransitive verbs, such as to go
(out), to соте, to lie, to sit, to stand.
ln comblпatioп with а participle The Syntactical Functions of Participle 11
these verbs may Ье regarded as The function Comments Examples
link-verbs, too.
1. Part of the 1. After Jink verbs. The door re-
2. Ап attribute 1. Partici ple I Perfect is поt used 1 came to the Complex mained locked.
as an attribute. То express priori- girl standing Nominal
ty an attributive subordinate near the window. Predicate
clause is used. The girl who
had been stan- 2. An attribute А single partici ple as ап attribute Will you take
ding near the precedes the word it qualifies, а par- away the broken
window went tici pial phrase used as an attribute cup?
away. should Ье placed immediately after Will you take
the word it modifies. away the cup
2. А siпgle partici ple as ап attribu- The singing gffi broken Ьу your
te precedes tl1e word it qualifies, looked very at- sister?
а partici pial phrase used as an tractive.
attribute should Ье placed imme- The gffi singing 3. An adverblal After the conjunction when. When asked
diately after the word it modifies. оп the stage Ioo- modifier of about tl1e acci-
ked very attrac- time dent, the girl
tive. began to cry.

32 гы1
33
Examples' 1 heard him practising his violin. - Я слышал, как он играет
The function Comments
на скрипке.
An adverblal Deprived of his 1 saw Jane addressed Ьу а stranger. - Я видел, что к Джейн
modifier of son and wife, обратился незнакомый человек.
reason (cause) he found the
so\itude into- Note 1: The objective-with-the-infinitive construction is also used af-
leraЬ\e. ter these verЬs, the only difference being that the construc-
After conjunctions as if, as though. Не suddenly tion with participles describes tl1e action as being in
An adverblal
modifier of stopped as if progress, wl1ile фе infmitive is used to denote а complete act.
comparison struck Ьу the 2) After the verЬs to imagine, to smell, to look (at), to keep, to catch, to
news. set, to start, to leave, to send, to find the objective-with-the-infini-
An adverblal After conjunctions if, unless. lf taken literary, tive construction is never used. The only possiЬle construction
modifier of the sentence after these verbs is the objective participial construction.
condition has no sense.
1. 1 can smell dinner cooking.
An adverblal After the conjunction though. Thoцgh surpri-
sed Ьу his со- 2. Please, help me to start these mechanisms working.
modifier of
concession ming, she 3) After the verbs to make, to get, to like, to want, to wish the con-
didn't show it. struction is used only with Partici ple I I.
1. Не soon made his presence felt.
2. She wanted her pie heatea.
PARTICIPIAL CONSTRUCTIONS
1. 'Ihe ObjectiJ'e Participial Construction 4) The objective participial construction witl1 Participle II, when
The term the objective participial construction is applied to used after the verb to have, has а special meaning, i.e. it ex-
groups consisting of: · presses the idea of something done for the benefit of the per-
son, expressed Ьу the subject of the sentence .
. 1) а
nominal element (а noun in the common case or а pronoun
in the objective case); I bad my room papered, i.e. somebody papered my room for me.
2) and Participles 1 or 11, both components standing in predi- In this case the subject of the Partici ple is always represented
Ьу а noun expressing а lifeless thing.
cate relation to each other.
The whole construction performs the function of an object Note. In colloquial English the verb to have may Ье substituted
since the object in this case consists of at least two words it is Ьу to have got: Не has got his country house painted inside
called the complex object. and out.

Тhе
Objective Participial Construction is Used After: 2. 'Ihe SubjectiJ'e Participial Construction
1) The verbs of sense perception (/ее/, hear, notice, observe, perceive, As it is shown Ьу the name of this predicative construction, its
see, watch, /isten). When translated into Russian, both parts of parts are the subject ofthe sentence and the participle, which stand
the construction correspond to the subject and predicate of а in predicate relation to each other. This construction is parallel to
subordinate object clause. the subjective infinitive construction.
34 35
3* .
The subjective partici pial construction consists of: 1) verbs of sense perception (to hear, to see, to observe, to watch).
She was seen cryiпg.
1) а nominal element - а noun in the common case or а pronoun
in the nominative case and 2) after some causative verbs (to keep, to leave).
2) the participle, both components standing in predicate relation l was kept waitiпg an hour or so.
to each other. 3) verbs to coпsider, to fiпd.
Тhе picture was considered stoleп.
They were found talkiпg over cups of tea.
Both Participle 1 and 11 may Ье used within this predicative Ways of Translating the Construction into Russian
construction. ln this type of construction non-perfect Participle 1
active is generally used, though occasionally non-perfect Partici- English sentences with these constructions correspond in Rus-
ple 1 passive is to Ье found. sian to complex sentences where the main ·Clause is one-member
and indefinite and the subordinate object clause has the subject
They were heard discussiпg it. corresponding to the subject of the English sentence and the pred-
The suit-case was considered stoleп. icate corresponding to tl1e Partici ple of the English sentence.
But unlike other partieipial constructions this one does not Тhе pilot could Ье heard siпgiпg. - Можно было слышать,
form one part of the sentence and does not make one whole as it как пилот поет.
is split into two parts Ьу а finite verb which is placed between them.
• The first part of the eonstruetion (the nominal one) forms the sub- 3. Тhе Nominativ.e Absolute Participial Construction
jeet of the sentenee and the Partieiple makes part of а eompound This construction consists of:
verbal predieate of douЬle orientatioo. l) аnominal element, expressed Ьу а noun in the common case or
. The finite verb grammatically joins the elements .of the con- аpronoun in the nominative case
struction, but semantically it has no reference to the subject.
Forming together with the Participle the predicate of the sen- 2) and the participle, both components standing in predicate re-
tence, the finite verb denotes some attitude to the action or state lation to each other.All forms of Participle 1 are used in this
expressed Ьу the participle. This attitude or judgement or com-'- construction as well as Participle 11.
ment does not come from the person (or non-person) expressed Her luggage registered, she went to the platform.
Ьу the subject, but it comes from someone outside the sentence
or in fact someone not mentioned in the sentence. It explains the The whole construction is used as one sentence-component:
fact that the whole predicate is termed as а eompound verbal pred- an ad,verblal modifier of time, reason, 'condition, manner or at-
ieate of douЬle orieotatioo (one semantic connection existing be- tendant circumstances, and is called the absolute participial coп­
structioп. lt is separated Ьу а comma from the main part of the sen-
tween the subject and the Participle and the other between the fi-
nite verb and someone not mentioned in the sentence). tence.
This construction functions syntactically as an adverЬial modi-
Jапе was heard playiпg the piano. fier of maooer or atteodant eireumstanees, time, conditioo, rea-
Jапе is the subject of the sentence and the construction. son.
Playiпg.- makes part of а compound verbal predicate of douЬle The work haviпg Ьееп fiпished, we went home (an adverblal
o'rientation. modifier of time).
The subjective participial construction is used after the following The nominative absolute participial construction is literary
verbs in the passive voice: rather than colloquial.
36 37
Ways of Translating the Construction into Russian With the clock chimiпg seveп tiтes, shejumped out of bed and
1. This construction is rendered in Russian Ьу means of а corre- hurried to the kitcl1en.
sponding adverblal clause. lt may also Ье used as an attribute standing in immediate post-
Оиr teacher haviпg fa/leп il/, we had no Englisl1 class (an ad- position to its antecedent.
verЬial modifier of reason) - Так как наша учительница James, with his heart роипdiпg with fear, stood in the corridor
заболела, у нас не бьшо занятия по английскому языку. waiting to Ье called in.
Тhе show beiпg поt velJlloпg, we sl1all Ье аЬlе to get to the Petrovs
in good time (an adverblal modifier of condition) - Если сеанс Ways of Translating the Construction into Russian
будет не очень длинным, мы сможем попасть к Петровым во­
It is translated into Rtissian Ьу а coordinate or а subordinate
время.
clause, and sometimes Ьу means of а prepositional phrase, or an
2. When, however, functioning as an adverblal modifier of man- adverblal Participle (деепричастие).
ner or attendant circumstances, this construction occupies in 1 remained silent, with ту lips coтpressed tightly.
the majority of cases the end position in the sentence. In these Я молчал, мои губы были крепко сжаты.
cases it corresponds i'n Russian to the second part of а com- Не entered the room with his heart beatiпg fast.
pound sentence (often introduced Ьу the Russian conjunctions Он вошел в дом, сердце его сильно билось (с бьющимся
причем, а). сердцем).
We spent the summer in their cottage, they оссируiпg the froпt
rоот апd we haviпg the veraпdah at оиr disposal (an adverblal 5. Тhе Absolute Construction Without the Participle
modifier of attendant circumstances) - Мы провели лето на In the nominative absolute construction the Participle can Ье
даче, причем они занимали комнату, а мы имели в наиlем распо­
omitted. In this case the nominal element should Ье an adjective, а
ряжении веранду. prepositional phrase or an adverb.
4. Тhе Prepositional Absolute Participial Construction The lessoп over, you may leave.
This construction is introduced Ьу the preposition with and б. Тhе Prepositional Construction Without the Pilrticiple
consists of:
Не ~eft the Academy, with heart fи/1 offear.
1) а nominal element, expressed Ьу а noun in the common case
or а pronoun in the obj~ctive case
2) and the partici ple, both components standing in predicate re- ТНЕ GERUND AND PARTICIPLE 1
lation to each other. It is not necessarily set off Ьу а comma.
English has two parallel verЬal -ing-forms: the gerund and Par-
Не entered the room with his heart beatiпg fast.
ticiple I. The basic difference between the two has already been
This construction is used mostly as an adverblal modifier of stated, but here we shall dwell on it in more detail.
manner or attendant circumstances.
1) Participle I is suchа verbal form which stands more or less close
She sat motionless with her haпds crossed оп her kпees. to adjectives, while the gerund resemЬles а verbal noun. So they
Very seldom the construction may Ье used as an adverblal perform different syntactic functions: the gerund is used as а
modifier of time. In this case it precedes the main part of the sen- subject and an object, the Participle can never have these two
tence. syntactic functions.
38 39
2) Both Participle 1 and the Gerund may occur as adverЬial mo- ТНЕ INFINITIVE AND ТНЕ PARTICIPLE
difiers. The difference between them in this case is quite evi-
dent: the gerund (а gerund phrase or а gerundial construction) Verbs of sense perception can Ье followed either Ьу an infini-
has apreposition before it, while Participle 1 is used in this syn- tive or Ьу an objective participial construction. There is а certain
tactic function without any preposition and only sometiтes is difference of тeaning between the two:
introduced Ьу а conjunction. -. with the infinitive the speaker is more interested in the fact,
3) lf an -ing-form has а subject of its own, i.e. forms а predicative in the completion of the action.
construction, the subject of а gerund is expressed mostly Ьу а with the Participle the speaker's interest lies more in the con-
possessive pronoun or а noun in the possessive case, while the tinuity, in the process of performing tl1e action.
subject of Partici ple 1 is expressed either Ьу the nominative (or
objective) case of а personal pronoun or Ьу а noun in the сот­
тоn case.

There are, of course, some borderline cases where the subject


of the gerund is expressed Ьу the objective case of а personal pro-
noun or Ьу the соттоn case of а noun (the so-called 'half-gerun-
dial' constrиctions). ln such cases the other two criteria will Ье of
great help.
4) ln the function of an attribute а gerund expresses what а thing
(or а person) is meant for,. while Participle 1 expresses an ac-
tion performed Ьу а person (or thing).
а s/eeping-car- 'а car where you can sleep'
а sleeping тап - 'а man who is asleep'
5) There are two more parallel constructions with Participle 1
and the Gerund which require commentary. Both not + Parti-
ciple 1 and withoиt + gerund are translated into Russian Ьу
means of не + деепричастие. But one must Ье aware of а cer-
tain difference in meaning between these two phrases: withoиt +
gerund is used to express an adverЬial тodifier of attendant
circumstances (or manner), while not + Participle 1 expresses
as а rule an adverЬial modifier of reason, though in some rare
cases it is possiЬle to use this phrase in the function of an ad-
verЬial modifier of тanner.

1 decided to visit them withoиt warning them beforehand.


Not having warned them beforehand, 1 didn't dare to visit them
so late in the evening.
40
Section two: PRACTICE 4. to give- to Ье given, to have given, to have
been given, to Ье giving, to have
been giving;
5. to do- to Ье done, to have done, to have
been done, to Ье doing, to have
been doing.
ТНЕ INFINITIVE
З. Read the following sentences. State the forms of the infinitives.
U n i t 1. Explain their tense, aspect and voice distinctions.
17te Forms of the Injinitive
Pattern: Не wanted to tell her of the incident. То tell is the Inde-
Exercises:
finite Infinitive Active; it denotes а simultaneous action
1. Define the forms of the following infinitives. Check your. an- with that expressed Ьу the finite verb.
swers with the key.
1. 1 am sorry to have heard bad 'То have heard' is the Perfect
Pattern: to Ье mentioned - the Indefinite Infinitive Passive. news of him. Infinitive Active; it denotes an
l. to have known - the Perfect Infinitive Active action prior to that expressed
Ьу the finite verb.
2. to grow- the lndefinite Infinitive Active
2. She refused to answer him. 'То answer' is the Indefinite
3. to have been told- the Perfect Infinitive Passive
Infinitive Active; it denotes а
4. to Ье dancing - the Continuous Infinitive simultaneous action with that
5. to Ье asked - the Indefinite Infinitive Passive expressed Ьу the finite verb.
6. to have been working- the Perfect Continuous Infinitive 3. 1 believed you to Ье writing 'То Ье writing' is the
letters in the morning room. Continuous lpfinitive; it
2. Give all possiЬie forms of the Infinitives and write them down. denotes а simultaneous action
Repeat the key aloud. in progress.
4. She se~med to have been 'То have been lying' is the
Pattern: to make- to Ье made, to Ье making, to have made,
to have been made, to have been mak.ing. lying on the grass for а long Perfect Continuous Infinitive;
time. the action lasted а certain
1. to discuss - to Ье discussed, to Ье discussing, time before that expressed Ьу
to have discussed, to have been the finite verb; it was still in
discussed, to have been discussing; progress.
2. to explain - to Ье explained, to have explained, 5. One of the students had to 'То Ье operated on' is the
to have been explained, to Ье Ье operated on immediately. lndefinite Infinitive Passive; it
explaining, to have been explaining; denotes а simultaneous action
3. to take- to Ье taken, to have taken, to have with that expressed Ьу the
been taken, to Ье taking, to have finite verЬ; the subject of the
been taking; infinitive is acted upon.

42 43
4. Agree with tbe following statements and develop tbe idea using 6. Parapbrase the following sentences so as to use the Perfect In-
tbe lndefinite Infinitive Passive. finitive. Cbeck your sentences with tbe key.
Pattern: 1 hate to make fun of people. Patterп: 1 am glad that 1 have seen this ·fi1m. - 1 am glad to have
So do 1, but 1 hate to Ье made fun of too. seen this film.
1. Не likes to read poems. So do 1, but 1 like to Ье read 1. Не was angry that ·he hadn't Не was angry not to have
poems too. seen you. seen you.
2. Granny likes to give presents. So do 1, but 1 like to Ье 2. We are pleased because we We are pleased to have Ьееп
given presents tbo. have been аЬlе to help you. аЬlе to to help you.

3. Му sister likes to take care So do 1, but 1 like to Ье taken 3. 1 am glad that 1 have 1 am glad to have received
of little children. care oftoo. received your letter. your letter.
4. Не is very lucky that he has Не is very glad to have read
4. She hates to tell Jies. So do 1, but 1 hate to Ье told
lies too. read this book iп the original. this book in the origiпal.
5. Му friend likes to meet So do 1, but 1 like to Ье met 5. She wa~ glad she was not late She was glad not to l1ave
for the film. Ьееп late for the film.
people at the station. too.
6. Не hates to insult people. So do 1, but 1 lшte to Ье
insulted too. ' 7. Express your opinion about the following using the words sug-
gested and the Perfect Infinitive. Repeat tbe key aloud.
5. Give answers to tbe following questions using tbe Continuous Pattem: Не didn't go to the concert yesterday (stupid).
lt was stнpid of him not to have gопе to the cqncert yes-
·Infinitive.
terday.
Pattem: What is Helen doing? (to have supper) lt was пiсе of them to have
She seems to Ье having supper. 1. They visited their old school
teacher. (nice) visited her.
1. What are they doing? They seem to Ье quarrelling.
(to quarrel) 2 She took some medicine with It was wise of her to have
her on the tri р. (wise) takeп it with her.
2. What is the father doing? Не seems to Ье sleeping.
3. The Ьоу didn't follow the lt was wrong of him not to
(to sleep) have followed the doctor's
doctor's instructions. (wroпg)
3. What is the teacher doing? She seems to Ье explaining а instructions. ·
(to explain а new rule) new rule.
4. She refused my offer. (foolish) It was foolish of her to have
4. What is Granny doing? She seems to Ье looking for refused my offer.
(to look for h~r glasses) her glasses. 5. Не didп't keep to а diet. It was bad of him not to have
5. What are the students doing? They seem to Ье translating (bad) kept to а diet.
(to trans1ate an article) an article. 6. The doctor diagnosed the lt was clever of him to have
6. What are the children doing? They seem to Ье watchiпg ТУ. illness as pпeumonia. (clever) diagnosed the illпess as
(watch ТУ) pneumonia.
44 45
8. Read the sentences and say whether the Perfect Infinitive de- 2; The writer is thought to Ье Oh, yes, he is thought to
notes here an event that (а) took place; (Ь) didn't take place. working at а new book. have been working at it for
Translate the sentences into Russian. (for more than а year) more than а year.
Pattern: You should have phoned me at once. The event did not 3. Не is supposed to Ье travelling Oh, yes, he is supposed to
take place. Вам следовало бы позвонцть мне немед- in Africa. (since June) have been travelling in Africa
ленно. -. since June.
1. "I might have Ьidden her The event did not take place. 4. Не is said to Ье working in the Oh, yes, he is said to have
good-bye," he thought to <<Я мог бы с ней been working there for three
Far East. (for three months)
himself. But it was too late. поnрощаться», - подумал
months.
он, но было поздно.
2. 1 feel 1 ought to have gone The events didn't take place. 5. Не is supposed to Ье working Oh, yes, he is supposed to
with him. One of us ought to Я понимаю, что должен in the garden. (since morning) have been working in the
have done so. был пойти с ним. Кому-то
garden since morning.
из нас следовало сделать 6. The teacher is said to Ье Oh, yes, he is said to have
это. walting for you. (for twenty been waiting for you for
3. I am sorry to have been of The event took place. minutes) twenty minutes already.
so little assistance. Мне жаль, что я так мало
помог вам.
10. Translate into English using different forms of the Infinitive.
4. I meant to have had а talk The event didn't take place. Write down your sentences and check them with the key.
with him, but 1 had very- Я собирался поговорить с Correct your mistakes if you have any.
little time. ним (но не сделал это).
1. Я рада, что поговорила I am glad to l1ave spoken to
5. Excuse me for my being late. The event didn't take place. с Вами. you.
You should have told me that Прошу прощения за
you were coming. опоздание. Вы должны 2. Она хотела, чтобы ей She wanted to Ье told the
бьmи сказать, что придете. сказали правду. truth.
6. Не is sorry to have failed you. The event took place. 3. Не шумите. Она, кажется, Don't make any noise. She
Ему жаль, что он подвел спит. seems to Ье sleeping.
вас.
4. Девушка была довольна, The girl was delighted to
что протанЦевала весь вечер. have been dancing the whole
9. Confirm the following statements using the Perfect Continuous evening.
Infinitive. Write down your answers.
5. У меня нет времени играть I have по time to play with
Pattern: She is said to Ье studying English (for t'YO years). you.
с тобой.
Oh, yes, she is said to have been studyl,pg English for
two years. 6. Я намереналея сделать этот I intended to have made this
доклад на прошлой неделе. report last week.
1. Не is believed to Ье staying Oh, yes, he is believed to
in London. (for а month) have been staying there for а 7. Я рад, что мне дали эту 1 am glad to have been given
month already. книгу. this book.
46 47
U n i t 2. 7. 1 won't have you say this After 'won't have' no particle
'Ihe Bare lnfinitive sort of thing. to is used.
Exercises: Я не допущу, чтобы
говорили подобное.
1. Read tbe seпteпces апd commeпt оп tbe use of tbe bare iпfiпi­
tive. Translate tbe seпteпces. 8. You'd better have а cup of After 'had better' no particle
tea. 'to' is used.
Pattern: Have you ever known me tell а lie? After the verЬ to know Вы бы лучше выпили
in the meaning of to see, to observe the infinitive is used чашку чая.
without the particle to. Вы когда-нибудь замечали, что
я лгу?
2. Respoпd to the followiпg statemeпts usiпg WНУ-questioпs.
1. Why not come and talk to her No particle 'to' is used in
yourself? special questions beginning Pattern: We have а lot of spare time today. (to go to the pictures)
with 'why not'. Why not go to the pictures?
Почему бы вам самой не 1. What lovely weather we are Why not go to the country?
прийти поговорить с ней? having today! (to go to the
2. 1 looked long at that picture, After the expression 'could country)
and could not choose but not but' no particle to is used. 2. We are so hungry. Why not have а Ьite?
look. Я долго смотрел на эту (to have а Ьite)
картину и не мог не

смотреть на нее.
3. Не is а very experienced Why not consult him?
doctor. (to consult)
3. Не sat down and made me After the verb 'to make' in
sit beside him. the meaning of <<Заставлять>> 4. This book is very interesting. Why not discuss it?
no particle 'to' is used. (to discuss)
Он сел и заставил меня 5. We've got а lot of luggage. Why not take а porter?
сесть рядом с ним. (to take а porter)
4. Тhе matter must Ье delayed Mter modal verbs no particle 6. Не is so tired. (to go to а Why not go to а sanatorium?
а few days longer. 'to' is used. sanatorium)
Дело должно быть отложено
7. The frig is empty. (to go Why not go shopping?
еще на несколько дней.
shopping)
5. Не watched her walk in the After the verbs denoting
garden. 8. Mother has а lot of work Why not help her?
sense perception no particle
'to' is used. about the house. (to help)
Он наблюдал, как она
гуляла по саду. 3. Agree with the followiпg statemeпts usiпg сап (could) do пot­
hiпg but + Iпfiпitive. Use coпversatioпal phrases.
6. Don't let us waste time. After the verb 'to let' no
particle to is used. Pattern: We simply must accept her invitation.
Давайте не будем терять Right you are, we can do nothing but accept her in-
время. vitation.
48 4--621 49
l. We simply must agree to tlis Naturally, we can do nothing 6. Му pronunciation leaves You'd ·ьetter work more at
terms. (naturally) but agree to his terms. much to Ье desired. (to work the language labciratory.
2. She simply had to оЬеу him. Of course, she could do more at the language
(of course) nothing but оЬеу him. laboratory)
3. 1 can't but feel sorry for John Right you are, I can do 7. 1 must get to Moscow as soon You'd better go there Ьу
(right you are) nothing but feel sorry for as possiЬle. (to go Ьу plane) plane.
John. 8. I can't read this book in the You'd better read it in
4. They simply admired that Sure, they could do nothing original. It's too difficult. translation.
young actress. (sure) but admire that young (to read in translation) ·
actress.
5. Helen simply must take part Just so, she can do nothing 5. State what you would prefer doing or not doing using 'would
in our concert. Gust so) but take part in our concert. rather + Infinitive'. Account for your preference.
6. They can't but tell their Exactly so, they can do Pattern: Will you go to the theatre tonight? (to stay at home, to
parents about their marriage. nothing but tell their parents Ье busy) I would rather stay at home, I'm busy tonight.
(exactly so) about their marriage. I would rather not take part
1. Will you take part in our
7. Не simply had to give up Beyond all doubt, he could do concert? (not to take part; in the concert, 1 have а sore
smoking. (beyond all douЬt) nothing but give up smoking. to have а sore throat) throat.
8. She simply must ask for his I think so, she can do nothing 2. Are you going to accept I would, rather go to tl1e
advice. (I think so) but ask for his advice. Betty's invitation? (to go to country, I'm in need of
the country; to Ье in need fresh air.
4. Read the following statements and give advice using 'had better'. of fresh air)
Pattern: 1 am tired. (to.have а rest) 3. Do go to the stadium on 1 would rather not join you,
You had better have а rest. Sunday! There'П Ье а most I'm not а football-fan.
1. I have splitting h~adaches You 'd better have your interesting football match!
in the morning. (to have Ьlood pressure tested. (not join; to Ье not а
one's Ьlood pressure tested) football-fan)
2. I've been advised to give up You'd better follow the 4. Would, you 'Iike an ice-cream? I would rather have а glass of
smoking. (to follow the advice) advice. (have а glass of mineral water; mineral water, I'm thirsty.
3. Something is wrong with her She'd better keep to а diet. to Ье thirsty)
stomach, I'm afraid. (to keep 5. Are you going to carry all the 1 would rather take а porter,
to а diet) things yourself? (take а porter; it will save me а lot of
4. Не is in bed with. flue. He.'d better have his chest to save me а lot of trouЬle) trouЬle.
(to have one's chest x-rayed) x-rayed. 6. Shall we prepare а dialogue I would rather do it in the
5. She is so weak. (to go in She'd better go in for sports. tonight? (do it in the morning; moming, 1 have а meeting
for sports) to have а meeting to attend) to attend.

50 4*· 51


6. Read the foUowing stateщents and respond to them according 1. Не closed the window; I had Не closed the window
to the pattern. told him not to close it. altlюugh 1 ·had told him
not to.
Pattern: That worries me.
Don't let it worry you. 2. 1 think 1 ought to go there. 1 think I ought to go there
Don't let it frighten you. 1 have no time to go there. but 1 have no time to.
1. That frightens me.
Don't let it irritate you. 3. She didn't write the letter; she She didn't write the letter
2. That irritates me. intended to do it. although she intended to.
3. That niakes me angry. Don't let it make youangry.
4. We didn't meet Mary; we'd We didn't meet Mary but
4. That makes me ill. Don't let it make you ill. have liked to meet her. we'd l1ave liked to.
5. That makes me furious. Don't let it make you furious. 5. 1 can't see him this afternoon; 1 can't see him this· afternoon
6. That makes me helpless. Don't l~t it make you helpless. 1 know 1 ought to see him. although 1 know 1 ought to.
Don't let it drive you mad. 6. We didn't want to stay there; We didn't want to stay there
7. That drives me mad.
we were asked to do it. but we were asked to.
8. That upsets me. Don't let it upset you.
9. Read the following statements and respond to them using the
7. Read the following statements and ask special questions using words suggested.
the words suggested. Pattern: Can't we go to the country tomorrow? (not to want; to
Pattern: She went to the North this summer. (what; to go) Ье still cold)
· What made her go there? 1 don't want to. It is still very cold.
1. She said she didn't like her What made her accept it? 1. Why didn't you make а cake 1 had no time to, 1 was busy.
new job. (what; to accept it) for the tea party? (have no
\

2. She returned from Moscow What made her retum so soon? time; to Ье busy)
two days earlier. (what; to 2. Can you type quickly? 1 try to, but 1 щаkе many
return so soon) (try; to make many mistakes) mistakes then.
3. Не took the medicine after all. Who made him take it? 3. Why did you rewrite your 1 had to, it was too difficult
(who; to take it) exercise? (have; too difficult to read it.
to read)
4. They went out in the rain. What made them go out?
(what; to go out) 4. I'm going to borrow this book You won't Ье аЬlе to, our
from the library. (not to Ье library is closed.
аЬlе; to Ье closed)
8. Combine the following sentences Ьу means of the conjunctions 'al-
though' or 'but'; replace the repeated infinitive Ьу the particle to. 5. Didn't you go to the country We wanted to, but then we
on Sunday? (want; to change changed our minds.
Pattern: а) She ate an ice-cream; 1 had told her not to eat it. our minds)
She ate an ice-cream although 1 had told her not to.
6. Will you Ье аЬlе to get two 1 hope to, but 1 am not quite
Ь) He'd like to come; he has no tiщe to. more t-ickets? (hope; not sure.
He'd like to come but he has no time to do it. to Ье sure)
52 53
7. Can you spend the weekend I'd love to, but 1 am short of 8. Hardly had we left town, 'to rain' forms part of а
with me? (love; to Ье short time. when it began to rain. compound verbal aspect
of time) predicate.
8. Did you want to catch that 1 wanted to, but 1 was late. 9. То tell the truth, 1 am 'to tell the truth' is used in
train? (to want; to Ье late) beginning to find her а bore. the function of parenthesis.
'to find' - part of the
compound verbal aspect
10. Make up а dialogue using the following phrases. Dramatize it predicate.
in class.
1 am glad to; I'd love to; 1 know 1 have to; 1 didn't mean to; 2. Parapbrase tbe following sentences so as to use tbe infinitive
willingly, if you want me to. as subject with or without tbe introductory 'it'. · ·· .
Pattern: Не wanted to see the play as soon as possiЬle.
То see the play as soon as possiЬle was his wish.
U n i t З.
'Jhe Functions of the Injinitive in the Sentence 1. lt will Ье а mistake, if you То tell her the truth will Ье а
tell her the truth. mistake.
Exercises:
2. The question is not so easy lt's not so easy to answer
1. Read the following sentences and define tbe functions of tbe to answer. this question.
Infinitive.
3. Crying was useless. То cry was useless.
1. lt was nice to Ье speaking 'to Ье speaking' is used in
English again. the function of the subject. 4. 1 must ask you а few questions То ask you а few questions on
on the matter. lt's my duty. the matter is my duty.
2. What 1 want is to Ье left alone. 'to Ье left alone' is used in
the function of а predicative. 5. 1 find it necessary to read this То read this book in the
book in the original. original is necessary.
3. 1 have come here to speak 'to speak' is used in the
6. The sculpture was completely It was impossiЬle to restore
to you. function of an adverblal
ruined. The restoration was the sculpture.
modifier of purpose. impossiЬle.
4. This girl is stupid enough to 'to have believed' is used in 7. They translated the article It was easy to translate this
have believed every word the function of an adverЬial without mistakes. lt was easy. article without mistakes.
he said. modifier of result.
8. They couldn't leave the То leave the children alone
5. There was nobody there to 'to show' is used in the children alone. It was out was out of the question.
show him how to do it. function of an attribute. of the question.
6. They were astonished to 'to have found' is used in the
have found me there. function of an object. 3. Parapbrase the following sentences so as to use tbe infinitive
7. She must answer the letter 'answer' forms part of а in tbe function of an attribute.
immediately. compound verbal modal Pattern: 1 have only а few minutes that 1 can spare.
predicate. 1 have only а few minutes to spare.
54 55
1. Who was the last person that Who was the last person to 4. It's late. You can't go for It's too late to go for а walk.
а walk.
arrived at the station? arrive?
There was nobody to exp1ain 5. Не is strong. Не can climb Не is strong enough to climb
2. There was nobody who could up this mountain.
it to those people. up this mountain.
explain it to those реор1е.
6. She is still young. She can't She is too young to travel to
3. This is а nice place where one This is а nice place to have а travel to London alone.
could have а good rest. good rest in. .
London alone.
7. The lake is quite near. You The Iake is near enough to
4. She will a1ways find something She will always find something can walk there. walk there.
she can complain about. to complain about. 8. 1 was too busy. 1 couldn't 1 'Yas too busy to write to
5. 1 have а few more tests which 1 have а few more tests to Ье write to you. you.
must Ье corrected. corrected.
6. Her mother was the first who Her mother was the first to 5. Answer the following questions using the infinitive in the func-
kiss her and wish her luck. tion of an adverblal modifier of purpose.
kissed her and wished her
luck. Pattern: Why did you close the window? (to keep out the loud noise)
1 closed it to keep out the loud noise.
7. Не is not а man who would Не is not а man to make fun
make fun of it. of it. 1. What did he go to the doctor Не went to the doctor to ask
for? (to ask for his advice) for his advice.
8. 1 need а pen with which 1 1 need а pen to write with. 2. Why do you listen to English 1 listen to them to improve
could write. records? (to improve my my pronunciation.
pronunciation)
4. Read the following sentences and comblne them so as to use the 3. What did you go to the airport 1 went to the airport to see
infinitive in the function of an adverblal modifier of result. Use for? (to see off а friend of mine) off а friend of mine.
'too' or 'enough'. 4. Why were you in а hurry? 1 was in а hurry to catch my
Pattern: а) Mr. Smith is very old. Не can't work. (to catch my train) train.
Mr. Smith is too old to work. 5. What did you go to the 1 went to the post-office to
Ь) Му cousin p1ays the violin very well. post-office for? (to send send а telegram to my friend.
а telegram to my friend)
Не can give а concert.
Му cousin plays the violin well enough to give а concert. 6. Why did he take this medicine? Не took this medicine to get
(to get rid of а splitting rid of а splitting headache.
1. She knows English well and She knows English well headache)
сал talk to а foreigner. enough to talk to а foreigner.
7. What did you go to the 1 went to the library to read
2. You are so young that you You are too young to know library for? (to read up for up for my exam.
don't know such things yet. such things. my exam)
3. 1 know him well. 1 trust him. 1 know him well enough to 8. Why did she come up nearer? She came up nearer to catch
trust him. (to catch the words) the words.
56 57
6. Write dowo your seoteoces using the infinitive. Тhе teacher will 8. Translate the following sentences into English using the infini-
correct the sentences. tive in different functions.
1. Моим единственным Му only wish was to get
а) as subject: желанием бьшо добраться home.
1. . .. was impossiЬle. 3. . .. is not my custom. до дома.

2. ... is а usual thing for you. 4. . .. would Ье ridiculous. 2. Она не хотела, чтобы ее She did not want to Ье seen
-видели в такой странной in such а strange company.
Ь) as predicative:
компании.
1. Our plan was . .. . 3. The main proЬlem is ....
3. Он не тот, кто мог бы Не is not the man to do it.
2. The first thing he did 4. What I want is .... это сделать.
was .... 4. Этому трудно поверить. It is hard to believe it.
с) as o}.)ject: 5. Он достаточно хорошо Не knows grammar well
1. I order .... 3. 1'11 try to remember .... знает грамматику, чтобы · enough not to make such
2. I pretended not .... 4. We are sorry .... не делать таких ошибок. mistakes.
d) as attribute: 6. Вопрос слишком сложен, The proЬlem is too
чтобы его сразу решить. complicated to solve it at
1. Не is just the man .... 3. This is the letter ....
once.
2. There is nothing .... 4. Have you got anything ... ?
7. У меня нет времени I have no time to read
е) as adverЬial modifier of purpose: читать детективы. detective stories.
l. We stopped .... 3. I called on him yesterday 8. Это статья, которую надо It is an article to Ье typed at
... . сейчас же напечатать. once .
Не had to work hard .... 4. After classes we stayed at 9. Она рада, что нашла She is happy to have found
2.
the Institute .... такое чудесное место sucl1 а nice place to live in.
ДЛЯ ЖИЛЬЯ.
f) as adverЬial modifier of result:
10. Вопросы, на которые The questions .to Ье answered
1. I was too astonished . . . . 3. She was too sad .... нужно ответить, на are on page 40.
2. The Ьоу is clever enough 4. The text was easy enough странице 40.

7. Make up sentences using the followiog infinitive phrases paren- Un i t 4.


Тhе Objective-with-the-Injinitive Construction
thetically. Show them to your teacher.
Exercises:
1. to tell the truth;
1. Read the following sentences, translate them and point out the
2. to make а long story short; Objective-with-the-Infioitive Construction.
1-r
3. so to speak; 1. 1 felt him touch me on the 'blm touch me on the
4. to Ье more exact. shoulder. shoulder';

58 59
Я почувствовал, что он 4. Mother used to watch us Mother used to watch us
прикоснулся к моему when we played tennis. play tennis.
плечу. 5. Everybody expected that Everybody expected her to
2. 1 thought you to Ье writing 'you to Ье writing letters'; she would marry Pete. marry Pete.
letters in the study. Я думал, что ты пишешь 6. The dean hates it when The dean hates students to
письмо в кабинете. students tell lies. tell lies.
3. The father made him tell 'him tell the truth'; 7. They suppose she will Ье late. They suppose her to Ье late.
the truth. Отец заставил его сказать
8. The old lady likes when The old lady Iikes people to
правду.
people greet her politely. greet her politely.
4. The teacher reported the 'the group not to Ье ready
group not to Ье ready for for the lesson'. 3. Express your opinion about somebody. Make use of tbe verbs
the lesson. Преподцватель заявил, что
suggested.
группа не готова к
занятиям.
Pattern: Не is very intelligent. (to believe)
1 believe him to Ье intelligent.
5. They ta,sted the meat and 'it to Ье excellent';
pronounced it to Ье excellent. Они попробовали мясо и 1. She is under age yet. 1 believe her to Ье under age
объявили его превосходным.
(to believe) yet.
'те to have my own way'; 2. Не is а very gloomy man. 1 know him to Ье а very
6. She suffered me to have my (to know) gloomy man.
own way. Она неохотно позволила
мне действовать по-своему. 3. Our monitor is а hardworking 1 think our monitor to Ье а
'him waste his time'; student. (to think) hardworking student.
7. 1 won't have him waste his
time. Я не допущу, чтобы он зря 4. The doctor is а charming 1 believe the doctor to Ье а
тратил время. woman. (to believe) charming woman.
8. The noise caused her to 'her to awake'; 5. Не has experience. 1 suppose him to have
awake. От шума она проснулась. (to suppose) experience.
6. Не is the very person to deal 1 think him to Ье the very
2. Parapbrase tbe following, using tbe Objective-witb-tbe-Infini- with (to think) person to deal with.
tive Construction. 7. Не is nearing fifty. 1 suppose him to Ье nearing
Pattem: Не heard that someone called his name. (to suppose) fifty.
Не heard someone call his name. 8. Не is а spoilt child. (to know) 1 know him to Ье а spoilt
l. The porter saw how you The porter saw you enter child.
entered the hotel. the hotel.
2. 1 noticed that George ate 1 fioticed George eat with his 4. Agree or disagree witb tbe following statements. Use conver-
with his gloves on. gloves on. sational phrases.
3. She felt that her hands She felt her hands tremЬle. Pattern: 1 thinkyou like people to tell the truth. (sure)
tremЬled.
Sure, 1 like people to tell the truth.

60 61
1. Уou cannot bear animals Certainly not, I cannot bear 5. They work in their garden Did you see them work?
to Ье hurt, can you? animals to. Ье hurt. the whole Sunday. (see)
(certainly npt) 6. They entered the house Did you notice them enter?
2. You like people to tell lies. Ву no means, I don't like almost immediately. (notice)
(Ьу no means) people to tell Iies.
Just the other way round, I 6. Read the sentences and expand them, using the verbs suggested.
3. I think you don't hate men
to smoke in the room. hate men to smoke in the Pattern: She had а rest at the sanatorium. (to feel better)
(just the other way round) room. That made her feel better.
4. You love your mother to live Ву all means, I love my 1. А Ьig dog rushed at me. That made те get frightened.
mother to live with me. (to get frightened) ·
with you, don't you?
(Ьу all means) 2. She found her purse in her That made her laugh.
Why, yes of course, I dislike shoe. (to laugh)
5. I think you dislike people
to quarrel with each other. people to quarrel with each 3. The Ьоу cut his finger with That made him cry.
(wl1y, yes of course) other. his pen-knife. (to cry)
6. You can bear children to I am afraid I don't agree, I 4. Не put too much pepper on That made him sneeze.
cry, can't you? can't bear children to cry. his beefsteak. (to sneeze)
(l am afraid I don't agree) 5. We saw our examiner smile. That made us feel at ease.
Just so, 1 hate people to (to feel at ease)
7. 1 think you hate people to
insult each other. (just so) insult each other. 6. Victor went about without his That made him fall ill.
coat on. (to fall Ш)
8. You like people to present N aturally, I like people to
you with flowers, don't you? present me with flowers. 7. I saw Jim making faces at him. That made me smile.
(naturally) (to smile)
8. They failed their exams. That made them work harder.
(to work harder)
5. Read the following statements and ask questions оп them.
Pattern: She sang beautifully. (hear) 7. Complete the following episodes, write them down and retell
Did you hear her sing? them to your teacher.
l. Му temperature rose to 38. Did you feel it rise? l) Marry is ill. She has а sore throat.
(feel) What does her mother want her to do?
2. Maksimova danced wonderfully Did you see her dance? 1. to stay in bed; " The mother wants Mary to
on ТУ yesterday. (see) stay in bed.
3. Не spoke at the meeting very Did you hear him speak? 2. to take the temperature; The mother wants Mary to
convincingly. (hear) take the temperature.
4. The child crossed the street Did you watch her cross the 3. to take the medicine; The mother wants Mary to ta-
quite safely. (watch) street? ke the medicine.

62 63
4. to follow the doctor's The mother wants Mary to to somebody. The father didn't expect his daughter to Ье in the
directions. follow the doctor's directions. bathroom at that time and he looked in.
То his surprise, he saw his daughter hold а cat and clean its
2) Ann comes home after classes. teeth with her father's tooth-brush.
What do you expect her to do? Kate didn't hear her father enter the bathroom and continued
1. to help the mother about 1 expect Ann to help her her work. Кate's father got angry and asked his wife to come and see
the house; mother about the house. wnat the matter was. Kate's mother made her daughter let the cat go.
2. to lay the taЬle for supper; 1 expect Ann to lay the taЬle But the little girl turned to her, saying in а hurt voice, "I'm sure,
for supper. Daddy needn't make such а fuss about it. It isn't the first time l've
1 expect Ann to wash up. done it.'~
3. to wash up;
Answer the following guestions:
4. to do her homework; 1 expect Ann to do her ho-
mework. l. What did Kate's fatl1er hear? Kate's father heard his
daughter speak in а kind
5. to listen to music; 1 expect Ann to listen to
voice to somebody.
music.
2. Did the father expect his Не didn't expect his daughter
3) You are at the English lesson. daughter to Ье in tl1e to Ье in the bathroom at that
What do you watch the students do? bathroom? time.
1. to read phonetic exercises; 1 watch the students read 3. What did he see his daughter Не saw his daughter hold а
phonetic exercises. do? cat and clean its teeth with
2. to write English words and 1 watch the students write his tooth-brush.
transcribe them; English words and transcribe 4. Did Kate hear her father Kate didn't hear her father
them. enter the bathroom? enter the room and continued
3. to ask one another 1 watch them ask one another her work.
questions and answer questions and answer them. 5. What did the mother make The mother made her
them; her daughter do? daughter let the cat go.
4. to retell texts in reported 1 watch the students retell
speech; texts in reported speech. 9. Translate tl!e following sentences into English and write tbem
5. to describe pictures; 1 watch the students describe down. Check your answers with the key.
pictures. l. Не смешите меня. Don't make me laugh.
2. Мама не любит, когда я Mother doesn't like me to
8. Read the story and answer the questions. Get ready to retell it поздно прихожу. return late.
in class. Рау attentioil to the use of the Objective-with-the-In-
3. Распорядитесь, чтобы Have the chi1dren put on
finitive Construction. дети надели плащи. their raincoats.
IT IS NOT ТНЕ FIRST TIME 4. Я не имела в виду, чтобы I didn't mean you to learn
Кate's father was going along the corridor. Suddenly as he was Вы заучивали этот текст this text Ьу heart.
passing the bathroom, he heard his daughter speak in а kind voice наизусть.

64 s-621
65
5. Могу ли я nоложиться Can 1 rely on you to come 4. 1 just happened to Ье passing, '1 ... to Ье passing.'
на то, что Вы придете in time? so 1 dropped in. Я случайно проходил мимо
вовремя? и заглянул к Вам.
6. Мы знаем, что он хороший We know him to Ье а good 5. Не is sure to join us in а week. 'Не ... to join.'
человек. man. Он, наверняка,
7. Я хочу, чтобы Вы были 1 want you to Ье more присоединится к нам через
более внимательны. attentive. месяц.

8. Он приказал, чтобы двери Не ordered the doors to Ье 6. The audience is requested not 'The audience ... not to
были заперты. locked. to applaud. applaud.'
9. Я не допущу, чтобы он 1 won't have him waste his Публику просят не
зря тратил время. time. аплодировать.

10. Когда ты видел, что я When did you see me swim? 7. The pictшe proved to have 'The picture ... to have been
плавал? been stolen. stolen.'
Оказалось, что картина
украдена.
U n i t 5.
Тhе Subjective Injinitive Construction 8. The garden-gate was heard to 'The garden-gate ... to bang.'
Exercises: Ьang. Было слышно, как
хлопнула калитка сада.
1. Read the sentences. Find the Subjective Infinitive Construction
in each of them. Translate the sentences into Russian.
Pattern: She didn't seem to have heard the noise from the dining- 2. Paraphrase the following sentences so as to use the Subjective
room. Infinitive Construction.
'She ... to have heard' is the Subjective lnfinitive Con- Pattern: lt was announced that the Polish dancers wШ arrive next
struction. week.
Казалось, что она не слышала шума из столовой.
The Polish dancers were announced to arrive next week.
1. Her daughter is expected to 'Her daughter ... to Ье
Ье absent for some time. absent.' 1. It is expected that the The performance is expected
Ожидают, что ее дочь performance will Ье to Ье а success.
будет некоторое время а success.

отсутствовать.
2. It was supposed that the The material was supposed to
2. Не is likely to Ье in London 'Не ... to Ье' material came from lndia. come from lndia.
next week. Он, вероятно, будет в
Лондоне на следующей
3. lt is said that the book is The book is said to Ье
неделе.
popular with both old and popular with both young
young. and old.
3. They must Ье made to 'They ... to understand.'
understand it. Их нужно заставить понять 4. lt was reported that the The expedition was reported
это. expedition had landed safely. to have landed safely.
66 67
5"'
''""=

5. It is supposed that the Тhе playwright is supposed to 3. His plan is rather unrealistic. His plan appears to Ье rather
playwright is working at а new Ье working at а new сотеdу. (to appear) unrealistic.
сотеdу. 4. Му opinion on this рrоЬlет Му opinion on this рrоЬlет
6. She таdе hiт go out in the Не was таdе to go out in was correct. (to prove) proved to Ье correct.
rain. the rain. 5. The language of the article The language of the article
. was quite easy. (to turn out) turned out to Ье quite easy.
3. Read the following questions and respond to them using the 6. At 11 o'clock her тother At 11 o'c1ock her тother
Subjective ln:finitive Construction. looked into the rоот. chanced to look into the
Pattern: Is it probaЬle that the weather will change? (to .Ье likely) (to chance) rоот.
It is likely to change soon.
1. Is it probaЬle that they will They are certain to send hiт 5. Read the sentences with the Complex Object and turn them
send hiт an invitation? an invitation. into sentences with the Subjective Infinitive Construction.
(to Ье certain) Check your answers with the key.
2. ls it probaЬle that he will Не is sure to тarry her. Pattern: She heard hiт sing а popular tune.
тarry her? (to Ье sure) Не was heard to sing а popular tune.
3. Is it probaЬle that the coat lt is likely to Ье ready Ьу 1. I believe hiт to have very Не is believed to have very
will Ье ready Ьу next Friday? that day. strong eтotions. strong eтotions.
(to Ье likely)
2. Because of his accent they Не was thought to Ье а Pole
4. Is it probaЬle that this This тedicine is certain to thought hiт to Ье а Pole. because of his accent.
тedicine will.help hiт? help hiт.
(to Ье certain) 3. They saw hiт approach Не was seen to approach the
the house. house.
5. Is it probaЬle that Ann will She is sure to take part in
take part in our concert? our concert. 4. They expect her to Ье Sl1e is expected to Ье absent
(to Ье sure) absent for sоте tiтe. for sоте tiтe.
6. Is it probaЬle that the The conference is likely to 5. Do you suppose Ыт to Ье Is he supposed to Ье а liar?
conference will Ье heJd at Ье held there. а liar?
our Institute? (to Ье likely) 6. The Captain ordered the The sailors were ordered to
sailors to соте on deck at 5. соте on deck at 5.
4. Paraphrase the following using the Subjective Infinitive Con-
struction. 6. Read the sentences and ask special questions beginning them
Pattern: Не was taken aback. (to sеет) with the suggested words.
Не seeтed to Ье taken aback. Pattern: Не was seen to Ье present at the lesson. (who)
1. She is busy today. (to sеет) She seeтs to Ье busy. Who was seen to Ье present at the lesson?
2. Не didn't have any тоnеу Не happened not to have 1. The delegation was expected When was tl1e delegation
with hiт. (to happen) any тоnеу with hiт. to arrive on Monday. (when) expected to arrive?
68 69
2. 1 happened to Ье standing Where did 1 happen to Ье Un i t 6.
at the window. (where) standing? Ihe For-to-Injinitive Construction
3. She was told to wait at the What was she told to do? Exercises:
office. (what) 1. Read the sentences, find the For-to-Infinitive Construction in
4. Froт the cut of his clothes Why is he supposed to Ье а them and state its syntactic functions.
he is supposed to Ье а foreigner? Pattern: lt was too dark for те to see anything.
foreigner. (why) For me to see anything - an adverbial тodifier of result.
5. The teacher is not likely to Who is not likely to change 1. For you to соте here is For yot.i to соте - the
change his opinion. (who) his opinion? iтpossiЬle. subject.
6. She seeтs to know all What does she sеет to 2. She had wanted to wait for For the тооn to rise - the
about it. (what) know? the тооn to rise. сотрlех object.
3. Не stopped for us tojoin hiт. For us to join him - an
7. Translate the sentences into English. Check your answers with adverblal тodifier of
the key. purpose.
1. Слышно было, как Том Тот was heard to read 4. That is for me to decide, For me to decide - the
читает вслух. a1oud. is it not? predicative.
2. Видно бьmо, как она She was seen to disappear 5. Тhere was тilk in the frig for For her to drink - an
скрьmась вдали. in the distance. her to drink. attribute.
3. Было известно, что он Не was known to Ье an 6. It is easy for you to talk so. For you to talk - the subject.
отличный врач. excellent doctor.
4. Он, несомненно, женится Не is sure to тarry her. 2. ComЬine the sentences so as to use the For-to-Infinitive Con-
на ней. struction.
5. Кажется, никто не заметил N obody seeтs to have Pattern 1: This rule is siтple. She will understand it.
его ошибок. noticed his mistakes. This rule is siтple enough for her to understand it.
6. Вряд ли она бросит курить. She is not likely to give up Pattern 2: The hat is too expensive. 1 can't buy it.
sтoking. The hat is too expensive for me to buy it.
7. Их заставили переписать Тhеу were made to rewrite 1. It .was very dark, we lt was too dark for us to see
упражнения. the exercises. couldn't see anything. anything.
8. Мне случалось встречать 1 happened to have теt hiт 2. The water is quite warт, The water is warm enough
его раньше. before. the children can bathe. for the children to bathe.
9. Нам приказали остаться We were ordered to stay after 3. The тusic is very soft, The тusic is too soft for me
после занятий. c1asses. 1 can't hear it. to hear it.
10. Мы, кажется, мало знаем We appear to know little 4. The work is so difficult, you The work is too difficult for
об этом. about it. can't fulfill it in а fortnight. you to fulfill it in а fortnight.
70 71
5. The proЬlem was easy. Не The proЬlem was easy 4. Детям полезно пить много It's good for children to
solved it in balf an hour. enough for him to solve it
in half an hour.
6. It's very cold. We can't go out. It's too cold for us to go out. 1 5.
молока.

День был слишком


холодный и дождливый,
чтобы кто-нибудь мог
drink lots of milk.
The day was too cold and
rainy for anyone to have а
good time.
3. Read the following jokes and reproduce them in Indirect Speech.

Тоо
Difficult
• 6.
хорошо провести время .
Я оставлю письмо на столе,
чтобы все могли его видеть. tаЫе
1'11 leave the letter on the
for everybody to see it.
Mother: Eddy, why don't you try to Ье good? You are so bad.
Eddie: lt's difficult for me to
trying.
Ье

Joint Efforts
good, but I сап Ье bad witlюut
1 7.

8.
Я нахожу необходимым,
чтобы ты приходил
вовремя домой.

Тебе вредно так много


курить.
I find it necessary for you to
соте home in time.

It's bad for you to smoke so


much.
Father: Did the teacher notice that I helped you with your 9. Это было единственное, lt was the only thing for me
composition? что я мог сделать. to do.
Son: 1 think so, Dad. Не said it was quite impossiЫe for me 10. Ему там не с кем играть There is nobody for him to
to make so many mistakes myself. в шахматы. play chess with there.

English Fogs
One day а friend came to an ltalian ambassador, who was liv- Un i t 7.
ing in London, and said, "I am going back to ltaly, have you any Revision
message for me to take?" Exercises:
"Yes," said the ambassador, "you can give my compliments to 1. State the form and the function of the lnfinitive.
the sun, because I have not seen it for three weeks."
1. То say such а thing to а child 'То say' is the lndefinite
would Ье ridiculous. lnfinitive Active in the
4. Translate into English, using the For-to-Infinitive Construction. function of the subject.
Check your answers with the key.
2. In order to hear better, he 'То hear' is the Indefinite
1. Мне очень неудобно It's very inconvenient for me preferred to sit in the front Infinitive Active in the
оставаться в Лондоне летом. to stay in London in summer. row. function of an adverblal
2. Вы сделали слишком много You have made too many modifier of purpose; to sit -
ошибок, чтобы я могла mistakes for me to give you the Indefinite Infinitive Active
поставить Вам хорошую agood mark. in the function of an object.
оценку.
3. There was no one to show 'То show' is the Indefinite
3. Я подожду, пока ты 1'11 wait for you to wash up. me the way. Infinitive Active in the
вымоешь посуду. function of an attribute.

72 73
4. They were astonished to have 'То have found' is the Perfect а) it takes а direct object;
found me there. Infinitive Active in the Ь) it is non-perfect common
function of an object. active.
5. What I want is to Ье left alone. 'То Ье left alone' is the 3. То Ье speaking English again 'То Ье speaking' - the
Indefinite Infinitive Passive was nice. Continuous Infinitive Active;
in the function of а nominal character - the
predicative. function of the subject; verbal
6. The girl is stupid enough to 'То have believed' is the character - non-perfect
have believed every word Perfect Infinitive Active in continuous active.
he said. the function of an adverЬial 4. Her greatest joy was to 'То receive' - the lndefinite
modifier of result. receive letters every week. Infinitive Active; nominal
7. Не held up his hand as if to 'То greet' is the lndefinite character - tlш .function of
greet her. Infinitive Active in the predicative; verbal -
function of an adverЬial а) direct object;
modifier of comparison. Ь) it is пon-perfect common
8. То put it mildly, she is just 'То put it mildly' is the active.
а Ьit shallow. Indefinite Infinitive Active
in the function of the 3. Find the infinitive phrase and state its syntactic function.
parentheses.
Patterп: How to get across was the proЬlem.
'How to get across'; subject.
• 2. Point out verbal and noun characteristics of the Infinitive in
1. She wondered whom to ask to 'Wlюm to ask to the party';
the following sentences.
the party. object.
1. She wanted to Ье taken 'То Ье taken' - the lndefinite
seriously. Infinitive Passive; its nominal 2. The difficulty was how to 'How to explaiп her
explain her аЬsепсе. absence'; the predicative.
character is manifested in its
syntactic function, that of 3. She gave me а long 'How to do it'; an attribute.
an object; its verbal explaпation of how to do it.
characteristics are as follows: 4. It was clear which to choose. 'Which to choose'; the
а) it is modified Ьу an subject.
adverb; 5. She didn't know whether 'Whether to go or stay'; an
Ь) it is non-perfect common to go or stay. object.
passive. 6. The proЬlem is how to find 'How to find him'; the
2. Не stood up to open the door. 'То open' - the Indefinite him. predicative.
Infinitive Active; verbal 7. 1 don't think much of her рlап 'How to get in touch with
characteristics: how to get in touch with him. him'; an attribute.
74 75
3. It's funny for me to Ье 'For me to Ье consoling you'
8. What to say was
point.
а delicate 'What to say'; the subject.
1 consoling you. is the For-to- Infmitive
Construction in the function
of the subject.
4. Тranslate into English.
4. Не was not likely to use 'Не ... to use' is the
1. Я не знаю, куда бы пойти 1 don't know where to go the car. Subjective lnfinitive
сегодня вечером. tonight. Construction; the first
2'. Вот план, как добраться Here is а plan of how to get element has the function of
до озера. to the lake. the subject, the second serves
3. Вам скажут, когда начинать. You will Ье told when to as part of а compound verbal
begin. predicate of douЬle
orientation.
4. Вопрос в том, кого The proЬiem is whom to
пригласить. invite. 5. She was а suitaЬle child for 'For them to take into their
them to take into their home. home' is the for-to-Infinitive
5. Он колебался, идти ли ему Не hesitated whether to go Construction in. the function
в кино или остаться дома. to the cinema or stay at of an attribute.
home.
6. lt was the first time 1 had 'Her laugh' is the Objective-
6. Ты решила, куда ехать Have you decided where to ever heard her Jaugh. with-tl1e lnfinitive
летом? go in summer? Construction in the function
7. Не ясно, как это сделать. lt's not clear how to do it. of а complex object.
8. Мне понравилось его 1 liked his explanation of 7. The parties were understood 'The parties ... to have come'
объяснение, как развивать how to develop · speech to have come to an is the Subjective Infinitive
навыки речи. hablts. agreemeпt. Construction; the first
element has the functioп of
the subject, the second one
5. Point out and define the type of infinitive constructions, state
serves as part of а compoнnd
their functions in the following sentences.
verbal predicate of dонЬlе
1. 1 jнst don't seem to care '1 ... to care' is the Subjective orientatioп.
about it any more. Infinitive Construction; the 8. Не ordered the cabman 'The cabman to drive on' is
first element has the fuпction to drive on. the Objective-with-the
of the subject, the second lnfinitive Constructioп in the
one serves as part of а function of а complex object.
compound verbal predicate
of douЬle orientation.
2. Do you expect me пever
6. Paraphrase the following sentences so as to use predicative con-
'Ме never to go anywhere' is
to go aпywhere?
structions with the Infinitive.
the Objective-with-the-lnfi-
nitive Construction in the 1. It seems that he is not iп tl1e Не does not seem to Ье in
function of а complex object. hablt of coming in time. the hablt of coming in time.

76 77
2. А group of people saw that А group of people saw the 8. State where the infinitive is independent and where it is part of
the boat came into the boat come into the harbour. а construction. Define the constructions and the syntactic
harbour. function of the Infinitive.
3. lt appeared that he had done Не appeared to have done it Pattern: There is nothing to explain.
it well. well. 'То explain' - an independent infinitive. An attribute.
4. Не hated it when people Не hated people to argue You're not supposed to help them.
argued about trifles. about trifles. 'You ... to help' - the Subjective Infinitive Construction,
5. Here is something that you Here is something for you you - the subject; to help - part of а compound verbal
ought to see. to see. predicate of douЬle orientation.
6. It is unlikely that they would They are unlikely to approve 1. Nothing makes me believe 'Ме believe .. .' is the
approve of it. of it. that it was an accident. Objective-with-the Infinitive
7. The article was so difficult The article was too difficult Construction. Part of а
that we couldn't translate it. for us to translate it. complex object.
8. The man had read his papers, The man seemed to have 2. 1t will Ье quite easy for you 'For you to introduce ... ' is
it seemed. read his papers. to introduce the subject. the For-to-Infinitive
Construction. The subject.
7. Transform the following sentences with predicative construc- 3. То introduce the subject was 'То introduce' - an
tions into complex sentences without them. impossiЬle. independent infinitive.
1. It will Ье а mistake for us to It will Ье а mistake if we The subject.
interfere in the matter. interfere in the matter. 4. 1 want you to stop smoking . 'You to stop smoking' is the
• 2. She was carrying books, she She was carrying books, it Objective-with-the lnfinitive
seemed to Ье going to school. seemed that she was going Construction. Part of а
to school. complex object.
3. They are sure to win the game. We are sure that they will 5. Не stopped to smoke. 'То smoke' - an
win the game. independent infinitive.
4. Не ordered the mail to Ье Не ordered that the mail An adverЬial modifier of
brought at once. should Ье brought at once. purpose.
5. 1 know him to Ье а truthful I know that he is а truthful 6. She appeared to Ье 'She ... to Ье supporting' is
Ьоу. Ьоу.
supporting the girl. the Subjective lnfinitive
6.. We were waiting for the film We were waiting until the Construction. Part of а
to begin. film began. compound verbal predicate.
7. His loud voice made me start. His voice was so loud that She - the subject.
1 started. 7. There was simply no place 'For them to sleep' is the
8. Nobody expected her to tell Nobody expected that she for them to sleep. For-to-lnfinitive
а lie. would tell а lie. Construction. An attribute.
78 79
8. She was too excited to 'То notice' - an independent Why did the Ьоу think that the parents enjoyed the play?
notice anything. infinitive. An adverblal What did the Ьоу want his parents to do?
modifier of result.
What play did they stage?
9. Compose а very short story using: 3) Complete the following sentences:
а) the Subjective Infinitive Construction; Everybody heard him ...
Ь) the Objective-with-the-Infmitive Construction in every sen- The Ьоу saw the parents ...
tence. Не heard them . . . ·
Pattern: Не expected his parents ...
а) Mary was expected to have arrived on Monday, but she hap-
4) Retell the story close to the text.
pened to have got wet to the skin and seemed to Ье running а
temperature. Dr. Sandford chanced to Ье there too. Не was said
to examine Mary. The disease proved to Ье an easy one. 11. Memorize the following proverЬs and make up stories illustra-
ting them. Try to use different infinitive constructions.
Ь) 1 wanted Тот to help me wash up. I saw him take some
cups and go to the kitchen. Some minutes later I l1eard him 1. The last drop makes the cup run over.
cry. What made him cry? Не cut his finger and I didn't al- 2. It is never too late to learn.
low him to wash up any more. 3. Let sleeping dogs lie.
4. It wou1d make even а cat laugh.
10. 1) Read the story paying attention to the infinitive construc-
tions .
• "I say, Dad," said а schoolboy returning home and looking very
12. Answer the following questions. Give examples to prove your
point. Ве ready to discuss the questions in class.
proud. "We gave а wonderful performance at school. А lot of parents
came and I believe · them to have enjoyed the performance." 1) Why is it possiЬle to say that the infinitive is partly а verb
"How do you know?" - asked the boy's father. and partly а noun?
"I saw some parents smile and I heard others laugh all 2) What сап Ье shown Ьу the forms of the infinitive?
through the performance. They seemed to enjoy watching the play 3) What is the difference in the syntactic functions of the
as much as we enjoyed acting it. We are going to act the play again three infinitive constructions?
and I want you and mother to go and see it Ьу all means. Уou are
sure to like it." 4) When is the particle 'to' not used in the Objective-with-the
"And what is the name of tl1e play?" asked the fond father Infinitive Construction?
smiling.
"Hamlet", was the answer. 13. Translate into English using different forms of the infinitive
and infinitive constructions.
2) Answer the following questions:
1. Ты хочешь, чтобы я Do you want me to ask him
When did the Ьоу look proud? пригласила его к нам to dinner?
Who enjoyed watching the play? пообедать?

80 6-621 81
2. Некому было присмотреть. There v:as no one. to look 3. Having reached the perfect active gerund
за детьми after the children, 4. Having been planned the perfect passive getund
3. Кажется, вы хорошо You seem to Ье having а
проводите время вместе. good time together.
. 1
2. Give all possiЫe forms of the gerund. Рау attention to the verb
4. Оказалось, что ключи The keys proved to have being transitive or intransitive.
потеряны. been lost.
Pattern: skate --' skating, having skated; finish - finishing, being
5. Детям полезно пить много It's good for children to finished, having finished, having been finished.
молока. drink lots of milk.
1. Make making, being made, having
б. Реку бьшо трудно перейти. The river was hard to cross. made, having been made.
7. Я ждал, пока она дочитает 1 waited for her to finish 2. Swim swimming, having swum.
письмо. reading the Ietter.
3. Arrive arriving, having arrived.
8. Считают, что этот перевод This translation is believed
лучше. to Ье better. 4. Examine examining, being examined,
9. Не смеши детей, ты не
having examined, l1aving
Don't make the children
been examined.
даешь им заснуть. laugh, уоц don't let them
fаП asleep.
10. Вы, кажется, что-то З. State wbether the. forms of the gerund denote actions simulta-
You seem to have lost
потеряли. something. neous, posterior or prior to the actions expressed Ьу the finite
verb.
14. Write а two-page-long reproduction of any passage from your Pattern: She hates visiting museums.
outside reading book. Use the tЬ.ree infinitive constructions in Visiting - а simultaneous action.
the reprodQction and tbe infinitive (in any form) in at least 1. 1 went on thinking. а simultaneous action
five different sentence patterns. Underline the infinitives and 2. Не didn't recollect such а thing а prior action
the constructions and write in what syntactic functions they having happened to him before.
are supposed to Ье.
3. She hated being treated like а simultaneous action
а child.

ТНЕ GERUND 4. She insists on going а posterior action


sightseeing tomorrow.
U n i t 1. 5. Не was conscious of having а prior action
1he Forms of the Gerund acted.
Exercises:
б. 1 rely on his doing it in time. а posterior action
1. Define tbe forms of the following gerunds. Check your answers
with the key. · ·
4. Use the appropriate form of the gerund.
1. Smiling the non-perfect active gerund Pattern: People hate (to disturb)
2. Being mentioned the non-perfect passive gerund People hate being disturbed.
82 6* 83
1. The shoes want (to brush) The shoes want brushing. 3. Многие nациенты чувствуют Many patien'ts feel better
2. On (to tell) the time, he On being told the time, he себя лучше после того как after being operated on.
hurried home. · hurried home. их прооперируют.

3. Не dis.liked (to run) the Не disЦked running the 4. Он сказал мне, что его Не told me about having
whole department. whole department. посетили друзья. been visited Ьу his friends.
4. 1 knew nothing of his I. knew nothing of his
(to knoc~ down) Ьу that having been knocked down
crazy driver. Ьу that crazy driver. Un i t 2.
Тhе Functions of the Gerund
5. One gets used to (to scold). One gets used to being
scolded. Exercises:
6. The suggestion was worth The suggestion was worth 1. Paraphrase the sentences using the gerund in the function of the
(to discuss). discussing. subject.
Pattern: lt's harmful 'to smoke.
5. Paraphrase the following sentences using the gerund. Smoking is harmfцl.
Pattern: 1 doп't like to wait (to hate). 1. lt may cause stomach trouЬle Eating too much may cause
1 hate waiting. to eat too much. stomach trouЬle.
1. l'm sorry I'm so late. Excuse me for being so late. 2. То stay indoors in this lovely Staying indoors in this lovely
(to excuse) weather is silly. weather is silly.
2. They felt that they wanted They felt like having а Ьite. 3. То persuade him is impossiЬle. There is no persuading him.
to have а Ьite. (to feellike)
4. Learning rules withot,~t It is no use/no good learning
3. 1 don't like to borrow money. 1 hate borrowing money. examples is useless. rules without examples.
(to hate)
5. She collects coins. It's her Collecting coins is her
4. Не didn't want to sttюke. Не didn't feellike s~oking. hobby. hobby.
(to feellike)
5. The girls giggle in class. 1 can't stand their giggling. 2. Respond to the follf;jwing expressing impossiЬility of some ac-
(can't stand)
tion. Use the gerund iri the function of the subject.
6. 1 like to travel Ьу sea. 1 enjoy travelling Ьу sea.
(to enjoy) Pattern: 1 am told your son has made up his mind to divorce his
wife. (to prevent him from it)
Unfortunately he did and there is no preventing him from it.
6. Translate into English using di:fJerent forms of the gerund.
1. Why not ask Peter to join us? No, there's no persuading
1. Он никогда не упоминал, Не never mentioned having (to persuade) him.
что когда-то был там. been there. No, ...
2. Им не нравится, что вы They dislike your using their Yes, but there's no
2. I hate the idea ofworking in
часто пользуетесь их phone so often. summer. (toavoid) avoiding it.
телефоном.
Yes, but ...
84 85
3. 1 don't like to waste so much Yes, but there's no getting 2. What couldn't the students The students couldn't stop
time on cooking. (to get away away from it. stop doing? (to laugh) laughing.
from it) 3. What did he give up? Не gave up smoking.
Yes, but ... (to smoke)
4. Your parents are very strict. There's no disobeying them. 4. What did they do when they They burst out crying.
(to disobey) heard the news? (to burst out,
Yes, you're right here ... to cry)
5. His wife knows everything Yes, there's no deceiving her. 5. What did she continue in She continued practising her
about his secrets. (to deceive) London? (to practise her English.
Yes, ...
English)
3. Complete the sentences using а gerund or а genшdial phrase
5. Paraphrase the following sentences using а gerund as а direct
as а predicative. Make use of the suggested words.
object. ·
Pattern: His duty was cleaning the flat.
The words f(} Ье used: to part with him, to do everything Pattern: 1 can't stand to Ье asked silly questions.
1 с~д't stand being asked silly questions.
on time, to tell him the truth, to translate the sentences
into English, to do well in the subjects. 1. Не said he would prefer Не said he preferred staying

1. The only way out was ... The only way out was parting to stay at home. at home.
with him. 2. Не recommended that Не recommended buying а

2. His principle was ... His principle was doing 1 should buy а new computer. new computer.
everything on time. 3. 1 suggested that we should 1 suggested taking an ear1y
3. The most important thing is... The most important thing is take an early train. train.
tel1ing him the truth. 4. Не denied that he had Не denied having
4. Тhе teacher's task is ... The teacher's task is stolen the money. stolen/stealing the money.
translating the sentences 5. She ~dmitted that she had She admitted having
into English. insulted him. insulted him.
5. Every student's dream is ... Every student's dream is
doing well in all the subjects. 6. Use the appropriate form of the gerund and insert prepositions
where necessary.
4. Answer tbe following questions using the gerund as part of а Pattern: What prevented you ... (to come here)?
compound verЬal aspect predicate. What prevented you from coming here?
Pattern: What did she start doing when she was five? (to swim) 1. There was nothing strange There was nothing strange
She started swimming. (to tell him the truth). about telling him the truth.
1. What did the Ьоу go on doing? The Ьоу went on explaining 2. 1 don't fee1 (to cook) tonight. 1 don't feel like cooking
(to exp1ain the proЬlem) the proЬlem. tonight.
86 87
3. She succeeded (to get) the She succeeded in getting the 4. А laughing stock, Genшd
visa to the USA. visa to the USA.
А laughing child. Participle
4. Joan was unused (to see) her Joan was unused to seeing
father ill. her father ill. 5. Parting people, Participle
5. l don't approve (to smoke). 1 don't approve of smoking. Parting words. Gerund

7. Paraphrase the following sentences using а geruшl or а gerun- 9. Detine the functions of the gerund used as an adverЬial modifier.
dial phrase as an attribute.
1. The day was spent in packing. ln packing - an adverblal
Pattern: 1 want to visit my ех- husband. М у mother thinks there is modifier of manner.
no sense in it.
Му mother thinks there is no sense in visiting my ex- 2. I've called him several times Since coming home - an
husband. since coming home. adverblal modifier of time.
1. Не has no intention to get Не has no intention of 3. We quarrel with до man for For being - an adverblal
married. getting married. being а foreigner. modifier of reason.
2. There mцst Ье а way to solve There must Ье а way of 4. Instead of going to а Instead of going- an
the proЬlem. solving this proЬlem. restaurant we ate at home. adverblal modifier of
3. She had no hesitation and She had no hesitation in attendant circumstances.
accepted the help. accepting the help. 5. Despite putting а warm coat Despite putting - an
4. She is fed up with your She is fed up with your he caught cold. adverblal modifier of
hablt to put things in the hablt of putting things in the concession.
wrong place. wrong place. 6. lt won't take long in case ln case of going there - an
5. Is it necessary to save money? ls there any necessity of of going there myself. adverblal modifier of
(necessity) saving money? condition.
7. Не has Ьlack coffee for For пiising llis Ьlood
8. Point out the gerund-attributes and the participle-attributes. breakfast for raising his pressure - an adverblal
Prove your point of view Ьу paraphrasing. Ьlood pressure. modifier of purpbse.
Pattern: а re~ding girl - а girl who is reading. Reading is а partici ple.
а reading-room- а room for reading;,Reading is а gerund.
10. Paraphrase the following sentences using а gerund or а ge-
1. А riding gentleman, Participle rundial phrase.
А riding suit. Gerund 1. , When he entered, she stood When he entered, she stood
2. А swimming-pool, Gerund up and left the room, and up and left the room without
А swimming man. even didn't look at llim. looking at him.
Participle
3. Boxing boys, . Participle 2. Mary had no food at home Mary couldn't prepare
and couldn't prepare dinner. dinner for 11aving no food
Boxing gloves. Gerund
at home.
88 89
3. You can't get to this place You can't get to this place used as а prepositional
and not change for another without changing for another complex object. The nominal
train. train. element is expressed Ьу а
personal pronoun in the
4. Не didn't go fishing. Не went Instead of going ·fishing, he
objective case.
hunting. went hunting.
3. The idea of а woman of this ... а woman of this age
5. Though the weather was We decided to go out of
age marrying а young man marrying - а half-gerundial
nasty we decided to go out town despite the weather
surprised everybody. construction used as an
oftown. being nasty.
attribute. The nominal
6. lf you see him don't tell him In case of seeing him don't element is expressed Ьу а
anything. tell him anything. noun in the common case.
7. Не was taken to hospital Не was taken to hospital for 4. You can't have а meeting ... а taЬJe and fifty chairs being
to Ье operated on. the purpose of being here without а taЬle and fifty fetched - а half-gerundial
operated on. chairs being fetched. construction used as an
8. lf the doctor had qot given But for the doctor having adverЬial modifier of
him proper advice ~е given him proper advice he condition. The nominal
wouldn't have fully recovered. wouldn't have fully recovered. element denotes а lifeless
thing and is expressed Ьу
two nouns in the common
U n i t 3. case.
Predicative Constructions with the Gerund 5. She was responsiЬle for this ... this being done properly-
Exercises: being done properly. а half-gerundial construction
used as prepositional complex
1. Define constructions with the gerund and state their syntacti- object. Тhе nominal element
cal functions. Say what the nominal element is expressed Ьу. is expressed Ьу а
Pattem: It's like your house being ruined one day. demonstrative pronoun .
... your house being ruined - а half-gerundial construc- 6. 1 object to Mary and Jane ... Mary and Jane going out-
tion used as а predicative. going out on such а windy а half-gerundial construction
The nominal element denotes а lifeless thing and is ex- day. used as а prepositional
pressed Ьу а noun in the common case. complex object. The nominal
1. They suggested our visiting our visiting - ~ gerundial element denot~s living
the British Museum and construction used as а direct beings and consists of two
Trafalgar Square. object (the complex object). nouns.
The nominal element is 7. His being а foreigner, an His being а foreigner - а
expressed Ьу а possessive. ex-enemy, was bad enough. gerundial construction used
pronoun. as а subject. The nominal
2. They approved of him ... him accepting this otfer - element is expressed Ьу а
accepting this offer. а half-gerundial construction possessive pronoun.

90 91
8. How did you do it without ... his helping you - а 3. Answer the following questions using predicative constructions
his helping you? gerundial construction used with the gerund. Use the suggested words.
as an adverЬial modifier of
1. What does she hate? (we, to She hates ourjus telling lies.
manner. The nominal element tell lies)
is expressed Ьу а possessive
pщnoun.
2 What can't you excuse? 1 can't excuse him/his beiпg
(he, to Ье rude to his sister) rude to his sister.
9. On Mr. Brown calling to ... Mr. Brown calling to him -
him to соте in, he found half-gerundial construction 3. What did he laugh at? Не laughed at me/iny
himself in а little back room. used as adverЬial modifier of (1, to do exercises) doing exercises.
time. The nominal element is 4. What сап't you staпd? 1 can't stand .my
expressed Ьу а proper noun (my husband, to smoke) husband/husband 's smoking.
in the common case. 5. What do your friends Our friends object to our/us
10. lt was quite unexpected .. .his coming bltck so soon - object to? (we, to leave leaving so soon .
his coming back so soon. а gerundial construction used so soon)
as а subject. The nominal
element is expressed Ьу а 4. Complete the following so as to use predicative constructions
possessive pronoun. with the gerund.
1. 1 was awaked Ьу the sound of someone ...
2. Paraphrase the following sentences so as to use predicative 2. Неdropped the subject without my ...
constructions with the gerund instead of subordinate clauses.
3. What is the reason of his ... ?
Pattern: Do you mind if 1 take your dictionary?
4. There was no excuse for our ...
Do you mind my taking your dictionary?
5. Тhere is по point in my ...
1. She insisted we should put She insisted on our putting
off our conference. off the conference. 6. Forgive my ...
2. lf he were not а drunkard his But for his/him being а 7. You doп't seem to miпd their ...
children апd his wife wouldn't drunkard his children and his 8. She insisted оп his ...
suffer. wife wouldn't suffer. 9. Тhere's no sense in your ...
3. As we drove away he As we drove away he 10. Everyone was surprised at their ...
suggested that we should suggested our returning Ьу
return Ьу train. traiп.
5. Translate the following sentences into English using gerundial
4. Му son often leaves things 1 can't stand my soпjson's constructions. Define the functions of the ·constructions. Check
behind. 1 can't stand it. leaving things behind~ . your answers with the key.
5. Laura remembered her Laura remembered her 1. У них не было возражений They had no objectioп to the
daughter had left that daughter/daughter's leaving против того, чтобы дом house and the car beiпg sold
umbrella standing in the that umbrella standing iп the и машину продали соседям. to tl1eir neighbours.
corner. corner. (an attribute)
92 93
2. Она, упомянула, что ее She meпtioned her husband Un i t 4.
муж уехал в Нью- Йорк having gone to New York 1he Verbal Noun, the Gerund, the Injinitive
с друзьями. with his friends. (а direct Exercises:
object)
1. Point out the gerunds and tbe verbal nouns. State tbe differ-
3. То, что мать ко всему His mother's fiпdiпg fault ence in their use.
придиралась, никогда его with everythiпg пever Patteтn: Не could hear the slamming of а door.
не I>аЗдJ?ажало. irritated him. (а subject) 'Slammiпg' is а verbal nouп as it is used with an article
4. Перед тем как он пошел Before his goiпg to the апd takes а prepositioпal object.
в клуб, она попросила его club she asked him to come 1 like giviпg presents.
вернуться как можно back as sооп as possiЬle. (ап 'Giviпg' is а geruпd. lt takes а direct object.
скорее, adverЬial modifier of time) 1. We had the pleasure of seeing 'Seeiпg' is а geruпd. It takes а
5. Так как курсы бьiли Because of the course beiпg the performaпce. direct object.
продолжительными, они loпg they refused to take it. 2. The proof of the puddiпg 'Eatiпg' is а verbal поuп. It is
отказались посещать их. (ап adverЬial modifier of is in the eatiпg. used with an article.
reasoп)
3. She Ьlamed l1erself for haviпg 'Haviпg Ьееп' is а geruпd. It
6. Она уехала, а родители ее She left without her pareпts Ьееп а dull companioп. has the morphological
не видели. seeiпgher. (ап adverЬial category of perfect.
modifier of atteпdaпt 4. Тhеп came а geпeral lightiпg 'Lightiпg' is а verЬal поuп. lt
circumstaпces) of pi pes and cigars. is used with an article апd
7. Хотя дети ему мешали, ему Despite his childreп modified Ьу ап adjective.
удалось закончить работу. disturЬiпg him he maпaged It takes а prepositioпal object.
to fiпish his job. (adverЬial 5. Such doiпgs сап hardly Ье 'Doiпgs' is а verbal поuп. lt is
modifier of coпcession) explained. used in the plural.
8. Если бы ты не сказал мне But for your telliпg me the 6. "Up the road, first turпiпg 'Turпiпg' is а verbal поuп. 1t
правду, я бы так ничего truth 1 would still Ье iп the to the left." is modified Ьу ап ordiпal
и не знал. dark. (ап adverЬial modifier (' пumeral.
of coпditioп) 7. The girl burst out crying 'Crying' is а gerund. lt is
9. Они отправили документы, They seпt the papers for the Ьitterly. modified Ьу an adverb.
чтобы чиновник их cler:k signing tl1em. (an 8. Не was interrupted in this task 'Орепiпg' is а verbal поuп. lt
подписал. adverЬia.l modifier of Ьу the орепiпg of the door. is used with ап article апd
purpose) takes а prepositioпal object.
1О. Она не осознает, что ее She is поt aware of her 9. Happily we escaped beiпg 'Beiпg delayed' is а geruпd. It
мужу угрожает опасность. husband beiпg in danger. delayed оп our way. has the morphological
(а prepositioпal object) category of voice.
94 95
10. 1 am tired of your late 'Comings' is а verЬal noun. lt I've been looking for an Try + ing = to test (Ьу
comings. is used in the plural and apartment for several weeks. making an experiment).
modified Ьу an adjective. 1 tried going to а real estate
agent, but she couldn't help
те.
2. Explain the difference in the use of the gerund and the infшi­
tive. 7. 1 am afraid of upsetting him. Ве afraid + ing = not to
Pattern: They stopped talking. want to do smth (an
Talking - part of а compound verbal aspect predicate. involuntary action).
They stopped to talk. 1 am afraid to upset him. Ве afraid + to = dare not to
То talk - an adverЬial modifier of purpose.
do smth (а deliberate action).
1. 1 must remember to post Remember + to = 8.Не began Ьу showing his Go on + to = to do smth
the letter. remember what one has books and went on to tell us different, to do the next
to do. about his adventures.
Remember + ing = thing.
1 don't remember posting Не went on talking for
the letter. remember what one has Go on + ing = continue
several hours. doing.
done.
2. I mean to work harder next Mean + to = to intend an 9. The car: needs washing. Need + ing = needs to Ье
year. action. done.
Having an extra class Means + ing = to make You need to wash the car, Need + to = have to do.
tomorrow means our another action necessary. or you may Ье stopped Ьу
working extra hours tonight. the police.
3. I forgot to phone my friend Forget + to = forget what 10. 1 propose to start tomorrow. Propose + to = to intend.
yesterday. one had to do. J propose waiting tШ the Propose + ing = to suggest.
1 shall never forget talking Forget + ing = forget what police get here.
to my friend that night. one has done.
4. I regret telling him the truth. Regret + ing = Ье sorry for 3. Put the verbs in brackets into the correct form (gerund or in-
what has happened. finitive).
I regret to tell him the truth. Regret + to = Ье sorry for 1. Don't forget (lock) the door to lock, going
what one is going to say. before (go) to bed.
5. They forЬid students to ForЬid + to is used with an 2. Не tried (explain) but she to explain, to listen,
smoke in the faculty building. object. refused (listen) and went on grumЬling
They forЬid smoking in the ForЬid + ing = no object.
(grumЬle).
faculty building.
3. Plbase go on (write) 1 don't writing, waiting
6. I've been looking for an Try + to = to make an effort. mind (wait).
apartment for several weeks.
1 tried to go to а real estate 4. 1 stopped (get) а drink because to get
agent, but the office was closed. 1 was very thirsty.

96 97
т621
5. We regret (inform) you that to inform Peter: Have we done all the slюpping now?
you have not been granted а Sue: Yes, 1 think so. 1 must remember (post) 1 this letter.
scholarship.
Peter: 1 remember (pass) 2 а postbox somewhere.
6. 1 know it may mean (make) making
her angry, but I'm still going Sue: Just а minute, where's my purse? lt isn't in my handbag.
to tell her what 1 think. Peter: Did you forget (bring) 3 it?
7. Don't you remember (go) going Sue: No, 1 had it not long ago. And my credit caid is in there.
to that restaurant the last Oh, my God, what are we going to do?
time we came here?
Peter: Just stop (worry) 4 and tblnk. You must have put it down
8. The house is old, and it painting somewhere and foigotten (pick) 5 it up. Try (remember) 6
badly wants (paint). when you had it last.
9. You should try (hold) the holding, crying Sue: 1 remembei (have) 7 it in the shoe shop.
ЬаЬу. That may make him
stop (cry).
Peter: Then you stopped (buy) 8 а newspaper ...
10. Would you mind (lend) lending, to cash Sue: Oh, it's all right. lt's here in the shopping bag ... Sorry, I
me &5? 1 forgot (cash) а can't remembei (put) 9 it there.
cheque. Peter: You could try (chain) 10 it to your hand next time.
11. Try (forget) it; it isn't worth to forget, worrying 1. to post 6. to remember
(worry) about.
2. passing 7. having
12. Why do you keep (look) looking, being
back? Are you afraid of (Ье) 3. to bring 8. to buy
followed? 4. worrying 9. putting
13. Do you remember (read) reading, to read 5. to pick 1О. chaining
about it? - No, at that time
1 was too young (read) 5. Read the dialogues. With another student, discuss possiЬle an-
newspapers. swers to each question. Use а gerund or infinitive phrase.
14. The landlord doesn't permit having 1. Nick: Didn't Jack look awful?
(have) а pet in the apartment
building. Anna: Не certainly did. Не really needs to make some chan-
ges in his life.
15. I'm used to (do) gramm~r doing What should Jack stop?
exercises like these.
2. Bill: Will you ever forget that day?
4. Read the dialogue about Peter and Sue who are in the shopping Mary: Never. It was а terriЬle experience.
centre. Complete their conversation Ьу putting the verbs in What will Mary never forget?
brackets into the infinitive or the gerund. Check your answers 3. Nick: It was а terriЬle mistake. How could 1 lшve dопе some-
with the key. Reproduce the dialogue in class. thing so stupid?
98 99
7*
Nora: lt's not the end ofthe world. You'll find something else; 10. Jack Brown is in the reading reading - an attribute.
What does Nick regret? hall now.
4. Fred: It's at 8:00, right?
Neal: Yes. Don't forget. 2. Make up sentences using the gerund as an adverblal modifier
with difl'erent prepositions.
What shouldn't Fred forget?
1. of manner (Ьу, in, without).
6. Write а short story (5-6 sentences) about an absent-minded 2. of time (on, after, before, in, at).
man. Use the verbs to remember, to forget and the infinitive 3. of reason (for, through, because of, from, for fear of, on
or the gerund. Show the story to your teacher. account of, owing to).
4. of attendant circumstances (without, besides, instead of).
5. of concession (despite, in spite of).
Un i t 5.
Revision 6. of condition (without, but for, in case of, in the event of).
Exercises: 7. of purpose (for, for the purpose of, for the object of, with
а view to).
1. State the function of the gerund or the gerundial construction.
1. Before buying а РС ask for buying - an adverЬial 3. Answer the following questions using the gerund. Remember the
an expert's advice. modifier of time. correct prepositions.
2. She started warming up warming up - part of а 1. What did your parents prevent you from doing when you
the soup. compound verbal aspect were а child?
predicate. 2. What do your teachers approve of?
3. There was no pleasing his wife. pleasing - the subject. 3. · When was the last time you apologized? What did you apo-
4. There is little hope of getting getting - an attribute. logize for?
this CD. 4. Have you argued with anyone recently? What did you ar-
5. Would you mind the window the window being kept gue about?
being kept open? open - а half-gerundial 5. What have you always been interested in?
construction, а direct object. 6. What would you like to become fanюus for?
6. The day was spent in sitting sitting - an adverЬial 7. What are you grateful to your parents for?
in front of the computer. modifier of manner.
8. What are you good at?
7. The Ьоу listened attentively his father's reading - а
to his father's reading. gerundial construction, а
4 •. Read the following story and retell it in class. Use all the ing-
prepositional object. forms.
8. Не couldn't speak for being being - an adverЬial Mrs. Strong came to а doctor and said: "There's nothing wrong with
out of breath. modifier of reason. me personally, I mean to say there's nothing wrong with me yet- but
9. His first move was seeing her. seeing - а predicative. if the whole thing lasts, I'm sure to get а nervous breakdown."
100 101
Doctor Wise, the psychologist, could not help feeling sorry for 1. She stepped forward, smiling. Smiling - Partici ple I
Mrs. Strong. "1 really see nothing worth worrying about," he said Indefiпite Active.
kindly. "Would you mind telling me what the matter is?" "lt's
about my son. When we went away on holiday last month he 2. Having said that, Jolyon left Having said - Partici ple 1
couldn't help Ьlowing bubЬles all day long!" answered Mrs. Strong. the room. Perfect Active.
"If I were you, Madam, 1 wouldn't worry about that. 1 can't 3. Не weпt out quickly, shutting Shutting - Partici ple 1
see anything wrong аЬонt that." But it was no use tryiпg to con- . the door behiпd him. Indefiпite Active.
vince Mrs. Stroпg. She just wouldn't listen and there was no stop-
4. She didn't return with us, Having been asked -
ping her. "Last year,". continued the woman, "I remember his
playing in the garden, flyiпg kites, or making castles in the saпd. having Ьееп asked to а supper Participle 1 Perfect Passive.
But now he doesn't feellike doing anything but Ьlowiпg bubЬles." party ...
"Don't worry," said the doctor. "it's perfectly аП right. Cblldren 5. Being asked to sit dowп, he Beiпg asked - Partici ple I
usually feel like doiпg such things." "I don't like it!" iпsisted the laid his hat апd stick оп the lndefinite Passive.
mother, "апd 1 must tell you his wife doesn't like it either!" taЬle.

6. Having taken the key from Haviпg taken - Participle 1


5. Memorize the following proverbs and fi.nd their Russian equivalents.
Make up stories, using the gerund in 3-5 difJerent functions. the lock, she led the way Perfect.
upstairs.
1. А clean haпd waпts по washiпg.
2. There's no use cryiпg over spilt milk.
2. Give all possiЬle forms of the participles and write them down.
3. Talkiпg mends по holes.
Patterп: to cover - covering, being covered, haviпg covered,
4. One can't make ап omelette without breakiпg eggs. having been covered.
6. Write а two-page-long reproduction of any passage from your l. to read - reading, being read, haviпg read, haviпg Ьееп read.
outside reading book. Use the gerund and the gerundial con- 2. to come - coming, haviпg come, (по Passive Foгms).
structions in at least five different sentence patterns. Under-
3. to give - giving, being given, having given, having been given.
line the gerunds and write in what syntactic functions they are
supposed to Ье. 4. to go - goiпg, having gопе, (по Passive Forms).
5. to write - writing, being written, haviпg written, having Ьееп
written.
ТНЕ PARTICIPLE
6. to ask - asking, being asked, haviпg asked, having been asked.
U n i t 1.
Тhе Forms of Particip/e 1 and its Functions in the Sentence
З. Comment оп the way the action expressed Ьу the Participle is
Exercises:
presented in each case:
1. Write down and define the forms of the following participles.
а) as simultaпeous witl1 aпother actioп;
Check your answers with the key.
Patterп: Having writteп some letters he went to post them. Ь) as prior to another actioп;
Having writteп - Participle I Perfect Active. с) referring to по particular time.
102 103
· Pattern: Having heard the report, Mr. Smith didn't ask any ques- 2. When we were playing chess Playing chess we kept
tions. we kept watching each other. watching each other.
Parti~iple 1 Perfect Active denotes an action prior to the
3. Не turned off all the lights Leaving the house he tшned
action expressed Ьу the finite verb.
when he left the house. off all the lights.
1. Mor sat rigid leaning forward Participle 1 lndefinite Active
and still staring into his glass. denotes actions simultaneous 4. The boys were playing in Playing in the yard the 1::юуs
the yard when they heard heard their mother call
with the actions expressed Ьу
their mother call them. them.
the finite verb.
2. They were, indeed, old Partici ple 1 Perfect Active 5. When 1 take а cl1ild to the Taking а child to tl1e circus I
friends, having been at denotes an action prior to circus 1 know I'm going to know I'm going to enjoy
school together. the action expressed Ьу the enjoy myself. myself.
finite verb. 6. When you buy а new coat Buying а new coat don't
3. On the terrace was а broad Participle 1 lndefinite Active don't forget to try it on first. forget to try it on first.
wooden bench running round denotes an action referring
the walls. to no particular time. 5. Paraphrase the sentences so as to use Participle 1 Perfect (Ac-
4. One day he came in having Partici ple 1 Perfect Active tive and Passive) to denote an action prior to the action ex-
just received some letters. denotes an action prior to pressed Ьу the finite verb.
that expressed Ьу the finite Pattern: Sl1e put .the coat on and started for the door.
verb. Having put the coat on, she started for the door.
5. Yesterday 1 passed Ьу an elm Partici ple 1 Indefinite Active 1. When 1 had finally made up Having made up my mind,
avenue leading to а beautiful denotes an action referring to my mind 1 told my parents 1 told my parents about my
old house. no particular time. about my new plans. new plans.
6. The fresh air, flowing through Partici ple 1 lndefinite Active
2. As she had not had her lunch Having had no lunch, she
my open window, cooled and denotes an action
she wanted her tea badly. wanted her tea badly.
composed me. simultaneous with the action
expressed Ьу the finite verb. 3. She was told to wait and she Having been told to wait,
obeyed. she obeyed.
4. Paraphrase the sentences using Participle 1 to denote а simul- 4. When he had passed the last Having passed the last
taneous action with the action expressed Ьу the finite verb or examination he began to look examination, he began to
an action referring to по particular time. round for а job. look round for а job.
Pattern: When J write to Mary 1 always send regards to her parents. 5. 1 finished my lessons and went Having finisl1ed my lessons,
Writing to Mary 1 always send regards to her parents. home. 1 went home.
1. When 1 spoke to her I Speaking to her 1 always 6. Our luggage was weighed and Having been weighed and
always tried to make my tried to make my meaning registered first and then taken registered first, our luggage
meaning clear. clear. to the plane. was taken to the plane.
104 105
"
1

6. Read the following sentences and define the function of the 5. The girl who was singing The singing girl looked
participle. looked very attractive. very attractive.
1. The last soft light of the Setting - an attribute. 6. The fence wants mending. The fence surrounding our
setting sun had fallen on lt surrounds our garden. garden wants mending.
the earth.
2. Reaching her room, she Reaching - an adverblal 8 .. Use а clause or Participle 1 in the function of an attribute.
turned on all the lights. modifier of time. Pattern: Мы взглянули на читающего мальчика. - the reading
3. Не came in carrying Carrying - an adverblal Ьоу.
а Ьig parcel. modifier of manner. 1. Я подошла к девушке, the girl standing.
4. Generally speaking, 1 don't Generally speaking - которая стояла у окна.
like boys. Parenthesis.
2. Девушка, стоявшая у окна, the girl who had been
5. Being an actress, she was Being - an adverblal уже ушла. standing.
аЬiе to make her point. modifier of cause.
3. Проигравшая команда the team which had lost.
6. Your answer is surprising. Surprising - Predicative. молча покидала поле.

7. 1 wrote him а friendly Ietter, Thanking - an adverblal 4. Он болел за the losing team.
th.anking him for his help. modifier of attendant проигрывающую команду.
circumstances.
5. Говорившая по телефону the girl who had been
8. She paced up and down the Trying - an adverblal девушка положила трубку и speaking.
room restlessly as if trying to modifier of comparison. повернул ась.
make some decision.
6. Его разбудил шум approaching cars.
приближающихся машин.
7. Change the following sentences using Participle 1 in the func-
tion of an attribute.
9. Paraphrase the sentences using Participle 1 to express cause
Pattern: The dog which was running barked furiously. (reason).
The running dog barked furiously.
Pattern: Since we lived near the University we always walked there.
1. She didn't recognize the man She didn't recognize the Living near t11e Univergity we always walked there.
who was standing in front man standing in front of her.
of her. 1. As we hoped to catch the Hoping to catch the train we
train we took а taxi. took а taxi.
2. Going upstairs she woke the Going upstairs she woke the
woman who lived on the woman living on the floor 2. Since 1 had no reply to my Having no reply to my letter
floor above her. above her. letter 1 sent Jim а telegram. 1 seпt Jim а а telegram.
3. We watched the sun when We watched the setting sun. 3. As 1 was tired 1 thought 1 Beiпg tired 1 thought 1
it was setting. should sleep well. should sleep well.
4. The train is standing at The train standing at 4. I am going to Rome since I am going to Rome, having
Platform 3. It is about to leave. Platform 3 is about to leave. 1 have frieпds tl1ere. frieпds there.

106 107
5. As the doctor had forbldden Having been forЬidden Ьу the 3. The bus drove up and made The bus drove up making а
me to go out, 1 stayed at doctor to go out, 1 stayed at а lot of noise. lot of noise.
home. home. 4. 1 stood at the corner and 1 stood at the corner looking
looked at the traffic lights. at the traffic lights.
10. Answer the following questions using 'not + Participle 1' to 5. Не grasped her hand and Не grasped her hand smiling
express cause (reason). smiled happily. happily.
Pattern: Why did you decide to wait? (not to know what to do). 6. Every day the children played Every day the children played
Not knowing what to do we decided to wait. in the yard and laughed loudly. in the yard laughing loudly.
1. Why did you turn back? Not knowing where to go
(not to know where to go) I turned back. 12. Read the following story and reproduce it in class paying at-
2. Why did you send Mike Not having received а letter tention to the use of participles.
а telegram? (haven't received from Mike, we sent him а
а letter from him). telegram.
GEТТING HIS BREAKFAST
3. Why did she move away? Not knowing what it meant,
(not to know what it meant) she moved away. Pat O'Barke was а poor lrishman with а large family demand-
4. Why did you miss the train? Not having learned the time ing food all day long. One day waking very early he began to think
(haven't leamed the time of of departure, we missed the about his poor children and himself.
departure) train. Being very hungry he decided to go lшnting in the neig11bour-
ing wood. The wood was the property of а rich man but Pat decid-
5. Why didn 't you retell the text? Not understanding the text, ed to try his luck and started for the wood.
(not to understand the text) 1 didn't retell it. .While taking aim at а rabЬit, he saw the owner of the wood,
6. Why did you go to а Not having bought anything surrounded Ьу his friends, approaching him. More dead than
restaurant? (haven't bought for dinner, we went to а alive, Pat stood thinking. ln а moment he walked boldly up to the
anything for dinner) restaurant. owner, asking him politely what had brought him so early to the
wood. The rich man looking at poor Pat answered that he was
11. Change the sentences according to the pattern. Use Partici- taking а walk to get an appetite for his breakfast.
ple 1 in the function of an adverЬial modifier of attendant cir- "But what are you doing here?" he asked glancing at Pat's gun.
cumstances. Not losing а moment, Pat replied, "1 just came out to see I could
get breakfast for my appetite." Everybody laughed at Pat's answer
Pattern: Mary left the room in а lшrry. She said she would Ье back and walked on, leaving Pat to get l1is breakfast.
later.
Mary left the room in а hurry saying she would Ье back
later. U n i t 2.
1. Не left the room and slшt Не left the room shutting 'Лtе Forms of Participle П and Its Functions in the Sentence
the door behind him. the door behind him. Exercises:
2. I remained in the garden and 1 remained in the garden 1. Read the following sentences and define the function of Parti-
enjoyed the gaiety of the day. enjoying the gaiety of the day. ciple 11.
108 109
1. The frozen ground was as Frozen - an attribute. 3. Parapbrase the following sentences using Participle 11 in the
hard as stone. function of an attribute.
2. Jaтes grew тоrе and тоrе Alarтed - predicative. Pattern: Entering the station I saw а hurrying таn who was fol-
alarтed. lowed Ьу а porter.
3. When dressed, I sat а long Dressed - an adverblal Entering the station I saw а Iшrrying таn followed Ьу а
tiтe Ьу the window. тodifier of tiтe. porter.
4. Nobody spoke unless Spoken - an apverblal i. We sat down on the ground We sat down on the ground
spoken to ... тodifier of condition. that was covered with dry covered with dry leaves.
5. Though astonished Ьу her Astonished - an adverblal leaves.
interest in the details of the тodifier of concession. 2. They all had to оЬеу the They all had to оЬеу the
accident, I went on with instructions that were given instructions given Ьу the
ту story. Ьу the head clerk. head clerk.
6. Letters written Ьу ту sister Written - an attribute. 3. I reached for the glass that 1 reached for the glass held
are difficult to read. was held out to те. out to те.
7. А window of the lюtel was Lighted - а predicative. 4. Не looked around the Не looked around the
Jighted. coffee-shop that was packed coffee-shop packed with
8. She continued staring at the Fascinated - an adverblal with people. people.
screen as if fascinated Ьу the тodifier of coтparison. 5. Не acted on the plan that Не acted on the plan worked
first sight of television. had been worked out а long out а long tiтe ago.
tiтe ago.
2. Translate into English. Use participles 1 and 11 in the function 6. The first thing that attracted Tl1e first thing that attracted
of an attribute where necessary. his attention was а Ьig vase his attention was а Ьig vase
1. Ломающийся голос. А breaking voice. that was filled with beautiful filled with beautiful roses.
2. Разбитая чашка. А broken cup. roses.
3. Проиграиная игра. А Jost gате.
4. Answer tbe following questions using Participle 11 in the func-
4. Проигравшая команда. The tеат that has lost.
tion of predicative.
5. Проигрывающая команда. А losing tеат.
Pattern: Why can't you draw? (pencil/Ьreak)
6. Кипяченая вода. Boiled water. Му pencil is broken.
7. Кипящая вода. Boiling water. 1. Why can't you enter? The gate is Jocked.
8. Студент, потерявший The student who has lost (gate/lock)
ручку. а pen.
2. Why don't you let те touch lt is painted.
9. Вспрыгнувший на стол The cat that has juтped on the wall? (it/paint)
кот. the taЬJe. 3. Why is it draughty l1ere? The window is broken.
10. Прыгающая собака. А juтping dog. (window/break)
110 111
4. Why don't you use your It is not repaired yet. 4. The Ьоу screamed. Не The Ьоу screamed as
vacuum -cleaner? seemed to Ье badly hurt. though badly hurt.
(it/not repair)
5. Не couldn't utter а word. Не couldn't utter а word as
5. Why don't we go to the Our car is broken. Не seemed to Ье lost in if lost in wonder.
country? (carjЬreak) wonder.

5. Answer the following qoestions using the verbs suggested in the


6. The secretary didn't even The secretary didn't even
form of Participle 11. raise her head. She seemed raise her head as if too
to Ье too occupied with occupied with her work.
Pattern: How do you like your fish? (fry) her work.
I like it fried.
1. How do you prefer your I prefer it roasted.
meat? (roast) 7. Agree with the following statements using participial phrases to
denote concession.
2. How do you like your 1 like them boiled.
vegetaЬles? (boil) Pattern: Тhis old washing-machine is still used sometimes. (sure/
half-broken)
3. How do you want your 1 prefer them mashed. Sure, though half-broken, it is still used sometimes.
potatoes? (mash)
4. How do you like your fruit? 1. The room looks tidy. Why, yes of course, though
I like it stewed.
(stew) (Why, yes of coursejpoorly poorly furnished, the room
furnished) looks tidy.
5. How do you prefer your hair? 1 prefer it curled.
(curl) 2. They didn't hurry. (Ву ali Ву all means, though
6. How do you like your shirts? meansjpressed for time) pressed for time, they
I like them starched. dictn·'t hurry.
(starch)
3. Не didn't show his feelings. Sure, though very much
6. Paraphrase the foUowing sentences using Participle 11 in the (Surejvery much offended) offended, he didn't show
function of an adverЬial modifier of comparison. his feelings.
Pattern: John frowned а little. Не seemed to Ье puzzled. 4. The little Ьоу caught а cold. Right, though warmly
John frowned а little as if puzzled. (Right/warmly dressed) dressed, the little Ьоу caught
а cold.
1. They were in а hurry. They They were in а hurry as if
seemed to Ье pressed for time. pressed for time. 5. The watch gained ten Why, yes of course, though
2. They looked at her. TI1ey They looked at her as minutes а day. (Why, yes of repaired only а fortnight ago,
seemed to Ье amazed at her though amazed at her coursejrepaired only а the watch gained ten minutes
unfriendliness. unfriendliness. fortnight ago) aday.
3. The young woman startled. The young woman startled 6. The girl didn't look miseraЬle. Certainly, though poorly
She seemed to Ье frightened as if frightened Ьу the ( Certainlyjpoorly dressed) dressed, the girl didn't look
Ьу the man's words. man's words. miseraЬle.

112 g-621 113


U n i t 3. 1. His father was moving Не heard his father moving
Тhе Objective Participial Construction around in the living room. around in the living room.
Exercises: (he, to hear)
2. Не was waiting about five They kept him waiting
1. Read the sentences, point out the OЬjective Participial construc-
minutes. (they, to keep) about five minutes.
tion with Participle 1. Translate the sentences into Russian.
3. They were sitting in the She found them sitting in
Pattem: I saw him walking through the crowd; him walking through sunshine. (she, to find) the sunshine. ·
the crowd. ·
Я видел, как он шел сквозь толпу. 4. Му cheeks were going red. 1 felt my cheeks going red.
(1, to feel)
1. Не listened to his uncle His uncle talking to him;
5. She was watching him. Не didn't see her watcl1ing
talking to him. Он слушал, как его дядя
(he, not to see) him.
с ним разговаривал.
6. Someone was shouting. 1 heard someone slюuting.
2. In the dark the old man felt The morning coming; (1, to hear)
the moming coming. В темноте старик
чувствовал, что наступает

утро.
3. Read the sentences and ask questions using the words suggested.
3. .. . but 1 could hear two people Two people talking in the Pattern: Mary is playing the violin. (hear)
talking in the room. room; Can you hear Mary playing the violin?
... но я слышал, что двое 1. Father is talking on the Can you hear Father talking
людей разговаривают telephone in his study. (hear) on the telephone in his study?
в комнате. 2. The rain drops are pattering Can you hear the rain drops
4. Не found her watering soine Her watering some plants; against the leaves. (hear) pattering against the leaves?
plants. Он нашел ее поливающей 3. She is looking round eagerly. Can you see her looking
какие-то растения. (see) round eagerly?
5. You had her crying in half Her crying in half an hour; 4. The gardeners are watering Can you watch the gardeners
an hour. Ты за полчаса довел ее the plants. (watch) watering the plants?
до слез.
5. She is cooking in the kitcl1en. Can you imagine her
6. 1 left her playing in the Her playing in the garden; (imagine) cooking?
garden. Я оставил ее, когда она 6. The ЬаЬу is crying in the Can you hear the ЬаЬу
играла в саду. nursery. (hear) crying in the nursery?

2. Read the sentences and paraphrase them using the Objective 4. Make up sentences using tbe following objective participial
Participial construction with Participle 1. constructions and sbow them to your teacher.
Pattern: The children were running towards the forest. (she, to see) 1. Him waiting outside; 6. Them quarrelling;
She saw the children running towards the forest. 2. The waves rolling; 7. The door slamming open;
114 8* 115
3. The clock ticking; 8. А voice saying; 5. I'd like someone to take me Oh, you want yourself taken
4. А figure standing;
5. Him smoking;
9. Му mother washing.
1 to а dentist.
6. I'd like someone to remember
me.
to а dentist, don't you?
Oh, you want yourself
remembered, don't you?
5. Answer the following questions using the Objective Participial
~. Express douЬt or disbelief using 'really'.
Construction with Participle 11. Use the suggested words.
Pattern: She can't have her hair waved.
Pattern: .Did you hear your name mentioned? (Yes, twice)
Yes, I heard it mentioned twice. Can't she really have her hair waved?
1. Не had his coat altered. .Did he really have his coat
1. .Did you find the picture Yes, 1 found it terriЬly
altered?
damaged? (Yes, terriЬly) damaged.
2. They had their photo taken. .Did they really have their
2. .Do you want the question Yes, I want it discussed photo taken?
discussed? (Yes, immediately) immediately.
3. She doesn't have her dresses Doesn't she really have her
3. .Did you leave the door No, I didn't leave the door made here. dresses made here?
unlocked? (No) unlocked.
4. 1 have had my luggage Н ave you really had your
4 . .Do you want everything done? Yes, 1 want everything done registered. luggage registered?
(Yes, today) today. 5. 1 must have my hair cut. Must you really have your
5. .Did he find himself forgotten? Yes, he found himself hair cut?
(Yes, very quickly) forgotten very quickly. 6. She had her room papered .Did she really have her room
6. .Do you consider yourself No, 1 don't consider myself yesterday. papered yesterday?
offended? (No, at all) offended at all.
8. Respond to the following statements using а complex object with
6. Respond to the requests using Participle 11. Participle 11.
i

Pattern: I'd like someone to repair my car. Pattern: Му hair has grown long. (to cut)
1 must have it cut.
Oh, you want your car repaired, don't you?
1. His tooth is very bad. Не must have his tooth
1. l'd like someone to record Oh, you want your words (to pull out) pulled out.
my words. recorded, don't you?
2. Му watch is five minutes slow. 1 must have it repaired.
2. l'd like someone to type this Oh, you want this letter (to repair)
letter. typed, don't you?
3. His suit is very dirty. (to clean) Не must have it cleaned.
3. I'd 1ike someone to bring the Oh, you want the newspapers
newspapers. brought, don't you?
4. We are leaving tomorrow. We must have аН our things
(to pack; all things) packed.
4. I'd like everyone to respect Oh, you want yourself They must have it repainted.
me. 5. Their house looks ugly.
respected, don't you? (to repaint)
116 117
6. There is something wrong They must have it checked. Un i t 4.
with the engine. (to check) Тhе Subjective Participial Construction
Exercises:
9. Make up sentences using the foUowing constructions. with 1. Read the sentences, point out the Subjective Construction with
Participle 11. Show them to your teacher. Participle 1. Translate the sentences into Russian.
1. То have the report typed; 6. Heard herself discussed; Pattern: She was kept waiting for а long time.
2. Heard it suggested; 7. Found him changed; 'She ... waiting'
3. Kept the eyes fiXed on; 8. То have а raincoat Ее заставили долго ждать.
cleaned; 1. Jennie was seen wearing 'Jennie ... wearing';
4. Considers herself offended; 9. Make himself heard; the gold watch. Видели, что Дженни
носила золотые часы.
5. Had his papers stolen; 1О. Should like the song
recorded. 2. Не was seen making his way 'Не ... making';
to the house. Видели, как он шел
к дому.
10. Translate the following sentences into English using the Objec-
tive Participial Construction. 3. The c'hildren were heard 'The children ... singing';
singing on the beach. Слышали, как дети пели
1. Я застал ее в слезах. 1 found her crying. на пляже.
2. Я делаю прическу в 1 have my hair done every 4. Не ... could Ье seen following 'Не ... following';
парикмахерской каждую Friday. her with his eyes. Видели, что он не спускал
пятницу.
с нее глаз.

3. Она чувствовала, как у нее She could feel her hands 5. ... at the same moment the 'The carriage ... rolling up';
дрожали руки. tremЬling.
carriage was heard rolling up В этот момент слышно
4. Когда тебе исправили When did you have your the gravel-walk. было, как коляска
упражнения? exercises corrected? загрохотала по дорожке,

5. Я наблюдал, как девочки посыпанной гравием.


1 watched the girls dancing
танцевали под музыку. to the music. 6. Some of the Ьirds can Ье Ьirds ... sitting';
'Some of the
6. Он услышал, как они spotted sitting in the trees. Можно обнаружить, что
Не heard them crying.
некоторые птицы сидят
кричали.
на деревьях.
7. Вы хотите, чтобы вещи Do you want to have your
доставили на вокзал? things brought to the station?
2. Paraphrase the sentences using the Subjective Participial Con-
8. Все видели, как гимнаст Everybody saw the gymnast struction.
делал упражнения. doing exercises. Pattern: I left her sleeping upstairs.
9. Как она добилась того, How did she get herself She was left sleeping upstairs.
что ее пригласили? invited?
1. I found them talking over They were found talking
10. Мы нашли стекло разбитым. We found tl1e glass broken. cups of tea. over cups of tea. ·
118 119
2. She left the kettle boiling The kettle was left boiling 4. Read the foUowing sentences and paraphrase them using the Sub-
on the hot-plate. on the hot-plate. jective Construction witlt Participle 11. Repeat the key aloud.
3. 1 could hear her singing in She could Ье heard singing Pattern: They considered that the picture had been stolen.
the bathroom. in the bathroom. The picture was considered stolen.
4. 1 saw her last trying on hats She was seen last trying on 1. We have often heard his His name has been often
in а small shop. hats in а small shop. name mentioned. heard mentioned.
5. She'Il keep you waiting for 2. We found the safe locked The safe was found locked
Уou will Ье kept waiting for and the papers stolen. and the papers stolen.
hours. hours.
3. We found the village. lt had The village was found
6. We observed them walking They were observed been burned to the ground. burned to the ground.
down the street. walking down the street. 4. You will find the letter on The letter will Ье found
your desk. It is signed and signed and ready to Ье
3. Answer the following questions using the Subjective Participial ready to Ье posted. posted.
Construction. Use the suggested words. 5. Somebody had seen the child. The child had been seen
А man was carrying her. carried Ьу а man.
Pattern: Why do you think Mike is at home? (to hear, to speak over
the phone) 6. They considered that tl1e The plan was considered
Не was heard speaking over the phone. plan had been lost. lost.
1. Why do you think they are They were heard quarrelling.
5. Read the sentences and ask special questions beginning them with
so angry? (to hear, to quarrel) the suggested words.
2. Why do you think the teacl1er She was seen crying. Pattern: The boat was considered lost. (what)
is so upset? (to see, to cry) What was considered lost?
3. Why are you sure the Greens They were heard discussing it. 1. The car was found abandoпed Where was the car found
will go to the Crimea? on the highway. (where) abandoned?
(to hear, to discuss) 2. She was found dressed for What was she found dressed
4. Why was she seen in the the party. (what ... for?) for?
She was seen watering
garden? (to see, to water flowers in the morning. 3. She could Ье coпsidered cured. Who can Ье considered
flowers in the morning) (who) cured?
5. Why were the children so 4. Their voices could Ье heard Whose voices could Ье
They were left· playing on
happy? (to leave, to play uplifted in argumeпt. (whose) heard uplifted in argumeпt?
the beach.
on the beach) · 5. The picture was believed When was the picture
damaged many years ago. believed damaged?
6. Why do you think she is so She was kept waiting for (when)
tired? (to keep, to wait for аlong time.
а long time)
6. She was left greatly upset Who was left greatly upset
and worried. (who) and woпied?
120 121
6. Translate into Englisb. Use tbe SuЬjective Intinitive or tbe Suь .. 1. This being done, they set off This being done - an
jective Participial Constructions. Cbeck your answers witЬ tbe with light hearts. adverblaJ modifier of time;
key. Когда это было сделано,
1. Ее попросили подождать. She was asked to wait. мы отправились в путь с
легким сердцем.
2. Ее застали ожидающей She was found waiting for
своей очереди. her turn. 2. Martin had to сапу his water There being nb tap in the
3. Чемодан считали Тhе suit-case was considered from the kitchen, there being room - an adverblal
украденным. stolen. no tap in the room. modifier of cause (reason);
Мартину пришлось носить
4. Оказалось, что она все She proved to know
воду из кухни, так как в
знает. everything.
комнате не было крана.
5. В последний раз его видели Не was last seen working
занимающимся в in the reading-room. 3. Weather permitting, we shall Weather permitting - an
читальном зале.
start tomorrow. adverblal modifier of
6. Ночью слышали, как
condition;
At night the dog was heard
Если погода позволит, мы
собака лаяла в саду. barking in the garden.
отправимся завтра.
7. Собаку нашли The dog was found tied up
привязанной к дереву. to а tree. 4. Bed-rooms inspected, and Bed-rooms inspected and
dinner ordered, the party dinner ordered - an
8. Кажется, никто не знает Nobody seems to know his walked out to view the city. adverblal modifier of time;
его адреса. address.
Когда комнаты были
9. Меня не заставили ждать. 1 was not kept waiting. осмотрены и обед заказан,
10. Считали, что книг.а The book was considered компания отправилась
раскуплена. sold out. осматривать город.

5. We spent the summer in They occupying ... and we


their cottage, they occupying having - an adverblaJ
Un i t 5. the front room and we having modifier of attendant
11te Nominative AЬsolute Participial Construction the verandah at our disposal. circumstances;
Exercises: Мы провели лето у них на
1. Read tbe sentences, point out tbe Nominative AЬsolute Parti- даче, причем они занимали
cipial Construction and define its function. Translate tbe sen- комнату, а мы имели в
tences into Russian. нашем распоряжении

веранду.
Pattem: The rain having ruined my hat, I had to buy а new one.
The rain having ruined my hat - an adverblal modifier 6. Supper finished, he led him Supper finished - an
of cause (reason). into the parlour ... adverblal modifier of time;
Так как дождь испортил мою шляпу, пришлось ку- Когда ужин закончился,
пить новую.
он повел его в гостиную.

122 123
2. Read tbe foUowing sentences and parapbrase tbem using tbe country. (Just the other way couldn't spend Sunday
Nominative AЬsolute Participial Construction. round; being bad) in the country.
Pattem: When the last letter was signed she put theт on the "out- 3. The filт being dull, they
going" tray. 1 don't agree, the filт being
decided not to see it. interesting, they decided to
The last letter having been signed, she put theт on the (1 don't agree; being see it.
"outgoing" tray. interesting)
1. It was very hot and we went lt being very hot, we went 4. Their house being far, she
down to the Ьеасh for а swiт. down to the beach for а I'm afraid you're mistaken,
didn't go to see theт. the house being near, she
swiт.
(I'm afraid you are mistaken; went to see them.
2. As the weather was still cold The weather being still very being near)
and windy she .was wearing cold and windy, she was 5. The sea being calm, .he could Far froт it, the sea being
а heavy winter coat. wearing а heavy winter coat. swim. (Far froт it; being rough, he couldn't swim.
3. When everything was packed Everything packed, she rough)
she went downstairs for а went downstairs for а тuch
тuch needed cup of tea.
6. The task beihg prepared, we Just the other way round,
needed cup of tea.
copied the text. (J ust the the task being unprepared
4. When her grey hair was Her grey hair sтartly other way round; being we didn't сору the text ..
sтartly waved she looked waved, she looked а unprepared)
а different woтan. different woтan.
5. As the sea was perfectly саlт The sea being perfectly calm, 4. Translate the contents of the brackets into Englisb Ьу means of
they had every chance of they had every chance of the Nominative AЬsolute Participial Construction. Repeat tbe
safely reaching the rocks. · safely reaching the rocks. key aloud.
6. As Helen had been unaЬle to Helen being unaЬle to соте, Pattern: (Когда покупки были сделаны), she caught' the midday
соте the tea-party was а dull the tea-party was а dull affair. bus to Buckland.
affair. Her shoppiпg done, she caught the midday bus to Buck-
land.
3. Disagree witb tbe foltowing statements. Use some conversa- 1. (Так как платье было очень
tional formulas of disagreement. Follow tbe pattern. The dress being тuch too
длинное) I spent most of the long, 1 spent most of the
Pattern: The book being difficult, 1 couldn't translate it. (Far froт afternoon fixing it. afternoon fixing it.
it, being easy)
2. (Так как судно быстро The shi р sinking fast, there
Far froт it, the book being easy, you could translate it. погружалось в воду) there wasn't а moment to lose.
1. All being ready, we could go On the contrary, all being wasn't а тотеnt to lose.
hоте. (On the contrary; unprepared they couldn't go
3. (Когда двери и окна бьти The doors and windows
being unprepared) hоте.
закрыты) he sat down to being locked, he sat down
2. The weather being fine, we Just the other way round, enjoy his favourite ТV show. to enjoy his favourite
could spend Sunday in the the weather being bad, we ТУ show.

124 125
4. (Так как дети. ушли в The children having gone to 5. Her daughter sat motionless ·нег daughter sat motionless
школу) the house was school, the house was Ьу the fire; her hands were Ьу the fire with her hands
unusually peaceful. unusually peaceful. crossed on her knees. crossed on her knees.
5. (Когда решеы:ие было The decision made, nothing 6. 1 can't do any work when the 1 can't do any work with the
приы:ято) nothing could could make her give it up. children are making much children making so much
make her give it up. noise. noise.
6. (Когда пудиы:г был съеден) The pudding eaten, the
the children went to play. children went to play.
Un i t б.
Revision
5. Make up sentences using the following Nominative Absolute
Before doing the tasks of Unit 6 discuss the suggested proЬlems
Participial Construction. Show them to your teacher. in class.
1. The night being fine . .. 6. The working day being
over ... 1. What are the verbal features of the participle?
2. What are the syntactical functions of the participle?
2. ... his voice tremЬling. 7. Her luggage registered ...
3. М у friend having declared ... 8. Our teacher having 3. What are the syntactical functions of the constructions with the
partici ple?
fallen ill ...
4. The children weeping 9. The show being not very 4. When do we translate the Russian past Participle active (стояв­
ший, читавший) Ьу the English Participle and when Ьу an at-
Ьitterly ... long ...
tributive clause?
5. This finished ... 1О .. This question settled ...
5. What are the syntactical functions of Partici ple IJ?
6. Paraphrase the following sentences using the Prepositional Ab- Exercises:
solute Participial Coostruction.
1. Compare Participle 1 and Participle 11 in the following attribu-
Pattern: The girl sat still, l1er eyes were fixed on the fire. tive phrases. Translate them into Russian and explain them ac-
The girl sat still~ with her eyes fixed on the fire. cording to the pattern.
1. Little Florence entered her Little Florence entered her Pattern: А burning cigarette - а cigarette that is burning;
father's room; her l1eart was father's room with her heart А burnt letter - а letter that has been burnt.
beating fast. beating fast.
1. А promising student А student that is talented and
2. The Ьоу stood silent; his head The Ьоу stood silent with promises to become а good
was bent. his l1ead bent. specialist;
3. David began to answer 11is David began to answer his А promised trip А tri р that has been
lesson; Miss Murdstone was lesson with Miss Murdstone promised.
watching him closely. watching him closely. 2. А stopping train А train that stops at every
4. Не could sit for hours; l1is Не could sit for hours with station;
book was closed and lying bls book closed and lying А stopped train А train that has been stopped
beside him. beside him. Ьу smb. or smtl1.

126 127
3. А sinking shi р А ship which is going down, 1. I noticed you looking at this 'Looking' - part of the
below the surface of water; picture yesterday. Objective Partici pial
А sunk ship А ship which has gone to construction; part of а
the bottom. Complex Object.
4. An exciting film А film that stirs up the 2. When asked to explain his 'When asked' - aparticipial
feelings of excitement; presence he could say nothing. phrase; an adverblal modifier
An excited child А child that has been made of time.
to feel strongly.
3. They were found playing in 'Playing' - part of the
the garden. Subjective Partici pial
2. Read the foUowing sentences and choose which to use: Partici- Construction; part of а
ple 1, Participle 11 or an attributive subordinate clause. compound verbal predicate
Pattern: We sat down on the groцnd (covered, covering) with dry of douЬie orientation.
leaves. 4. А growing Ьоу should get 'Growing' - an independent
We sat down on the ground covered with dry leaves. plenty of vitamins. participle; an attribute.
1. It was an (exciting, excited) 1t was an exciting story and 5. I don't want this proЬlem 'Discussed' - part of the
story and we couldn't forget it. we couldn't forget it. discussed in my presence. Objective Participial
2. I spoke to one of the students I spoke to one of the Construction; part of а
(who had taken part, taking students who had taken part Complex Object.
part) in the conference two in the conference two 6. She raised her eyebrows а little 'As if astonished' -
months ago. months ago. as if astonished to see me there. partici pial phrase; an
3. Listen to the girl (telling, Listen to the girl telling adverblal modifier of
who has told) such an such an interesting story! comparison.
interesting story!
7. Не earns а living playing the 'Playing' - an independent
4. The officer (going, gone) The officer going past violin in the streets. participle; an adverЬial
past them smiled at them. them smiled at them. modifier of manner.
5. The Ьlonde (driving, who The Ьlonde who had been 8. The village was found burnt 'Burnt' - part of tl1e
had been driving) was sitting driving was sitting over her to the ground. Subjective Participial
over her cup of coffee on the cup of coffee on the terrace. Construction; part of а
terrace.
;
compound verbal predicate
6. We found ourselves before а We found ourselves before of douЬle orientation.
(locking, locked) door. а locked door.

4. Transform the foUowing sentences so as to use subordinate clau-


3. State where the Participle is independent and where it is а part ses instead of the participial constructions or phrases.
of а construction. Name the construction and the syntactic
function of the participle. Pattern: Somebody having switched off the lights, the passage was
in complete darkness.
Pattern: Part of the way we rode in а car driven Ьу а little old lady. Somebody had switched off the lights апd the passage was
Driveп - ап iпdependent partici ple. An attribute. iп comp1ete darkness.

128 129
9-621
1. Pushing the roast into the She pushed the roast into the 4. Through the chink in the Through the chink in the
oven, she felt that her day's oven and felt that her day's shutters she watched Emma shutters she watched Emma
work was .done. work was done. (to pick, picking) cherries picking cherries in the
2. Having counted his money When he had counted his in the orchard. orchard.
he saw that there was not money he saw that there was 5. Do you hear them (to Do you hear them
enough money to buy both not enough money to buy quarrel, quarrelling) in the quarrelling in the
books. both books. neighbouring room? neighbouring room?
3. Sixteen being а difficult age, As sixteen is а difficult age 6. She watched him (to pass, She watched him pass the
the girl proved more of а the girl proved more of а passing) the gate and (to walk, gate and walk down the
proЬlem than. we had proЬlem than we had walking) down the street. street.
expected. expected.
4. Entering the station 1 saw а When 1 entered the station 1 6. Translate into English using different forms of the Participle
man followed Ьу а porter. saw а man who was followed and participial construction.
Ьу а porter.
1. Мы подошли к мужчине, We came up to the man
5. The examination being so N ow that the examination стоявшему на углу, и standing at the corner and
close at hand, а queer was so close at hand, а queer спросили дорогу. asked him the way.
calmness had settled upon calmness had settled upon
him. him. 2. Вы хотите, чтобы вещи Do you want to have your
доставили на вокзал? things brought to tl1e station?
6. She could Ье considered cured. lt could Ье considered that
she was cured. 3. Каждое утро они Every morning they
наблюдали, как встает watched the sun rising.
солнце.
5. Use the Infinitive or Participle 1 to form а Complex Object.
4. Я немного помолчал, 1 kept silent for а little while
Pattern: А moment later they heard her bedroom door (to shut,
shutting) with а bang.
думая о том, что он мне thinking of what he had
А moment later they heard her bedroom door shut with
сказал. told те.
а bang. 5. Если обстоятельства Circumstances permitting,
1. 1 want you (to explain, 1 want you ·to explain the
позволят, они уедут в they will leave for Moscow
Москву на рассвете. at dawn.
explaining) the disappointment we had this
disappointment we had this morning. 6. Он знал, что его легко Не knew himself to Ье
morning. уговорить. easily persuaded.
2. The captain said something The captain said something 7. Иногда слышно было, Sometimes they were heard
which made them (to laugh, which made them laugh, he как они смеются у себя laughing in their room.
laughing), he did not hear did not hear what it was. в комнате.
what it was. . 8. Т.к. день бьm по-настоящему The day being really sunпy
3. Не found them (to sit, sitting) Не found them sitting солнечный и теплый, я and warm, I told them tl1ey
together and (to talk, talking) together апd talking сказала им, что они могут could play in the park.
peacefully. peacefully. поиграть в парке.

130 131
9*
--l

9. Этот метод совершенно This method was quite Mrs. Wood: 1 just couldn't think at first. And then 1 suddenly re-
отличался от тех, которые different from those being membered that the house at the end of the road had
использовались в то время. used at the time. just been takeп over Ьу an old sailor who ltad all
1О. Он говорит как человек, Не speaks like а man having sorts of strange pets.
имеющий· собственное his opinion of everything. Nora: l knew- Mr. Benbow. So the monkey sitting on the
мнение обо всем. taЬJe was his. What an extraordinary creature - tak-
ing your spoons one day and coming, back for
7. Read the following dialogue from "Meet the Parkers" and point your knives and forks the next! Did you manage to
out the Participle and predicative constructions with the parti- catch him?
ciple. Make up your own dialogues using the participle. Mrs. Wood: 1 couldn't catch him myself, Ьнt 1 fetched Mr. Ben-
bow and he soon did it.
Nora: And did you discover what the monkey had done
DIALOGUE with your spoons?
Mrs. Wood: Yes, we found them hidden at the end of our own gar-
Nora: Good aftemoon, Mrs. Wood. You are Iooking pleased. den!
Have you found out who took your missing spoons? Nora: How very funny! With the police hunting everywhere
Mrs. Wood: Yes, it's really very funny, 1 must tell you. Of course, for а criminal too. Still, 'All's well that ends well!'
I've been awfully nervous since yesterday, my hus-
band being away and there being nobody else in the 8. Memorize the following proverbs and make up stories illustrat-
house. Апd then coming back from shopping this af- ing them. Try to use different participial constructions. Repro-
ternoon 1 found the back gate open and sнspicious duce the stories in class.
noises coming from tl1e house.
1. А barking dog seldom Ьites.
Nora: Goodness!
2. А drowning man catches at а straw.
Мгs. Wood: Thinking that if 1 went for help the fellow would
get away, 1 decided to catch him myself. 3. А burnt child dreads the fire.
Nora: How very brave of you! 4. Lost time is never found again.
Mrs. Wood: And then, looking in through the kitchen window
what should 1 see but - 9. Write а two page reproduction of any passage from your outside
reading book. Use the participial constructions in the repro-
Nora: А man?
duction and the Participle (in any form) in at least five diffe-
Mrs. Wood: No - а monkey! rent sentence patterns. Underline the participles and the con-
Nora: А monkey?
structions and write in what syntactic functions they are sup-
. posed to Ье.
Mrs. Wood: Yes, а monkey, sitting оп my kitchen taЬle and ta-
king all my knives and forks out of the taЬle drawer.
Nora: Wherever had it come from?
132
Section three: TESTS 8. Му friend seerns (to have) а good time at the seaside now.
9. We believe our rnanager (to have) а talk with our part-
ners for two hours.
1О. Не is in the garage and must (to repair) tl1e car.

ТНЕ INFINITIVE 3.. Underline the single infinitive, the infinitive phrase or tbe in-
finitive construction and state its function.
Те s t 1
1. She is too lazy to Ье а good worker.
1. Put 'to' where necessary before the infinitives.
2. The burglar seemed to Ье breaking irito the house when the
1. I could feel the Ьlood ... leave my face in а rush. police arrived.
2. Не didn't hear the car ... arrive.
3. There were plenty of papers for hirn to read, but he Ieft
3. Не had never known his uncle ... express any sort offeeling. them alone.
4. I wasn't prepared to let him ... go out alone. 4. She understood what he must Ье going through, and she
5. I shall try ... make the thing ... work. wanted desperate1y to help him.
6. They watched Peter ... return after time. 5. Ifyou think it necessary to rnake changes, you rnust choose
the right moment to make them.
7. Let her ... do what she wants ... do. 6. Jane felt herself grow red to the tips of her toes.
8. Why not ... allow her ... do as she likes? 7. It takes time to look through all these price lists.
9. When 1 was а child 1 was made ... play the piano every day. 8. The Chairrnan's suggestion is to set up an МВА program-
10. They were seen ... сщnе to the corner and ... turn to the me in Russia.
right. 9. I intended to fly back to Finland tl1at Monday morning.
10. Her good reso1utions began to crumЬle with tl1e light of
2. Use the appropriate form of the infinitives in brackets. the following day.
1. Some irnportant decisions must (to make) soon. 11. Nobody can guess wlшt he decided to do.
2. When he opened the door he said "I'm sorry (to disturb) 12. Carol declined Bill's proposal to become his wife, 1 sup-
you but I have to ask him several questions". pose?
3. The little girl was proud (to skate) for so 1ong without fal- 13. Mike offered to repair my computer, but 1 refused.
ling down. 14. There was по home for him to go to.
4. Не seems (to finish) his work already. 15. Не seemed to have been running - he was out of breath.
5. Не has а great desire (to invite) to tl1e party. · 16. They made the children stay out of fire.
6. Не is sure (to return) soon. 17. Не drank а lot of coffee so as not to fall asleep.
7. The first question (to consider) is whether the offer of the 18. In 1969 the American astronaut Neil Armstrong became
Dean should (to accept). the first man to walk on the moon.
134 135
19. It's extreтely difficult to diagnose the disease in the early Те st 2
stages.
20. The children are likely to stay with the father after the
divorce.

4. Replace the sentences with the subordinate clauses Ьу the sen-


1 1. Put
1.
2.
3.
4.
'to' where necessary before the infinitives.
1 won't таkе Alison ... соте to the club tonight.
The seaтan's hands helped Carol .... sit up.
You'd rather ... тееt the bank тanager.
The сотраnу саП ... supply ceтent in July.
tences with the Infinitive.
5. I can't but ... agree оп his terms.
1. Не preferred that 1 should say nothing about it at present.
6. I'd rather ... stay at hоте than ... go out.
2. The student was so sтart that he could solve any тath
7. Why not ... buy such а nice dress?
рrоЬlет.
8. She does nothing but ... cry.
3. They claiт that they lшve discovered а cure for the disease,
but this has not yet been proved. 9. Please, have soтeone ... lay the taЬle.
4. She was not the type who would put on weight. 10. She felt bls hands ... Ье cold.

5. Не ran so fast that we couldn't catch up with hiт.


2. Use the appropriate form of the infinitives in brackets.
6. I Iocked the door so that no one could disturb me. 1. Не turned up at last two hours Iater saying: "I'm sorry (to
7. Joumalists reported that seven people had been injured in keep) you waiting for so long."
the fire. 2. Не claiтs (to see) the President, but I don't believe him.
8. It is essential that we maintain high standards. 3. Our football team is proud (to win) every match this year.
9. Не is just the child you have to worry about. 4. This writer is said (to write) а new novel now.
10. It is said that people are expecting help from the govern- 5. Не has а great desire (to invite) уон to the party.
ment. 6. The weather appears (to improve) now.
11. The boys reported that tl1e translation had been completed. 7. The plan of our work will Ье discussed at the meeting (to
12. Не looked at те in such а way that I felt he wanted to
hold) on Monday.
shock me. 8. Не didn't appear (to know) tl1e news.
13. When I heard that they had moved in I was happy. 9. She happened (to pass) Ьу the cl1emist's when sl1e saw l1er
friend.
14. Who was the last person who found the young man alive?

-
10. Му son hates (to read) but l1e likes (to read to).
15. We were lucky that we were travelling Ьу air.
3. Underline the single infinitive, the infinitive phrase or the in-
5. Characterize а person or object you like using tbe infinitive at- finitive construction and state its function.

1
tributively (15 sentences). 1. They seem to l1ave failed to strike up .а conversation with
e.g. ВоЬ is а difficнlt таn to get on with. the exotic-looking man.

136 137
2. То Ье fair, the chefs salad was superЬ - although I con- 2. All the hotels were full and we had nowhere where we could
fess it was hard to appreciate such food fully finding the stay.
bill coming to over 75 pounds.
3. ВоЬ is rich, so he can support his second family and рау
3. What has made her leave us so soon? alimony to his ex-wife.
4. Is it necessary for students to budget their time? 4. The bench was almost dry, and we could sit on it.
5. Не was too sleepy to read the article to the end. 5. I'm enclosing а list of my proposals so that you can con-
6. How did your brother dare to pat the Dean on the shoul- sider them before our next meeting.
der? 6. It happened so that Steve met Jane at а graduation party.
7. I'm glad to have met such а promising financial analyst. 7. Who was the first person who found the man?
8. Last year Henry expected to obtain а second-class honours
degree in engineering. 8. She fe1t sad when she heard those rumours.
9. They appear to Ье keeping the details of the case а secret 9. Susan didn't phone him for а loпg time wblch might prove
for the time being. that she didn't need him.
10. 1 was sorry not to have been given the chance to prove my 10. They declared that tl1e general wasn't g~ilty.
point. 11. lt is likely that radioactive material was released during the
11. Не was the last person to Ье convinced Ьу my arguments. fire.
12. They are poor but too proud to borrow money or ask for 12. Here are the iпstructions you have to foHow.
help. 13. She rushed home and found that а tblef was exploring tl1e
13. Peter lifted his son onto his shoulders for him to see the house.
parade. 14. She is not such а fool, so she can't tblnk you are innocent.
14. Не watched the caterpillar crawl up the leg of а chair. 15. А Iot of papers should Ье typed before the boss comes.
15. When you run а campaign, the idea is to appeal to people.
16. The place is very convenient to live in but he feels lonely 5. Write what functions and duties you сап perform as а teacher
here. (as an interpreter) (15 sentences). Use the infinitive as part of
17. I've known him to read so much. t а compound nominal predicate.

18. It's wrong for scientists to use mice for experiments. e.g.A teacher's duty is to maintain discipline in class.
19. You cannot make people learn if they don't want to.
20. The President was rumoured to Ье seriously ill.
ТНЕ GERUND

4. Replace the sentences with the subordinate clauses Ьу the sen- Те s t 1


tences with the Infinitive; 1. Use the appropriate form of the gerunds of the verbs in brackets.
1. His doctor recommended that he should try taking sleep- 1. The secretary asked if I would mind (to wait) for а few
ing pills for а while. minutes.
138 139
2. I appreciate (to invite) to your home. 13. 1 am sick and tired of drinking tea without milk.
3. For many years the banks denied (to receive) deposits 14. She changed the style of her dancing, her feet moved more
from criminal sources. quickly, and did not keep so strictly to the ground.
4. I'm tired of (to treat) like а silly fat 1amb. 15. ln crossing the street one should Ье careful.
5. Steve was rude to the important client. Не needs (to sack). 1' 16. Instead of reaching India he landed on an island unknown
to Europeans.
6. The local food is very hot and juicy. It isn't worth (to try).
17. But for their having quarrelled he would invite her to his
7. On (to see) us he stopped and took off his hat. wedding.
8. You must excuse me for (to think) you were а gipsy. 18. Poor Ann was in danger of being mistaken for somebody
9. 1 seem to remember (to teli) not grumЬie Ьу someone. else.
lO. Не had got out of the haЬit of (to ask) questions Ьу dem- 19. She insisted on his coming.
onstrators. 20. His idea was being employed as soon as possiЬie.

2. Underline the single gerund, the gerundial phrase or the gerun- З. Insert the appropriate preposition before the gerund where re-
dial construction and state its function. quired.
1. 1 was so tired that 1 couldn't help falling asleep. 1. The others insisted ... accompanying them.
2. The Government was unaЬle to make any promises about 2. She said: "Excuse me ... coming in without knocking".
lifting restrictions in the near future.
3. I'm tired ... being old and wise.
3. What are your grounds for including Phil in the list of in-
terna1 applicants for the vacancy? 4. We'lllook forward ... seeing you again in Moscow.
4. I'm all in favour of people's going out and enjoying them- 5. I'm afraid 1 can't succeed ... being as sympathetic as you
selves as long as they don't disturb other people. have the right to expect. 1
.eJ

5. 1 am Iooking forward to seeing you tonight. 6. l've paid heavily ... being а traitor.
7. lfyou don't tell me what's wrong, what's the use ... ту Ье-
6. On receiving their letter he decided to make а donation to ing here?
help their campaign.
8. I thought you had just been Ьlaming me ... being neutral.
7. Diana resented this photograph being puЬlished without
her approval. 9. 1 suppose notl1ing is gained ... delaying.
8. She is very unpredictaЬle so there is no knowing Jюw she 10. In many countries of the Middle East husbands prevent
wШ react to the news. their wives ... taking а job outside tl1e home.
9. There is no point in giving 11im а false impression.

1
4. Replace the sentences with the subordinate clause~ Ьу the sen-
10. She smiled without showing her teet11.
tences with the Gerund.
11. She turned round on his entering the room. 1. Ann recalled that she had been taken to Paris when she
12. After а moment, everyone started talking again. was а child.
140
• 141
2. Не admitted that he had stolen the Ьicycle. 5. Visitors to Great Britain should remember (to look) right
3. They hate it when the same thing is repeated again and first before crossing the street.
again. 6. 1 regret (to inform) you that you have failed (to reach) the
4. 1 can't translate the text if 1 don't use а dictionary. required standard.
5. She is fond of when her friends take her out. 7. On the way back we stopped (to have) lunch at а small
cafe.
6. When 1 saw him in London I could hardly recognize him.
8. Moving to а foreign country means (to change) your way
7. After they had tested the tool it was sent to the exhibltion. of life.
8. Ann's husband couldn't buy а house because he went bank- 9. lt was getting already dark, but the boys went on (to play)
rupt. football.
9. Though the weather was nasty we decided not to stay in- 10. The teacher doesn't permit (to smoke) during the lessons.
doors.
1О. If 1 hadn't learned English when а student I wouldn't tra- 6. Write down 15 sentences aЬout your likes and dislikes using the
vel abroad. gerund in different functions.
11. They accused their friend of the fact that he was not the
man of his word.
Те st 2
12. Не is pleased that he is invited to the party.
1. Use the appropriate form of the gerunds of the verbs in brac-
13. Before she is sent а fax they usually send her а contract Ьу kets.
mail.
1. Не looked forward to (to meet) his parents.
14. What would people think of me because I Iet her go?
2. You can't get married in а crump1ed suit. lt needs (to press).
15. Though he hasn't seen her for а long time he doesn't miss 3. The manager didn't Ьlame me for not (to fulfill) the clau-
her.
ses of the contract but he insisted on (to know) the whole
truth.
5. Complete the sentences with the gerund 4Jr the infinitive of the 4. I'Il never forget (to arrive) in Venice Ьу ship the first
verbs in brackets, using the correct form of any pronouns that time.
are included.
5. There's а 1ot of advice in the.book on ЬаЬу care. Most of it
l. The nicest tlling about Richard is that he doesn't mind (to is worth (to take).
criticize).
6. The miQ.ister denied (to pass) on the secret information
2. It is useless (to try) (to convince) her that she doesn't to а newspaper.
need (to lose) any weight.
7. We are sure of the cargoes always (to arrive) on time. We
3. Since she moved from New York, she misses (to Ье аЬlе) are sure of the cargoes (to arrive) already.
(to see) all her friends there.
8. Не is used to (to treat) his parents with respect and they
4. I appreciate (you, to help) my mother while 1 was away. Jike (to treat) in that way.
142 143
9. 1 can't translate the text without (to use) а dictionary. а passport runs the risk ofbeing
19. Anyone travelling without
10. After the plants (to trim), the gardener watered them. arrested.
20. We can't have а meeting here without а taЬle and twenty
2. Underline the single gerund, the gerundial phrase or the gerun- chairs being fetched.
dial. construction and state its function.
1. The worst thing for her was being sent away from her fa- 3. Insert the appropriate preposition before the gerund where re-
mily. quired.
2. Working nine to nine seems to Ье tiresome. 1. I don't object ... being seen.
3. Their being together didn't bear thinking of. 2. She dreamed ... somelюw being аЬlе to help her step
mother.
4. Our teacher lшs а good idea of taking us to Paris in the
summer. 3. Не suspected her ... putting arsenic .into his lunch.
5. I ~an't ima~ine my husband's grumbling about clothes-he 4. She didn't coпnt ... Mike's turning пр.
doesn't care what he wears. 5. Не couJd apologize ... behaviпg so arrogant1y.
6. }:Ie can't understand l1er for поt telling him the tгuth. 6. She forgot ... washing herseJf.
7. The decision was made witlюut anybody asking him. 7. She woпld Ье more than сараЬlе ... filing tl1e papers.
8. Sid is sick of hearing about your sulks every time he comes 8. Joan was unused ... seeing her father so ill.
home.
9. Should 1 Ье justified ... taking advantage of your
г
positioп?
9. The computer programme was written for polishing one's ·10. Is he accustomed ... working lшrd?
English.
10. lt's no good Sid and Tom painting the fence together. 4. Replace tbe sentences with the subordinate clauses Ьу the sen-
11. She was looking forward to seeing the grandchildren again. tences with the Gerund.
12. In refusing to work abroad she missed ап excellent job op- l. TI1e wine is iп tl1e fridge-it jпst needs to Ье cooled for а
portunity. couple of minutes.
13. Are you accusing me of lyiпg? 2. Не now denies that he has ever spoken to the woman.
14 .. Going to Ca1ifornia feels like travelling to another age in а 3. 1 clearly remember that I posted tl1e letters.
time machine.
4. kquarter of workers admit that tl1ey take time off when
15. When you telephoпed Mr. Brown he wasjust on the point they are not Ш.
of leaviпg tJ1e office.
5. The ligl1t has gone out again because the electl"icity is out
16. Jt was по good your doing thiпgs Ьу .halves .. of order.
17. She kept eyeiпg Henry with iпterest. 6. TI1e text can't Ье read if it isn't seen.
18. She bowed her head without speaking. 7. The old lady tl1anked me tl1at I helped her across the street.
144 10-621 145
8. She complained that they were not strong enough to en- 6. Work out а questionnaire to test one's abllities, skiUs and know-
dure such trials. ledge, using the gerund (15 sentences).
9. Since I saw him when I was а little Ьоу he has never ap- e.g. Do you have any experience in working with people?
peared.
When you are angry, are you in the hablt of raising your voice?
10. Ellen always arrives in time as her husband gives her а Jift.
11. Buy а pair of sandals and don't wear high-heeled shoes in
summer. ТНЕ PARTICIPLE
12. If he hadn't taken the camera with him he wouldn't Ье en-
joying these pictures now. st 1
Те

13. We appreciate that they paid us on time. 1. Use the appropriate form of the Participle of the verbs in brac-
kets.
14. We agreed to invite the man although he was а total
stranger to us. 1. (То try) various topics of conversation ... 1 asked her to
.tell me who all the people at taЬle were.
15. After they had divorced their elder son married and Iived
on his own. 2. I stood for а moment at the window, (to look) at the gai-
ety of the day.
5. Complete the sentences with the gerund or the infinitive of the 3. (То irritate) Ьу the interruptions, the speaker refused to
verbs in brackets, using the correct form of any pronouns that continue.
are included. 4. Не was extremely tired, (to wake up) too early.
1. Whenever we met she avoided (to look) at me. 5. They heard а key (to turn) in а lock, and then, suddenly,
2. The ВВС suggested (to televise) the coronation, but the а Jight appeared; а trap-door was being opened (to let) in
Prime Minister said no. the light.
3. I'm sorry, 1 didn't mean (to hurt) your feeJings. 6. The socks (to lose) in the dryer were her favourites.
4. 1 can't say I enjoyed (to talk) to her at the party. She see- 7. l saw Philip (to look) at me with а curious smile.
med (to think) about something else. 8. His father, (to retire), lived in an unpretentious, but not
5. Не still hopes (to include) in tl1e university football team. mean, house.
6. Would you mind (to tell) me а Ьit about it? 9. (То show) the wrong direction, the travellers soon lost
7. Someone sto1e my stereo because I forgot (to 1ock) the their way.
door of my car. 10. While (to examine), the Ьоу couldn't l1elp crying.
8. I remember (to ride) а Ьicycle for the first time. 1 kept (to
fall) off the Ьike. 2. Underline the single participle, the participial phrase or the
9. Let's go on (to consider) the next item on the agenda. participial construction and state its function.
1О. It's а tricky proЬlem. 1 recommend (you to consult) an ех- · 1. The returning troops marched up Fifth Avenue.
pert. 2. Using а direct outside line, Mel dialled his home number.
146 147
10*
3. Being an actress, she was аЬlе to make h.er point. 2. Liza, when she was l!;'ft alone, Ьegan to turn things over in
4. We'll have supper sent up to the suite. her mind.
5. 1 watched the couples dancing around. 3. Though I felt sorry for him 1 could .not help laugh~ng.
6. Не was standing with his arms crossed and his eyes ftxed 4. 1 heard that the rain drops were pattering against the leaves.
on the ground. 5. 1 tried the handle, and found that the door was unlocked.
7. Не just kept walking, а cruel hammer beating against his 6. After 1 had left them 1 walked up and down the road out-
brain. side.
8. The game so much spoken about was finally lost. 7. Не hurried in to see his youngest son who was lying with
9. · From time to time their voices could Ье heard uplifted in pneumonia.
clamorous argument. 8. When the flowers witl1ered they were thrown away.
10. , Passing into the picture gallery, as it was still called, he 9. 1 suspected that he was badly wounded.
saw Irene standing nearby.
1О. They were still speaking of the game which they had lost.
11. The smaller ones were kept working for several hours. 11. As the weather was still cold and windy, she was wearing
12. Though being dead tired the monster moved on and on. а heavy winter coat.
13. Bosinney was looking round as if pointing out the peculi- 12. Denis rose to his feet. His arms were folded in his favourite
arities of the guests. Napoleonic pose.
14. Не stood looking down into the Ьох. 13. It could Ье considere.d that she was cured.
15. Left alone with her brother, Dinny said: "She is а won- 14. When she had closed and locked the suitcase she rang for
derful girl". the porter to соте and take it downstairs.
16. Asked how he was getting on the little chap Ьlushed and 15. As the Ьоу is your son you are responsiЬle for whatever
turned away. · he does.
17. Ralph sat at а taЬle covered with green cloth and littered
with papers, chatting. 4. State whether the ing-form is а participle, а gerund or а ver-
18. Не didn't wish it mentioned. bal noun.
1.. "1 don't remember hearing it before.'', she murmured.
19. At the same moment the carriage was heard rolling up the
gravel-walk. · 2. Later, in the solitude of his room, he heard the hesitating
20. Generally speaking, this novel is not very interesting. patter of rain on the roof.
3. Because of the skating she began to ·Ье easier as she wal-
ked.
3. Replace the sentences with the subordinate clauses Ьу the sen-
tences with the Participle. 4. 1 mustn't keep you standing .here for another instant.
1. When she was going upstairs she woke the woman who Ii..: 5. Then there was а rattling of plates and cups.
ved on the floor above her. 6. The world is а fine place and worth fighting for.
148 149
7. 1 think he just takes advantage of you Ьeing so soft. 6. 1 did as (to r~quest).
8. Sunshine came spilling upon us. 7. lt was about ten o'clock at night; I had been dining Ьу
9. Only t~ gentle ticking of the grandfather clock broke the myself at а restaurant and (to return) to my small apart-
silence. ment, was sitting in my parlour (to read).
10. She heard the engine drawing out from the station. 8. Не decided to speak to her in the train (to come) home.
9. Му eyes (to Ье) very heavy, 1 lay down and slept.
5. Insert the appropriate conjunction where required. · l О .. (to wound) badly the lad could not explain anything.
1. She kept inclining her head ... listening to something.
2. The house ... finished was fresh and gay. 2. Underline the single participle, the participial phrase or the
3. ... listening to his instructions, 1 tried to see what was be- participial construction and state its function.
hind the chair. 1. Rex assured her that the Ьlind man was quite peaceful if left
4. They were all staring at me as though ready to smile or Ьу himself.
laugh ... given а chance. 2. Не sat straight in his bed with his feet tucked under him.
5. Nobody spoke ... spoken to. 3. Being short-sighted, she wears contact lenses.
6. ... waiting for the water to boil, he held his face over the 4. lt was а small oil painting representing а pale pink house
stove. standing adjacent to а canal.
7. This was said ... thinking aloud. 5. Не drove slowly, enjoying the quiet of the evening.
8. The Ьоу stood motionless ... deadly frightened. 6. Не watched Robert pacing up and down, writing at his
9. Often ... boasting of his deceits, he sounded childlike and desk or speaking.
innocent. 7. The gate had been kept unlocked for her.
10. ... told the news, he turned pale. 8. Не jumped when addressed suddenly Ьу someone entering
фе room.

Test 2 9. Не cast а swift glance over his shoulder as if debating the


practicaЬility of а dive into the traffic.
1. Use the appropriate form of the Participle of the verbs in brac-
kets. 10. After this they strolled back to the brook, ~nd found things
1. Не peered at her, (to Ьlink). being prepared for luncheon.
2. (to finish) his toilet he wrapped himself in а thick overcoat 11. I had that door painted only last week.
and wound а muffier round his neck. 12. Though embarrassed, he knew what to say.
3. She didn't return with us, (to ask) · to а supper party. 13. ln the house, the Iamp lighted, Saxon looked at the coin.
4. The medicine (to prescribe) Ьу the doctor was Ьitter .. 14. Не perceived а struggle going on within her.
5. (to ask) to sit down he laid his hat and stick оп the taЬle. 15. Frieda was heard talking on the phone.
150 151
16. I did not dare to enter, thinking Imight become а diffe- 13. The poor lad was badly wounded when he served with the
rent man. British Army in France.
17. Given more time and opportunity, he might become а dif- 14. As he was not seen through the door, he thought himself
ferent man. out of danger.
18. Not being allowed. to play .wiф the children, he took to 15. After the Prime Minister had lost the election, he resigned.
reading.
19. Judging Ьу appearances, he looked like а mан worn Ьу the 4. State whether the ing-form is а gerund, а participle or а ver-
cares of а trouЬled life. bal noun.
20. Не understood that the effect of his words was terrifying. 1. Not wearing my spectacles, I cou1dn't read the address.
2. They understood each other without saying а single word.
3. Replace the .sentences with the subordinate clauses Ьу the sen-
tences with the Participle. 3. It's а true saying, that а man must eat а peck of salt witl1
his friend, before he knows him.
1. When I look at you I always remember how you appeared
here some montl1s before. 4. After а while I stopped reading and turned off the light.
2. Не was а Ьit of а coward and did not dare to pass Ьу the 5. At that moment there was а knocking at the door and she
barking dog. was oЬliged to rise without answering him.
3. А girl secretary came in and glanced curiously from one to 6. The train, coming in а minute later, the two brothers par-
the other. ted and entered their respective compartments.
4. At last the clerk who was ta1king to the porter turned my 7. 1 do not like you going out at ten o'clock at night to а club.
side. 8. Не was interrupted Ьу the ringing of the telephone.
5. She could see that he was tremЬling. 9. I love bathing. Is the bathing safe in the Ьау?
6. Не felt as if he were suddenly left Ьу аН his friends. 10. This being done, they set off with light hearts.
7. I found that she was still occupied with those thoughts.
8. Denny lit а cigarette and his fingers were shaking so violent- 81 5. Insert the appropriate conjunction where required.
ly l1e could barely hold the match. 1. I did ... requested.
9. After sl1e had gone l1e got to thinking the matter over. 2. ... travelling 1 have now and then watched the sunrise.
10. Again there was а silence which was broken only Ьу the 3. Не was accustomed to pointing to this potter pony as an
drumming of the rain upon the tin roof. example of what horses become ... never spoken to in any
11. Не went to the studio at ten; his coat collar was turned but gentle voice.
up and his hat was pulled low over his ears. 4. She tumed away ... not interested in what they were saying.
12. Now that the moment had come he found it difficult to 5. I won't say а word ... promised not to Ье puпished.
speak.
6. Her spirit, ... crushed, was not brokeп.
152
153
7. Не was stЩ on his guard, ... waiting for а further question Section four: TRANSLATION
from me.
8. ... at 1ast 1eft a1one, he switched off the light and went out
through the kitchen door.
9. Не c1eared his throat а few times ... trying to find words.
ТНЕ INFINITIVE
10. ... ta1king, he kept looking at the curtain.
1. Она решила поступать в педагогический университет.
2. Женщинам нравится, когда ими восхищаются.
3. Я был счастлив слушать тебя.
4. Извините, что я не проинформировал вас об этом заранее.
5. Он рад, что ему помогли.

6. Кажется, они путешествуют около года.


7. Он любил много читать.
8. Он еще маленький, он любит, когда ему читают.
9. Кажется, он прочитал все книги в этой библиотеке.
10. Кажется, он сейчас читает сказку.
11. Он говорит, что он любил, когда ему читали вслух.
12. Говорят, что он читал этот журнал целый месяц.
13. Ссориться - бесполезно.
14. Они приехали в этот городок, чтобы осмотреть достопри-
мечательности.

15. Его мечтой было стать пианистом.

16. Глуnо, что он женился на Анне в 18 лет.


17. Он выразил желание помочь ей.
18. Она, должно быть, забыла об обещании.
19. Петр хотел, чтобы ему сказали nравду.
20. Я думаю, это не тема для обсуждения.
21. Он пришел, чтобы задать этот вопрос.
22. Чтобы овладеть иностранным языком, вы должны рабо­
тать систематически.

155
23. Я советую вам прочитать эти правила еще несколько раз 49. Я не слышал, как открылась дверь.
для того, чтобы понять их лучше. .
50. Олег был единственным, кто осознавал опасность.
24. Он знает французский достаточно хорошо для того, что-
51. Твои родители, должно быть, путешествуют сейчас.
бы перевести этот документ.
52. Говорят, он пишет книги.
25. Он не знает, что делать.
53. Говорили, что он пишет картину.
26. Я могу вам сказать, гДе купить эту книгу.
54. Я рада, что занималась танцами.
27. Они спросили меня, где достать билеты на концерт.
55. Она хотела, чтобы его новая книга была посвящена ей.
28. Николай хотел, чтобы нас пригласили на выставку.
56. Катерине было трудно уважительно относиться к род-
29. Где ты хочешь, чтобы мы тебя подождали? ственникам мужа, но она пыталась справиться с этим.
30. Мы ожИдаем, что соглашение скоро подпишут. 57. Пусть они останутся при своем мнении.
31. Никто не оЖИдал, что это произойдет. 58. На вершине этой горы всегда (есть) тучи.
32. Катя nриказала упаковать вещи. 59. Она не сможет удобно усесться в этом кресле-качалке.
33. Кажется, он обдумывает какую-то проблему. 60. Кажется, что он дремлет, не так ли?
34. Они, по-видимому, очень хорошо поняли это правило. 61. Мне кажется, что перекричать ее - невозможно!
35. Доктор, казалось, был доволен результатом работы. 62. В ее задачу входил уход за пенсионерами.
36. Этот дом, кажется, был построен в XVIII веке. 63. Я видела, как Петр оглядывался по сторонам.
37. Вероятно, они уже получили наше письмо. 64. Его родители хотят, чтобы он стал хорошо образован­
ным человеком.
38. Вряд ли (маловероятно, что) они придут к с_оглашению.
39. Господин Петров, вероятно, будет назначен директором 65. Единственное, что мы должны сделать сейчас, - это
вызвать врача.
этой фабрики.

40. Катя, по-видимому, потеряла адрес Ани. 66. Кажется, она знает все о простуде.

41. Сегодня слишком холодно, чтобы купаться. 67. Я лучше умру, чем приму их приглашение на свадьбу.

42. Она говорила громко, как будто nривлекая наше внимание. 68. Выбора для меня не было. Ничего не оставалось, кроме
как согласиться с директором.'
43. До озера идти· недалеко.
69.. Очень мило с вашей стороны, что вы вызвали «скорую
44. Я не сомневался, что они заставили Катю прийти рано. ПОМОЩЬ>>.

45. Она спросила, сможет ли брат помочь ей отремонтиро- 70. Вот инструкции, которые вы должны выполнять.
вать машину.
71. В обязанности Анны входило измерение температуры
46. Ничего не оставалось делать, как уставиться в окно. больных пациентов.
47. Посетителей просят не кормить животных. 72. Вам бы лучше снова лечь в постель.
48. Ольга слишком хороша, чтобы быть стеснительной. 73. Казалось, он абстрагировался от того, что происходило.

156 157
Катя совершила ошибку, посвятив свою жизнь мужу.
74.
75.
76.
Я бьш слишком напуган, чтобы двигаться.

Каnитан обязан последним покидать корабль.


11 98. Петр открыл рот, чтобы доктор осмотрел горло.
99. Не каждый врач может определить заболевание (бо­
лезнь) правильно.

77. Должно быть, выбрали эту фотографию. 100. Говорят, у Кати бессонница уже 2 месяца.

78. У нее нет привы•Iки лгать. 101. Ему много на что можно пожаловаться. У него все болит.

79. Забыть прошлое казалось невозможным. 102. Она не очень старалась, чтобы бь1стрее nоnравиться.
80. Я не должен работать по воскресеньям. 103. Вы должны поставить горчичники на грудь и спину.
81. Он имел обыкновение встречать ее после работы. 104. На этот вопрос трудно ответить.

82. Мы начали понимать, что все было напрасно. 105. Она остановилась nокурить.

83. Тебе следует nринимать выписанные таблетки три раза в 106. Плохо, что ты не пил горячий чай с медом и малино­
день после еды. вым вареньем. Теnерь могут быть серьезные осложнения.

84. Она притворилась, что у нее болит горло. ,'


107. Почему бы не nринять это лекарство от головной боли?
\.
85. (Глазам) больно смотреть на солнце. 108. Он не тот доктор, которому можно доверять.
86. У тебя заболит голова, если ты будешь слушать такую 109. Мне трудно поверить тебе.
музыку.
110. О том, чтобы сделать глубокий вдох, не могло быть и
87. Пойти г;у:лять без головного убора в такую погоду - это речи.
значит простудиться.
.1 111. Вам следует остерегаться ангины, она сказывается на
88. Она ведь дожила до 80 лет? сердце.

89. Почему они должны бьши жить в таких плохих условиях? 112. Этой пациентке сложно угодить.
90. Анна вернулась домой за кошельком. 113. Постепенно они перестали ссориться.
91. Говорят, что эти события неправдоnодобны. 114. Я сожалел, что пригласил сестру на вечер.
92. Кажется, ее му•шет зубная боль. 115. Оказалось, что они всегда опаздывали.
93. Он был слишком стар, чтобы заботиться о себе. 116. Дождь был слишком сильный, чтобы организовать пик­
94. Она достаточно сильная, чтобы справиться с этой про- ник.

блемой.
117. Ей ничего не оставалось, ~ак бранить своего мужа.
95. Я думаю, что лучше проконсультироваться у врача, не- 118. В этот момент они как раз играли в шахматы.
жели вычитывать лечение в сnравочнике.
119. Говорят, что с ней обедал ее близкий друг.
96. Бьшо известно, что Аня родилась в маленьком провин-
циальном городке. 120. Конечно, я собрался навестить Аню, но ...

97. С медицинской точки зрения, полезно. вести здоровый 121. Я велел им взять мой багаж.
образ жизни. 122. Казалось, Катя <<Сидела» на диете целый год!

158 159
123. Я не могу так не думать! 150. Ему следовало побольше читать.
124. Обстоятельства слишком серьезны, чтобы их не учиты- 151. Погода, кажется, улучшается.
вать.
152. Ему жаль, что он подвел вас.
125. Сама мысль об этом причиняла мне страдания.
153. Она рада, что поговорила с вами.
126. Бьmо приятно опять вести машину.·
154. Она была рада поговорить с вами.
127. Он считал невозможным покинуть этот городок.
155. Он намереналея почистить костюм на прошлой неделе,
128. У меня жена и ребенок, о которых я должен заботиться. но ...
129. Законы бьmщ созданы не для того, чтобы их нарушать. 156. Передают, что фирма сейчас ведет переговоры с Гер-
манией.
130. Глаза у него были достаточно зоркие, чтобы заботиться
о своей выгоде. 157. Они, должно быть, все еще живут на даче.
131. Он был так слаб, что не мог работать. 158. Мне нечего скрывать.
132. Я считаю, что у нее нет совести. 159. Он даже не предложил мне сесть.
133. Я никогда не видела, чтобы он терял самообладание. 160. Ей наверняка понравится это пальто.
134. Видели, как он заказывал номер. 161. Хорошо, что Петровы навестили нас.
135. Она приказала, чтобы экипаж бьm готов. 162. Я предпочитаю, чтобы меня не впутывали в такого рода
деятельность.
136. Я не могу допустить, чтобы вы так говорили.
137. Мы рассчитываем, что вы придете вовремя. 163. Я верю, что письма пишут регулярно.
138. Было слышно, как она весело смеется. 164. В этот час они, похоже, гуляют в парке.

139. Полагают, что церковь была построена в XVI веке. 165. Кажется, им все уже объяснили.

140. Около 11 часов доктор случайно заглянул к ней в ком- 166. Вряд ли, чтобы они смогли там спрятаться.
нату. 167. Она случайно проходила мимо.
141. Выяснить это должен бьm он. 168. Сказали, что Катю увезли в больницу.
142. Полагали, что родители подарили Ане новую машину. 169. Его нигде не. было видно.
143. Все ждали, когда она запоет. 170. Она заставила меня замолчать.
144. Он, возможно, влюбился. 171. Ты случайно не знаешь, где здесь (можно) измерить
давление?
145. Она должна бьmа быть прооперирована вчера.
146. Я удивлен, что меня узнали.
172. Почему бы не последовать предписаниям вашего док­
тора?
147. Мне жаль, что я принес такие плохие новости.
173. Я чувствовал, что это- правда.
148. Казалось, она вязала свитер вечность.
174. Он поступил в университет для того, чтобы выучить
149. Ему следует побольше читать. французский.

160 161
11 -ы1
175. Он был рад тому, что наконец-;то поправился. 203. Это, кажется, слишком хорошо, чтобы быть правдой.
176. Она проснулась и услышала шум дождя. 204. Мы собрались, чтобы обсудить наши планы.
177. Прийти сюда означало увидеть все своими глазами. 205. Первое, что мы должны решить, это что брать с собой.
178. Его считали честным человеком. 206. Мы составили список вещей, которые надо было взять
с собой.
179. Я предпочел остаться дома.
207. Джордж предложил яичницу с беконом, которую было
180. Она боялась идти по таким темным улицам.
легко приготовить.
181. Я думаю, что она скорее захочет, чтобы вы остались.
208. Мне нравится, когда у рассказа есть начало, середина
182. Ему нечего было сказать. и конец.

183. Отец заставил сына остаться в комнате до вечера. 209. Капитан приказал, чтобы пассажирам показали их ка-
184. Ему всегда удавалось разрешать проблемы. юты.

185. Его глаза, казалось, проникали в вашу душу. 210. Он готов помогать всем.

186. Предполагалось, что я начну говорить о деньгах. 211. Нельзя было пропускать такой праздник.

187. Сдается дом. 212. Они молча ждали, когда подадут их обед.

188. Ей следовало прийти и рассказать обо всем раньше. 213. Говорят, любовь слепа.

189. Кажется, ничего не происходит, не так ли? 214. Это утверждение кажется ошибочным.

190. Сожалею, что напомнил тебе об Анне. 215. Временами он чувствовал, как на него накатываются
приступы ужасного головокружения.
191. Он говорит, что даже слышать об этом не может.
216. Пойди и посмотри, не оставила ли ты что-нибудь.
192. Кажется, мне нечего добавить.
217. Покидая купе, она оглянулась и увидела, что оставила
193. Чтобы я вышла за него замуж? Никогда! на сиденье пакет (сверток).
194. Он очень хотел быстрее поправиться. 218. После его третьего урока я ушел и больше не вернулся.
195. Вы случайно не знаете, где здесь nочта? 219. Отказаться было трудно. Но с какой стати соглашатьсн
196. Почему бы не отправиться пуТешествовать (в путеше- делать это?
ствие)? 220. Прощупывать человека по поводу его намерений ему
197. Я буду благодарен тебе, если ты отдашь мне мое письмо. было особенно неприятно.

198. Она решила сделать уборку, чтобы чем-то себя занять. 221. Не годится презирать Форсайта, не годится пренебре­
·гать им!
199. Я надеялся, что застану его дома, но увы ...
222. Я думаю, вы были бы рады покончить с такой долгой
200. Видели, как он гулял с собакой. работой.
201. Продолжать эту дискуссию- значит терять время. 223. Бьmо известно, что Филипп Босинни был молодой че­
202. Мне жаль, что я заняла у вас столько времени. ловек без всякого состояния.

162 163
11*
224. Это была бы неплохая мысль - взять ее с собой вчера. 249. Это все, что я могу ожидать.
225. Кажется, ее брат копит деньги на новую машину. 250. К сожалению, я недостаr.рчно сильна, чтобы сделать это.
226. Кажется, она очень разборчивая. 251. Что заставиЛо его сказать такую гадость?
227. Я, кажется, не могу припомнить ее. 252. Опасно распоряжаться жизнью других людей.
228. Маловероятно, что он будет рисковать. 253. Говорят, что эта ошибка неисправима.
229. Ему дали понять, что его поведение не было хорошим. 254. Он уехал в Испанию и остался там навсегда.
230. Сообщается, что шторм перемещается на юг. 255. Это безумие- бросать хорошую надежную работу ради
231. Полагают, что они досконально знают эту проблему. не известности.

232. Мои новые соседи оказались очень приятными людьми. 256. Я пришел попросить у вас совета.

233. Маловероятно, что она покупает готовую одежду. 257. Однажды поздно вечером, когда я подумывал, что уже
достаточно поработал в тот день, я услышал, .как зазво­
234. У меня случайно не оказалось с собой денег.
нил колокольчик у входа.
235. Казалось, что картина не в его вкусе.
258. Как может человек советовать другому, как поступать?
236. Его трудно ошеломить.
259. Это наглость, так разговаривать с ним.
237. Они были слишком ленивы даже для того, чтобы как
260. Для них бьmо важно собраться (взять себЯ 8 руки).
следует почистить картофель.
261. Мальчика следует отослать домой, чтобы другие дети не
238. Старушка поехала к дочери на дачу и через день умерла
заразились.
там.
262. Маловероятно, что он может вот так выйти из себя.
239. Он потерял уверенность и так и 'не обрел ее заново.
263. Этот довод наверняка немного поколеблет его уверен­
240. Мнесие Хауэлс ума не могла приложить, что делать.
ность.
241. Я продолжаю интересоваться им ради старой дружбы.
264. Это все, что можно сказать об этой книге.
242. Том остался дома от греха подальше.
265. Она поехала в адвокатскую контору, чтобы оформить
243. Разве не странно было то, что он· помнил этот эпизод завещание.
всю свою жизнь?
266. Когда картофель был почищен, они начали готовить
244. Очень важно, чтобы они следили за текущими события­ ирландское рагу.
ми.
267. Она вела себя так, словно пыталась завоевать всеобщее
245. Фрэнку очень хотелось, чтобы девушка пришла опять. восхищение.

246. Это был не тот случай, чтобы обсуждать его с подрост­ 268. Она приняла решение, словно ее неожиданно осенило,
ком. как сделать это.

247. Она считала, что следует рассказать мисс Каролине о 269. Тебе ничего не будет стоить отдать это мне.
незнакомце.
270. Кто он такой, чтобы разговаривать со мной подобным
248. Я полагаю, что неправильно иметь зуб против них. образом?

164 165
271. Артур проснулся и увидел, что он в незнакомой комнате. 290. За исключением работы, меня ничто не связывало с ним.
272. Если ты действительно подозреваешь его, почему бы 291. Поэты и художники часто черпают силы в природе для
прямо не сказать ему об этом и не покончить с этим? создания шедевров.

273. Бертон совершенно не знал, куда ему обратиться за по­ 292. Он достаточно хорошо видел, что миссис Хауэлз была
мощью. не виновата.

274. Он всегда сожалел, когда ему приходилось вмешивать­ 293. Они наверняка воспользуются моим отсутствием.
ся в разговор других людей.
294. Согласно карте им предстояло пройти еще семь миль.
275. Хорошенько подумав, я решила, что необходимо пре­
295. Какая ночь для прогулки!
дупредить ее.
296. Какой день, чтобы съездить за город!
276. Вряд ли можно ожидать, что такая девушка как Гвен­
долен будетжить в деревне. 297. Это урок, который следует вынести из изу'-{ения исто­
рии.
277. Я считаю, что будет справедливо сказать тебе правду.
298. Сообщалось, что противник понес большие потери в
278. Он не из тех студентов, которые пропускают занятия живой силе.
без всякой причины.
299. Ученые полагают, что этот эффект является результа­
279. Ты ошибаешься, если думаешь, что Фрида могла бы том экспериментальной ошибки.
интересоваться рыбалкой.
300: Бьшо обнаружено, что эта теория не согласовывалась с
280. Мистер Коллинз случайно был там и видел аварию. практикой.
281. Ты, должно быть, выжил из ума, если полагаешь, что 301. Ньютон применил три закона движения для объясне­
я совершу такую глупость.
ния движения Луны вокруг Земли и движения планет
282. Он не из тех, кто наслаждается работой в саду. вокруг Солнца.

283. Я никогда не видел, чтобы она плакала в присутствии 302. Ты случайно не помнишь, кто последний ушел из ла­
других людей. боратории?

284. Ребенка наказывали несколько раз, но наказание, ка- 303. Его огромным желанием бьшо пересечь Атлантику на
жется, не приносит никаких результатов. шлюпке.

285. Говорят, что Майкл сделал Сильвии предложение. 304. Его друзья пытались отговорить его от этого.

286. Какое это имеет отношение ко мне? 305. Чем больше он знал, тем больше он жаждал знать.

287. Откровенно говоря, я не очень высокого мнения об 306: Говорят, что это лека~;>ство очень эффективно.
этом писателе. 307. Ожидается, что Боб Вилкот сегодня вечером выступит
288. Ей разрешили сидеть в кровати несколько часов в день, на телевидении.

но чаще всего она не могла воспользоваться этим раз­ 308. Сообщалось, что самолет потерпел крушение при nо­
решением. садке.

289. У тебя не х1щтило приличия хотя бы послать мне от­ 309. Ты слышал, что председатель призвал всех присутствую­
крытку, что ты не приедешь. щих поддержать это предложение?

166 167
310. Он подвинулся, чтобы я села. THEGERUND
311. Он вышел из воды и опять упал в реку.
1. Она была разочарована, не застав его дома.
312. Я всегда колебался давать советы.
2. Он любит, когда его приглашают в гости.
313. Не могу представить лучшего места для отдыха.
3. Эти сумки нужно просушить.
314. Он никогда не видел более интересного собеседника. 4. Он упомянул о том, что уже читал об этом.
315. Это было время, когда его гениальность еще не была 5. Получив ответ, он обрадовался.
признана.
6. Анна настаивала на том, чтобы нам сообщили о дне от-
316. Ну, старина, по правде говоря, мне это ничуть не нра-
правки.
вится!
7. Петр извинился, что заставил нас ждать.
317. Бесполезно пытаться убедить ее простить его.
8. Его речь еще отнюдь не закончена.
318. На волынке очень трудно играть.
9. Оля отрицала тот факт, что была в этом заведении.
319. Вы вольны попытаться еще раз.
1О. Я думаю, что мне помогут.
320. Когда наступает ноябрь, дни становятся короче.
11. Каковы ваши возражения по поводу того, что он здесь
321. В зале суда мы узнали, что дело Эрна будет слушаться присутствует?
одним из первых.
12. Мы настаивали, чтобы контракт был подписан немед­
322. Мы попытались встать, но ноги отказывались держать ленно.
нас.
13. Олег говорит мне о том, что Петрова посылают в коман-
323. От его замечания она покраснела до кончиков ушей. дировку.

324. Он бы остановился, чтобы поговорить с тобой, если бы 14. Я знаю о том, что он послал вам посылку.
узнал тебя.
15. Комнату нужно убрать.
325. Я отказываюсь верить, что он мог бы обмануть меня. 16. Нет смысла плакать над разлитым молоком.
326. Они, должно быть, изменили расписание. Поезд обыч- 17. Я ничего не знаю о том, что Катя уезжает.
но отправлялся раньше.
18. Аня призналась, что получала от него письма.
327. Мы счастливы работать под его руководством.
19. Она была признательна, что ее взяли с собой в путеше­
328. Им повезло, что их учил такой хороший учитель. ствие.

329. Я хочу взять свои слова обратно. Я сожалею, что обо- 20. Я не мог не волноваться, когда получил телеграмму от
звал тебя.
жены.

330. Слушать Элтона Джона - истинное наслаждение. 21 . Извините, что не позвонил вам вчера.

331. За этим столом очень удобно работать. 22. Он гордится тем, что получил этот приз.

332. Давай пока не пойдем домой. 23. Я не возражаю против того, что ты должен навещать

333. Она чувствовала, что ее туфли жмут. своих близких.

168 169
24. Я ненавижу смотреть телевизор. 50. Она разорвала письмо на мелкие кусочки, не читая его.

25. Она не любила, когда за ней наблюдают. 51. Не хочется ли тебе испечь пирог?
26. Я помню, что погода тогда была теплая. 52. Он продолжал кричать на нее.

27. Все были удивлены, что/когда он ушел с собрания. 53. Наконец-то дождь прекратился.
28. Он упомянул, что был дважды женат. 54. Я за то, чтобы пойти в ночной клуб.
29. Он не возражал против того, что секретарь должен ухо- 55. Неожиданно она рассмеялась.
дить раньше.
56. Его единственным желанием бьшо уйти как можно скорее.
30. Я помню, что нужно отnравить письмо.
57. Я бьш погружен в чтение писем.
31. Продолжайте петь.
58. Она сидела в кресле не шевелясь.
32. Переходите к пересказу текста.
59. Я молчал, несмотря на то, что у меня было много воп­
33. Представь, что мы должны уйти из дома в такую погоду! росов.

34. Заучивать правила без примеров - бесполезно. У нее было чувство, будто ее преследуют.
60.
35. Несмотря на занятость, он пришел на день рождения.
61. Не вини себя за то, что ты такой рассеянный.
36. Нет смысла беспокоиться о вещах, которые не можем
62. Катя с нетерпением ждала прихода гостей.
изменить.
63. Танцы еще не начались.
37. Он должен был провести три дня дома прежде чем он
отправится на дачу. 64. Бесполезно прятать голову под крьшо.

38. Она вышла из комнаты, не замечая Гостей. 65. Никто не мог пройти так, чтобы его не заметили.

39. Лучшее средство от такой головной боли - лечь в по- 66. Ему было стыдно, что он проявил раздражение.

стель. 67. Я не помню, чтобы когда-нибудь слышал эту легенду.


40. От него не избавиться сейчас. 68. Она не любила ни читать вслух, ни слушать чтение.

41. Вязание может помочь тебе успокоиться. 69. Надеюсь, вы простите меня за то, что я вас побеспокоил.
42. Я боялся, что мне зададут такие сложные вопросы. 70. Я начал представяять себе, как меня найдут мертвым в
43. Аня против того, чтобы мы пошли в кино. гостинице.

44. Она не могла спать, потому что боялась грозы. 71. Мы не могли отложить осмотр дома.

45. Когда он смотрел фильм, он вспомнил название статьи. 72. Доктор продолжал приходить и осматривать пациента.

46. Она сказала, что муж может продолжить ремонтировать 73. Я не мог не проголодаться.
машину.
74. Его обвиняют в том, что он имел дело с преступным
47. Она не привыкла жить без удобств. миром.

48. Услышав новости, она разрьщалась. 75. Мне хочется поговорить.

49. Мама подозревала, что мы оставили зонт в трамвае. 1 76. Вы можете рассчитывать на то, что я все улажу.

170 171
77. Ему не иравилась мысль, что Генри будет его пресле· 102. Они привы.Iqiи засиживаться допоздна.
довать.
103. Петр иреуспевал в рисовании.
78. Вы уверены, что эти слова относятся к моей сестре? 104. Все хвалят ее за хорошую учебу.
79. Он был в негодовании, потому что сын его ослушался. 105. У него бьш страх перед одиночеством.
80. Я чувствовала себя не в состоянии говорить с родствен,.. 106. Давай рискнем пойти на концерт вместе!
никами.
107. Его идея возразить мистеру Брауну рассмешила меня.
81. Не забудьте закрыть окно.
108. Он был горд, что к нему обратились с просьбой.
82. Я помню, что был в этом книжном магазине.
109. Бьшо в нем что-то такое, что не делало его скучным.
83. Не забудьте купить такой сЛоварь.
11 О. Вопреки себе я не мог не солгать ей.
84. Он оглянулся, усцышав ее шаги.
111. Петровы поблагодарили нас за то, что мы их подвезли.
85. Она напугала отца тем, что расплакалась.
112. Спасибо, что напомнили нам о такси.
86. У него нет права входить в комнату без приглашения.
113. Елена не любила, когда e!f прерывали.
87. Я чувствовал себя лучше, потому что долго прожил за
границей. 114. Учитель возражает, чтобы детям подсказывали.

88. Не было видно, что сейф трогали: 115. Я думаю, должна быть причинадля ее возвращения до-
мой.
89. Я поблагодарил их за то, что они были 11унктуальными.
116. Страх перед опозданием раздражал его.
90. Его оштрафовали, потому что он был пьян.
117. Как насчет того, чтобы купить обои?
91. Он никогда не nереставал жаловаться.
118. От своего имени я благодарю вас за то, что вы встрети-
92. Я возражала против его частных звонков.
ли делегацию.

93. Работая днем и ночью, он преуспел в том, что закон­


119. День провели в хождении по магазинам.
чил работу вовремя.
120. Они начали встречаться.
94. Что-то мне не хочется писать доклад. Как насчет того,
чтобы пойти поrулять? 121. Я был удивлен, что мои родители позволили мне эту
поездку.
95. Она увлекается чтением сентиментальных историй.
122. Нервный срыв у него уже не предотвратить.
96. Сердце перестало биться.
123. Ты не будешь возражать, если мы запишемся к другому
97. Он привык принимать холодный душ. стоматологу?
98. Она никогда не помогала ему по рисованию. 124. Доктор настаивает на том, что тебе нужно воздержать­
99. Идея пожениться показалась ему странной. ся от алкогольных напитков.

100. Она упрекала его за то, что над ним всегда смеются. 125. Медсестра преуспела в том, что улыбалась больным: это
1О 1. К сожалению, она не может позволить себе поехать за­ срабатывало лучше любого укола.
границу. 126. Дышите глубоко. Я думаю, вам нельзя откладывать рентген.

172 173
127.
128.
129.
О том, чтобы взять больничный, не может быть и речи.
Она боялась заболеть скарлатиной.
Доктор совершил ошибку, поставив диагноз: туберкулез.
:-
!.1
150.

151.
Разумно с вашей стороны предотвратить его участие в
этом матче.

Завоевать кубок в этом соревновании - его главное же­


лание.
130. Анна никогда не простит мужу, что она жила на хлебе

131.
и воде целый месяц.

Петр жаловался, что сестра действует ему на нервы.


;11 152.
153.
Не припомню, что видел игру лучше этой.
Аня не могла терпеть, когда он внезапно прекращал
разговор.
132. Она настаивала (упорствовала) на том, чтобы надеть
154. Он не мог не сдержать свое обещание.
свое лучшее платье по такому случаю.
155. Такая музыка сводит ее с ума.
133. План заключался в том, чтобы перевернуть все вверх
156. У нее привычка засовывать руки в карманы.
дном в квартире.

157. Она одобрила мои действия кивком головы.


134. Выброси из головы идею подшутить над ними!
158. Ее привычка бить посуду во время ссор утомляла его.
135. Теперь многое будет зависеть от того, будет ли она ре-
гулярно питаться и соблюдать диету. 159. У него был план разорить нашу семью.

136. Он сознался, что не привык получать подарки. 160. Она мастерски носила свободную одежду.

137. Это мама обвинила наших соседей в ограблении гаража. 161. Подписав документ, он потер руки от удовольствия.

138. Он никогда не согласится, чтобы его посадили рядом с 162. Нет ничего плохого в том, что она часто кривит рот. -
девчонкой в классе. Неужели?

139. Я протянул руку Анне, чтобы она не упала. 163. Я уверен, она помогла ему совершить самоубийство.
140. Мальчик жаЛуется, что его постоянно наказывают. 164. Эту выставку стоит посмотреть, не так ли?
141. Ей удалось привыкнуть к такой жизни. 165. Игра в карты - ero любимое времяпрепровождение.
142. Она отрицала, что была многим обязана ему. 166. Он выразил удивление, пожав плечами.
143. Она не проявила никаких признаков удивления. 167. Он не помнил, приклеил ли он марку на открытку.
144. Подсказывать на занятиях - бесполезно. 168. Были ли у вас трудности в разрешении этой проблемы?
145. Тебе не стыдно, что ты ждешь, когда тебе подскажут? 169. Он подумывал о том, чтобы выступить в ее защиту.
170~ Он получил «отлично» по страноведению без предва­
146. Ему нравится заниматься фехтованием.
рительной подготовки дома.
147. Без сомнений, Петров помог команде выиграть со сче-
171. Я ненавижу правожать друзей.
том 4:3.
172. Я предпочитаю, чтобы меня провожали.
148. Ее удивление по поводу того, что Олег установил ре-
корд, было шокирующим. 173. Она гордится тем, что много путешествовала.

149. Фанатам удалось избежать ссоры, так как игра закончи- 174. Необходимость лететь в командировку была очевидна.
лась вничью.
175. Восторг от входа в гавань был неописуем.

174 175
176. Морская болезнь помешала ей путешествовать морем. 203. Под его влиянием она начала писать эссе и короткие
рассказы.
177. Я был против того, чтобы заказывать билеты заранее.

178. Его родителей раздражало то, что он был домосед.


204. Он почувствовал надежду, увидев, что ты вернулся до­
мой.
179. Кто обычно возражает против путешествий самолетом?
205. Английская грамматика очень трудна, и немногим пи­
180. Кроме того, что он умен, он очень трудолюбив. сателям удалось избежать ошибок.
181. Вместо того, чтобы попросить носильщика помочь, он 206. Я больше не мог думать о том, чтобы покинуть ее.
нес вещи сам.
207. Роджер продолжал говорить энергично и воодушевлен­
182. Стоит ли покупать билеты в день отправления?
но.

183. Заказав билеты по телефону, она перестала нервничать. 208. Если это то, о чем ты намерен просить меня, то пере­
184. Она не любит стоять в очереди. стань попусту тратить время.

185. Мы настаивали на том, чтобы ящики были немедленно 209. Для меня было загадкой не то, что Браун продолжи­
увезены на склад. тельно настаивал на личной беседе со мной, но то, что
он вдруг прекратил свои попытки.
186. Они не рассчитывали на мое присутствие.
210. Она не была высокомерной, хотя и любила порисоваться.
187. Она упрекала себя за то, что заблудилась и опоздала.
188. Продолжайте помогать ей и не примекайте внимание.
211. Мы сделаем все возможное, если вы не против немно­
го подождать.
189. Он ненавидит, когда его прерывают.
212. Он сказал мне, что отложит поездку в Америку.
190. Практикуйте долгие прогулки перед сном.
213. Я по-прежнему не мог вспомнить, встречал ли я ее ког­
191. Я нахожу странным то, что его будут оперировать. да-нибудь или что-либо связанное с ней.
192. Не вини себя за то, что ты не смог нам помочь. 214. Что за девушка, подумал он, и продолжил читать газету.
193. Представь, как он удивится, увидев меня. 215. Я начал изучать немецкий, но так и не продвинулсJI
194. Все, что его интересует, - это видеть ее счастливой. дальше чтения коротких текстов.

195. Было неизвестно, что она хочет. 216. Они терпеть не могут, когда их так грубо обманывают.

196. Она не могла вынести унижение. 217. Я знал, что он не мог вынести, когда о нем говорили.

197. Ты должен извиниться за столь поздний приход. 218. Я помню, что онемел от счастья, что Бог свел нас.
198. Он поблагодарил нас за то, что его развлекали. 219. Им было трудно найти подходящую одежду.

199. Было ясно, что он говорил, не думая, как обычно. 220. Ты еще долго будешь делать это?
200. Он выразил удовольствие от того, что его пригласили 221. Он подумывал о том, чтобы бросить это.
на обед. 222. Неожиданно она расхохоталась, а вслед за ней и другие.
201. Я устал делать одно и то же каждый день. 223. Когда он подошел к воротам парка, его чуть-чуть не
202. У него был такой вид, словно он вот-вот заснет. сбил большой автомобиль.

176 12-021 177


224. Я помню, что в детстве слышал, как мои тетушки го- 247. Изучение языка начинаеТся со вслушивания в новые
ворили, что великие люди равнодушны к лести. звуки.

225. Я высоко ценю то, что вы ветупились за меня. 248. Я не хочу огорчать ее, говоря, что вы вели себя как не­
226. Ее возмутило то, что его пригласили. годяй.

227. Я, не колеблясь, рассказал ей: между нами не бьшо се- 249. Прежде чем ответить, он долго ждал.
кретов.
250. Несколько мальчиков три дня не ходили в школу, пос­
228. Что она имела в виду, так хвастаясь? ле того как побегали по игровой площадке босиком.
229. Вот что получается~ когда бегаешь за девочками. 251. Приехав в коттедж, она обнаружила, что он закрыт.

230. Как-то после обеда, когда я рассчитывал поработать 252. После восемнадцатилетнего отсутствия он вряд ли мо­
еще часок-другой, зазвонил телефон. . жет ожидать, что мы жаждем его видеть.

231. Давайте приступим к подписанию документов. 253. Кроме того, что я узнал кое-что о человеческой nриро­
232. Я гордился тем, что сделал свое жилище красивым· и де, моя учеба в медицинском колледже дала мне эле­
удобным. ментарные научные знания и научный подход.

233. Он рисковал, разговаривая с ними таким тоном. 254. Не проходило ни одного дня, чтобы тот молодой чело-
век не приходил поесть хотя бы раз.
234. Я колебался, nозвонить или нет Роджеру.
235. Она пожаловалась, что каша комками. 255. Я надеюсь, они не уехали, не встретившись с вами.

236. Она подозревала своего мужа в том, что он пытается 256. Бессмысленно пользоваться человеческими слабостями.
обмануть ее? 257. Я признаю, что даверялея этому человеку.

237. Вы не сомневались в естественностц ее смерти. 258. Оставшись один, он начал думать о своем временном
238. Именно недостаток воображения мешает людям смот­ успехе и закончил тем, что признал, что был неправ.
реть на вещи по-другому. 259. Он никогда не может сказать ничего без того, чтобы не
239. Она посвятила годы своей жизни заботе о нем. вызвать чьего-либо негодования.

240. С какой стати мне тратить время на обсуждение того, 260. Не отрицайте, что проявили мало героизма, когда про­
что неизбежно? изошла катастрофа.
241. С достоинством он поблагодарил меня за то, что я раз­ 261. Не говоря ничего Кристине, Эндрю начал подыскивать
влекал его. подходящее место для медицинского кабинета.
242. Я сказал что-то о том, что Джоан влюблена в него, но 262. На нем бьш старый костюм, и он давно не стригся.
он не хотел говорить о ней.
263. Я полагаю, вы огорчены тем, что Кейт покидает нас.
243. Я нескладно пробормотал, что мне жаль.
264. Ему нравится общаться с детьми, и ему нравИтся быть
244. Он с горечью укорял меня за то, что ему не дали знать. счастливым.
245. Исказив факты, вы нанесли большой вред. 265. Я ничего не мог сделать по поводу того, что у Иры не
246. Я говорил, не думая, и позже со:Жа.лел об этом. было денег.

178 12* . 179


266. Это было бы безумием, это означало отказ от всего 285. Она выглядела разочарованной, и мы заподозрили его
того, что он уважал.
в том, что он сообщил ей плохую новость.
267. Дом был старый и ветхий, ему не был нужен. ремонт, 286. Этот факт стоит запомнить.
его надо было сносить. ·
287. Не стоит обсуждать эту проблему в его отсутствие.
268. Это всколыхнуло ее злость к отцу, который отдалился,
стал чужим.
288. Я помню, что как-то обыграл его в шахматы.

269. Я думаю, что это смеШно (нелепо), что он женится та- 289. Это дело нужно прояснить.
ким молоДым. 290. Он воспринял новость спокойно, не поднимая шума по
270. Я заработал эти деньги тем, что ассистировал, что при­ этому поводу.

сутствовал там. 291. Против него было выдвинуто обвинение в убийстве


271. Суизин был несколько огорчен тем, что его останови­ миссис Бейкер, вдовы сорока пяти лет.
ли тогда, когда он собирался сказать неqто важное. 292. Отец не одобрял то, что я отвергла это предложение.
272. Беда его была в том, что он не мог контролировать свои 293. Он умел говорить с женщинами.
мысли и чувства.
294. Прежде чем принять окончательное решение, наJЮ о
273. Это слабая отговорка за ничегонеделанье. многом подумать.
274. Приехав в аэропорт, в первую очередь он пошел в ка­ 295. Нельзя не сказать, что старость - самая малоприятная
меру хранения. ·
пора жизни.
275. Просматривая документы, он случайно натолкнулся на
296. Бабушка, ты не могла бы мне сказать, как тебе удалось
очень интересную фотографию.
сохранить любовь и уважение дедушки за долгие годы
276. Проходя мимо их дома, я заметил, что все окна были вашей семейной жизни?
темные.
297. Я смогла сделать э:rо очень просто - делая все то, что
277. То, что он смог обойтись без нее, удивило всех. иравилось ему, и молча перенося все то, что не нрави­

278. Врач настоял на том, чтобы она отложила поездку. лось мне.

279. Прежде чем начать действовать, вы бы лучше навели 298. Вы можете положиться на то, что он уладит дело.
справки.
299. Не беспокойся по поводу того, что это лекарство может
280. В этот раз он не удивился, встретив своего друга. причинить какой-либо вред.
281. Я только что имел удовольствие быть nредставленным 300. Билл почувствовал отвращение от ее вульгарности.
вашей сестре.
301. Я боялся, qто они· передумают, но к счастью этого не
282. Вы так сильно изменились, что его можно простить за случилось.
то, что он не узнал вас.
302. Только подумай - Руфь обманывает меня! Я не знал,
283. Американка выглядела цветущей, несмотря на то, что что она способна лгать.
не спала всю ночь.
303. Только представь, что она такая храбрая! Да она про­
284. Дети были раздосадованы, когда им велели уйти. сто герой!

180 181
304. Незнание правил грамматики ведет к множеству ошибок. 323. Мне всегда трудно заnомнить даты, они nросто не дер­
жатся у меня в nамяти.
305. Выступление перед такой большой аудиторией очень.
нервировало его. 324. Мы все обсуждали значение личных качеств nри. выбо­
ре nрофессии.
306. Отсутствие проrресса означает регресс. Это нельзя отри-
цать. 325. Вряд ли вы можете ожидать, что они мечтали бы о том,
что их единственная дочь выЙдет замуж за такого чело­
307. Люди будут сплетничать. Этому нельзя помешать.
века.
308. Эту воду нужно фильтровать.
326. Он безнадежен, и я отказалась от попыток переделать
309. Я уверен, вы не пожалеете, что купили этот дом, хотя его.
его надо красить и ремонтировать.
327. Боюсь, что мне nридется отказаться от удовольствия
310. Этот агент расскажет вам о плюсах. и минусах построй­ nообедать с тобой сегодня.
ки собственного дома.
328. Анна наnисала свое имя, но когда она писала, она осоз­
311. Директор не разрешает бегать по коридорам. нала, чtо за ней наблюдает какой-то незнакомец.
312. Тони ничего не может сделать, если ему не скажут, по 329. Он был уверен, что нет способа наверняка обнаружить
крайней мере, дважды.
его.

313. Я не помню, чтобы я доставал бумажник из сумки, но 330. Ей не нравилось, что Герберт будет контактировать с
я, должно быть, сделал это, когда остановился купИть множеством грубых мальчишек в местной школе граф­
бензин.
ства.
314. Я надеюсь, ты не забъm позвонить в ·автомастерскую, 331. Вечером, когда он садился в кресло, она обычно вста­
потому что машина нуждается в обслуживании. вала на колени и стаскивала с него тяЖелЬrе ботинки,
315. Ты не мог бы перестать на минуту стучать по машинке? nрежде чем подать ему шлепанцы.
Мне надо сосредоточиться на этом письме.
332. В тот вечер он вошел, не помахав ей весело рукой.
316. Сейчас очень популярны диетьl.
333. Несмотря на бедность, Кристина и Эндрю зюi.nИ, что
317. Одной из моих целей в этом году является контролиро­ такое счастье;
вание своих чувств.
334. Я признаю, что нет ничего необычного в том, что он
318. С какой стати он без приглашения приходит и мешает держит меня на расстоянии.
тебе?

319. Я никогда не поверю, что ты хочешь взять на себя бре­


мя ухода за ним. ТНЕ ·PдRTICIPLE
320. Я смотрел на нее какое-то время, прежде чем осмелил-.
ся открыть рот. 1. Все смотрели на танцующую пару.

321. Я бы никогда не подумал, что чистить картофель такое 2. Все, кто живет (живущие) в этом общежитии, - сtуденты.
трудное дело. 3. Будьте осторожны, переходя улицу.

322. Не смущайся и nозови меня, если я тебе нужен. 4. Чувствуя себя лучще, он решил поужинать.

182 183
5. Услышав звуки музыки, мы перестали разговаривать.
31. Медленно повернувшись, они вышли из зала.
6. На почте было много людей, отправляющих посылки.
32. Так как мы не завели будильник, мы проспали.
7. Она всегда ела вареные яйца на завтрак.
33. Я сльiшал, что дверь открывается.
8. Пальто, купленное в прошлом году, коротко мне сейчас.
34. Будучи преследуемой незнакомцем, она не знала, что
9. Все, написанное на этом бланке, правильно. делать.

1О. Прочитайте переведенное предложение еще раз. 35. Выучив поэму, она решила передохнуть.
11. Будучи ребенком, он был очень капризным .. 36. Когда ему задавали вопросы, он разозлился.
12. Поставив машину в гараж, он вспомнил о ключах. 37. Выписав лекарства, доктор ушел.

13. Шум дождя, стучавшего по крыше, раздражал меня. 38. Выписанное доктором лекарство бьuю горьким.
14. Она посмотрела на имя, написанное детским почерком. 39. · Будучи очень усталым, я пошел прямо домой.

15. Так как он был не в состоянии читать, он просил сестру 40. Рассказы, помещаемые в этом журнале, стоит читать.
об этом. 41. Она лежала на диване, читая книгу.
16. Оставшись одни, мы замолчали. 42. Я не мог достать материал, рекомендованный преподава­
17. Разостлав платок на коленях, он начал кушать. телем.

18. Так как мне уже сообщили об этом, я не очень удиви- 43. Будучи рассеянным, он сделал несколько ошибок, пере­
лась, когда пришла Маша. писывая рассказ.

19. Услышав шаги, он вышел на лестницу. 44. Он тихо закрыл дверь, не желая будить ребенка.

20. Когда он писал письма, он не любил, чтобы ему мешали. 45. Не зная, как перевести это предложение, я попросил
студента, сидящего рядом со мной, помочь мне.
21. Написав письмо, она расплакалась.
46. Словари, взятые в библиотеке, должны быть возвращены
22. Он принес разбитый стакан.
не позднее 5 часов.
23. Его интересовала линия, которую прокладывали недале­
47. Разгружая товары, рабочие натолкнулись на несколько
ко о.т дома.
мешков, попорченных морской водой.
24. Даже жена, знавшая его привычки, была удивлена его
приходом.
48. Он стоял у окна, думая о своем прошлом.
49. Мой друг сидел на диване и курил сигарету.
25. Картина, висевшая на стене, шокировала меня.
50. Я обнаружил вещи нераспакованными.
26. Схватив чернила и бумагу, она начала писать.
51. я хотел почистить пальто (в химчистке).
27. Я собираюсь починить машину (в масtерской).
52. Повернув· за угол, я увидел прекрасное строение.
28. Приехав в этот город, мы растерялись.
53. Проработав в этой области много лет, он знал все очень
29. Судя по внешности, он был шофером.
хорошо.
30. Книгу, потерянную моей сестрой, нашли.
54. Она не сказала ни слова, ее переполияла чувство доверия.

184
185
55. Они и в самом деле были друзьями, так как вместе учи- 79. Рассказав все, что он знал, свидетель ушел.·.
лись в школе. 80. Когда ему задали прямой вопрос, он очень быстро рас­
56. Схватив все свои вещи, она побежала из квартиры. сказал все.

57. Забор, окружающий сад, был недавно покрашен. 81. Она бьша разбита после смерти мужа. ' ~

58. Из комнаты вышли две девушки, прибиравшие комнату. 82. Он вошел в комнату в сопровождении слуги.

59. Он смотрел на летящий самолет. 83. Она не могла сказать ни слова, шокированная его nред·
ложением.
60. Идя домой, я встретил соседа.
84. Это была пожилая женщ»на в очках.
61. Разбитая чашка лежала на ковре.
85. Он лежал в постели, куря сигарету.
62. Ответ, написанный карандашом, считался ошибкой.
86. Она даже не взглянула на убитого мужчину.
63. Мальчик, бросающий камни, громко смеялся. 1 J
87. Парал»зованная от страха, она не знала, кудс;t пойти,
64. Мои дети, бросавшие камни в реку, ушли домой.
88. Я наблюдал, как регистрируют багаж.
65. Камни, бросаемые с берега, идут ко дну.
89. Ее нашли лежащей в саду.
66. Посмотри: камни, бросаемые этим мальчиком, падают
дальше всех.
90. Если ты хочешь, чтобы все бьшо хорошо сдел~но. C.llt•
лай это сам.
67. Он выглядит обеспокоенным и отчасти потерянным.
91. Когда у человека болят зубы, он идет к стоматсщоrу по ..
68. Я ни в ком не бьш так разочарован, как в мистере Брауне.
ставить пломбу.
69. Ее слова не звучали убедительно. 92. Вы должны сделать анализ крови.
70. Это, должно быть, бьто очень больно видеть, что твой 93. На следующий день мне доставили билет в rocтi1HИL&)',
дом занят посторонними.
где я остановился.

71. Вы хотите, чтобы вам билеты доставили домой? 94. Книги, заказываемые здесь, обычно пересылаю-n:я no
72. Она неожиданно покинула меня, будто желая прервать почте. '1

разговор. 95. Книги, заказанные в прошлом месяце, еще не цриwли.


73. Он ненавидел всех этих людей на вокзале, будучи од­ 96. Заказав книги, мы отправились домой.
нажды ОДН}'IМ ИЗ НИХ.
97. Человек, заказавш»й книги, был незнакомцем.
74. Не зная, г.nе живет мистер Браун, она решила узнать его
98. После того как книги хранились в течение 10 дней·В чи­
адрес.
тальном зале, »х вернули в фонд.
75. Несмотря на то, что мы отправились в поход очень по-
99. Я надеюсь, что предлагаемые заключения основываю·r­
здно, мы пришли в назначенное место вовремя.
ся на последних находках.
76. Честно говоря, новости были тревожные. 100. Известно, что язык, на котором говорили эти племена,
77. Осознав, что он любит Анну, мистер Браун испугался. был германским.
78. Он засомне~ался на секунду, не зная, что сказать. 1О 1. Я бросился в кусты вслед за полицейским.

186 187
102. Она вошла в холл в сопровождении собачки. 124. Не зная языка и не имея друзей в этом городе, ему
103. Строго говоря, доктор был не прав. было трудно найти работу.

104. Будучи усталым, он решил лечь спать. 125. Не сдав Экзамен дважды, он решил Перестать учиться.

105. Так как он устал, я решил не тревожить его. 126. Будучи предупрежденной о бандитах, она оставила все
ценности дома.
106. Когда конференция закончил ась, участники поехали на
экскурсию. 127. Том, напуганный тем, что сделал, ничего не мог сказать.
107. Когда их работа была закончена, секретари ушли. 128. Принимая это лекарство, следуйте инструкции.
108. Так как в комнате никого не было, он решил подождать. 129. Я хочу, чтобы эта работа была сделана быстро.
109. Я часто слышу, как обсуждают его манеры. 130. Приехав в наш город, он сообшил нам плохие новости.
110. Исследуемое вешество сначала взвешивается. 131. Я слышал, что упоминали твое имя.
111. Вешество, полученное таким образом, было чистым. 132. · Не будите спящую собаку.
112. Учителя, приглашаемые в наш колледж, - выпускни­ 133. Женщина, отправлявшая посылку, ушла.
ки педагогического университета.
134. Меня оставили ожидать во дворе.
113. Статья, на которую ссылаютсЯ, кажется, была написа­ После того как письмо было написано, я спрятал его в
на в XIX веке. кармане.

114. После того как пациента трижды обследовали, ему раз­ Не заставляйте меня ждать вас.
решили принимать лекарство дома.
Он очень доволен моей работой.
115. Без подогрева такие nирожки невкусные.
Это была плохо спланированная квартира.
116. Так как мои коллеги отсутствовали, мне пришлось са­
мому принять решение.
Странно, но ты выглядишь обеспокоенным.

117. Если погода позволит, астроном продолжит свои на- У больного была сломана рука.
блюдения. Разговаривая по-английски, обращайте внимание на
порядок слов.
118. Когда дается сигнал, ракета сразу взлетает.
119. Мы продолжали работу, а наши лаборанты помогали нам. Назовите места, которые вы посетили в прошлом году.

120. Этот вопрос довольно сложен, поскольку относится к Так как день был воскресный, они пошли в церковь.
истории языка. Так как на столе больше нечего было есть, он сказал,
121. Поскольку статья была напечатанавнебольшом журна­ что не голоден:
ле, она оставалась неизвестной. Когда концерт был закончен, началась лотерея.
122. Он следил за тем, как постепенно повышалась темпе­ Когда все приготовпения были сделаны, он спустился
ратура.
вниз.

123. Понимая, что у него было недостаточно денег, но не же­ Он слышал, что (как) они возвращались по песчаной
лая занимать деньги у отца, он решил «заложитЬ>> часы. дорожке, а их голоса звенели в тишине.

188 189
148. Они продолжили свой путь, причем ма11ьчик потихонь­ 170. Девушка с «круrами» под глазами бьmа серьезно больна.
ку всхлипывал.
171. Почему ты любишь гулят~ без головного убора?
149. Она стояла молча, плотно сжав губы. 172. Прожив много лет в xopoшJ-tx условиях, он не мог при­
150. Андрей последовал за отцом, а его сердце сильно би .. выкнуть к изменениям в его жизни.

лось.
173. Я думаю, новичкам интересно узнать о традициях, ко­
151. Девушка шла по улице, а слезы текли по ее щекам. торые соблюдаются в нашем клубе.

152. Если время позволит, мы пойдем в музей. 174. Будучи пораженными его поведением, мы не могли
сказать ни слова.
153. Не зная адреса, я не мог послать ей письмо.

154. Получив единогласную поддержку, проект был одоб­


175. Переходя улицу, смотрите сначала налево, затем на­
право.
рен.

155. Я считаю его самым лучшим из ныне здравствующих


176. Наша квартира, выходящая окнами на восток, очень
светлая.
поэтов.

156. Я видел, как фотографировали этот памятник.


177. Сидя на траве в парке, мы любовались красотой пейзажа.
157. Он сделал ремонт квартиры.
178. Я видел, как (что) она наблюдала за утками, плаваю­
щими в пруду.
158. Мне отремонтируют машину в следующем месяце.
179. Как красив этот район, обсаженный деревьями.
159. Так как ситуация была благоприятной, они купили эти
акции.
180. Нам почти никогда не удается навещать родственников,
живущих за городом.
160. Женщина, уставившалея на меня, была странно одета.
181. В конце концов нам разрешили наблюдать за оперирую­
161. Оглядываясь по сторонам, он споткнулся. щим хирургом.

162. Она сидела, положив локти на стол. 182. Перевернув все вверх дном, они устроили полный бес­
163. Не желая признать это, она, конечно, влюбилась в Пи­ nорядок.
тера.
183. Согласившись помочь брату, я должен буду встать завт­
164. Выбрав профессию учителя, она разочаровалась в ней ра раньше обычного.
позднее.
184. Он смотрел на праздничный стол,потирая руки от удо­
165. Творческие люди склонны к бессоннице. вольствия.

166. Когда он был на родительском собрании, он не мог не 185. Имеются ли факты, доказывающие вину мистера Том­
сердиться. сона?

167. Я хочу, чтобы его как следует побили. 186. Я видела, как 01::1 неподвижно сидел за столом.
168. Ведя себя по-другому, он чувствовал угрызения совести. 187. Будучи приглашеиным к нам в гости, он вскоре почув­
ствовал себя как дома.
169. СтЭJJ мастером нового стиля, он приобрел множество
клиентов. 188. Держась за ветку, он забрался еще выше.

190 191

189. Когда урок подходил к концу, все шумели. 209. В случае проигрыша игра могла бы стоить ему целого
состояния.
190. Я знаю многих, кто увлекается театром.

191. Когда мы идем в турпоход, мы всегда берем с собой су-


210. Они сделали, как их инструктировали.

хофрукты. 211. Когда у него брали интервью, ученый отказался ком­


ментировать последнее открытие.
192. Масло, которое хранится в холодилью1ке, всегда свежее.

193. Ожидаемый ответ пришел на следующий день.


212. Когда строительство будет завершено, в новом здании
будут размещены все основные лаборатории.
194. Выбрось разбитые тарелки. Я не люблю держать в доме
213. Они провели ряд экспериментов, используя самые со­
разбитые вещи.
временные методы и оборудование.
195. Упущенное время никогда не вернуть. 214. Особо следует отметить интенсивные исследования, про­
196. Лиха беда начало. водимые сейчас в биохимии.
197. Легче сказать, чем сделать. 215. Зная вредное влияние лучей, они предприняли особые
меры предосторожности.
198. Когда температура достигла 100 градусов, вода начала
кипеть. 216. Растения, выращиваемые в темноте, всегда бесцветны,
так как хлорофилл становится зеленым только на свету.
199. Сборка машин производится здесь, а многие детали до­
ставляются с других заводов. 217. Так как дело было неотложным, они вынуждены были
пересмотреть первоначальный план.
200. Так как нога причиняла ему боль, он не смог продол­
жить свою поездку. 218. Фло продолжала улыбаться, она была особенно очаро­
вательна благодаря своему доброму нраву.
201. Так как вода плотнее воздуха, скорость звука меньше.
219. Так как температура на улице была 10 градусов ниже
202. Так как обстоятельства были подходящими, Джек ре­
нуля, в доме было необычно холодно.
шил принять предложенную ему работу.
220. Когда задача была выполнена, им дали трехдневный от­
203. ..
Так как это был у него уже второй сердечный приступ
в этом месяце, все считали, что ситуация очень серьезна.
пуск .
221. Приняв все во внимание, мне есть за что быть благо-
204. Они вынуждены были двигаться очень медленно, пото­
дарным.
му что дорога для них была незнакома.
222. Она слышала, как дождь бил по стеклу.
205. Так как от этой болезни не бьшо лекарства, врачи ни­
чего не могли для него сделать. 223. Моника провела вечер, обзванивая друзей.

206. Нельзя бьшо терять ни минуты, так как корабль быстро 224. У них был огород, сна'бжавший их овощами летом.
шел ко дну. 225. Столкнувшись с серьезными трудностями, я мог рас­
считывать на твою поддержку и понимание.
207. Они решили переехать в другой город, так как там кли­
мат был лучше. 226. Наша дружба очень долгая.
208. Перед путешественниками возвышалась гряда гор, по­ 227. Студентам, изучающим иностранный язык, следует чи­
крытых льдом. тать оригинальную литературу.

192 193
13-621
228. Эмма пришла на вечеринку, ХО'FЯ всё еще отказываясь 247. Когда на ней это белое платье, она выглядит еще обая­
танцевать. тельнее обычного.
229. С гор налетел ветер. 248. Когда завтрак был заказан, он начал просматривать
свой немецкий разговорник.
230. Так как море было неспокойно, я не пошла купаться в
тот день. 249. Джером и Гаррис чистили картошку, а Джордж давал
советы.
231. Адриан наблюдал, как Никки готовила его любимый
салат. 250. Когда картофель был почищен, они начали готовить ту­
шеную баранину с луком (по-ирландски).
232. Майкл проколол ухо, чтобы досадить родителям.
251. Так как было уже поздно проплывать Рединг, мы реши­
233. Может пройти несколько дней или даже недель, преж­
ли вернуться.
де чем починят твой телефон.
252. Так как в разговорнике ничего, кроме глупых диалогов,
234. Как, черт возьми, ты смог починить свою машину так
не было, он был ему бесполезен.
дешево?
253. Увидев, что чайник кипит, Моиморенеи зарычал и
235. Полиция сделала отметку в его водительском удостове- убежал. •
рении за неосторожное вождение.
254. Так как у Гаррриса болела голова, он был против того,
236. Пожалуйста, проверьте шины и залейте в бак бензин. чтобы Джордж играл на банджо.
237. Смотри, чтобы ты не прищемил дверью пальцы. 255. Брызгающий и кипящий чайник всегда вызывал его
238. С серьезным видом собака удалилась, появившись не­ любопытство. ·
сколько минут спустя, неся в зубах мертвую водяную 256. Если он решался подраться, Монморенси, как nрави­
крысу. ло, не колебался.

239. Оказавшись в Далласе, он остановился в гостинице «Bull>>. 257. Обещание мало что стоит, если оно не выполняется.

240. Мы были довольны комнатами, предоставленными нам 258. Он обычно рычал и быстро отступал с поджатым хво­
в этой гостинице. стом.

241. Будучи оставлен один, Монморенси, бывало, гонялея 259. Когда дождь прекратился, они вылезли из палатки.
за кошками. 260. Так как никто не возражал, Джордж начал играть на
242. Когда его звали, он, как правило, появлялся тотчас же. своем банджо.
261. Джордж играл на своем банджо, а его друзья слушали
243. Это была очень старая сельская гостиница, очень
музыку в тишине.
скромно обставленная.
262. Он не ответил, чувствуя, что находится в крайне слож­
244. Не зная как следует немецкий, он не мог заказать зав­
ном положении.
трак.
263. На расстоянии пятидесяти ярдов стоял хорошенький ма­
245. Я снова перечитал доклад, делая пометки.
ленький коттедж с огородом, который тянулся до леса.
246. Сев за один из маленьких столиков, мы позвали офи­ 264. Она оказалась в жалкой на вид кухоньке, освещенной
цианта.
небольшой лампой.

194 195
13*
265. Собака, обойдя вокруг трех маленьких цветочных 281. Я потянулся за стаканом, протянутым мне.
клумб, тоже села перед старым Джолионом.
282. Когда он красил калитку, он пел старую песню, време­
266. Она позвонила Хэлен, рассказав ей, что Чарльз был нами останавливаясь, чтобы полюбоваться на свою ра­
расстроен. боту.
267. Она крадучись поднялась по лестнице, держа в руках 283. <<Я не уверен, что понимаю, к чему вы клоните», - с
котенка. обиженным выражением сказал он.
268. Заметив, что они уже не одни, он отвернулся и начал 284. Она встала и сказав мне следовать за ней, пошла даль­
рассматривать люстру.
ше, смеясь и болтая.
269. Окна гостиной открывзлись на балкон, выходящий к 285. Он покачал головой и потом с яростью закричал: «Я не
саду.
позволю, чтобы Карла обижали!>>
270. У нее были маленькие дети, о которых ей надо было за­
286. Когда ему надоедали, он шел в свою комнату и зали­
ботиться.
ралея там.
271. Они ушли, взявшись за руки, при этом маленькая Хол­
ли оглядывалась через плечо.
287. Она просто ужасна, когда ее злят. •
288. Она, наконец, вошла, раскрасневшаяся, красивая, на­
272. Он оставил жену сидящей на диване в гостиной, руки
хмуренная.
у нее были скрещены на коленях, и своим видом она
ясно показывала, что ждет, когда он выйдет. 289. Он был крупный мужчина, шатен, с редкими жидки­
ми волосами.·
273. Он быстро шел, склонив голову, не глядя по сторонам
(ни вправо, ни влево). 290. Проходя мимо театра комедии, я случайно по.смотреп
274. Ребенок сидел не мигая, глядя на Маргарет. вверх и увидел облака, освещенные заходящим солнцем.

275. Я пошел на пляж искупаться, а мой дядя, у которого 29 J. Видели, что Дуглас все еще мило улыбался, не.смотрн
были какие-то дела в городе, прошел часть пути со на возрастающий гнев. · ·
мной. 292. '
Минуту назад видели, что он был занят оживленной
'
276. Мы были поражены акробатами, которые балансирова­ беседой.
ли, стоя друг на друге.
293. Он, не отрываясь, смотрел на меня до тех пор, IJOKI 11
277. Мне стало страшно, когда укротитель засунул руки в не закончил говорить. '
пасть льва.
294. Дым рассеялся, и у подножья горы показался лаr,ер•.
278. Дети были разочарованы, когда их не пригласили пока­
295. Я уверен, что эту информацию надо обнародоват.~~.
таться на слонах.
296. Но я слышал, что тебя постоянно вИдЯт пьяиым во IТО•
279. Он огляделся в заполненном людьми кафе и направил­
рой половине дня.
ся к столику, на котором стояла табличка <<Столик за­
казан». 297. Приехав в этот небольшой дом, она обнаруЖИ!118, ..то
280. Она отказалась встретиться с ним по уже известным он заперт и в нем никого нет.

причинам. 298. Ты никогда не угадаешь, где мне сшили костюм.

196 197
299. Это все уже в прошлом - все закончилось, всему ко­ 317. Как раз тогда, когда я дошел до конца коридора, я ус­
нец. Я не хочу, чтобы это ворошили. лышал, что опять звонит телефон.
300. Видели, как она стояла, скрестив руки, курила и отре- 318. Мне не нравится, что ты едешь назад одна.
шенно смотрела вперед.
319. Я не хотел, чтобы на репетицию приглашали посторон-
301. Когда выбор был сделан, она подбежала к нему. них.

302. Странно возбужденный, он слушал, как они шептались. 320. Я чувствовал, как у меня в голове бешено стучит пульс.
303. Они сидели на упавшем дереве, которое представляло 321. Я слышал, как колотили (ломали) мебель.
собой удобное сидение.
322. Я видел, как они бегом поднимались по лестнице в
304. Можно бьmо видеть, как над деревней поднимался ды-. крайнем возбуждении.
мок.
323. Я вознамерился выйти, но Роджер, нахмурившись, от-
305. Она почувствовала, что ничего не видит из-за слез, и рицательно покачал головой. •
отвела глаза, чтобы скрыть свои чувства.
324. Зная, что он не мог пойти к Эллис, он попытался по­
306. Ты что, собираешься провести свою жизнь, говоря звонить ей.
<<следует>>, как остальные наши моралисты?
325. Видя, что им неловко, миссис Эйп смягчилась и улыб­
307. Человек был обнаружен лежащим ниц на полу (распро­ нулась.

стертым на полу).
326. Живя за границей, ты пропустил все эти волнующие
308. Было слышно, как старушка пронзительно кричала с моменты.

короткими перерывами, ее вопли походили на звук си­


327. Он спускалея по лестнице, держась за перила.
рены корабля, заблудившегося в тумане.
328. Присоединившись к нашей группе, Диана горела жела­
309. Когда дверь закрылась, Майкл и я остались одни и нием действовать.
смотрели друг на друга.
329. Часто, когда он лохвалялся своими мошенническими про­
310. Я почувствовал, что меня поймали на хвастовстве. делками, голос у него был совсем детский и невинный.
311. Примерно в то время сообщили, что ураган двигался в 330. Ей не хватало смелости полностью отказаться от косме-
нашем направлении (по направлению к нам). тички, когда она куда-нибудь ходила с Кейтом.
312. В один из августовских дней я увидел кое-что, что меня 331. Он слушал, как бы размышляя про себя о чем-то.
удивило и заставило задуматься.
332. Она замолчала, словно ожидая, что он заговорит.
313. Он посмотрел на Джейн, которая ути.рала залитое сле­
зами лицо.
333. Будучи человеком необразованным, хотя и чрезвычай­
но сообразительным, он мало ценил книжные знания.
314. Я воображала, как я сижу у его кровати и ухаживаю за
334. Он всегда останавливался, если шел ночью в сырую
ним.
погоду, и принюхивался, и наслаждался этим скунсо­
315. Бесцельно сидя за столом, он попыхивал сигарой и на­ вым запахом.
блюдал за клубами голубого дыма.
335. Поэтому, приняв все во внимание, я решила порвать
316. Приехав, он застал меня за чтением «Тома Джонса>>. статью.

198 199
КЕУ Task 3.
l. She is too lazy to Ье а good worker (an adverblal modifier of
result).
Section three: Tests 2. The burglar seemed to Ье breaking into the house when the
police arrived ( The Subjective Jnfinitive Construction, The bur-
ТНЕ INFINIТIVE glar - the subject, to Ье breaking - part of а compound verbal
predicate of dQиЬle orientation).
Те st 1 3. There were plenty of papers for him to read, but he Jeft them
Task 1. alone. (The- For-to-Jnfinitive Construction,function- an at-
1. 1eave. tribute).
2. arrive. 4. She understood what he must Ье going through (part of а
compound verbal modal predicate), and she wanted desperate-
3. express.
ly to help him (an object).
4. go out.
5. lf you think it necessary to make ( an object) changes, you
5. to make the thing work. must choose (part of а compound verbal modal predicate), the
6. return. right moment to make (an attribute) them.
7. do; to do. 6. Jane felt herself grow red to the tips of her toes (The Objec-
tive-with-the-Jnfinitive Construction,function- the Complex
8. allow; to do.
Object) ..
9. to р1ау.
7. lt takes time to Iook фrough all these price lists ( The Subject
10. to соте; to turn. with the introductory lt).
8. The Chairman's suggestion is to set up an МВА programme
Task 2. in Russia (part of а compound nominal predicate).
1. Ье made. 9. I intended to tly back to Finland tlшt Monday morning (an
2. to have disturbed. object).
3. to have been skating. 10. Her good resolutions began to crumЬle with the light of the
following day (part of а compound verbal aspect predicate).
4. to have finished.
11. Nobody can guess (part of а compound verbal modal predi-
5. to Ье invited.
cate) what he decided to do (ап object).
6. to return.
12. Carol declined Bill's proposal to become his wife, I suppose?
7. to consider; Ье accepted. ( an attribute).
8. to Ье having. 13. Mike offered to repair my computer, but I refused (an object).
9. to have been having. 14. There was no home for him to go to (The- For-to-Jnfinitive
1О. Ье repairing. Construction,junction- an attribute).

200 201
15. Не seemed to have been running - he was out of breath 14. Who was the last person to fiпd the youпg тап alive?
( Тhе Subjective lпfiпitive Coпstructioп, he - the subject, to have 15. We were lucky to Ье travelliпg Ьу air.
been running - part of а сотроипd verbal predicate of douhle ·
orieпtatioп).

16. They made the children stay out of fire (The Objective-with- Те st 2
the-lпfiпitive Coпstructioп,fuпctioп- the Сотрlех Object). Task 1.
17. Не drank а lot of coffee so as not to fall as1eep ( ап adverblal 1. come.
тodifier ofpurpose).
2. (to) sit up.
18. In 1969 the American astronaut Neil Armstrong became the 3. meet.
first man to walk on the moon (ап attribute).
4. supply.
19. It's extremely difficult to diagnose the disease in the early
stages (The Subject with the iпtroductory Jt). 5. agree.
20. The children are likely to stay with the father after the di- 6. stay; go out.
vorce ( The Subjective lnfiпitive Coпstructioп, the children - 7. buy.
the subject, to stay - part of а сотроипd verbal predicate of 8. cry.
douhle orieпtatioп).
9. lay.
Task 4. 10. to Ье cold.
1. Не preferred те to say nothing about it at present. Task 2.
2. The student was smart eпough to solve any maths proЬlem. 1. to have kept.
3. А cure for the disease is claiтed to have Ьееп discovered, but 2. to have seen.
this has not yet been pюved.
3. to have won.
4. She wa:s not the type to put оп weight. "
4. to Ье writing.
5. Не ran too fast for us to catch up with him.
5. to invite.
6. 1 locked the door for по опе to disturb те.
6. to Ье improving.
7. Journalists reported seveп people to have Ьееп iпjurea in the
fire. - . 7. to Ье held.
8. It is essential for us to maiпtaiп high staпdards. 8. to have known.
9. Не is just the child to worry about. 9. to Ье passing ..
10. People are said to Ье expectiпg help from the government. 1О. to read; to Ье read to.
11. Th€ boys reported the traпslatioп to have Ьееп coтpleted.
Task 3.
12. Не looked at me as if to shock те.
1. They seem to have failed ( Тhе Subjective lпfiпitive Coпstruc­
13. 1 was happy to hear tlшt they had moved in. tioп, they - the subject, to have failed - part of а сотроипd

202 203
verbal p~edicate of double orientation) to,strike up (an object) 15. When you run а campaign, the idea is to appeal to people
аconversation with the exotic-1ooking man. (part of а compound nominal predicate).
2. То Ье fair (parenthesis), the chef's salad was superb - a1- 16. The place is very convenient to live in but he feels lonely here
though 1 confess it was hard to appreciate (Тhе Subject with (ап attribute). ' ·
the introductory lt) such .food fully finding the bill coming to 17. I've known him to read so much (The Objective-with-the-In-
over 75 pounds. finitive Construction,Junction- the Complex Object).
3. What has made her Jeave us so soon? (The Objective-with- 18. lt's wrong for scientists to. ще mice for experiments (The-
the-lnfinitive Construction,Junction- the Complex Object) For-to-lnfinitive Construction, function- the Subject with the in-
4. ls it necessary for students to budget their time? (The- For- troductory lt)
to-Jnfinitive Construction, function- the Subject with the intro- 19. You cannot make (part of а compound verbal modalpredicate)
ductory lt)
people learn (The Objective-with-the-lnfinitive Construction,
5. Не was too sleepy to read the article to the end (an adverblal function- the Complex Object) if they don't want 1Q (an ob-
modifier of result). ject).
6. How did your brother dare 1Q...шU. the Dean on the shoulder? 20. The President was ·rumoured to Ье seriously Ш (Тhе Subjec-
(part of а compound verbal modal predicate) tive lnjinitive Construction, The President- the subject, to Ье
7. I'm glad to have met such а promising financial analyst (an seriously ill - part of а compound verbal predicate of douЫe
object to а predicatively used adjective) orientation).
8. Last year Henry expected to obtain а second-c1ass honours
degree in engineering (an object) Task 4.
9. They appear to Ье keeping the details of the case а secret for 1. His doctor recommended him to try taking steeping pilts for а
the time being (The Subjective /nfinitive Construction, 1h&J!.- whi1e.
the subject, to Ье keeping- part of а compound verbal predicate 2. АН the hote1s were full and we had nowhere to stay.
of dоиЫе orientation).
3. ВоЬ is rich enough to support his second family and рау ali-
10. 1 was sorry not to have been given (an object to а predicatively mony to bls ex-wife.
used adjective) tl1e chance to prove ( an attribute) ту point.
4. The bench' was dry enough for us to sit оп it.
11. Не was the last person to Ье convinced Ьу my arguments (an
attribute). 5. I'm enclosing а list of my proposa1s for you to consider tl1em
before our next meeting.
12. They are poor but too proud to borrow nюney or ask for
help (an adverblal modifrer of result). 6. Steve happened to meet Jane at а graduation party.
13. Peter lifted his son onto his shoulders for him to see the pa- 7. Who was the first person to jind the man?
rade (The- For-to-lnfinitive Construction,Junction- an adver- 8. She felt sad to have heard those rumours.
blal modifier of purpose)
9. Susan didn't phone him for а long time as if not to need him.
14. Не watched the caterpillar crawl up the 1eg of а chair (The
Objective-with-the-lnfinitive Construction,function- the Com- 1О. The general was declared not to Ье guilty.
plex Object). 1t. · Radioactive material is likely to Ье released during the jire.

204 205
12. Here are the instructions for you to follow. 6. On receiying their letter he decided to make а donation to
13. She rushed home to find that а thief was exploring the house. help their campaign. (an adverblal modifier of time)
14. She is not such а fool as to think you are innocent. 7. Diana resented this photograph being puЬlished without her
approval. (The half-genmdial construction,function- а direct
15. Тhere are а lot of papers to Ье typed before the boss comes.
object)
8. SI1e is very uпpredictaЬle so tl1ere is по knowing how she will
THEGERUND react to tl1e news. (the subject with introductory "there '')
9. There is по point in giving him а false iшpression. (а preposi-
Те st 1
Task 1. tional object)
10. She smiled without showing her teetl1. (ап adverblal modifier
1. waiting.
ofmanner)
2. being invited.
11. She turned round on his entering tl1e room. (The gerundial
3. having received. construction ,junction- an adverblal modifier of time)
4. being treated. 12. After а moment, everyoпe started talking again. (part of the
5. sacking. complex verbal aspect predicate)
6. trying. 13. I am sick and tired of drinking tea witlюut milk. (а preposition-
7. seeing. al object)
8. having thought. 14. She changed tl1e style of her dancing, l1er feet moved more
9. being told. quick1y, and did not keep so strictly to the ground. (Тhе ge-
rundial construction,Junction- an attribute)
1О. being asked.
15. ln crossing the street one should Ье carefu1. (an adverblal
Task 2. modifier of time)
16. Instead of reacl1iпg lndia he landed on an is1aпd unknown to
1. I was so tired that I couldn't help falling asleep. (part of the Europeans. (ап adverblal modifier of attendant circumstances)
complex verbal aspect predicate).
2. The Government was unaЬle to make any promises about lift- 17. But for their having guarrelled he would invite her to his
.ing restrictions in the near future. (а prepositional object.) wedding. (Тhе gerundial construction, function- an adve~blal
modifier of condition)
3. What are your grounds for including Phil in the list of inter-
nal applicants for the vacancy? (а prepositional object) 18. Poor Ann was in danger of being mistaken for soшebody else.
4. I'm all in favour of people's going оиt and enjoying them- ( an attribute)
selves as long as they <lon't disturb other people. (The gerundi- 19. Sl1e insisted on his coming. (Тhе gerundial construction, func-
al construction,junction- а prepositional object) tion- а prepositional object)
5. I am looking forward to seeing you tonight. (а prepositional ob- 20. His idea was being eшployed as soon as possiЬle. (part of the
ject) complex nominal predicate)
206 207'

_j~;_~
Task 3. 14. What would people think of те for ту /etting her go?
1. on. 15. Не doesn 't тiss her despite not having seen her for а /ong tiтe.
2. for.
3. of. Task S.
4. to. 1. being criticized.
5. in. 2. trying to convince; to lose.
6. for. 3. not being аЬlе to see.
7. of. 4. your having helped.
8. for.
5. to look.
9. Ьу.
6. to inform; to reach.
10. from.
7. to have.
Task 4. 8. changing.
1. Ann recalled her being taken (her having been taken) to Paris 9. playing.
when she was а child. 10. smoking.
2. Не admitted having stolen the Ьicycle.
3. They hate the sате thing being repeated again and again.
Те st 2
4. I can't translate the text without using а dictionary.
Task 1.
5. She is fond of her friends taking her out.
1. meeting.
6. At seeing him in London I cou1d hardly recognize him.
7. After having been tested (being tested) the tool was sent to the 2. pressing.
exhibltion. 3. having fulfilled; knowing.
8. Ann's husband couldn't buy а house for going bankrupt. 4. arriving.
9. Despite the weather being nasty we decided not to stay indoors. 5. taking.
10. Butfor having learned English'when а student 1 wouldn't trav- 6. having passed.
el abroad.
7. arriving. having arrived.
11. They accused their friend of his not being the тап of his word.
12. Не is pleased with being invited to the party. 8. treating; being treated.
13. Before her being sent а fax they usually send her а contract Ьу 9. using.
mail. 10. being trimmed (haying been trimmed).
208 14-621 209
Task 2. 16. It was no good your doing things Ьу halves. (The gerundial
1. The worst thing for her was being sent away from her family. construction,Junction- the subject with the introductory "lt'')
(part of the complex nominal predicate) 17. She kept eyeing Henry with interest. (part of the complex ver-
2. Working nine to nine seems to Ье tiresome. (the subject) bal aspect predicate)
3. Their being together (The gerundial construction, function- the 18. She bowed her head without speaking. (an adverЬial modifier
subject) didn't bear thinking of. (а direct object) of attendant circumstances)
19. Anyone travelling without а passport runs the risk ofbeing ar-
4. Our teacher has а good idea of taking us to Paris in the sum-
mer. (an attribute) rested. ( an attribute)
20. We can't have а meeting here without а taЬle and twenty chairs
5. I can't imagine my husband's grumЬling аЬоцt clothes - he being fetched.(The ha/f-gerundial construction,Junction- an ad-
doesn't care what he wears. (The gerundia/ construction, func-
verЬial modifier of condition)
tion- the direct object)
6. Не can't understand her for not telling him the truth. (an ad- Task З.
verЬial modifier of reason)
1. to.
7. The decision was made without anybody asking him. (The
half-gerundial construction,function- an adverЬial modifier of 2. of
manner) 3. of
8. Sid is sick of hearing about your sulks every time he comes 4. оп.
home. (а prepositiona/ object) 5. for.
9. The computer programme was written for polishiцg one's 6. about.
English. (ап adverЬial modifier ofpurpose) 7. of
10. lt's no good Sid and Тот painting the fence together. (The 8. to.
ha/f-gerundial construction,Junction- the subject)
9.
11. She was looking forward to seeing the grandchildren again. (а 10. to.
prepositional object)
12. In refusing to work abroad she missed an excellent job oppor- Task 4.
tunity. (ап adverЬia/ modifier ofreason)
1. The wine is in the fridge - it just needs cooling for а couple
13. Are you accusing me of J.ying? (а p1·epositional object) of minutes.
14. Going to Caiifornia feels like travelling to another age in а time 2. Не now denies having ever spoken to the woman.
machine. (part of the comp/ex nominal predicate) 3. 1 clearly remember posting the letters.
15. When you telephoned Mr. Brown he was just on the point ·of 4. А quarter of workers admit their taking time o.ff when they are
leaving the office. (а prepositional object) not il/.
210 211
14*
5. The Jight has gone out again for the electricity being out of or- ТНЕ PARTICIPLE
der.
6. The. text can't Ье read without being seen. Те s t 1.
Task 1.
7. The old lady thanked me for he/ping her across the street.
l. having tried; 6. lost;
8. She complained about their being not strong enough to endure ,
such trials. 2. looking; 7. looking;
9. Since seeing him when I was а little Ьоу he has never appeared. 3. being irritated; 8. having retired;
1О. Ellen always arrives in time for her husband giving her а lift. 4. having been waked up; 9. having been shown;
11. Buy а pair of sandals instead of wearing high-heeled ·shoes in 5. being turned; letting. 1О. being examined.
summer. ;;.\
12. In case not having taken the camera with him he wouldn't Ье Ta!il 2.
enjoying these pictures now. 1. The returning troops marched up Fifth Avenue. (an attribute)
13. We appreciate their paying us оп time. 2... Using а direct outside line, Mel dialled his home number. (an
adverЬial modifier of manner)
14. We agreed to invite the man despite his being а tota/ stranger
to us. 3. Being an actress, she was аЬJе to make her point. ( an adver-
Ьial modifier of cause) ·
15. After their being divorced their elder son married and lived on
his own. 4. We'll have supper sent up to the suite. (Тhе Objective Parti-
ci pial construction, the function- the comp/ex object)
5. Complete the sentences with the gerund or the infinitive of the .5. 1 watched the couples dancing a,roynd. (The Objective Parti-'
verbs in brackets, using the correct form of any pronouns that cipial construction,the function- the complex object)
are included. 6. Не was standing with his arms crossed aТld his eyes fixed on
1. looking. tЬе ground. (Тhе Prepositional Absolute Participial construction,
the function- an adverЫal modifier of manner)
2. televising.
7. Не just kept walking, а crue1 hammer beating against his
3. to hurt. J:ш!in.. (The Nominative Absolute Partici pial construction, the
4. talking; to Ье thinking. function- an adverЬial modifier of attendant circumstances)
5. to Ье included. 8. The game so much spoken about was finally lost. (an attribute)
6. telling. 9. From time to time their voices could Ье heard uplifted in
clamorous argument. (The Subjective Participial construction,
7. to lock. their voices-'-, the subject, uplifted- ·part of а compound verbal
8. riding; falling. predicate of dоиЬ/е orientation)
9. to consider. 10. Passing into the picture gall~ry (ап adverЫal modifier oftime),
1О. your consulting. as it was stШ called, he saw Irene standing nearby. (Тhе Objec-
tive Partici pial construction, the function- the coinplex object)
212 213
11. The smaller ones were kept working for several hours. ( The 7. Не hurried in to see his youngest son lying with pneumonia.
Subjective Participial construction, the smal/er ones- the sub-
ject, working- part of а compound verbal predicate of douЬ/e 8. When withered, the jlowers were thrown away.
onentation) 9. 1 suspected him bad/y wounded.
12. Тhough being dead tired the monster moved on and on. ( an 10. They were still speaking of the lost game.
adverblal modifier of concession) 11. Тhе weather being still cold and windy, she was wearing а heavy
13. Bosinney was looking round as if pointing QUt the peculiari- winter coat.
ties of the guests. ( an adverblal modifier of comparison) 12. Denis rose to his feet with his armsfo/ded in his favourite Na-
14. Не stood looking down into the Ьох. (part of the compound poleonic pose.
nominal predicate) 13. She could Ье considered cured.
15. Left alone with her brother, Dinny said: "She is а wonderful 14. Having closed and locked the suitcase she rang for the porter
girl". - ( an adverblal modifier of time) to come and take it downstairs.
16. Asked how he was getting on the little chap Ыushed and 15. The Ьоу being your son, you are responsiЬle for whatever he
tumed away.- (an adverblal modifier oftime) does.
17. Ralph sat at а taЬle covered with green cloth and littered with
papers, chatting. (covered and /ittered- attributes; chatting- Task 4.
part of the compound nominal predicate) 1. hearing - the gerund;
18. Не didn't wish it mentioned. (The Objective Participial con- 2. hesitating - the partici ple;
struction, the function- the complex object)
3. skating- а verbal noun;
19. At the same moment the carriage was heard rolling up the gra-
4. standing - the participle;
vel-walk.( Тhе Subjective Participial construction,the carriage- the
subject,rolling ир- part of а compound verbal predicate of dou- 5. rattling- а verbal noun;
Ыe onentation) 6. fighting -the gerund;
20. Generally speaking, this novel is not very interesting. (paren- 7. being - the gerund;
thesis)
8. spilling - the participle;
Task 3. 9. ticking- а verbal noun;
10. drawing - the participle.
1. Going upstairs she woke the woman living on the floor above
her.
Task 5.
2. Liza left alone, began to turn things over in her mind. 6. while;
1. as if;
3. Though feeling sorry for him, 1 could not help laughing. 7. as if;
2. when;
4. 1 heard the rain drops pattering against the leaves. 8. as though/as if;
3. while;
5. 1 tried the handle, and found the door unlocked. 9. when;
4. if;
6. Having /eft them 1 walked up and down the road outside. 5. unless; 10. when.
214 215
Те s t 2. 11. 1 had that door painted only last week. (The Objective Parti-
Task 1. cipial construction, the function- the complex object)
1. Ьlinking; 6. requested; 12. Th9ugh embarrassed, he knew what to say. (ап adverЬial
2. having finished; 7. having returned, reading; modifier of concession)
3. having been asked; 8. coming; 13. ln the house, the lamp lighted, Saxon looked at the coin.
4. prescribed; 9. being; (Тhе Nominative Absolute Participial construction, the function-
5. having been asked; an adverblal modifier of time)
10. having been· wounded.
14. Не perceived а struggle going on within her. (The Objective
Task 2. Participial construction, the function- the сотрlех object)
1. Rex assured her that the blind man was quite peaceful if left 15. Frieda was heard. talking on the phone. ( The Subjective Parti-
Ьу himself. (an adverblal modifier of condition) cipial construction,Frieda- the subject,talking- part of а com-
2. Не sat straight in his bed with his feet tucked under him. pound verba/ predicate of dоиЫе orientation)
(Тhе Prepositional Absolute Participial construction, the function- 16. 1 did not dare to enter, thinking I might become а different
an adverblal modifier of manner) man. ( an adverЬial modifier of cause)
3. Being short-sighted, she wears contact lenses. (ап adverblal 17. Given more time and opportunity, he might become а differ-
modifier of cause)
ent man. ( an adverblal modifier of condition)
4. lt was а small oil painting representing а oale pink house
standing adjacent to а canal. (attributes) 18. Not being allowed to play with the children, he took to read-
ing. ( an adverblal modifier of cause)
5. Не drove slowly, enjoying the guiet ofthe evening. (ап adver-
blal modifier of attendant circumstances) 19. Judging Ьу appearanees (parenthesis), he looked like а man
wom Ьу the cares of а trouЬled life. (an attribute)
6. Не watched Robert pacing up and down, writing at his desk
or speaking. (The Objective Participial construction, the func- 20. Не understood that the effect of his words was terrifying. (part
tion- the complex object) of the complex пominal predicate)
7. The gate had been kept unlocked for her. ( Тhе Subjective Par-
ticipial construction, the gate- the subject, unlocked- part of а Task 3.
compound verbal predicate of douЫe Qri~ntation)
1. (When) /ooking at you 1 always remember how you appeared
8. Не jumped when addressed suddenly Ьу someone entering here some months before.
the room.(an adverblal modifier oftime; entering- attribute)
2. Being а Ьit of а coward he did not dare to pass Ьу the barking
9. Не cast а swift glance over his shoulder as if debating the dog.
practicabllity of а dive into the traffic. (ап adverblal modifier
of comparison) 3. А girl secretary came in glancing curiously from one to the
10. After this they strolled back to tl1e brook, and found things other.
being prepared for luncheon. (Тhе Objective Participial con- 4. At last the clerk, talking to the porter, turned my side.
struction, the furtction- the complex object) •
5. Sl1e could see him tremЬling.
216
217
6. Не felt as if suddenly /eft Ьу all his friends.
7. 1 found her stil/ occupied with those thoughts.
8. Denny lit а cigarette, his fingers shaking so violently, he cou1d
barely hold the match.
-
:•1
1.
Section four: Translation

ТНЕ INFINITIVE

She decided to enter а pedagogical university.


9. She having gone, he got to thinking the matter over. 2. Women like to Ье admired.
10. Again there was а silence broken only Ьу the drumming ofthe 3. 1 was happy to Ье listening to you.
rain upon the tin roof. . 4. 1 am sorry not to have informed you about it beforehand .
11. Не went to the studio at ten with his coat collar tumed up and 5. Не is glad to have been helped.
his hat pulled low over his ears.
6. They seem to have been travelling about а year.
12. Тhе moment having соте, he found it difficult to speak.
7. Не liked to read much.
13. The poor 1ad was badly wounded when serving with the Brit-
8. Не is still little, he likes to Ье read to.
ish Army in France.
9. Не seems to have read all the books in this library.
14. Not being seen through the door, he thought himself out of
danger. 10. Не seems to Ье reading а fairy tale now.

15. Having lost the election, the Prime Minister resigned. 11. Не says that he liked to Ье read to aloud.
12. Не is said to have been reading the magazine the whole
Task 4. month.
1. wearing- participle; 13. То quarre1 is useless. (lt is useless to quarre1.)
6. coming - participle;
2. saying - gerund; 14. They arrived at that town to go sightseeing.
7. going- gerund;
15. His dream was to become а pianist.
3. saying- verbal noun; 8. ringing - verbal noun;
16. Не was stupid to have married Ann at the age of 18.
4. reading - gerund; 9. gerund, verbal noun;
17. Не expressed а desire to help her.
5. knocking - verЬal noun; 10. being done - participle;
answering - gerund. 18. She must have forgotten about her promise.
19. Peter wanted to Ье told the truth.
Task 5. 20. 1 think this is not the topic to discuss.
1. as; 6. though; 21. Не came to ask the questioц.

2. when/while; 7. as if; 22. (ln order) to master а foreign language you must work sys-
tematically.
3. if; 8. when;
23. 1 advise you to read these rules several times so as (in order)
4. as if/as though; 9. as if; to understand them better.
5. unless; 10. when. 24. Не knows French well enough to translate this document.

218 219
25. Не doesn't know what to do. 52. Не is said to write books.
26. I can tell you where to buy this book. 53. Не was said to Ье drawing а picture.
27. They asked me where to get tickets to the concert. 54. 1 am glad to have gone in for dancing.
28. Nick wanted us to Ье invited to the exhiЬition. 55. She wanted his new book to Ье devoted to her.
29. Where do you want us to wait for you? 56. It was difficult for Katherine to have respect for her hus-
30. We expect the agreement to Ье signed soon. band's relatives, but she tried to соре with it. ·

1
31. Nobody expected it to happen. 57. Let them agree to differ.
32. Kate ordered the things to Ье packed. 58. There are always clouds to rest on the top of this mountain.
33. Не seems to Ье thinking over some proЬiem. 59. She will not Ье аЬlе to make herself comfortaЬle in this roc-
king arm- chair.
34. They appear to have understood this rule very well;
60. Не seems to Ье dozing, doesn't he?
35. The doctor seemed to Ье pleased with the work.
61. lt seems to me, that it is impossiЬle to shout her down.
36. The house seems to have been built in the XVIII 1 ь century.
62. Her task was to look after pensioners.
37. They might have already received our letter.
63. I saw Peter look around.
38. They are unlikely to come to an agreement.
64. His parents want him to Ье а well-educated person.
39. Mr. Petrov is likely to Ье appointed director of this< factory.
65. The only thing we have to do now - is to call the doctor.
40. Каtе appears to have lost Ann's address.
66. She seems to know everything about а bad cold.
41. It's too cold to bathe today.
67. 1 would sooner die than accept their invitation to the wed-
42. She spoke loudly (was speaking) as if to attract our atten- ding.
tion.
81 68. I had по choice. There was nothing to do but agree with the
43. The lake is near enough to walk there. director.
44. I didn't douЬt, that they had made Каtе come early. 69. It is nice of you to have called the emergency.
45. She asked if her brother would Ье аЬlе to help her (to) re- 70. Here are the instructions to follow.
pair the car.
71. Ann's duty was to take (the) patients' temperature.
46. There was nothing to do but stare at the window.
72. Уou had better go back to bed.
47. Visitors are asked not to feed the artimals. 73. Не seemed (to Ье) detached from what was going оп.
48. Olga is too beautiful to Ье shy. 74. Каtе w~ mistaken to have devoted her life to the husband.
49. 1 didn't hear the door open. 75. I was too frightened to move.
50. Oleg was the only one to realize the danger. 76. The captain is the last to leave the shi р (is to Ье the last ... )
51. Your parents must Ье travelling now. 77. This photo must have been chosen.
220 221
78. То tell а lie is not her hablt. 104. This question is difficult to answer.
79. То forget the past seemed. impossiЬle. 105. She stopped to smoke.
80. 1 don't have to work on Sundays. 106. lt is bad of you not to have drunk tea with honey and rasp.,
81. Не used to meet her after work. berry jam. Some severe complications are possiЬle now.
82. We began to realize that all was in vain. 107. Why not take this medicine for headache?
83. You shou1d take the prescribed taЬlets 3 times а day after 108. Не is not the doctor to trust (to Ье trusted).
mea1s. 109. lt's difficult for me to be1ieve you = 1 find it hard to believe
84. She pretended to have а sore throat. you.
85. lt hurts the eyes to 1ook at the sun. 110. То take а deep breath was out of the question.
86. То listen to such music, you'll have headache. 111. You should Ье afraid of quinsy, because it tells оп one's
87. То go for а walk bare-headed in such weather is to have а heart.
bad co1d. 112. This patient is hard to please.
88. She lived to Ье 80, didп't she? 113. They gradually ceased to quarrel.
89. Why did they have to live under such bad conditions? 114. 1 was sorry to have invited my sister to the party.
90. Ann came back home to take her purse. 115. They turned out to a1ways Ье late.
91. These events are said (thought) not to Ье true to life. 116. The rain was too heavy to make the picnic.
92. She seems to Ье suffering from toothache. 117. Tl1ere was nothing for her to do but scold 11er hнsband.
93. Не was too o1d to look after himse1f. 118. At that moment they happened to Ье p1aying c11ess.
94. She is strong enough to соре with this proЬlem. 119. An intimate friend is said to have dined with her.
95. 1 think it is better to consu1t а doctor than (to) read up the 120. Of course, I meant to have visited Ann (but ... ).
treatment in а reference book.
121. I had them take my 1uggage.
96. Ann was known to have been bom in а small provincia1 town.
122. Kate seemed to have been keepiпg to а diet the who1e year.
97. From а medical point of view it is usefu1 to 1ive а hea1thy Iife.
123. 1 can't but think so.
98. Peter opened his mouth for the doctor to examine.
124. The circumstances are too seriotis not to Ье taken into con-
99. Not every doctor can (is аЬlе to) diagnose the disease. sideration.
100. Каtе is said to have been suffering from insomnia for 2 months 125. Even to tblnk of it gave me torture.
a1ready.
126. It was p1easant to Ье driving а саг again.
101. There is much for him to comp1ain of, he is feeling sore all
over. 127. Не found it impossiЬle to 1eave the town.
102. She didn't try muc11 in order to recover. 128. I've got my wife and а little Ьоу to look after.
103. You must put mustard plasters on your chest and back. 129. Laws were not made to Ье broken.
222 223
130. His eyes were sharp enough to look after his own business. 157. They must still Ье living in the country-house.
131. Не was too weak to Ье аЬlе to work. 158. I have nothing to hide.
132. 1 believe her to have no conscience. 159. Не even didn't Ьid me take а seat.

133. I have never seen him lose his temper. 160. She is sure to like this coat.
134. Не was seen to book а room. 161;. lt is nice to have been visited Ьу the Petrovs:
135. She ordered her carriage to Ье ready. 162. I prefer not to· Ье involved in such activities.
136. 1 can't allow you to speak like this. 163. I believe the letters to Ье written regularly.
137. We rely on you to соте in time. 164. They seem (are Iikely) to Ье walking in the park a:t this very
138. She was heard to Ье laughing heartily. hour.
139. The church is believed to have been built in the XVI century. 165. Everything seems to have been explained to them.
140. The doctor chanced to look into her room at aЬout 11 o'clock. 166. They could hard1y have hidden there.
141. That was for him to find out. 167. She happened to Ье passing.
142. Ann was supposed to have been presented with а new car 168. Kate was said to have been taken to hospital.
(Ьу her parents). 169. Не was nowhere to Ье seen.
143. Everybody waited for her to sing. 170. She made me keep silent.
144. Не may have fallen in love. 171. Do you happen to know where to have Ьlood pressure tested?
145. She was to have been operated on yesterday. 172. Why not follow your doctor's prescriptions?
146. I am surprised to have been recognized. 173. I felt it to Ье true.
147. 1 am sorry to have brought such bad news. 174. Не entered the Univeгsity in order to (so as to) Jearn
148. She seemed to have been knitting the sweater for ages. French.
149. Не should read more. 175. Не was glad to have recovered at last.
150. Не shou1d have read more. 176. She woke to hear the rain~
151. The weather seems to Ье improving. 177. То соте here was to see everything w:ith my own eyes.
178. Не was thought to Ье honest.
152. Не is sorry to have failed you.
153. She is glad to have spoken with you. 179. I:preferred to stay at home.
154. She was g1ad to speak with you. 180. She was afraid to go along such dark streets.
155. Не intended to have cleaned the coat, but ... 181. 1 rather think she '11 want you to stay.
182. Не h.ad nothing to say.
156. The firm is reported to Ье conducting negotiations with
Germany. 183. The father made his son stay in the room tШ .evening.
224 225
1/215-621
184. Не never .failed to solve the proЬlems. · 213. Love is said to Ье blind.
185. Не had eyes, that seemed to penetrate to your soul. 214. This statement seems to Ье wrong.
186. 1 was supposed to talk about the money. 215. Не felt extraorOinary fits of giddiness coine over him at
187. The house is to let. times.
188. She ought to have come and to have told everything earlier. 216. Look back to make sure you haven't left anything behind.
189. Nothing seems. to Ье happening there, does it? · 217. Leaving the compartment she looked back to see she had left
190. 1 regret to have reminded you of Ann. the parce] on the seat.
191. Не says he even can't bear to hear about it. ·
218. After the third lesson 1 left his class never to retum.
192.' 1 think, 1 have no more to add. 219. It was difficult to refuse. But why agree to do it?
193. Ме - marry him? Never!
220. То sound а man as to his intentions was peculiarly unpleas-
ant to him.
194. Не longed to recover soon.
221. It doesn't do to despise а Forsyte, it doesn 1t do to. disregard
195. Do you happen to know where the post-office is? him!
196. Why not startjЬegin travelling? 222. 1 think you'd Ье glad to get а long job like that off your
197. 1 will thank you to give me my letter. hands. .
198. То occupy her mind, she decided to do the flat. · 223. Philip Bosinney was known to Ье а young man without for-
tune.
199. 1 hoped to have found him at home.
224. lt would have been а good idea to take her along yesterday.
200. Не was seen to take the dog out for а walk.
225. Her brother seems to Ье saving. money to buy а new car.
201. То go on with this discussion is to waste time.
226. She seems to Ье very. choosey.
202.. I'm sorry to have taken so much of your time.
227. 1 don't seem to remember her.
203. lt seems too good to Ье true.
228. Не is unlikely to take any risks.
204. We assemЬied to discuss our plans.
229. Не was made to understand that his behaviour was not nice.
205. The first thing to settle is what to take with us.
230. The storm is reported to Ъе movirig South.
206. We made а list of things to Ье taken.
231. They are supposed to know the proЬlem inside out.
207. George suggested eggs and bacon, which were easy to cook.
232. Му new neighbours turned out to Ь« very agreeaЬle p,eople.
208. 1 like а story to have а beginning,' а middle and an end.·
233. She is unlikely to buy ready-made clothes.
209. The captain ordered the passengers to Ье shown their caЬins.
234. 1 happened t.o have no money .on me. .
210. Не is so ready to help everybody.
235. The picture didn't appear to Ье in .his taste ..
211. А celebration such as this was not to Ье missed.
236. Не is not an easy man to astonish.
212. They waited in silence for their dinner. to Ье served. 237. They were too lazy even to peel potatoes properly.
226 227
1/215*
238. The old woтan went to her daughter's country house oniy 263. This argument is sure to shake his confidence. а. Ьit.
to die there а day later. 264. That's all to Ье said about this book;
239. Не lost his confid.ence never to get again. _ 265. She went to а solicitot's to make her will.
240. Mrs. Hewells was at her wits' end what to do. 266. The potatoes peeled, they began to cook an lrish stew.
241 .. I continue to take an interest in hiт for old acquaintance's

.,
267. She acted as though she were tiying to win everybody's ad-
sake. тiration.
242. Тот stayed at hоте to Ье out of harт's way. 268. She took the decision as if she had been inspired Ьу sоте
243. Was it not strange for hiт to rететЬеr that episode all his sudden thought to do it.
life? 269. It will cost you nothing to give it to те.
1
244. It is iтportant for theт to keep track of current ~vents. 270. Who is he to speak to те like this?
245. Frank was anxious for the girl to соте again. ·. 271. Arthur awoke to see that he was in а strange rоот.
246; It was not а тatter to Ье discussed with а teenager. 272. If you really suspect him why not tell him frankly about it
247. She believed that it was worth telling Miss Carolln.e about and Ье through with it?
tl1e stranger. 273. Burton was quite at а loss where to turn for help.
248. I consider it to Ье а тistake to bear а grudge against theт.
249. That's all I've got to look forward to.
·11 274. Не was always reluctant to intrude on the conversation of
other men.
250. Unfortunately, I ат not strong enough to do i(.
251. What таdе hiт say such а nasty thing?
252. It is .а dangerous thing to order the Iives of others.
11 275.
276.
On second thoughts 1 found it necessary to warn.her.
А girl like Gwendolen could hardly Ье expected to reside in
the country.
253. The тistake is said to Ье irreparaЬle.
254. Не went to Spain to stay there for good.
li 277.
278.
I фink it only fair to tell you the truth.
Не is not the kind of student to miss classes for no reason
at ·all. ·
255. It is тadness to give up а good safe job for an uncertainty. 279. You are wrong to suppose that Frieda might care for fishing.
256. I've соте to ask you for advice.
257. Late one evening when 1 was beginning to think that I had
worked enough for that day, I heard the bell ring.
11 280.
281.
Mr. Collins chanced to Ье there and see фе accident.
You тust Ье out of your тind to expect те to do such а
silly thing.
258. How can one advise anoфer how to act? Не is not the sort of таn to enjoy working in the garden.
'•
259. It's an iтpertinence to speak to him like this.
260. It was important for them to pull themselves together.
lt 282.
283. I've never sееч. her cry when there are otl1er people
present.
261 .. The Ьоу ought tо·ье sent home lest he shouldinfect the ot-
••• 284. Тhе child has been punished several tiтes, but punishment
her children.
262. Не is unlikely to give way to his teтper Hke this.
228 - 285.
seems to. yjeld no results.
Michael is said to have asked Sylvia to marry him.
229
286. What has it got to do with me? ,> 309. Have you heard the chairman. саН on all those present to
support the proposal?
287. То speak quite frankly, I don't think much of the wtiter.
310. Не made room for me to sit down.
288. She was permitted to sit up а few hours every day, but ·as
often as not she failed to take the advaдtage. 311. Не got out of the water only to fall in the river again.
289. You didn't even have the decency to drop me а postcard 312. I have always hesitated to give advice.
saying you were not coming. 313. I cannot imagine а better place to have а rest in.
290. I didn't have anything to do with him ~part frqm work. 314. Не never saw а mote interesting person to speak with ..
291. Poets and artists often draw their power to create master- 315. It was tinie befbre his genius came to Ье recognized.
pieces from nature.
316. Well, old man, to tel1 you the truth, 1 don't like it а little Ьit!
292. Не saw well enough that Mrs. Hawells was not to Ьlame. ·
317. It's no use tryiпg to persuade her to forgive him.
293. They are sure to t.ake advantage of my absence.
318. Bagpipes are trying instruments to perform upon.
294. According to their map they had stШ some seven ·miles to go.
319. You are at liberty to. try once more.
295. What а night to wander out in!
320. The days begin, to draw in.wheп November comes.
296. What а day to go out of town! ·
321. Iп the courtroom we learnt that Ern's case was one of the
297. This is the lesson to Ье learnt from а study of history. first to Ье examined.
298. The enemy was reported to have suffered heavy lш;ses in 322. We made an effort to rise but our legs wouldn't support us.
manpower.
323. His remark made her Ьlush to the top of her ears.
299. Scientists consider thiseffect to Ье the result of an experi-
mental error. 324. Не would have stopped to talk to you if he had recognized
you.
300. This theory was found to have disagreed with practice.
325. I refuse to believe 'that he could have deceived you.
301. Newton made use of the three laws of motion to explain the
movement of the moon around the Earth and of the planets 326. They must have changed the time-taЬle. The train used to
around the Sun. ' leave earlier.
302. Do you happen to remember who was the last to leave the 327. We are happy to Ье workiпg uпder his guidance.
laboratory? 328. They are lucky to have been taught Ьу such а good teacher.
303. His great amЬition was to cross the Atlantic ih а rowboat. 329. I want to take my words back. I'm sorry to have called you
304. His friends tried· to argue him out of it. пames,

305. The more he knew, the more he d~sired to know. · 330. То listeп to Elton John is sheer delight.
306. This medicine is said to Ье very effective. 331. This taЬle is very convenieпt to work at.
307. ВоЬ Wilcot i~ expected to appear on ТУ toцight. 332. Don't let's go home yet.
308. The plane was reported to have crashed while landing. 333. She felt her shoes piпch.

230 231
THEGERUND 28. Не meпtioпed his haviпg Ьееп married twice.
29. Не didп't miпd the secretary's haviпg to leave earlier.
1. She was disappoiпted at not fiпding him at horne, ,
30. I remember to send the 1etter.
2. Не likes beiпg iпvited.
31. Go оп siпgiпg.
3. These bags пееd dryiпg.
32. Go оп to retell the text.
4. Не meпtioпed haviпg already read about it.
33. Fапсу our haviпg to leave the house iп such weather!
' 1.

5. Оп receiviпg the aпswer he became glad.


34. Learniпg rules without examples is useless.
6. Аnп iпsisted оп beiпg iпformed about the day of the departure.
35. Iп spite of beiпg busy, he came to the Ьirthday party.
7. Peter apologized for makiпg us wait.
36. It is по use worryiпg about the thiпgs we сап't chaпge.
8. His speech is still far from beiпg eпded.
37. Не was to speпd three days at home before goiпg to the
9. Olga deпied haviпg Ье~п to this ~staЬlishmeпt. couпtry- house.
10. I thiпk ofbeiпg helped. 38. She left the room without пoticiпg the guests.
11. What are your objectioпs to his beiпg here? 39. The best remedy for such а headache is goiпg to bed.
12. We insi'sted оп the coпtract beiпg sigпed immediately. 40. There is по avoidiпg him поw.
13. Oleg tells me about Petrov's beiпg seпt оп а busiпess:-trip. 41. Kпittiпg сап help you (to) become calm.
14. I lщow of his haviпg seпt you а parcel. 42. I was afraid of beiпg asked such difficult questioпs.
15: The room пeeds cleaп,iпg. 43. Аnп is agaiпst our goiпg to the ciпema.
16. It is по use cryiпg over spilt milk. 44. She couldп't sleep because of beiпg afraid of the thuпder-
17. I kпow пothiпg of Kate's leaviпg. storm.
18. Аnп ackпowledged hayiпg received letters from him. 45. Оп watchiпg the film, he remembered the title of the article.

19 .. S.he was thaпkful for beiпg takeп for the trip. 46. She said that her husbaпd could go оп repairiпg the car.
20. 1 couldп't help beiпg excited wheп I received the telegram 47. She is поt used to Hviпg without апу сопvепiепсеs.
from my wife .. 48. Оп heariпg the пews, sl1e burst iпto tears.
21. Excuse me for not riпgiпg у~:>и up yesterday. 49. Mother suspected us of haviпg left the umbrella iп the tram.
22. Не is proud of haviпg wоп this,prize. 50. She tore the letter iпto small pieces without readiпg it.
23. I doп't miпd your haviпg to visit your re1atives. 51. Do you feellike makiпg а pie?
24. I dislike watchiпg ТV programmes. 52. Не kept оп shoutiпg at her.
25. She didп't like beiпg watched. 53. At last it has stopped raiпiпg.
26. I remember the weather beiпg warm theп. 54. I am for goiпg to the пight сlнЬ.
27. Everybody was surprised at his leaving the meeting. 55. All of а suddeп she burst out laughiпg.
232 233
\6-621
56. His only desire was leaving the place as soon as possiьte. 84. Не turned at hearing her footsteps.
57. Не was engrossed in reading letters. 85. She startled her father Ьу bursting into tears.
58. She sat in the arm-chair without movrng. 86. Не has no right to enter the room without being invited.
59. 1 kept silent in spite of there being а lot of questions to ask. 87. I felt better for having lived abroad for а long time.
60. She had the feeling of being followed. 88. The safe showed no sign of lшving been touched.
61. Don't Ьlame yourself for being so absent-minded. 89. 1 thanked them for being punctual.
62. Kate was looking forward to the guests' coming. 90. Не was fined for beiпg drunk.
63. Dancing has not begun yet. 91. Не never ceased complaining.
64. It's no good hiding our heads under our wings. 92. I objected to Ыs/him making private calls.
65. Nobody could pass without being seen. 93. Ву working day and пight, he succeeded iп fiпishiпg the job
66. Не was ashamed of haviпg showп irritatioп. iп time.

67. 1 doп't remember hearing this legend. 94. 1 don't feel like making а report. What about goiпg for а
68. She liked neither reading aloud поr being read aloud to. walk?
69. 1 hope you'll forgive my (me) disturblng you. 95. She is foпd of readiпg seпtimental stories.
70. 1 began to picture to myself my being found dead in the hotel. 96. The heart stopped beating.
97. Не got used to having а cold shower.
71. We couldn't put off going over the house.
72. The doctor kept on comiпg and examining the patient. 98. She пever helped him with drawing.
73. 1 couldn't help being hungry. 99. The idea of getting married seemed strange to him.
74. They accuse him of having dealt with the criminal world. 100. She reproached him for Ыs beiпg 1-aughed at.
75. 1 feel like talking. 101. Unfortunately, she сап't afford going abroad.
76. You may rely on my setting matters right. 102. They are used to sitting up late (keeping late hours).
77. Не didn't like the idea ofbeing hunted Ьу Henry. 103. Peter succeeded in drawing.
78. Are you aware of these words referring to my sister? 104. Everybody praises her for studying well.
79. Не was indignant at his son's having disobeyed him. 105. Не had fear of being alone.

80. I felt incapaЬle of speaking with my relatives. 106. Let's risk going to the concert togetJ1er.
81. Don't forget to shut the window/Remember to shut the win- 107. His idea of objecting to Mr. Brown made me laugh.
dow. 108. Не was proud of lшving been addressed witl1 request.
82. 1 remember being in this book-shop. 109. There was something about him, that prevented him from
83. Remember to buy such а dictionaryjDon't forget to buy such being а bore.
а dictionary. 11 О. In spite of myself r· couldn't I1elp telling her а lie.
234 235
16*·.
111. The Petrovs thanked us for being given а lift. 134. Give up the idea of making fun of them!
112. Thank you for reminding us of the taxi. 135. Now much will depend on her having regu1ar mea1s and
113. Helen didn't like being interrupted. keeping to а diet.
114. The teacher objected to the children's being prompted. J36. Не confessed, that he was not used to being given presents
(to receiving).
115. 1 think there must Ье some reason for her coming back
home. 137. It was mother who acctised our neighbours of having
116. The fear of being late disturbed him. robbed the garage.
117. What do you say to buying new wall-paper? 138. Не will never agree to his being put down in class next to а
girl.
118. On beha1f of myse1f 1 thank you for meeting the de1egation.
139. 1 stretched out my hand to prevent Ann from falling down.
119. The day was spent in doing (the) shopping.
140. The Ьоу comp1ains of being constant1y punished.
120. They began seeing each ot11er.
141. She succeeded in getting used to living such а life.
121. 1 was surprised at my parents' having allowed the journey.
142. She denied having been much oЬliged to 11im.
122. There is no preventing him from having а nervous breakdown
(you can't prevent him from having ... ). 143. She showed no sign of being surprised.
123. Would you mind our making an appointment with some 144. Prompting in c1ass is use1ess.
other dentist? 145. Aren't you ashamed to wait for being prompted?
124. The doctor insists on your keeping off a1cohol. 146. Не is fond of going in for fencing.
125. The medical nurse succeeded in smiling at her patients, and 147. No doubt, Petrov helped the team in winning with the
really it worked better than any injection. score 4:3.
126. Take а deep breath. 1 think you mustn't put off being X- 148. Her surprise at 01eg's setting up the record was shocking.
rayed.
149. The fans managed to avoid quarrelling, because the game
127. Being on sick 1eave is out of the question. (had) ended in а draw.
128. She was afraid of falling i1l with scarlet fever. 150. It's so clever of you to l1ave prevented him from participat-
129. The doctor made а mistake Ьу diagnosing the illness as tu- ing in this match.
bercu1osis. 151. Winning the cup in this competition is his main wish.
130. Ann will never forgive her husband her living from hand to 152. 1 hard1y remember ever seeing а better game.
mouth the who1e month.
153. Ann cou1dn't stand his breaking off.
131. Peter comp1ained of his sister's getting on his nerves.
154. Не couldn't he1p sticking to his promise.
132. She persisted in dressing in her very best frock for such an
occasion. 155. Listening to such music drives her mad.
133. The p1an consisted in turning everything upside down in the 156. She is in the hablt of sticking her hands in her pockets.
flat. 157. She approved of my actions Ьу nodding.
236 237
158. Her hablt of breaking dishes while quarrelling made him
tiresome. • 185. We insisted on the cases being taken to the warehouse im-
mediately.
159. Не had the plan for briцging our family to ruin.
160. She had а certain skill in wearingioose clothes.
161. After signing the document he rubbed his hands (together).
1 186. They didn't count on my being present.
187. She reproached l1erself for having lost her way and having
been late.
162. There is no harm in her curling her lip.- Isn't there? 188. Go on helping her and avoid attracting attention.
1
163. I am sure she helped him in committing suicide. ! 189. Не hated being interrupted.
190. Practise having long walks before going to bed.
164. This exhibltion is worth visiting, isn't it'? '
165. Card-playing is his favourite pastime. 191. I find it strange his being operated on.
166. Не expressed his surpris~ Ьу shruggiпg his shoulders. 192. Don't Ьlame yourself for (your) not being аЬlе to l1elp us.
167. Не did not remember sticking а stamp on the postcard. ·J 193. Imagine his surprise at seeing me.
168. Did you have/find any difficulty in solving tllis proЬlem? 194. All he is interested in is seeing her happy.
169. Не thought of speaking for her defence. 195. There was no knowing what she wanted.
170. Не got а "five" in Country Studies without lшving learnt the 196. She couldn't standjЬear being humiliated.
material at home. 197. You must apologize for (your) coming so late.
171. 1 hate seeing my friends off. 198. Не thanked us for being entertained.
172. I prefer being seen off myse1f. 1 199. It was clear he spoke (was speaking) without thinking, as
173. She is proud of having travelled much. usual.
174. The necessity of goiпg on business Ьу plane was evident. 200. Не expressed pleasure at being asked to dinner.
17 5. The excitement in coming into the harbour was indescribaЬle.
176. Seasickness prevented her from travelling Ьу sea.
177. 1 was against (our) booking the tickets beforehand (in ad-
vance).
1,,
201. 1 was tired of doing much the same thing every day.
202. Не looked as though he were on the point of falling asleep.
203. Under his influence she had taken to writing essays and
short stories.
178. His being а stay-at-home irritated his parents.
179. What kind of people usually object to travelling Ьу air?
'1 204. On seeing you back home he felt hopeful.
205. English grammar is very difficult and few writers have avoided
making mistakes in it.
180. Besides being clever l1e is very industrious.
206. I could no longer contemplate leaving her.

1
181. Instead of asking а porter to help he carried the things himself.
207 .. Roger went on speaking with energy and enthusiasm.
182. Is it any good buying tickets on the day of departure?
208. If this is what you intend asking me, stop wasting your time.
183. Mter reserving а ticket Ьу phone, she stopped being nervous.
209. It puzzled me not that Brown kept pressing for а private talk
184. She dislikes standing in а queue. with me, but that all of а sudden he left off doing so.
238 239
210. She was not conceited, though she liked showing off. 235. She complained about the porridge being lumpy.
211. We'lt do what we can, if you don't mind waiting а Ьit. 236. Did she suspect her husband of trying to take her in?
212. Не told me he'd postpone going to America. 237. You had no douЬt as to her death being natural.
213. I still could not recall meeting her, or anything about l1er. 238. lt is want of imagination that prevents people from seeing
things from any point of view but their own.
214. What а girl, he thought, and resumed reading his paper.
239. She gave years of her life to taking care of him.
215. 1 set about learning German but 1 never got further than
being аЬlе to read short texts. 240. Why should 1 waste time in discussing what is inevitaЬle?
216. They can't bear being deceived in such а vulgar way. 241. With dignity he thanked me for entertaining him.
217. 1 knew he could not face being talked about. 242. 1 said soшething аЬонt Joan being in love with him, but he
would not talk of I1er.
218. 1 remeшber being speechless with happiness that God had
brought us together. 243. 1 muttered something lаше about it being а pity.
219. They had difficulty (in) finding proper clothes. 244. Не reproached me Ьitterly for not having let 11iш know.

220. Will you Ье шuch longer doing that? 245. You've done great l1arm Ьу distorting facts.
221. Не felt like giving it up. 246. 1 spoke without thinking and later was sorry for l1aving
done so.
222. All of а sudden she burst out laughing and the others fol-
lowed. 247. You begin learning а language Ьу listening to tl1e new
sounds.
223. As he approached the park gates he narrowly missed being
run down Ьу а large car. 248. I don't want to distress her Ьу telling her that you have Ье-
haved like а Ьlackguard.
224. 1 remeшber hearing my aunts telling me in my childhood
that great men never cared for flattery. 249. Не waited а .Iong while before answering.

225. I appreciate your coшing to my defence. 250. Some boys missed classes for three days after running round
the playground barefoot.
226. She resented his being invited. j

251. On arriving at the cottage she found it locked.


227. 1 didn't think twice about teШng l1er; we had no secrets.
252. After staying away eigllteen years he can hardly expect us to
228. What did she шеаn Ьу boasting like that? Ье very anxious to see hiш.
229. That's what comes of running after the girls. 253. Besides teaching me something about huшan nature my
230. One afternoon, when 1 was counting on working for an tгaining in а medical college gave me an elementary knowl-
hour or two more, the telephone rang. edge of science and scientific method.
231. Let's get down to signing the papers. 254. Not а day had passed witlюut that young man coming to at
232. I took pride iп making my lodgings pretty апd comfortaЬle. least опе meal.
233. Не was taking risks iп speaking in that tone to theш. 255. I hope they haven't gone off without your seeiпg them.
234. I hesitated about ringiпg Roger up. 1 256. It's по good takiпg advaпtages of people's weaknesses.

240 241
257. 1 admit having confided in this man. 278. The doctor insisted on her putting off the trip.
258. On being left alone he began thinking of his temporary suc- 279. Before taking action you had better make inquiries.
cess and ended Ьу admitting that l1e had been wrong. 280. This time he felt no surprise at meeting his friend.
259. Не can never say anything without arousing somebody's in- 281. I've just had tl1e pleasure of being introduced to your sister.
dignation.
282. You've changed so much that he might Ье excused for not
260. Don't deny having displayed little heroism when the catas- recognizing you.
trophe occurred.
283. The An1erican lady looked wholesome in spite of not having
261. Without saying anything to Christine Andrew began to look slept all night.
for а convenient consulting-room.
284. The children were annoyed at being told to leave.
262. Не was wearing an old suit and his hair wanted cutting.
285. She looked disappointed and we suspected him of having
263. 1 expect you are upset Ьу Kate's leaving us. told her bad news.
264. Не likes dealing with kids and he likes being happy. 286. This fact is worth remembering.
265. I couldn't help lrene's having no money. 287. It is not worth wblle discussing the proЬlem in his absence.
266. It would Ье madness, it would mean giving up all that he 288. 1 remember beating him at chess once.
respected.
289. This matter wants clearing up.
267. The house was old and shabby, it needed no redecorating,
290. Не received tl1e news calmly without making а fuss аЬонt it.
it wanted pulling down.
291. Не was charged with mшdering Mrs. Helen Baker, а widow
268. It revived her old grudge against her father for having es-
tranged himself. of 45.
292. Father did not approve of my having rejected tl1e offer.
269. I think it ridiculous his getting married so young!
293. Не had а way of talking with women.
270. 1 earned this fee for assisting, for being there.
294. There are а lot of things to consider before making а final de-
271. Swithin was somewhat upset at being stopped like that at the
cision.
point of saying something important.
295. One can't l1elp saying that old age is tl1e least pleasant time
272. His trouЬle was not having control of his thoughts and feelings. of our life.
273. lt's а lame excuse for doing nothing. 296. Could you tell me, Grannie, how you have succeeded in
274. On arriving at the airport he went to the left-luggage office preserving my grandfather's love and respect througl1 all
first thing. these long years of your married life?
275. ln looking through the documents he came across а very in- 297. 1 could do it Ьу very simple means: Ьу doing all that pleased
teresting photograph. him and Ьу enduring silently all that displeased me.
276. On passing their house 1 noticed that all the windows were 298. You can rely on his (him) settling the matter.
dark. 299. Don't worry about this medicine doing any harm.
277. His being аЬlе to do without her surprised everybody. 300. Bill was disgusted with her being so vulgar.
242 243
301. I was afraid of them changing their minds, but fortunately 322. Don't ,Ье shy of calling if you need me.
it didn't happen. 323. I always have some difficulty in remembering dates, they
302. Think of Ruth deceiving me! I didn't know she was сараЬlе just s1ip my memory.
of telling lies. 324. We all discussed the ro1e played Ьу personal traits of charac-
303. Imagine her being so brave! She is quite а hero. ter in choosing а profession.
304. Not knowing the rules of grammar leads to many mistakes. 325. You can hardly imagine that they would dream of their only
305. Speaking before such а large audience made him very ner- daughter marrying such а man.
vous. 326. Не is hopeless and 1 have given up trying to reform him.
306. No progressing is regressing. There is no denying it. 327. I'm afraid I'll have to abandon the pleasure of dining with
307. People will gossip. There's no preventing it. you tonight.
308. The water needs filtering. 328. Anna wrote her name but in doing so she became aware of
being watched Ьу а stranger.
309. I'm sure you won't regret buying the house, even though it
329. Не was certain there would Ье no sure way of detecting him.
needs painting and decorating.
330. She didn't like the idea of Herbert being thrown into contact
310. This agent will tell you about Dos and Don'ts of building with а lot of rough boys at the County Council School.
your own house.
331. At night when he sank into а ch~ir sh~ wo~ld ~neel and take
311. The headmaster does not allow running along the corridors. off his heavy boots, before hartdшg htm hts sltppers.
312. Tony cannot do any work without being told at least twice. 332. Не came in that evening without hailing her gaily.
313. I don't remember taking my wallet out of my bag, but I 333. In spite of being very poor Christine and Andrew knew lшр-
must have done it when I stopped to buy petrol. piness.
314. I hope you haven 't forgotten to te1ephone the garage Ье- 334. I admit tl1ere's nothing unнsua1 in his keeping me at arrn's
cause the car badly needs servicing. length.
315. Could you stop typing for а moment? I need to concentrate
on this letter.
316. Dieting is very popular now.
317. Controlling my temper has been one of my goals this year.
• ТНЕ PARТICIPLE

1. Everybody looked at the dancing сонрlе.


318. Why should he corne bothering you without being invited?
2. All the people living in this hostel are students.
319. 1 will never believe you wish to go to the trouЬle of looking
after him. 3. When crossing the street, Ье careful.
320. 1 looked at her for some moments before daring to open 4. Feeling rnore at ease, he decided to have supper.
my mouth. 5. Hearing the sounds of music, we stopped talking.
321. 1 should never have thought that peeling potatoes was such 6. There were many people in the post-office, sending parcels.
an undertaking. 7. She always ate boiled eggs for breakfast.
244 245
8. The coat bought last year is too short for me 110w. 34. Being followed Ьу а stra11ger, she did11't kпow what to do.
9. Everythi11g writte11 i11 this Ьla11k is right. 35. Havi11g 1earnt the poem, she made up her mi11d to have а
1О. Read the tra11slated se11te11ce о11се more. short rest.
11. Whe11 а child, he used to Ье 11augl1ty. 36. Wbl1e bei11g asked questioпs, he got aпgry.
37. Havi11g prescribed the medicine, the doctor went away.
12. Havi11g garaged the car, he remembered about the keys.
38. The mediciпe prescribed Ьу the doctor was Ьitter.
13. The sou11d of the rai11, patteri11g 011 the roof, got 011 my
11erves. 39. Being very tired, 1 we11t straight home.
14. She looked at the 11ame, writte11 i11 а school-boy haпd. 40. The stories, puЬlished i11 this magazine, are worth readi11g.
15. Not bei11g аЬlе to read, he asked his sister to do it. 41. She lay 011 the sofa reading а book.
16. Bei11g left alo11e, we kept sile11t. 42. 1 cou1d11't get the material recomme11ded Ьу the teacher.
17. Havi11g spread а ha11dkerchief, he Ьеgап to eat. 43. Bei11g abse11t-mi11ded, he made а few mistakes while copyi11g
18. Havi11g already Ьееп iпformed about this, 1 was поt &шprised the story.
wlteп Maria came. 44. Не closed the door softly, 110t wa11ting to wake up the child.
19. Heari11g а footstep, l1e went to the stairs. 45. Not knowing how to translate this sente11ce, 1 asked а student
20. Wheп writiпg letters, he didп't like to Ье disturbed. sitti11g next to me to help me.
21. Haviпg writteп а letter, she burst out cryiпg. 46. The dictio11aries, taken Ьу the stude11ts from the library, must
Ье returned 110t later thart 5 p.m.
22. Не brought а brokeп glass.
47. While discharging the goods, the workers came across а
23. Не was iпterested i11 the line, bei11g laid out поt far from the 11umber of bags damaged Ьу sea water.
house.
48. Не stood at the window, thi11ki11g of his ·past.
24. Eve11 the wife, wlю kпew all his haЬits, was surprised at his
comi11g. 49. Му frie11d sat 011 the sofa, smoki11g а cigar.
25. The picture ha11ging оп the wall shocked те. 50. 1 found the things u11packed.
26. Seiziпg i11k a11d paper, she Ьеgап to write. 51. 1 wa11ted to ltave my coat clea11ed.
27. I am goi11g to have the car repaired. 52. Turпing over the corner, 1 saw а beautiful building.

28. Arriviпg iп this city, we were at а Joss.


53. Havi11g worked i11 this field for ma11y years, he k11ew every-
thiпg very well.
29. Judging Ьу appearance, he was а driver.
54. She didn't say а word, bei11g filled with the sense of co11fi-
30. The book, lost Ьу my sister, was fouпd. . de11ce.
31. Turпing slowly, they left the hаП. 55. They were indeed old frie11ds, havi11g studied at school to-
32. Not havi11g wou11d the alarm-clock, we overslept. gether.
33. 1 heard the door being ope11ed. 56. Seizi11g all her thi11gs, she ra11 .out of the flat.
246 247
57. The fence surrounding the garden was new1y painted. 80. When asked а direct question, he told everything very quickly.
58. The two gir1s, who had been doing the room, 1eft it. 81. After her husband's death she was broken.
59. Не 1ooked at the flying p1ane. 82. Не entered the room accompanied Ьу his servant:
60. When (whi1e) going home, 1 met my neighbour. 83. She couldn't say а word shocked Ьу his proposal.
61. А broken cup was lying on the carpet. 84. It was an old woman wearing g1asses.
62. The answer, written in pencil, was considered (to Ье) а mis- 85. Не lay on his bed smoking а cigarette.
take. 86. She didn't even look at the murdered man.
63. А Ьоу, throwing stones, was laughing 1oudly. 87. Paralyzed with terror she didn't know where to go.
64. Му children, who had been throwing stones into the river, 88. 1 watched (was watching) the luggage registered.
went home.
89. She was found lying in the garden.
65. Stones, thrown from the bank of the river, sink to the bottom.
90. lf you want things done well, do them yourself.
66. Look, the stones, being thrown Ьу this Ьоу, fly (fall down)
farthest of all. 91. When а person has pain in his/her teeth, he (she) goes to а
dentist to have the ·holes in the teeth filled.
67. Не 1ooks worried and part1y 1ost.
92. You must have your Ьlood tested.
68. 1 have never been so deceived in а man as 1 was in Mr.
Brown. 93. The next day 1 had my ticket delivered to the hotel l was
69. Her words didn't sound convincing. staying at.
94. The books ordered here are usually sent Ьу post.
70. lt must have been very painful to see your house occupied Ьу
strangers. 95. The books ordered last month have not arrived yet.
71. Do you want to have your tickets delivered? 96. Having ordered the books, we went home.
72. She 1eft me suddenly as if desiring to cut short our talk. 97. The man who ordered the books, was а stranger (to me).
73. Не hated all the people at the station having once been one 98. Having been kept in the reading-room for ten days, the
of them himself. books were returned to the funds.
74. Not knowing where Mr. Brown lived, she decided to find out 99. 1 hope, the conclusions being drawn are based on recent
his address. finds.
75. Though having started very late, we came to the appointed 100. It is known that the language spoken Ьу these tribes was
place on time. Germanic.
76. Frankly speaking, the news was alarming. 1О 1. 1 rushed to the bushes following the policeman.
77. Having admitted he loved Ann, Mr. Brown was frightened. 102·. She entered the hall followed Ьу her pet-dog.
78. Не hesitated for а moment, not knowing what to say. 103. Strictly speaking, the doctor was not right.
79. Having to1d what he knew, the witness went away. 104. Being tired he decided to go to bed.
248 17-621
249
105. Не being tired, 1 decided not to disturb him. 126. Having been warned about the bandits, she .Jeft her valua-
Ьles at home.
106. The conference being over, the participants went on an ex-
cursion. ! 127. Tom, horrified at what l1e had done, could at first say nothing.
107. Their work comp1eted, the secretaries left. 128. When using this medicine, follow the instructions.
108. There being nobody in the room, he decided to wait. 129. l want this work done quickly.
130. Arriving at our town, he brought bad news.
J

109. 1 often hear his manners discussed.


110. The substance being investigated is first weighed. 131. l heard your name being mentioned.
111. The substance thus oЬtained was pure. 132. Let sleeping dogs lie.
112. The teachers invited to our college are graduates of the ped- 133. The woman who had been sending а parcel, left the post-of-
agogical university. fice.
113. The paper referred to seems to have been written in the 134. I was left waiting in the yard.
XIX1h century. 135. The letter having been written, l hid it in my pocket.
114. Having been examined three times, the patient was allowed 136.. Don't keep me waiting.
to take medicine at home. 137. Не is very pleased with my work.
11.5. Un1ess heated, such pies are not tasty. 138. lt was а badly-planned flat.
116. Му colleagues being away, I had to take the decision myse1f. 139. Strange as it may seem, but you look trouЬled.
117. Weather permitting, the astronomer will proceed with his 140. The patient had an arm broken.
observation. 141. W11en speaking English, рау attention to the word-order.
118. The signal given, the rocket starts immediately. 142. Name the places visited Ьу you 1ast year. ·
119. We continued our work, with our assistants helping us. 143. lt being Sunday, they went to church.
120. This question is rather complicated, belonging to the histo- 144. Tl1ere being nothing else on the taЬle, he said he wasn't
ry of the English language. hungry.
121. The article, published in а small magazine, remained un- 145. The concert being over, the lottery came next.
known. 146. All the preparations having been made, he went downstairs.
122. Не watched the temperature gradually rising. 147. Не heard them coming up the sandy road, their voices
123. Realizing that he hadn't (didn't have) enough money and ringing through the quietness.
not wanting to borrow from his father, he decided to pawn 148. They continued their way, the Ьоу sobЬing quietly.
his watch.
149. She stood silent, her lips pressed together.
124. Not knowing the Ianguage and having no friends in the
town, he found it hard to get work. 150. Andrew followed his father with his heart beating fast.
125. Having failed the exam twice, he made up his mind to stop 151. The girl went along the street, with tears rolling down her
studying. cheeks.
250 251
17*
152. Time permitting, we'll go to the museum. 176. Our flat, facing the East, is very light.
153. Not knowing her address, 1 couldn't send her а letter. 177. Sitting (when sitting) on the grass, we admired the beauty
154. Supported unanimously, the project was approved. of the landscape.
155. 1 think he is the best poet living. 178. 1 saw her watching (watch) ducks, floating on the pond.
156. 1 saw the monument being photographed. 179. How beautiful is. this district, lined witl1 trees!
157. Не had his flat redecorated. 180. We are hardly ever аЬlе to visit our relatives, living out-of-
town.
158. 1'll have my car repaired next month.
181. So in the end we were allowed to watch а surgeon operating
159. The situation being favouraЬle, tl1ey bought the shares.
on а patient.
160. Тhе woman, staring at me, was in the strange clothes.
182. Having turned everything upside down, they left the flat in а
161. Looking about, he stumЬled over something. mess.
162. She sat with her elbows resting on the iaЬle. 183. Having agreed to help my brother, 1 am to get up earlier
163. Not wanting to admit it openly, she certainly fell in Iove than usual tomorrow.
with Peter. 184. Не looked at а festive dinner, rubblng his hands (together).
164. Having chosen teaching for her career, she was disappoint- 185. Are there any facts, providing Mr. Тhomson's guilt?
ed at it later.
186. 1 saw him sitting motionless at the taЬle.
165. People, dedicating their life to constant creativity, tend to
get (have) insomnia. 187. Having been invited to our place, he made himself at home
166. When being at а Parent-Teachers association meeting, he very quickly.
couldn't help being angry. 188. Holding on to а branch, he climbed а little higher.
167. 1 want him well thrashed. 189. The lesson being over, everybody was making noise.
168. Behaving in а different way, he felt remorse. 190. 1 know many people, being fond of theatre.
169. Having estaЬiished himself as the master of а new style, he 191. We always take dried fruit with us when we go on а hike.
had а great number of clients.
192. Butter kept in а fridge is always fresh.
170. The girl having dark areas under .her eyes was seriously Ш.
193. Тhе expected reply came the next day.
171. Why do you prefer to walk bare-headed?
194. Throw away the broken plates. 1 don't like broken things in
172. Having lived many years under good conditions, he the house.
couldn't get used to the changes in his life.
195. Lost time is never found again.
173. 1 think it is interesting for the newcomers to know the tradi-
tions of our club. 196. Well begun is half done .. ·
174. Having been struck Ьу his belшviour, we couldn't say а word. 197. Easier said than done.
175. When crossing а street, look left first, then - right. 198. The temperature being 100 degrees, the water began to boil.

252 253
199. ThC' machines are assembled l1ere, witl1 many parts arriviпg 218. F1o kept on smiling, good temper being her special charm.
from other factories. 219. The outside temperature being ten degrees below zero, it
200. His leg hurting him, he couldп't continue the journey. was unusually cold inside.
220. The mission carried out, they were granted а three day leave.
201. Water being denser than air, the speed of sound is less.
221. l have something to Ье thankful for, all things considered.
202. Circumstances being suitaЬle, Jack decided to take the job
offered him. 222. She heard the rain beating against the window.
203. This being the second heart attack he had that month, they 223. Monica spent the evening phoning her friends.
thought the situation was very serious. 224. They had а kitchen-garden providing them with vegetaЬles in
204. They had to move very slowly, the road being new to them. the summer.
205. There being no cure for the disease, there was nothing the 225. Having run into serious difficulties, I could count on your
doctors could do for him. support and understanding.
206. There wasn't а moment to lose, with the ship sinking fast. 226. Ours is а long-standing friendship.
207. They decided to move to another town, the climate being 227. Students, studying а foreign language, should read authentic
better there. literature.
208. Towering in front of the explorers, rose а great range of 228. Emma came to the party, though still refusing to dance.
mountains covered with ice. 229. The wind came whirling from the mountains.
209. The game, if lost, might cost him а fortune. 230. The sea rough and choppy, I missed my usual swim that day.
210. They did all, as instructed. 231. Adrian watched Nicky making his favourite salad.
211. When interviewed, the scientist refused to comment on the 232. Michael had his ear pierced to annoy his parents.
latest discovery. 233. It can take days or weeks to get your telephone repaired.
212. When completed, the new building will house all of the ba- 234. How on earth did you manage to have your car repaired so
sic laboratories. cheaply?
213. They carried out а number of experiments using the most 235. Не had his driving license endorsed Ьу the police for dan-
up-to-date methods and equipment. gerous driving.
214. Special mention must Ье made of the extensive research 236. I'd like my tyres checked, please. And the tank filled.
now being conducted in blo-chemistry. 237. Mind that you don't have your fingers caught in the door.
215. Knowing the harmful effects of the rays, they took special 238. The dog strolled away with an earnest air, reappearing а few
precautions. minutes afterwards, with а dead water-rat in his mouth.
216. P1ants grown in the dark are always colourless, chlorophyll 239. Finding himself at Dallas, he put up at the "Bull".
becoming green only under the action of light.
240 .. We were pleased with the rooms assigned to us in this inn.
217. The matter being so urgent, they had to reconsider the
original plan. 241. lf left to himself, Montmorency would chase cats.

254 255
242. When called, he would appear immediately. 263. Fifty yards away was the pretty little cottage with the vege-
243. lt was an old country inn furnished very modestly. tаЫе garden stretching away to the wood.
244. N ot knowing German properly he could not order his 264. Sh~ found herself in а wretched little kitchen, lighted Ьу а lit-
breakfast. tle lamp.
245. 1 read the report through again, making notes. 265. The dog, having walked round the three small flower-beds,
had also taken а seat in front of old Jolyon.
246. Seating ourselves at one of the little taЬles we called the
waiter. 266. She called Helen, telling her that Charles was upset.
247. Dressed in this white frock she looks еvеп more charmiпg 267. She came stealing up the stairs, with а kitteп in her arms.
than usual. 268. Noticiпg that they were no loпger ~Jone, he turned and Ье-
248. Breakfast ordered, he began looking through his German gап examiпing the luster.
conversation book. 269. The wiпdows of tl1e drawiпg-room opened оп to а balcony
249. J~rome and Harris scraped the potatoes, George giving ad- overlooking the garden.
VICe. 270. She had her growiпg baЬies to take care of.
250. The potatoes peeled, they began to cook ап Irish stew. 271. Tliey went off hand in haпd, little Holly lookiпg back over
251. 1t beiпg too Jate to sail оп past Readiпg, we decided to go her shoulder.
back. 272. Не had left his wife sitting оп the sofa iп the drawiпg-room,
252. There being nothing but silly dialogues iп the conversation her hands crossed in her lap, manifestly waiting for him to
book, it was of no use for him. go out.
253. Seeing the kettle boiling, Montmoreпcy growled and ran 273. Не walked rapidly, his head bent, looking neither to the
away. right nor Jeft.
254. Having а headache, Harris objected to George playing banjo. 274. The child sat faciпg Margaret witl1 unflickering eyes.
255. А spluttering and steaming kettle always aroused his curiosity. 275. 1 walked dowп to the beach to bathe, and my uncle, having
something to do iп the town, walked part of the way with
256. If determined to have а fight, Moпtmoreпcy would not hesi-
tate. me.
276. We were stuпned Ьу the acrobats balanciпg оп top of each
257. А promise accounts to little unless kept.
other with iпcrediЬle ease.
258. Не would growl and back at а rapid rate, with his tail slшt
down. ' 277. I felt terrified wheп the lioп-tamer put his haпds iпto the
lion's mouth.
259. The rain having stopped, they climbed out of the tent.
278. The cl1ildreп were disappoiпted when they were not iпvited
260. Nobody objecting, George began playing his banjo. to ride оп the elephants' backs.
261. George played his banjo, his frieпds listeпiпg to the music 279. Не looked around the coffee-shop packed with people and
in silence. moved to the taЬle marked '' Reserved".
262. Не did поt answer, feeling himself in an utterly false position. 280. She refused to see him for reasons already meпtioпed.
256 257
281. 1 reached for the glass held out to me.
282. While painting the gate he sang an old song stopping at
,.. 302. Curiously excited, he listened to their whispered conversa-
tion.
303. They sat on а fallen tree that made а convenient seat.
times to admire his work.
283. "1 don't know if I see what you are driving at," he said with
а hurt expression~ '1
1

1
.

.
304. Smoke could Ье seen rising from the village.
305. She felt the tears Ьlinding her eyes and looked away, trying
to hide l1er emotions.
284. She rose and, telling me to follow her, walked on, laughing
and talking.
285. Не shook his head and then broke out with violence "I
••
' '
306. Are you going to spend your life saying "ought", like the
rest of our moralists?
307. The man was found grovelling on the floor.
won't have Carl hurt".
286. When annoyed, he went to his room and locked in.
287. She is а terror when roused.
11 308. The old woman was heard shrieking in short bursts like а
ship in а fog.
288. At last she came in, flashed, handsome, browning. i8 309. When the door closed, Mike and 1 were left looking at each
other.
289. Не was а large man, with thinning brown hair.
290. Passing the Comedy Theatre 1 happened to look up and saw
the clouds lit Ьу the setting sun.
'1
1 •
310. I felt 1 had been caught boasting.
311. About that time the hurricane was reported tramping its way
out in our direction.
291. Douglas was seen still smiling sweet1y in spite of his growing
anger.
292. А minute ago he was seen engaged in а lively conversation.
• 312. One aftemoon in Augнst 1 saw something that surprised me
and set me thinking.
313. Не looked at Jane wiping her tear-wet face.
293. Не kept his eyes fixed on mine till I had finished speaking.
294. The smoke drifted away and the camp lay revealed at the
foot of the mountain.
295. I am sure this information will have to Ье made known.
1 314. I pictured myself sitting Ьу his bed, nursing him.
315. Sitting idly at his desk, he puffed away at а cigar and
watched, the Ьlue smoke curling.
316. Arriving he found me reading "Tom Jones".
296. But 1 hear you are constantly seen drunk in the middle of
the afternoon. 1 317. Just as I got to the end of the corridor, 1 heard my tele-
phone ringing again.
297. Arriving at the small building she found it locked and deser-
ted. 318. l don't like you driving back alone.
298. You'll never guess where I had the suit made. 319. 1 didп't want any outsiders invited to the rehearsal.
299. It's all past - all over and finished with. I don't want it 320. 1 could feel а pulse beating madly in my head.
raked up. 321. 1 could hear furniture being smashed.
300. She was seen standing with her arms folded, smoking, star- 322. 1 saw tl1em running up the stail's, brimming with excite-
ing thoughtlessly. ment.
301. The choice made, she ran up to him.
258
• 323. 1 made to go out, but Roger, browning, shook his head .
259
324. Кnowing he could not go to Alice, he tried to telephone her. BIBLIOGRAPHY
325. Seeing their discomfort, Mrs. Аре softened and smiled.
326. You missed all that excitement living abroad.
327. Не went downstairs, holding on the banisters on the way
down.
328. Joining our group, Diana was avid for action.
329. Often, when boasting of his deceits, he sounded childlike
1. Блох М.Я., Лебедева А.Я., Денисова В. С. Практикум по английско­
and innocent. му языку: Грамматика. Сборник упражнений: Учебное nособие
330. She lacked the courage to drop cosmetics altogether when для вузов.- М.: Астрель, 2000.
going out with Keith. 2. Тузеева К.А., Костыгина С.И. Грамматика англИйского языка. Ге­
331. Не listened, as though brooding. рундий.- СПб.: Союз, 2004.
332. She stopped speaking, as though waiting for him to speak. 3. Тузеева КА., Костыгина С.И. Грамматика английского языка. Ин­
финитив. - СПб.: Союз, 2000.
333. Himself а man of no education, though possessing remarka-
Ьle wit, he placed little value on book knowledge.
4. Корнеева Е.А. Практическая грамматика английского языка. Ин­
финитив, причастие 1, причастие 11, герундий: Учебное пособие.­
334. Не always stopped if passing on а wet night, and sniffed and СПб.: Союз, 2004.
enjoyed that skunk smell. 5. Ястребова Е.Б., Владыкина Л.Г., Ермакова М. В. Курс английского
335. So taking all things into consideration, I decided to tear the языка для студентов языковых вузов: Учебное пособие.- М.: Эк­
article up. замен,2003.
6. Eastwood G. Oxford Practice Grammar. - Oxford University Press,
1996.
7. Graver B.D. Advanced English Practice. - Oxford University Press,
1994.
8. Potlock С. W. Communicate what you mean: а concise advanced gram-
mar.- Prentice Hall Regents, 1997.
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Азаров А.А. Англо-русский энц}Jклопедический словарь ис­


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Азаров А.А. Большой англо-русский словарь религиозной
Учебное издание
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Арнольд И.Б. Стилистика. Современный аnглийский язык:
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Учеб. для вузов.
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Бельчинекая Б.А. Грамматика английского языка: Учеб. по­
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Гивенталь И.А. Как удивиться и возмутиться по-английски:

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Гивенталь И.А. Как это сказать по-английски: Учеб. пособие
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Неличные формы rлаrола
Упражнения и комментарии.
Гуревич Б.Б. Стилистика английского языка: Учеб.пособие.
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Ильина А.К. Язык СМИ: 500 трудных слов: Англо-русский
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Миньяр-Белоручева А.П., Шейнина Л.Б. Прогулки по Мо­


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Нелюбив Л.Л. Толковый переводоведческий словарь.
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