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Adam Adamkowski

Mariusz Lewandowski

Transient Pipe Flow Simulation

Department of Hydraulic Machinery Tests and The paper presents a comparative analysis of calculations performed basing on the

Diagnostics, selected unsteady friction models and their validation based on the results of own experi-

The Szewalski Institute of Fluid-Flow Machinery mental tests. The computer code developed for predicting transient pipe flows includes

of the Polish Academy of Sciences, the models of: Zielke, Trikha, Vardy and Brown, Zarzycki, and Brunone et al. Our own

Gdansk, Poland experiments have been conducted at a test rig designed and constructed at the Institute of

Fluid-Flow Machinery of the Polish Academy of Sciences (IMP PAN) in Gdansk in order

to test transient pipe flows in a wide range of Reynolds numbers. The results following

from this analysis enable the quantitative and qualitative assessment of the models under

consideration. 关DOI: 10.1115/1.2354521兴

and validate experimentally the models that can be used in a wide

The assumption in accordance to which the unsteady liquid range of frequencies and Reynolds numbers.

flow in a long closed conduit1 共pipeline兲 may be treated as a The second group of models mentioned assumes the wall shear

one-dimensional flow is commonly accepted. In such an approach stress due to flow unsteadiness is proportional to the variable flow

it is also common practice to assume the velocity profile during acceleration. This approach has been introduced by a group of

transient flows in a closed conduit to remain the same as under the researchers headed by Daily 关6兴. The proportionality coefficient

steady-state flow conditions featured by the same mean velocity. has been established based on the experimental measurements car-

However, it is generally known nowadays that the approach based ried out by Cartens and Roller 关7兴. Modifications of this model

on the quasi-steady friction losses hypothesis is one of the basic have been the subject of numerous subsequent studies, including

reasons for differences between experimental and computational those of Brunone et al. 关8兴. Easy applicability to numerical com-

results obtained according to the one-dimensional flow theory. putations is a significant advantage of this approach. However, the

need to determine the empirical coefficient mentioned is an obvi-

Unsteady friction models and the relevant computational methods

ous demerit. There appeared suggestions that the friction coeffi-

are the subject of various research projects at the research centers

cient in this model depends also on the velocity derivative of the

all over the world. second or even higher order.

Multiyear effort of numerous researchers has resulted in devel- It follows from this brief survey of unsteady friction models

oping miscellaneous models of hydraulic transients with the un- that the approaches mentioned require comparative analyses of

steady hydraulic resistance taken into account. The most widely both the models between each other and the computational results

used models consider extra friction losses to depend on a history with experimental data. The comparative analysis of computa-

of weighted accelerations during unsteady phenomena or on in- tional results based on selected friction models is presented in this

stantaneous flow acceleration. paper. The authors have also validated these calculations with ex-

Development of the first group of models was initiated in 1968 perimental data obtained at the special test rig erected in the IMP

by Zielke 关1兴. In his model the instantaneous wall shear stress PAN—the experiments have covered a wide range of initial Rey-

共which is directly proportional to friction losses兲 is the sum of the nolds numbers.

quasi-steady value plus a term in which certain weights are given

to the past velocity changes. This approach is assigned for tran-

sient laminar flow cases. The model developed by Zielke is based 2 Theoretical Basis of Calculation Method

on solid theoretical fundamentals and the multiple experimental Based on the method described below, a computer code was

validation tests have shown good conformity between calculated developed in order to calculate the unsteady pipe flow phenom-

and measured results. It is, therefore, no wonder that numerous ena.

researchers have followed Zielke’s scent, giving rise to a number

of proposals for describing friction losses in unsteady turbulent

2.1 Governing Equations Describing Unsteady Liquid

flows. From among these proposals, known also as the multi-layer

Flow in Closed Conduits. The following assumptions were made

models, those of Vardy and Brown 关2,3兴 共two-layer model兲 or

to derive equations describing unsteady liquid flow in closed con-

Zarzycki 关4,5兴 共four-layer model兲 may be distinguished. In gen- duits 共water hammer兲:

eral, the models mentioned are based on experimental data on the

distribution of the turbulent viscosity coefficient in the assumed – The flow in closed conduits is one-dimensional, which means

flow layers. The efforts aimed at enhancement of these models are that the characteristic quantities are cross-section averaged;

– the flow velocity is small compared to the pressure wave

celerity 共speed兲;

1

A conduit may be considered as a long conduit when proportion between its – the liquid is a low-compressible fluid—it deforms elastically

length L and internal diameter D is greater than 10. under pressure surges with insignificant changes of its den-

Contributed by the Fluids Engineering Division of ASME for publication in the

JOURNAL OF FLUIDS ENGINEERING. Manuscript received April 6, 2005; final manuscript

sity;

received March 18, 2006. Assoc. Editor: James A. Liburdy. Paper presented at the – the pipeline wall is deformed by pressure surges according to

9th International Conference on Pressure Surges, 24–26 March 2004, Chester, UK. the elastic theory of deformation.

Journal of Fluids Engineering Copyright © 2006 by ASME NOVEMBER 2006, Vol. 128 / 1351

According to the above assumptions, the following equations are

used for mathematical description of unsteady liquid flows in

closed conduits 关9兴:

• Continuity equation:

H a2 V

+ · =0 共1兲

t g x

• Momentum equation:

V H

+g· +g·J=0 共2兲

t x

equations of the hyperbolic type with unknown functions of the

piezometric head, H = H共x , t兲, and flow velocity, V = V共x , t兲. Elas-

ticity of pipe walls and liquid is represented by the pressure wave

celerity 共a in Eq. 共1兲兲. The J quantity in Eq. 共2兲 stands for head

loss per length unit of pipe and represents hydraulic resistance

caused by internal friction in liquid and friction at the pipe wall. Fig. 1 Diamond grid of characteristics with notation used in

This quantity is a sum of the quasi-steady flow pipeline resistance the calculation method

Jq 共active resistance resulting from viscous friction at the pipe

wall兲 and pipeline inertance Ju 共reactance accounting for liquid

inertia兲 This coefficient may be assumed constant 共with the value

fitted to conform with computational and experimental

J = Jq + Ju 共3兲 results 关11兴 or depending on the initial Re value—see

There are several friction models differing between each other in Appendix A兲 or as a variable, depending on the instanta-

definition of Eq. 共3兲 terms. neous Re values during unsteady flow 关2兴.

2.2 Friction Models Used in Calculation Method. In the

3 Method of Solution

computer code algorithm the following friction models have been

applied 共see Appendix A for the detailed description兲: The method of characteristics has been applied in order to solve

the system of Eqs. 共1兲 and 共2兲 关9,12兴. According to this method,

• Quasi-steady friction model: Eqs. 共1兲 and 共2兲 are transformed into the following two pairs of

In this approach the pipeline inertance Ju equal zero is ordinary differential equations 共for positive and negative charac-

assumed. The pipeline resistance Jq is usually described bas- teristics C+ and C−兲:

ing on the Darcy-Weisbach equation. The quasi-steady fric-

tion coefficient 共the Darcy friction coefficient兲 is calculated for C+:

dx g

= + a → dV + dH + gJ · dt = 0 共4兲

basing on the Hagen-Poiseuille law used for laminar flows dt a

共Re艋 Rec-s where Rec-s = 2320兲 or on the Colebrook-White

formula used for turbulent flows 共Re⬎ Rec-s兲兲; dx g

• Unsteady friction models developed by: for C−: = − a → dV − dH + gJ · dt = 0 共5兲

dt a

– Zielke 关1兴: The first-order finite-difference approximation is used in order to

This model describes pipeline inertance as a function of integrate Eqs. 共4兲 and 共5兲 along the characteristic lines relevant to

flow acceleration and weighted past velocity changes. Ac- each of them, respectively. This procedure leads to the following

cording to assumptions, this solution is correct for lami- form of these equations:

nar flows 共for Re艋 Rec−s兲;

– Trikha 关10兴: g

C+:共V P − VA兲 + 共H P − HA兲 + 共gJ兲A⌬t = 0 共6兲

This approach is based on an approximated form of iner- a

tance as proposed by Zielke. It presents an attempt to

describe the unsteady losses in low Reynolds number tur- g

C−:共V P − VB兲 − 共H P − HB兲 + 共gJ兲B⌬t = 0 共7兲

bulent flows; a

– Vardy and Brown 关2,3兴:

This model follows from an analysis of axisymmetric In all selected unsteady friction models the values of V and H in

flow separated into two layers according to the empirical node P are calculated using term 共gJ兲 related to the velocity par-

distribution of turbulent viscosity coefficient 共two-layer tial derivatives, which are determined at time levels t j−1 and t j.

model兲. The inertance is described as in Zielke model but Two types of numerical grids may be used in MOC — diamond

with Re-dependent weighting function; 共Fig. 1兲 and rectangular grid of characteristics 共Fig. 2兲. From

– Zarzycki 关4,5兴: among all the differences between them a way of calculating the

The model belongs to the group of multi-layer models, velocity partial derivatives necessary to determine quantity J is

including also the model proposed by Vardy and Brown. the most important. It follows from the fact that the rectangular

It follows from dividing the axisymmetric flow into four grid is two times denser than the diamond grid. In both grids

layers with given approximation of turbulent viscosity longitudinal step ⌬x is related to time step ⌬t as follows 共stability

distribution in each of them; condition兲:

– Brunone et al. 关8兴: ⌬x

Description of friction losses is based on an assumption =a 共8兲

that the inertance is proportional to local and convectional ⌬t

derivative of the mean pipe flow velocity. The role of the Increasing density of the grid 共of the same structure兲 has no sig-

proportionality coefficient, k3, is crucial for this model. nificant effect on the computational results. This fact is already

tions, appropriate comparisons were made using diamond grids of

different density within the confines of testing the computer pro-

gram. The results are presented in Appendix B.

4 Experimental Tests

Experiments were conducted at a test rig specially designed in

order to investigate the water hammer phenomenon with sche-

matic shown in Fig. 3. The rig was constructed at the laboratory of

IMP PAN in Gdansk. Its main component is the L = 98.11 m long

copper pipe with an internal diameter of D = 0.016 m and a wall

thickness of e = 0.001 m. The steel cylinder with diameter of about

1.6 m was used to spirally coil the pipe on it. The pipe is rigidly

mounted to the cylinder coating in order to minimize its vibra-

tions. The inclination angle of the pipe 共兲 is not larger than

0.5 deg. A quick-closing, spring driven ball valve is installed at

one end of the pipe. The valve design enables an almost stepwise

discharge variation up to a complete flow cut-off. This has been

confirmed by the records of valve closure with a duration not

exceeding 0.003 s, which is 2% of the half-period of pressure

Fig. 2 Rectangular grid of characteristics with notation used wave propagation along the pipe 共2L / a兲.

in the calculation method The test rig is equipped with appropriate measuring instrumen-

tation. Absolute pressure semiconductor transducers are mounted

on the main components of the hydraulic circuit of the test rig,

confirmed by many numerical tests published in the literature con- four of them positioned at equidistant 共every L / 4兲 sections along

cerning this issue 共in 关13,14兴 the numerical grid with 8, 16, and 32 the pipeline and the last one—measuring pressure in the high

computational reaches were tested兲. However, there are much pressure reservoir. The basic characteristics of these transducers

more differences between calculations obtained based on different are as follows:

grid structures, diamond and rectangular. It follows directly from

basic feature of the rectangular grid which, in fact, consists of two • measuring range: 共0 – 4兲 MPa

diamond grids shifted in relation to each other. These two dia- • transmitted frequency band: 共0 – 2兲 kHz

mond grids are coupled only through the partial velocity deriva- • precision class: 0.2%

tives in quantity J which are calculated using finite differences

共see Appendix A兲. In order to get a clear-cut proof that the density A turbine flowmeter with the range of 1.5 m3 / h

of the grid has no significant influence on the results of calcula- 共⬃4.2· 10−4 m3 / s兲 and precision class of 1% is used for indirect

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

Initial mean Vo 0.066 0.162 0.340 0.467 0.559 0.631 0.705 0.806 0.940

flow velocity 关m/s兴

Initial Reynolds Reo 1111 2737 5731 7871 9421 10634 11882 13590 15843

number 关-兴

共approx. value兲

Fig. 4 Pressure changes measured in four pipe cross-sections—case of

sudden flow cut-off with initial flow velocity Vo = 0.94 m / s

measurement of average flow velocity in the pipeline. The flow- valve installed between the quick closing valve and flowmeter and

meter was checked using volumetric method before and after the also feed pump with adjustable rotational speed was used for this

measurements. purpose 共Fig. 3兲. After adjusting the initial conditions and after

It is worthwhile to stress that the test rig described enables us to some time needed for stabilization of the flow conditions 共not less

generate the water hammer without column separation phenom- than 180 s兲 the flow rate measurement was made. Recording of

enon at the initial conditions of the Reynolds numbers up to the pressure changes and the valve closure rate was started a few

Re⬵ 16,000. seconds before quickly cutting-off the flow 共water hammer phe-

Before starting the experiments, the hydraulic system was filled nomenon兲. Flow cut-off causing water hammer was executed by

with water and left for a few days to remove undissolved air from releasing the spring in the driving mechanism of the quick closing

the liquid in as much as possible. The intention was to minimize valve.2 After the recording was ended the test rig was prepared to

the influence of undissolved air bubbles on the analyzed phenom- execute the next experimental run—the quick closing valve was

enon courses. opened, the ball valve opening and/or pump rotational speed was

The tests consisted in several runs of unsteady flow after sud- appropriately adjusted in order to set another initial flow condition

den closure of the valve from different initial flow conditions— for the next run. Recording of the pressure changes and the valve

velocity Vo 共Reo兲—Table 1. During the tests the steady head water closure rate3 was carried out with a sampling frequency of

level was kept up in the high-pressure reservoir 共Ho ⬵ 1250 kPa兲, 2.5 kHz using a computerized data acquisition system.

the temperature of water was 22.6° C, and the kinematic viscosity

coefficient for these conditions was = 9.493· 10−7 m2 / s. 2

Based on the comparison between many recorded courses of the quick closing

Every measurement, started by cutting-off the flow, was pre- valve closure, repeatability of these courses was affirmed so that repeatability of the

ceded by an adjustment of required stable initial conditions 共initial manner of flow cut-off was also affirmed.

velocity Vo and steady head water level Ho兲. The regulating ball- 3

For recording traces of closing the valve the potentiometer was used.

An example of measured pressure variations in case of initial where:

flow velocity of Vo = 0.94 m / s 共Re⬵ 15,800兲 is shown in Fig. 4.

Some other experimental results are presented together with com- - for water

putational results in the further sections of this paper. In the mea- at ⬃20° C:

sured traces the pressure overshoot at the first pressure pulse re- bulk modulus: Kw = 2.1· 109 Pa,

tains attention. This effect is interpreted as the result of the fluid- density = 1000 kg/ m3,

structure interaction. - for copper

It is worthwhile to stress that the absolute systematic uncer- pipeline coating:

tainty of pressure measurements, ±8 kPa 共0.002· 4 MPa兲, was de- Poisson’s coefficient: = 0.35,

creased to the value of ±4 kPa due to calibration of pressure trans- density: copper = 8890 kg/ m3,

ducers carried out in thermal condition similar to those occurred Young’s modulus: E = 120· 109 Pa,

during measurements at the test rig. Transmitted frequency band internal pipe diameter: D = 0.016 m,

of transducers used, 0 – 2 kHz, indicates that the rise time of out- pipe-wall thickness: e = 0.001 m.

put signal for up to 4 MPa stepwise change of pressure 共measur-

ing range兲 is shorter than 0.0005 s 共1 / 2000 Hz兲. This time is The difference between these two values 共from the experiment

shorter than about 0.165% of the pressure wave period and calculated value兲 is only about 0.26%. However, the experi-

共4L / a = ⬃ 0.3 s兲 or, in other words, transmitted frequency band mental value of a determined for each considered run was taken

for each transducer is at least 600 times wider than the pressure into account in order to avoid discrepancy of the pressure wave

wave frequency amounting to about 3.3 Hz 共a / 共4L兲兲. period in compared courses.

A stepwise change of the flow velocity at the valve and the

constant pressure head level in the high pressure reservoir were

assumed as boundary conditions. Additionally it was assumed that

5 Comparison Between Calculation and Measure- the pipeline is straight and horizontal.

ments The full-convolution scheme was used for the models devel-

oped by Zielke, Vardy and Brown, and Zarzycki. Their application

5.1 Calculations. All runs recorded at the water hammer test requires much more computation time and computer storage in

rig were used in order to verify the friction models considered in comparison with other models. As it was mentioned earlier the

the calculation method. The initial conditions of the pipe flow for Zielke model is applicable for transient laminar flow simulations

each tested run are shown in Table 1. 共according to general assumptions兲. Vardy and Brown and the

Calculations were carried out taking into account the following Zarzycki models are assigned also to transient turbulent flows.

friction models: The fundamental difference between Vardy and Brown and Zarzy-

cki turbulent models is not only the number of flow layers taken

• Quasi-steady friction model; into a account 共the Vardy and Brown model is a two-layer model

• Zielke model; and the Zarzycki model is a four-layer model兲. They also differ in

• Trikha model; assuming the critical value of Re, which separate laminar and

• Vardy and Brown model;

turbulent flows. Vardy and Brown use the value equal to Rec−s

• Zarzycki model;4

⬵ 2320 共the same as in steady flow cases兲. Zarzycki, based on

• Brunone et al. model with constant k3 coefficient 共ver. 1兲;

Ohmi et al. investigations 关15兴, uses so-called unsteady value of

• Brunone et al. model with varying k3 coefficient 共ver. 2兲.

critical Re equal to Rec−u given by Eq. 共A13兲. The Re-dependant

Calculations for a frictionless flow were also carried out. Their weighting function 共A12兲 proposed by Zarzycki is used only when

results are shown below in order to illustrate the influence exerted instantaneous Re reaches values higher than Rec−u. More detailed

by friction terms in Eq. 共2兲 on computational results. The calcu- description of all models used is presented in the Appendix A.

lations were accomplished using the diamond grid 共Fig. 1兲 共only Chosen results of the calculation 共the relative pressure head

calculations based on the Trikha model was made using the rect- variations at the valve for runs with initial Reynolds number equal

angular grid—it follows from the author’s assumptions introduced to 1100, 5700, 10,600, and 15,800兲 are shown together with the

into this model兲. The density of these grids was assumed by fixing experimental results enabling thus a visual assessment of applied

24 computational reaches along the pipe length. The pressure models—Figs. 5–8.

wave celerity was calculated from the recorded data based on the 5.2 Discussion of the Results. The comparative analysis of

analysis in the time and frequency domain of all pressure courses measured and calculated pressure head variations during unsteady

taken into account. The mean value of this quantity was amounted pipe flow, presented in Figs. 5–8, indicates that the unsteady fric-

to a = 1301.8 m / s, and it differs from the exact value for each of tion models show the unquestionable advantage over the quasi-

the runs not more than 0.3%. It needs to be emphasized that the steady friction modeling. This is another proof of the well-known

mean pressure wave celerity determined based on the experimen- fact that the analysis of attenuation of pressure waves in the

tal data is in comparison to the value calculated from the follow- closed conduits based on the quasi-steady friction losses hypoth-

ing formulas5 关9兴: esis is a much simplified approach.

Unsteady friction models based on the inertance depending on

the weighted past velocity changes 共given by Zielke, Trikha,

冑

Vardy and Brown, and Zarzycki兲 deserve special attention. In dis-

Kw tinction to all other methods applied, these models predict almost

1449 superbly the wave front shape. Moreover they preserve the fre-

冑

a= = 共9兲

Kw D 冑1.2457 = 1298.4 m/s quency. The model developed by Trikha 共as aforementioned,

1 + 共1 − 兲 2

Trikha has proposed expression 共A7兲, which in an efficient way

E e approximates the weighting function in the model of Zielke兲 re-

veals different wave front shape. The increase of pressure near the

4

Rec−u value in the turbulent case is about 30,000. It means that in this case 共with wave top is a bit steeper and symmetrically the same situation is

initial conditions of Reo = 15,800兲 calculations have to be carried out using the

weighting function in 共A9兲.

when the pressure decreases near the wave bottom. Additionally

5

It was assumed that the pipeline at the test rig is anchored against longitudinal pressure oscillations are slightly shifted in relation to other calcu-

movement. lated courses. This is not exactly the feature of this model but

Fig. 5 Run with Reo · 1100—comparison between calculated and mea-

sured pressure traces at the valve

rather the result of using the rectangular grid instead of the dia- ments than predicted by means of multi-layer models. The analy-

mond one used with other friction models. Besides these insignifi- sis shows a minor change in frequency of the pressure wave simu-

cant facts, the results obtained using the Trikha model are accept- lated by means of this model 共in lower values direction兲. The

able and, moreover, they need much lesser computing power and results attained using version 2 of this model 共with variable k3

time as it is in the case of using other multi-layer models with the coefficient兲 are featured by more effective damping and insignifi-

full convolution scheme for the weighting function W共兲. cantly lower frequency than those following from version 1 共with

For multi-layer models it is symptomatic that the rise of Reo constant k3 coefficient兲. In both versions, an effect similar to that

results in an increase of the differences between calculation and of the multi-layer models is observed—rising the Reynolds num-

measurement. In the case of runing with the highest Reo 共15,800兲,

ber results in rising differences between calculated and measured

the computational damping effect is substantially more intense

amplitudes of pressure head oscillations—see Figs. 5–8.

than in reality—Fig. 8. Much more detailed analysis is needed in

order to clarify this phenomenon. However, it does not change the The authors of this paper have compared in 关16兴 the experimen-

fact that the models developed by Zielke, Trikha, Vardy and tal data published by Holmboe and Rouleau 关17兴 with the compu-

Brown, and Zarzycki yield the closest results to the experimental tational results following from the unsteady friction models. Gen-

ones both in the laminar and turbulent cases. erally, the comparative analysis of Ref. 关16兴 confirms conclusions

The shape of the pressure wave front predicted basing on the quoted above. Both under laminar 共Reo ⬵ 82兲 and turbulent

Brunone et al. model shows poorer conformity with the measure- 共Reo ⬵ 7200兲 initial flow conditions, the multi-layer models reflect

Fig. 6 Run with Reo · 5700—comparison between calculated and mea-

sured pressure traces at the valve

Rouleau tests. However, the abovementioned effect of damping

overestimation is not observed. At the moment, it is difficult to

Ic−m = 冉冕

t0

te

兩⌬Hc兩dt − 冕

t0

te

兩⌬Hm兩dt 冊冒 冕

ta

te

兩⌬Hm兩dt 共10兲

significant differences between geometry of two rigs 共e.g., the

L / D ratios in hydraulic circuits are substantially different— This coefficient shows the difference between areas enclosed in

around 1400 for the Holmboe-Rouleau’s test rig and over 6100 for the pressure line and the center line of pressure oscillations for

the IMP PAN rig兲 may be indicated. It is worthwhile to notice that calculated 共index c兲 and measured 共index m兲 traces. As the value

the turbulent flow test described by Holmboe-Rouleau 共the only of Ic−m is closer to zero the convergence between compared traces

one available兲 has covered only four pressure wave periods. Ad- is better. Additionally, it is worth paying attention to the calculated

ditionally, the test was featured by a relatively low Reynolds num- pressure course. ⌬Hc is characterized by a more intense pressure

ber, Reo ⬵ 7200 共the effect of computational damping exceeding wave damping than in a measured one ⌬Hm. Therefore, the dif-

the experimental one is not visible neither in run with ference in brackets is less than 0 and the value of Ic−m is negative.

Reo ⬵ 5700, nor in the runs with higher value of Reo兲. Consequently, the positive value of Ic−m occur when the calculated

In order to allow for a precise evaluation, the analysis of fric- pressure course is characterized by less attenuation than in a mea-

tion models was supplemented with the rate of pressure traces sured one.

convergence, defined as follows: The analysis of the Ic−m coefficient has been carried out for the

Fig. 7 Run with Reo · 10,600—comparison between calculated and mea-

sured pressure traces at the valve

first 20 pressure wave periods.6 It was assumed that amplitudes of better results than the quasi-steady friction model. In the case of

waves beyond the first 20 are relatively small and, therefore, in- the quasi-steady friction model 共curve “II” on Fig. 9共a兲兲 in the

significant for purposes of the analysis. Measured and calculated range of analyzed Reo 共initial Reynolds numbers兲 coefficient Ic−m

pressure traces at the pipe cross-section next to the quick-closing have a positive value and it decreases from 150% to 60% as Reo

valve have been applied for all runs presented in Table 1. The increases 共higher values of Ic−m confirm significant discrepancies

results of this analysis are shown in Fig. 9 as the relation between the experimental and calculated pressure wave traces兲.

Ic−m = f共Reo兲 for Reo ⬵ 共1100– 15,800兲. Analyses of values of Ic−m and their relation with Reo for the

Comparison between Ic−m coefficients for analyzed friction unsteady friction models 共curves on Fig. 9共b兲兲 bring us to the

models reconfirms conclusions drown from the qualitative analy- following conclusions:

sis carried out based on charts presented in Figs. 5–8. Firstly, this

comparison shows that assuming frictionless processes is much – Results obtained based on the second version of the Brunone

simplified for simulating the water hammer 共curve “I” on Fig. et al. model with variable k3 coefficient 共depending on in-

9共a兲兲. Secondly, the unsteady friction models give significantly stantaneous Re according to 共A14兲—see Appendix A兲 are

better than in the case of ver. 1 of the Brunone et al. model

with constant k3 coefficient 共depending on the initial value of

6

The value of Ic−m depends on the number of wave periods taken into account. Re 共Reo兲 according to 共A14兲兲;

Fig. 8 Run with Reo · 15800—comparison between calculated and mea-

sured pressure traces at the valve

– the multi-layer friction models give better results than ver. 1 of the laminar Reynolds numbers 共applicability range of this

of the Brunone et al. model in the whole analyzed range of model兲 and low turbulent Reynolds numbers 共up to

Reo and also than ver. 2 of the Brunone et al. model with 5000兲—in this range the absolute value of Ic−m does not ex-

k3 = f共Re兲 for Reo values from laminar range and up to ceed 5%;

Reo ⬵ 10,000; – the Zarzycki and Vardy and Brown models 共curves “5” and

– in the case of high Reo numbers, where the damping effect in “6” on Fig. 9共b兲, respectively兲 gives comparable results. It is

the calculated pressure traces is greater than in the experi- worth paying attention to the Zarzycki model which gives the

mental ones, ver .2 of the Brunone et al. model gives better relation Ic−m = f共Reo兲 parallel to this obtained for the Zielke

results of Ic−m values—this is mainly because in the calcu-

model—it follows that in analyzed range of Re the weighting

lated pressure traces the top of the waves are much wider in

comparison to those from the experiment 共and also from the function in the Zarzycki model is independent from Re 共like-

multi-layer models兲 however, the amplitudes in the calcu- wise in the Zielke model兲. However, the Vardy and Brown

lated courses reveal a similar damping effect to the one ob- model slightly represents a better trend in relation

served for the multi-layer models; Ic−m = f共Reo兲 共flatter兲 and this is due to the relation of the

– the Zielke model 共curve “3” on Fig. 9共b兲兲 predict the realistic weighting function to the Re number 共for Re⬎ 2320—see

pressure variations with a high convergence rate in the case Appendix A兲;

Fig. 9 Relation between the rate of pressure traces convergence and initial Reynolds number; Ic−m = f„Reo…

– all multi-layer models worsen their conformity with the ex- according to this model still reveal a similar damping ef-

periment for Reo ⬎ 共6 – 10兲 · 103 — the value of Ic−m coeffi- fect to this observed for the multi-layer models.

cient in this range of Re falls beneath 共−10% 兲; 共v兲 It is required to broaden the assessment of the unsteady

– relatively good results obtained using the Trikha model are friction models for a wider range of the Reynolds numbers

worth mentioning. This undoubtedly shows that the approach 共higher than 16,000兲 and to include the cases of water

consisted in such an efficient approximation of the Zielke column separation.

weighting functions is successful 共it enables us to save time

and computer storage nevertheless it gives comparable re- Acknowledgment

sults to those obtained using the multi-layer models兲. Some results of investigations published in this paper were pre-

sented on the 9th International Conference on Pressure Surges

6 Conclusions “The Practical Application of Surge Analysis for Design and Op-

共i兲 Basing on the presented results of the theoretical and ex- eration,” 24–26 March 2004, Chester, UK.

perimental investigations it was proved that predictions of

the water hammer courses can be significantly improved Nomenclature

using the unsteady friction models in comparison to the a ⫽ 关m/s兴 pressure wave celerity

quasi-steady friction models, commonly used in practical A i, B i ⫽ 关-兴 coefficients in 共A6兲

analyses of this phenomenon so far. A *, C *, ⫽ 关-兴 coefficients in 共A10兲

共i兲 High conformity between the results of experiments and C 1, C 2, m ⫽ 关-兴 coefficients in 共A11兲

the results of calculations obtained using the Zielke model C, n ⫽ 关-兴 coefficients in 共A12兲

for unsteady laminar flows 共Re⬍ ⬃ 2320兲, revealed also in D ⫽ 关m兴 internal pipe diameter

other investigations, is confirmed. e ⫽ 关m兴 pipe wall thickness

共iii兲 From all analyzed unsteady friction models for turbulent fq ⫽ 关-兴 steady flow friction coefficient

flows the Trikha model and the multi-layer models 共Vardy g ⫽ 关m / s2兴 acceleration of gravity

and Brown, Zarzycki兲 have to be singled out. These mod-

H ⫽ 关m兴 piezometric head

els predict almost superbly the wave front shape and pre-

serve the frequency. However, it is symptomatic that for ⌬H ⫽ 关m兴 pressure head rise

higher Reo 共over approx. 10,000兲 the damping effect ob- I ⫽ 关-兴 rate of pressure trace convergence

served in the calculated courses is greater than in the ex- J ⫽ 关-兴 head loss per pipe length unit

perimental ones. Eliminating this disadvantage requires an K ⫽ 关m兴 equivalent sand roughness height

improvement of the analyzed models or working out alter- k3 ⫽ 关-兴 coefficient in 共A14兲

native friction models. L ⫽ 关m兴 penstock length

共iv兲 In general, prediction of the pressure wave according to m i, n i ⫽ 关-兴 coefficients in 共A8兲

the Brunone et al. models 共versions 1 and 2兲 gives slightly Re ⫽ 关-兴 Reynolds number VD /

worse results than the multi-layer friction models. How- t ⫽ 关s兴 time

ever, as it can be seen from the values of the rate of pres- V ⫽ 关m/s兴 average flow velocity in a pipe

sure traces convergence 共Fig. 9兲, version 2 of the Brunone W ⫽ 关-兴 weighting function

et al. model gives better results for high Reynolds num- x ⫽ 关m兴 distance along pipe axis

bers. This is mainly because the top of the calculated yi ⫽ 关m/s兴 variables in 共A7兲

waves are much wider in comparison to those from the ⫽ 关m2 / s兴 kinematic or eddy viscosity 共distin-

experiment but the amplitudes in the courses calculated guished by subscript兲

⫽ 关kg/ m3兴 fluid density tion led to the equation in which the pipeline inertance can be

⫽ 关-兴 dimensionless time related to the local acceleration of flow by means of the weighting

function W共t兲 关1兴

Subscripts and Superscripts

冕

t

app ⫽ approximation 16 V

c ⫽ calculated value Ju = 共u兲 · W共t − u兲du 共A5兲

gD2 t

m ⫽ measured value 0

l / t ⫽ laminar/turbulent flow 5

o / e ⫽ initial conditions/end of simulation

q ⫽ according to the quasi-steady flow hypothesis W共兲 = 兺e i=1

−Aii

for 艌 0.02

r ⫽ in radial co-ordinate direction

x ⫽ in axial co-ordinate direction 6

u ⫽ according to an unsteady flow model

兺B ·

i−2

W共兲 = i 2 for ⬍ 0.02 共A6兲

i=1

APPENDIX A: Description of Friction Models Used in

the Computer Code Algorithms with

Ai = 兵26.3744;70.8493;135.0198;218.9216;322.5544其

A.1 Quasi-Steady Friction Model

It is commonly assumed that the velocity profile during an un- Bi = 兵0.282095;− 1.25;1.057855;0.9375;0.396696;− 0.351563其

steady flow is not deformed in comparison with the velocity pro-

Equation 共A5兲 is based on solid theoretical fundamentals and re-

file during a steady flow with the same mean velocity. In this

mains valid in case of any law of mean velocity versus time varia-

connection, the hydraulic losses for an unsteady flow are calcu-

tion. It is worthwhile to pay special attention to the weighting

lated using formulas correct for steady flows.

Friction modeling according to the quasi-steady flow hypoth- function W, in 共A6兲, that should be interpreted as a function,

which relates inertance at pipe cross-section to past flow velocity

esis assumes that pipeline inertance Ju equals zero. The pipeline

changes in this cross-section.

resistance Jq is usually described basing on the Darcy-Weisbach

The simplified inertance expression in the Trikha model takes

equation

the following form 关10兴:

f q V兩V兩

Jq = · 共A1兲 16

gD 2 Ju = 共y 1 + y 2 + y 3兲 共A7兲

gD2

Calculation of the quasi-steady friction coefficient 共Darcy friction

coefficient兲: where

• For laminar flows 共Re艋 Rec−s where Rec−s = 2320兲 depends y it+⌬t = y it · e−ni 冉 D4 冊⌬t + mi共Vt+⌬t − Vt兲

2

Poiseuille law:

f q−l = 64/Re 共A2兲

Wapp共兲 = 兺me

i=1

i

−ni

for ⬎ 0.00005 共A8兲

with mi = 兵40.0;8.1;1其 ni = 兵8000;200;26.4其

istics 共Re兲 and absolute pipe-wall roughness 共K / D兲 accord-

ing to the Colebrook-White formula The Trikha model presents a simplification of the Zielke model.

冉 冊

Numerical codes based on this model, because of approximation

1 2.51 K/D of weighting function used, allow saving a lot of computing

共A3兲

冑 f q−t = − 2 lg Re冑 f q−t

+

3.71 power and time needed for making the calculations. Such a solu-

tion initiated the development of models with efficient approxima-

tions of weighting functions 关18–20兴. However, the most impor-

A.2 Unsteady Friction Models tant is that Trikha for the first time proposed to apply this

The models of the unsteady friction reject the assumptions of approach to calculate turbulent unsteady flows.

the quasi-steady hypothesis. They respect complexity of the un- One of the main groups of unsteady friction models for turbu-

steady flow which manifest in the deformed velocity profiles in lent unsteady flows 共the multi-layer models兲 bases mathematical

comparison with the velocity profile during the steady flow with description on the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations

the same mean velocity. The intension of such an approach is to applied to axisymmetric flow. In these equations the Reynolds

obtain the correct description of inertial and friction forces which averaging procedure is used for averaging the flow parameters

are responsible for the velocity profile deformation in the pipe 关2,3兴. Adoption of the Boussinesq hypothesis which relates to the

cross section. turbulent Reynolds stress and averaged velocity field Vx, as in

Zielke 共1968兲 关1兴 has developed the model of unsteady friction 共A9兲, the eddy viscosity coefficient is introduced into the math-

for laminar flows. For this purpose he used Laplace transform to ematical description of the analyzed phenomenon t

the equation of motion for laminar axisymmetric flow of an in-

Vx

compressible fluid · V⬘x Vr⬘ = − t 共A9兲

r

2V 1 V 1 V 1 H

+ − =g 共A4兲 In models based on such an approach, experimental data concern-

r2 r r t x

ing cross-sectional eddy viscosity distribution are used. The axi-

共It was assumed that the pressure p and the density are constant symmetric flow is divided into two, three, or even four regions as

in the pipe cross section and the velocity V is related to time t and regards phenomena occurring in the flow.

the distance from the pipe axis r兲. This method allowed him to The velocity profile analyses for turbulent unsteady flows allow

achieve functional dependency between the transform of the wall Vardy et al. to state that the relation 共A5兲 proposed by Zielke is

shear stress and the acceleration of fluid. The inverse transforma- correct for turbulent unsteady flows if only a weighting function

W would be related to the Reynolds number Re. In the Vardy and Table 2 Rates of pressure traces convergence for different

Brown model approximation of real eddy viscosity distribution is grid densities

used and flow is divided into two regions—the outer annular re-

gion 共near the wall兲 where the eddy viscosity is assumed to vary Friction model Ic12−c24关-兴 Ic36−c24关-兴

linearly with distance from the pipe wall and the inner core region Quasi-steady 0.74%

−2.20%

共in the vicinity of the pipe axis兲 in which the eddy viscosity is Zielke −1.54% 0.49%

assumed to be constant. Using such distribution of eddy viscosity

and applying Laplace transform to equations describing analyzed

phenomenon Vardy and Brown obtained Re-dependent weighting

冉 冊

function W

k3 V V

Ju = −a 共A14兲

*

A ·e −/C* g t x

Wapp = 共A10兲

冑 Originally 关8,11兴, the k3 coefficient was established so as to match

computational and experimental results on a sufficient level of

冉 冊

conformity. Vardy and Brown proposed the following empirical

1 12.86 15.29 relationship to derive this coefficient analytically 关2,13兴:

with A* = = 0.2821, C* = ; = log10

2冑 Re Re0.0567 冑C*

k3 = 共A15兲

In the case of laminar flow 共Re艋 Rec−s兲 the value of the Reynolds 2

number in 共A10兲 is replaced by the critical value of Re 共Rec−s The k3 coefficient can be assumed constant 共with the value de-

= 2320兲 that separates laminar and turbulent flows 共the critical pending on the initial value of Re兲 or as variable 共depending on

value of Re for transient flows in this model remain the same as in the instantaneous Re value in the hydraulic transient considered兲

the case of steady flows兲. According to the authors this model is 关14兴.

valid for the initial Reynolds numbers Re⬍ 108 and for smooth

pipes only.

The analysis of axisymmetric flow similar to this presented by APPENDIX B: Analysis of Grid Density Influence on

Vardy and Brown but using a four-region t distribution enabled Computational Results

us to define the weighting function in the Zarzycki model 关4,5兴 by Additional numerical tests were carried out in order to check

means of the following equations: how the grid density influences the results of calculations. The

共a兲 For laminar flows 共Re艋 Rec−u兲 diamond grids 共Fig. 1兲 with m = 12, 24, and 36 computational

reaches along the pipe length were used. Calculations were made

Wapp = C1−0.5 + C2 · e−m 共A11兲 using the quasi-steady model and the Zielke model. The initial

conditions of the pipe flow for this numerical test were the same

with C1 = 0.2812; C2 = − 1.5821; m = 8.8553 as in the run with Reo ⬵ 10,600 共Table 1兲.

Pressure courses calculated at different m are stable and char-

共b兲 for turbulent flows 共Re⬎ Rec−u兲 acterized by the same pressure wave period 共therefore, different

dimensions of the grid cells do not change the pressure wave

1 frequency兲. All calculations derived using considered unsteady

Wapp = C n

共A12兲

冑 · Re friction models at a different number of computational reaches m

gave the same amplitudes of pressure changes, what proves that

different density of the grid does not influence the pressure wave

4 · t damping. In order to definitely confirm these observations, the

with C = 0.299635; n = − 0.005535; =

D2 comparison between calculated pressure courses were conducted

using the coefficient defined in 共10兲 and the results are presented

Zarzycki, after Ohmi et al., assumed similarity between transient in Table 2. Pressure courses calculated using 12 共index c12兲 and

and oscillating flows. Therefore, for transient flows, he adopted 36 共index c36兲 computational reaches was compared with one

the Re critical value separating laminar and turbulent oscillating obtained using 24 reaches 共index c24兲 and the analysis has in-

flows. The Rec−u, so-called unsteady critical value of Reynolds cluded the first 20 pressure wave periods.

number, is given as follows: As it follows from Table 2 presented above, the differences

between calculated results of I are at insignificant level—areas

Rec−u = 800冑⍀ 共A13兲 enclosed in the pressure line and the center line of pressure oscil-

lations differ a bit more for courses calculated using the quasi-

· D2 2 4L steady friction model than for those obtained using the unsteady

with: ⍀= ; = ; T= friction model.7 The sign of I coefficient for different grid density

4 T a is worth mentioning. Negative values of Ic12−c24 show that areas

The Brunone et al. model is related to the second trend in hydrau- limited by the pressure line and center line of oscillations calcu-

lic resistance modeling. lated for m = 12 are smaller than for courses calculated for

The authors of this model had carefully analyzed the influence m = 24. A completely different situation for calculations with

of the quasi-steady hypothesis on the results of calculations. On m = 36 compared to calculations with m = 24—the value of Ic36−c24

this basis they stated that observed discrepancies between calcu- is positive. Presented analysis proved that it does not follows from

lations and experimental data are caused mainly by the inappro- intensity of the pressure wave damping but from differences be-

priate mathematical description of inertial forces and wall friction tween the shapes of pressure waves—as the grid density grows the

stress. It results directly from assuming the uniform velocity pro- wave front is filled more and the wave at the top is slightly wider

file in calculations. Analyses based on experimental data concern- 共analyzed areas are then slightly bigger兲.

ing velocity profiles in different pipe cross sections and at a wide

range of Re revealed clear correlation between the pipeline iner- 7

The values of I for quasi-steady model are greater then for the Zielke model

tance and the acceleration 共local and convective velocity deriva- because of much lesser damping effect of pressure wave oscillations which cause that

tive兲 defined as 关8兴 areas enclosed in pressure lines are bigger.

The results of grid independence proved that different grid den- 关9兴 Wylie, E. B., and Streeter, V. L., 1993, Fluid Transients in Systems, Prentince-

Hall, New Jersey.

sities 共number of computational reaches兲 have no significant in- 关10兴 Trikha, A. K., 1975, “An Efficient Method for Simulating Frequency-

fluence on the convergence and stability of calculated pressure Dependent Friction in Transient Liquid Flow,” ASME J. Fluids Eng., 97共1兲,

courses. pp. 97–105.

关11兴 Bergant, A., and Simpson, A., 1994, “Estimating Unsteady Friction in Tran-

sient Cavitating Pipe Flow,” Proc. of the 2nd International Conference on

Water Pipeline Systems, Edinburgh, Scotland.

References 关12兴 Almeida, A. B., and Koelle, E., 1992, “Fluid Transients in Pipe Networks,”

关1兴 Zielke, W., 1968, “Frequency-Dependent Friction in Transient Pipe Flow,” CMP Southampton Boston and Elsevier Applied Science, London, New York.

ASME J. Basic Eng., 90共1兲, pp. 109–1. 关13兴 Bergant, A., Simpson, A., and Vitkovsky, J., 2001, “Developments in Un-

关2兴 Vardy, A. E., and Brown, J. M., 1996, “On Turbulent Unsteady, Smooth-Pipe steady Pipe Flow Friction Modelling,” J. Hydraul. Res., 39共3兲, pp. 249–257.

Friction,” Proc. of the 7th International. Conf. on Pressure Surges-BHR 关14兴 Vitkovsky, J., Lambert, M., Simpson, A., and Bergant, A., 2000, “Advances in

Group, Harrogate, United Kingdom. Unsteady Friction Modeling in Transient Pipe Flow,” Proc. of the 8th Inter-

关3兴 Vardy, A. E., and Brown, J. M., 2003, “Transient Turbulent Friction in Smooth national Conf. on Pressure Surges-BHR Group, The Hague, The Netherlands.

Pipe Flows,” J. Sound Vib., 259共5兲, pp. 1011–1036. 关15兴 Ohmi, M., Kyonen, S., Usui, T., 1985, “Numerical Analysis of Transient Tur-

关4兴 Zarzycki, Z., 1994, “Hydraulic Resistance in Unsteady Liquid Flow in Closed bulent Flow in a Liquid Line,” Bull. JSME, 28共239兲, pp. 709–806.

Conduits,” Research Reports of Tech. Univ. of Szczecin, No.516, Szczecin 共in 关16兴 Adamkowski, A., and Lewandowski, M., 2004, “Unsteady Friction Modelling

Polish兲. in Transient Pipe Flow Simulation,” Transactions of the Institute of Fluid-Flow

关5兴 Zarzycki, Z., 2000, “On Weighing Function for Wall Shear Stress During Machinery, No. 115, pp. 83–97.

Unsteady Turbulent Pipe Flow,” Proc. of the 8th International Conf. on Pres- 关17兴 Holmboe, E. L., and Rouleau, W. T., 1967, “The Effect of Viscous Shear on

sure Surges-BHR Group, The Hague, The Netherlands. Transient In Liquid Lines,” ASME J. Basic Eng., 89共1兲, pp. 174–180.

关6兴 Daily, W. L., Hankey, W. L., Olive, R. W., and Jordan, J. M., 1956, “Resis- 关18兴 Ghidaoui, M. S., and Mansour, S., 2002, “Efficient Treatment of the Vardy-

tance Coefficients for Accelerated and Decelerated Flows Through Smooth Brown Unsteady Shear in Pipe Transients,” J. Hydr. Div., 128共1兲, pp. 102–

Tubes and Orifices,” Trans. ASME, 78, pp. 1071–1077. 112.

关7兴 Cartens, M. R., and Roller, J. E., 1959, “Boundary-Shear Stress in Unsteady 关19兴 Suzuki, K., Taketomi, T., and Sato, S., 1991, “Improving Zielke’s Method of

Turbulent Pipe flow,” J. Hydr. Div., 85共HY2兲, pp. 67–81. Simulating Frequency-Dependent Friction in Laminar Liquid Pipe Flow,”

关8兴 Brunone, B., Golia, U. M., and Greco, M., 1991, “Some Remarks on the ASME J. Fluids Eng., 113, pp. 569–573.

Momentum Equations for Fast Transients,” International Meeting on Hydrau- 关20兴 Schohl, G. A., 1993, “Improved Approximate Method for Simulating

lic Transients with Column Separation, 9th Round Table, IAHR, Valencia, Frequency-Dependent Friction in Transient Laminar Flow,” ASME J. Fluids

Spain. Eng., 115, pp. 420–424.

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