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Powder Technology

of nanoﬂuids using graphene and multi-walled carbon nanotubes based

on diesel oil

Atiyeh Naddaf a, Saeed Zeinali Heris a,b,⁎, Babak Pouladi a,c

a

Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran

b

Faculty of chemical and Petroleum Engineering, University of Tabriz, Tabriz, Iran

c

R&D member of South Pars Gas Company (SPGC), Busher, Iran

a r t i c l e i n f o a b s t r a c t

Article history: The present study deals with the investigation of the heat transfer performance of nanoﬂuids using diesel oil as

Received 29 December 2018 base ﬂuid and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) and graphene nanoplatelets (GNP) as nanoparticles

Received in revised form 18 February 2019 with different concentrations and ﬂow rates. These nanoparticles have been functionalized covalently with

Accepted 28 April 2019

hexylamine (HA) and non-covalently with oleic acid (OA) to prepare nanoﬂuids to include OA-MWCNT,

Available online 30 April 2019

HA-MWCNT, OA-GNP.HA-GNP and OA-MWCNT/GNP (1–1 Hybrid of each of nanoparticles) at 5 weight percent-

Keywords:

ages include 0.05–0.5 wt%. An experimental setup designed and constructed and heat transfer performance of the

Heat transfer enhancement above-mentioned nanoﬂuids are investigated under laminar ﬂow conditions at 4 ﬂow rates. In order to utilize

Nanoﬂuid nanoﬂuids in practical applications, the main purpose of this study is focused on investigating if the addition of

Graphene nanoparticles can enhance the heat transfer performance of diesel oil.

Multi-walled carbon nanotubes In addition, the pressure drop and performance index of nanoﬂuids measured in a closed loop. The results

Diesel oil revealed that heat transfer properties of nanoﬂuids improved compared to the base oil. Also according to the

Pressure drop results, by increasing the velocity of nanoﬂuid, the convective heat transfer coefﬁcient increases at all weight

coefﬁcient of nanoparticles and an increase in pressure drop for nanoﬂuids than pure oil is not perceptible. The

performance index of nanoﬂuids, except for the two cases that are related to the hybrid of MWCNT and GNP,

in other cases is more than one. Therefore, using nanoﬂuids leads to an increase in the heat transfer coefﬁcient

more than increasing the pressure drop, and are suitable for use in the industrial units.

© 2019 Published by Elsevier B.V.

1. Introduction nanoﬂuid in terms of heat transfer performance. Also, the results re-

vealed that by adding hybrid nanoparticles to the thermal oil,

Fluids are usually used as heat carriers in heat transfer instruments. thermophysical and heat transfer properties have been improved.

A decade ago, a new kind of heat transfer ﬂuid which was derived from Several studies, heat transfer performance of oil-based nanoﬂuids by

stably suspending nanoparticles in conventional heat transfer ﬂuids using various hybrid nanoparticles has been investigated [6–8]. The re-

usually liquids, was introduced and called nanoﬂuid. sults proved that nanoﬂuids are highly efﬁcient in heat transfer proper-

Heris et al. [1] and Hwang et al. [2] experimentally investigated the ties. Also, the thermophysical properties of nanoﬂuids improved

heat transfer behavior of Al2O3–water nanoﬂuid inside a circular tube compare with base oil. Esfe et al. [9,10] proposed three variable models

under the laminar ﬂow regime. The heat transfer in nanoﬂuid can be to investigate the effective parameters on the viscosity of oil-based

compared to that of base ﬂuid at the same Reynolds number, the same nanoﬂuids by using two hybrid nanoparticles include MWCNTs (10%)

ﬂow velocity, and the same pumping power [3]. Sanukrishna et al. [4] –Al2O3 (90%)/10 W40 nanoﬂuid and MWCNTs-ZnO/5 W50 nanoﬂuid.

proved that polyalkylene glycol suspended with Al2O3 nanoﬂuid can They introduced temperature as the most effective parameter on viscos-

be a good alternative for refrigerant compressor oil because thermal ity. Moreover, two new correlations have been developed to assess the

and rheological properties of nano lubricant in compare with base oil effects of different temperatures and concentrations of nanoparticles on

enhanced. A guideline suggested by Asadi [5] to select the best dynamic viscosity of nanoﬂuids and evaluated how Temperature and

Concentration Inﬂuence on Viscosity of nanoﬂuids [11,12].

⁎ Corresponding author at: Faculty of chemical and Petroleum Engineering, University

Sivakumar et al. [13] investigated the heat transfer coefﬁcient for

of Tabriz, Tabriz, Iran. Al2O3/water and CuO/Ethylene glycol nanoﬂuids at different tempera-

E-mail address: s.zeinali@tabrizu.ac.ir (S. Zeinali Heris). tures and concentrations of nanoparticles. The results showed an

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.powtec.2019.04.078

0032-5910/© 2019 Published by Elsevier B.V.

370 A. Naddaf et al. / Powder Technology 352 (2019) 369–380

Nomenclatures

[24] studied the natural convection of alumina/water nanoﬂuid in an

open cavity is studied. Their results showed the increase in heat transfer

Symbol Description (unit)

with nanoparticles concentration. Nabil et al. [25] investigated the heat

Re Reynolds number (−)

transfer performance of TiO2-SiO2 nanoﬂuids under turbulent ﬂow at

Cp speciﬁc heat capacity (J/kg K)

different temperature and concentration. The TiO2-SiO2 nanoﬂuids

Nu Nusselt number (−)

had better performance in comparison with based ﬂuids. Saeed et al.

Pr Prandtl number (−)

[26] used nanoﬂuids for studying the Heat transfer enhancement at

ṁ mass ﬂow rate (kg/s)

electronic cooling applications and compared the experimental results

Q volume ﬂow rate (ml/s)

with single-phase and two-phase numerical models. Heris et al. [27]

h convective heat transfer coefﬁcient (W/m2 K)

studied the heat transfer properties of three types of nanoparticles in-

f friction factor (−)

clude TiO2, Al2O3, CuO in turbine oil as base ﬂuid inside a cubic cavity

K thermal conductivity (W/m K)

at three inclination angles. They found that the turbine oil has a higher

T temperature (K)

Nusselt number than any type of nanoﬂuids at any inclination. Mahian

D diameter (m)

et al. [28] studied natural convection of nanoﬂuids in square and trian-

ρ density (kg/m3)

gular enclosures. They revealed that Heat transfer coefﬁcient ratio is

q̇ heat ﬂux (W)

maximized at low concentrations. Ettefaghi et al. [29] studied on ther-

υ velocity (m/s)

mal properties of engine oil based nanoﬂuid as a lubricant. They dis-

Δp pressure drop (Pa)

persed multi-walled carbon nanotubes inside SAE 20W50 engine

μ viscosity (Pa.s)

oil. The results showed that the properties of nanoﬂuid containing

X distance (m)

0.1 wt% concentration of MWCNT, improved in comparison with base

ẋ Non-dimensional distance in the streamwise direction

engine oil. Hasan [30] chose transformer oil to study on its cooling

= (2×/D)/Re Pr

performance by adding Cu, Al2O3, TiO2, and SiC to the base oil as nano-

particles. Obtained results showed that the transformer oil-based

nanoﬂuid improved the cooling properties of base oil as cooling me-

dium. Farzin et al. [31] used TiO2 nanoparticle as an additive to improve

increase in the convective heat transfer coefﬁcient of the nanoﬂuids in the heat transfer properties of turbine oil. Results indicated that both

comparison with the base ﬂuid. Also forced convective heat transfer co- pressure drop and heat transfer coefﬁcient of turbine oil increased by

efﬁcient increased with the increase in nanoparticle concentration. adding nanoparticles. Also, performance indices of nanoﬂuid at all

Raygoza et al. [14] developed nano lubricants based on functionalized volume concentrations were greater than one. Amiri et al. [32] investi-

multilayer graphene for an automotive engine. They used engine oil as gated the convective heat transfer coefﬁcient of turbine oil-based

a base ﬂuid and showed synthesized nanoﬂuids have a better perfor- nanoﬂuids through a laminar ﬂow inside a circular tube. Functionalized

mance than base ﬂuid as a lubricant. Asadi et al. [15] evaluated the multiwalled carbon nanotubes were used as nano additive and at vari-

heat transfer performance of two engine-oil based nanoﬂuids contain- ous volume concentrations, thermal properties of turbine oil studied.

ing ZnO and MgO nanoparticles. The results revealed that in laminar Because of the signiﬁcant enhancement of the heat transfer coefﬁcient,

ﬂow regimes, MgO-engine oil nanoﬂuid is advantageous. Salimi-Yasar they introduced mentioned nanoﬂuids as an excellent alternative for

et al. [16] investigated experimentally the thermal properties of cutting turbine oil. Thermal properties of cutting ﬂuid investigated by salami-

oil-based nanoﬂuid included TiO2. Their results showed that nanoparti- yasar et al. [16]. They used TiO2 as nanoparticles and provided TiO2 oil

cles improved heat transfer properties of cutting ﬂuid. Ebrahimnian based nanoﬂuid as an alternative for cutting oil. The results revealed

et al. [17] investigated the convective heat transfer of water/TiO2 that nanoparticles improved heat transfer properties of cutting ﬂuid.

nanoﬂuid through a heated tube. The heat transfer coefﬁcient of Stability and convective heat transfer coefﬁcient of a lubricant oil

nanoﬂuid has been increased by 21% related to the base ﬂuid. Pirhayati under laminar ﬂow investigated by karamallah et al. [33]. The results

et al. [18] studied CuO-base oil nanoﬂuid heat transfer coefﬁcient at dif- of this study indicated an improvement of heat transfer coefﬁcient for

ferent weight fractions of 0.5%, 1% and 2% inside a horizontal copper synthesized oil-based nanoﬂuid. Some researches focused on the use

tube under uniform heat ﬂux condition. According to the results, by in- of various oils as base ﬂuid are listed in Table 1.

creasing the velocity of nanoﬂuids, the convective heat transfer coefﬁ- In the present work, two types of carbon nanoparticles (MWCNT

cient increased at all weight concentrations of nanoparticles. Godson and GNP) and a one-to-one hybrid of mentioned nanoparticles have

et al. [19] studied the pressure drop and heat transfer coefﬁcient of been used to add to the diesel oil, which is rarely used as the base oil.

silver-water nanoﬂuids in a counter ﬂow heat exchanger. Experimental Diesel oil thermal conductivity and heat transfer are important param-

results showed that the pressure drop increased up to 55% and the heat eters for engine cooling system design and are a function of tempera-

transfer coefﬁcient increased up to 69% at the volume concentration of ture. Oils with a larger thermal conductivity value will transfer heat

0.9% compared with that of pure water. Almohammadi et al. [20] inves- energy more efﬁciently.

tigated the effect of different volume concentrations on friction factor Non-covalent and covalent functionalized MWCNT and GNP synthe-

and convective heat transfer coefﬁcient of Al2O3/water nanoﬂuid with sized and added to the base oil at different weight percentages. After

0.5% and 1% volume concentrations. The results emphasize that the av- evaluating the stability of provided suspensions, the variation of heat

erage ratio of (fnf/fbf) was about 1.1 at 0.5% volume concentration. Also transfer coefﬁcient and pressure drop of nanoﬂuids examined through

the convective heat transfer coefﬁcient increased by increasing particle a circular tube under a laminar ﬂow. Also, performance indices of all

volume concentration. Teng et al. [21] focused on the pressure drop of types of nanoﬂuids measured and capabilities of nanoﬂuids as an alter-

TiO2/water nanoﬂuid at different weight fractions and temperatures. native for pure diesel oil evaluated.

The results revealed that an increase in pressure drop for a nanoﬂuid

is lower under turbulent ﬂow in a circular pipe than laminar ﬂow. 2. Preparation of nanoﬂuids

Alkasmoul et al. [22] examined experimentally Heat transfer with

common nanoﬂuids for turbulent ﬂow. Their results showed at any In this study, graphene and multi-walled carbon nanotubes are used

ﬂow rate, base ﬂuid alone performs better than all nanoﬂuids. to add to diesel oil as base ﬂuid to prepare nanoﬂuids and a new method

Humminic et al. [23] presented the results of numerical and experimen- used for functionalization of nanoparticles. [41,42]. The above-

tal studies in various heat exchangers for hybrid nanoﬂuids and mentioned nanoparticles functionalized covalently with hexylamine

A. Naddaf et al. / Powder Technology 352 (2019) 369–380 371

Table 1

Summary of a recent study in the ﬁeld of oil-based nanoﬂuid.

[34] Transformer oil Hybrid of silica-silver Rheological, thermal, and dielectric properties Temperature concentration

[35] Transformer oil TiO2 Ione mobility Electric ﬁeld temperature

[36] Transformet oil Al2O3, TiO2, SiO2 Heat transfer coefﬁcient Concentration

Viscosity

[37] Transformer oil Nanodiamond Thermal conductivitT Temperature concentration

[38] Engine oil Graphene Friction Concentration

Wear

Pressure drop

[33] Lubricant oil Al2O3 Stability Size concentration

Heat transfer

[39] Thermal oil SWCNT Stability Temperature concentration

Thermophysical properties

[40] Seed oil MWCNT Viscosity Temperature ultrasonication time

Thermal conductivity

Rheological behavior

[15] Engine oil ZnO.MgO Thermophysical properties heat transfer Temperature concentration

[39] Thermal oil MWCNT Stability thermophysical properties Temperature concentration

[6] Thermal oil MgO-MWCNT hybrid Heat transfer performance pumping power Temperature concentration

(HA) and non-covalently with oleic acid (OA) as a surfactant. Pristine nanoparticles to form aggregates/agglomeration in the liquid media

MWCNT and GNP were sonicated with HA in desired amounts sepa- resulting in not only the clogging of microchannels but also degradation

rately. to ensure the stability during the functionalization process, an ul- of nanoﬂuids thermal properties. Therefore, the study of the stability of

trasonic probe (750 W, 20 kHz) was used to form a monotonous nanoﬂuids including the key factors which inﬂuence the stability as well

suspension. To complete the diazonium reaction, H2SO4 was as the techniques which can be used for the evaluation of the stability of

used. After using the microwave and cooling the suspension, by nanoﬂuids is necessary. So to ensure the stability of provided

ﬁltering, washing and drying the resulting products, the covalent nanoﬂuids, Ultraviolet-visible (UV–vis) spectrophotometry was used.

functionalization process ﬁnished [41,42]. Characterization of synthe- Using the results obtained from the UV–vis spectrophotometry, the col-

sized samples performed by fourier transform infrared spectroscopy loidal stability of the two suspensions (as two examples) has been plot-

and Raman spectroscopy. Also, high-resolution transmission electron ted as a function of time at different weight concentrations (Fig. 1).

microscopy (HRTEM) was used to utilize the morphology of samples Regarding the graphs, it is clear that the reduction in the concentration

[41,42]. Then by a two-step method, nanoﬂuids prepared. At ﬁrst step, of the suspensions at different concentrations of nanocarbon materials

diesel oil and nanoparticles at 5 weight percentages including 0.05, over time has decreased very slightly. Based on the results, the sedimen-

0.1, 0.2 and 0.5 wt% (0.5. 1, 2 and 5 g in 1 kg of nanoﬂuid) mixed by a tation rate in both nanoﬂuid samples at different concentrations is b3%,

High shear mixer (330 W, 18000 rpm) for 30 min at 5000 rpm. Then which indicates an excellent colloid stability for nanoﬂuids over time.

in order to make sure stabilization of suspensions, ultrasound bath

(Ultrasonic Power: 200 W Maxx) used for 1 h to avoid settling of nano- 2.2. Experimental setup

particles. In addition, pure diesel oil, ﬁve types of nanoﬂuids include OA-

MWCNT, HA-MWCNT, OA-GNP, HA-GNP and OA-MWCNT/GNP (1–1 A closed-loop system was used to perform forced convective exper-

Hybrid of OA- MWCNT and OA-GNP) were tested to measure their ther- iments in laminar ﬂow. The test section has an entrance region in order

mal properties. to make the ﬂow hydrodynamically developed. The section includes a

straight pipe and three heat elements located around the test section

2.1. Stability of nanoﬂuids to run the experiments under constant heat ﬂux by the aid of a DC

power supply. In addition, 5 thermocouples were mounted on the test

Stability is one of the key features for any nanoﬂuid system in each section at axial positions of 20,40, 60,80 and 100 cm from the inlet of

application, especially heat transfer. There is a strong tendency of the section to measure surface or wall temperature distribution.

Fig. 1. Stability of nanoﬂuids based on nanoparticle concentrations change versus time a) OA-MWCNT, b) OA-GNP.

372 A. Naddaf et al. / Powder Technology 352 (2019) 369–380

to measure the bulk temperature of the ﬂowing medium at inlet and

outlet, respectively. Furthermore, the experimental setup includes a

gear pump to circulate the ﬂuid in setup. A ﬂow-meter used to record

the ﬂow rate. The ﬂow rates adjusted as 18.75, 50, 33.33 ml/s such

that the ﬂow conditions are always laminar. A heat exchanger to cool

down the working ﬂuid and adjust the temperature at the inlet of the

test section was used. The test section was insulated to prevent loss of

heat to the surroundings. The pressure drop over the test section was

measured by a manometer containing mercury based on density differ-

ent between ﬂuids and mercury and data such as temperatures, pres-

sure difference and ﬂow rates were collected. For each steady state

condition, the data was recorded every 3 s for about 5 min and averaged.

Figs. 2 and 3 show the schematic diagram and real picture of the exper-

imental setup respectively.

The study of heat transfer coefﬁcient enhancement obtained with

nanoﬂuids have been done in the constant wall heat ﬂux boundary con-

dition. For this condition, results are usually presented in terms of the

variation of the local heat transfer coefﬁcient in the axial direction and

Fig. 3. Schematic of the laboratory system designed to measure the heat transfer

average heat transfer coefﬁcient. coefﬁcient and pressure drop.

the inlet is deﬁned as equation1: Where q”, Tm(x) and Ts(x) are heat ﬂux applied to the ﬂuid, ﬂuid

buthe lk temperature at a distance ‘x’ from the inlet and surface or

wall temperature at a distance ‘x’ from the inlet respectively. From the

q} energy balance equation, assuming linear variation, the bulk

hðxÞ ¼ ð1Þ

T s ðxÞ−T m ðxÞ

Fig. 2. Schematic of the laboratory system designed to measure the heat transfer coefﬁcient and pressure drop.

A. Naddaf et al. / Powder Technology 352 (2019) 369–380 373

temperature of the ﬂuid at an axial distance, x is deﬁned as Eq. (2): compared with experimental data for pure oil at all four ﬂow rates.

Fig. 4 shows this comparison and the maximum difference between ex-

q} πD perimental data and the theoretical equation is 17.8%. So there is a good

T m ðxÞ ¼ T in þ x ð2Þ

_ p

mC agreement between the experimental data and results of equations.

Where Tin, D, x, m & and Cp are the ﬂuid bulk temperature at the inlet 13

ẋ

diameter of the copper tube, the axial distance from the inlet of the test Nu ¼ 1:302 −0:5 ẋ ≤0:003 ð4Þ

2

section, the mass ﬂow rate of the ﬂuid, and speciﬁc heat of the ﬂuid

respectively. 13

ẋ

The actual value of heat ﬂux was calculated based on the heat added e−41=ð2Þ ẋ≥0:003

ẋ

Nu ¼ 4∙364 þ 0∙263 ð5Þ

to the test ﬂuid, using an energy balance equation. The average heat 2

transfer coefﬁcient can be calculated by Eq. (3):

ẋ ¼ ð2X=DÞ= Re Pr

q}

h¼ ð3Þ

T s −T m

2.5. Heat transfer analysis

where Ts is the average wall temperature and Tm is the average bulk

temperature of the ﬂuid.

In this section, the obtained results are discussed. The database

The Nusselt nimber is calculated as shown in Eq. (4):

includes Fig. 5 shows the variation of convective heat transfer coef-

hD ﬁcient for all types of nanoﬂuid samples and pure oil as a function

Nu ¼ ð4Þ of weight percentages of nanoparticles and axial distance (non-

K

dimentionalized axial distance: X/D) in laminar ﬂow for two ﬂow

where D is the Diameter of the straight tube. rates (as examples).

Once the setup had been constructed, measurements were taken for It can be seen that the heat transfer coefﬁcient decreases with axial

each of the ﬁve samples at four different ﬂow rates including 18.75 ml/s, distance. It is due to that the temperature difference between wall and

25 ml/s, 33.33 ml/s and 50 ml/s. The heat ﬂux conditions were main- ﬂuid bulk (Ts(x)-Tm(x)) is maximum at the entrance of the test section

tained constant and near to 9172 W/m2. and decreases with increasing pipe length. The highest increase in the

heat transfer coefﬁcient occurs in the pipe entrance area, which de-

2.4. Veriﬁcation of experimental setup creases with increasing axial distance. The heat transfer coefﬁcient is

proportional to k/δt. In this ratio, k is the thermal conductivity of the

In order to evaluate the experimental setup accuracy, the Nusselt ﬂuid and δt is the thickness of the thermal boundary layer. By increasing

number obtained from Eqs. (4) to (5) for laminar ﬂow [43], was thermal conductivity and decreasing the thickness of the thermal

18 18

16

a) Q=18.75 ml/s b) Q=25 ml/s

16

14 14

12 12

10 10

Nu

Nu

8 8

6 6

4 4

2 Experimental Theoretical 2 Experimental Theoretical

0 0

28.5 57 85.5 114 142.5 28.5 57 85.5 114 142.5

X/D X/D

20 22

18 c) Q=33.33 ml/s 20 d) Q=50 ml/s

16 18

16

14

14

12

12

Nu

Nu

10

10

8 8

6 6

4 4

Experimental Theoretical

2 Experimental Theoretical 2

0 0

28.5 57 85.5 114 142.5 28.5 57 85.5 114 142.5

X/D X/D

Fig. 4. Comparison between experimental data and theoretical correlation for the nusselt number at various ﬂowrates: a) Q = 18.75 ml/s, b) Q = 25 ml/s, c) Q = 33.33 ml/s, d) Q =

50 ml/s.

374 A. Naddaf et al. / Powder Technology 352 (2019) 369–380

480 530

a)Q=18.75 ml/s b)Q=50 ml/s

430 480

pure oil pure oil

MWCNT0.05 wt% 430 MWCNT0.05 wt%

380

MWCNT 0.1 wt% MWCNT 0.1 wt%

h W/m2 K

380

h W/m2 K

330 MWCNT0.5wt% MWCNT0.5wt%

330

280

280

230

230

180 180

28.5 57 114 142.5 28.5 57 85.5 114 142.5

X/D X/D

480 780

c)Q=18.75 ml/s d)Q=50 ml/s

430 680

pure oil pure oil

GNP-HA0.05wt% GNP-HA0.05wt%

380

h (W/m2 K)

580

h (W/m2 K)

GNP-HA0.2wt% GNP-HA0.2wt%

330 480

GNP-HA0.5wt% GNP-HA0.5wt%

280 380

230 280

180 180

28.5 57 85.5 114 142.5 28.5 57 85.5 114 142.5

X/D X/D

Fig. 5. Local heat transfer coefﬁcient at various weight percentage versus axial distance a) MWCNT Q = 18.75 ml/s, b) MWCNT Q = 50 ml/s, c) GNP-HA Q = 18.75 ml/s,

d) GNP-HA Q = 50 ml/s.

boundary layer, the heat transfer coefﬁcient increases. However, the ir- the ﬂuid is near the critical point), the difference in density can affect

regular and accidental movements of particles play a deterrent effect the transfer of momentum and heat.

against the formation of the thermal boundary layer on the tube wall, Another reason for improvement of heat transfer is due to the fact

which causes the development of the thermal boundary layer to be de- that the viscosity near the wall of in a tube is decreased with respect

layed. The presence of nanoparticles in the base ﬂuid, changes the struc- to the viscosity of the bulk ﬂuid. In case of ﬂow inside a tube, the tem-

ture of the ﬂow in such a way that, in addition to increasing thermal peratures at the wall and the centerline are maximum and minimum,

conductivity, factors such as Brownian movements, Thermophoresis respectively. Due to these temperature variations, there are additional

and diffusive phenomena lead to Increase the exchange rate of energy variations in the viscosity of the ﬂuid in the radial direction, resulting

and consequently, increasing the heat transfer rate between the ﬂuid in minimum viscosity at the wall and maximum viscosity at the center-

and the wall of the pipe. line. This leads to convective effects in the radial direction, and hence,

At the same ﬂow rate, by increasing the weight percentage of nano- improved heat transfer coefﬁcient.

particles, the local heat transfer coefﬁcient increases. Local heat transfer In the high ﬂow rates of nanoﬂuids, accidental movements and the

coefﬁcient increases for all nanoﬂuids at all weight percentages. So all effects of carbon nanoparticles dispersion intensify the turbulence

nanoﬂuid samples exhibit higher heat transfer coefﬁcients compared caused by mixing and thereby ﬂatten the temperature proﬁle. In fact,

to pure oil. The positive effect of adding a very small amount of carbon the temperature proﬁle becomes similar to the turbulent ﬂow proﬁle

nanoparticles on the thermal properties of the oil is observed in the and causes an increase in the heat transfer coefﬁcient. There is a proba-

results. bility of accumulation and clustering of nanomaterials in the low

Fig. 6 demonstrates the average convective heat transfer coefﬁcient nanoﬂuid ﬂow rates. But at higher ﬂow rates, the heat transfer coefﬁ-

for nanoﬂuids with different volume concentrations and also pure oil cient is higher than that of the lower coefﬁcient. Indeed, with an in-

versus Reynolds number. The results indicate an increase in nanoparti- crease in ﬂow rate, the heat transfer coefﬁcient increases clearly. The

cle concentration leads to a better enhancement in the convective heat highest average heat transfer coefﬁcient (have) is related to the

transfer coefﬁcient. by increasing the reynolds number, heat transfer co- nanoﬂuid containing GNP-HA at a concentration of 0.5% at ﬂow rate of

efﬁcient increase in all concentrations of nanoﬂuids. 50 ml/s. Due to the increasing concentration of particles, the thermal

Since the thermal conductivity of the two-phase mixture increased conductivity of nanoﬂuids, which is a key factor in increasing the ther-

by nanoparticles suspended in the mixture and the Brownian move- mal performance, is increased. Functionalization of nanoparticles pre-

ment of nanoparticles precipitates the exchange of energy in the vents agglomeration and sedimentation of nanoparticles, which is

nanoﬂuid. Therefor thermophysical properties can lead to an increase effective in increasing the heat transfer coefﬁcient. Of course, the in-

in heat transfer coefﬁcient. Higher density and viscosity of nanoﬂuids crease in the heat transfer coefﬁcient due to the addition of covalently

(according to the results of previous work on viscosity and density of functionalized carbon nanoparticles is more than that of non-covalent

nanoﬂuids [42]) conﬁrm above-mentioned argument. When density functionalized. Because of the high molecular number and the number

changes across the diameter of the tube are large (for example, when of branches of noncovalent functional groups, the effective surface of

A. Naddaf et al. / Powder Technology 352 (2019) 369–380 375

650 650

pure oil GNP-HA-0.05wt%

pure oil CNT-HA-0.05wt%

GNP-HA-0.1wt% GNP-HA-0.2wt%

600 CNT-HA-0.1wt% CNT-HA-0.2wt% 600

GNP-HA-0.5wt%

CNT-HA-0.5wt%

550 550

hav(W/m2)

hav(W/m2)

500 500

450 450

400 400

350 350

300 300

0 50 100 150 200 0 50 100 150 200

Re

Re

400 460

pure oil GNP-0.05wt%

pure oil CNT-0.05wt%

390 440 GNP-0.1wt% GNP-0.2wt%

CNT-0.1wt% CNT-0.2wt%

GNP-0.5wt%

380 CNT-0.5wt% 420

hav(W/m2)

370

400

hav(W/m2)

360

350 380

340 360

330

340

320

320

310

300 300

0 50 100 150 200 0 50 100 150 200

Re Re

550

pure oil CNT-GNP-0.05wt%

CNT-GNP-0.1wt% CNT-GNP-0.2wt%

500 CNT-GNP-0.5wt%

hav(W/m2)

450

400

350

300

0 50 100 150 200

Re

Fig. 6. Average heat transfer coefﬁcient at various weight percentage versus Re.

heat transfer decreases. Low effective surface, reduces thermal conduc- As shown in the diagrams, the pressure drop in nanoﬂuids increases

tivity and heat transfer rates. by adding nanoparticles to the pure oil and enhances by increasing

weight percentages of nanoparticles. Although it is obvious that the

2.6. Pressure drop pressure drop of nanoﬂuids is larger than pure oil, this is not so high

such a way that in low percentages of nanoparticles, the pressure drop

Pressure drop for pure oil and nanoﬂuids with various weight per- is not signiﬁcantly different from pure oil. Therefore, it does not gener-

centages of covalent and non-covalent functionalized nanoparticles ate excessive pumping power. Of course, at higher Reynolds number

were measured using a U-shaped manometer and calculated by Eq. and higher concentrations of nanoparticles, the pressure drop is nearly

(7). Fig. 7 indicates changes pressure drop of nanoﬂuids with the weight more sensible. The reason for not increasing the pressure drop in

percentages of nanoﬂuids and Reynolds number compared to the pure lower concentrations is because of non-increase in viscosity of

oil. nanoﬂuids in low concentrations according to the study that has been

done on thermophysical properties of diesel oil-based nanoﬂuids [42].

ΔP ¼ ρHg −ρbf g∙Δl ð6Þ The results of this study showed that the viscosity of nanoﬂuids has a di-

rect relation with the weight concentration and the pressure drop af-

fected by this relation.

Where ρHg, ρbf, and Δl are the density of mercury, the density of ﬂuid So due to the direct relationship of pressure drop with the viscosity,

and height difference between two sides of nanometer respectively. the little increase in pressure drop seems logical. The lowest pressure

376 A. Naddaf et al. / Powder Technology 352 (2019) 369–380

880 880

860 OA-MWCNT 860 OA-GNP

840 840

Dp(pa)

800 800

780 780

760 760

740 740

pure oil 0.05wt% 0.1wt% pure oil 0.05wt% 0.1wt%

720 720

0.2wt% 0.5wt% 0.2wt% 0.5wt%

700 700

0 50 100 150 200 0 50 100 150 200

Re Re

860 860

840 840

HA-MWCNT HA-GNP

820 820

Dp(pa)

800 800

760 760

740 740

pure oil 0.05wt% 0.1wt% pure oil 0.05wt% 0.1wt%

720 720

0.2wt% 0.5wt% 0.2wt% 0.5wt%

700 700

0 50 100 150 200 0 50 100 150 200

Re Re

880

OA-MWCNT/GNP

860

840

820

Dp(pa)

800

780

760

740

pure oil 0.05wt% 0.1wt%

720

0.2wt% 0.5wt%

700

0 50 Re 100 150 200

Fig. 7. The pressure drop of nanoﬂuids at various weight percentage versus Re.

drop was related to the nanoﬂuid containing HA-GNP at a concentration 2.7. Performance index of nanoﬂuids

of 0.05% and a ﬂow rate of 18.75 ml/s, which this pressure drop has only

increased by 0.012% compared to pure oil in the same ﬂow rate. Also, The results obtained in the previous section indicate that using the

the highest pressure drop was observed in the presence of OA- nanoﬂuids instead of pure oil improves the heat transfer coefﬁcient.

MWCNT in pure oil at a concentration of 0.5 wt% and 50 ml/s, which However, this increase in the convective heat transfer coefﬁcient is as-

was 6.3% higher than the pressure drop of pure oil at the same weight sociated with a slight drop in pressure which may limit the use of

percentage and ﬂow rate. nanoﬂuid in operation. Therefore, in order to ﬁnd the optimum condi-

The lowest pressure drop is 15% less than the maximum drop in tions for the operation of the nanoﬂuids, the increase of the heat transfer

pressure. Table 2 presents the results of the average heat transfer coef- coefﬁcient and pressure drop should be considered simultaneously. For

ﬁcient and the pressure drop of the nanoﬂuids in various ﬂow rate are this purpose, a parameter called the performance index (Eq. (7)) is used

shown. [44].

A. Naddaf et al. / Powder Technology 352 (2019) 369–380 377

Table 2

Heat transfer coefﬁcient and pressure drop of nanoﬂuids at different weight percentages and ﬂow rates.

25 322.12 758.83

33.33 330.20 771.27

50 363.02 808.59

OA-MWCNT/DO 0.05 18.75 337.08 746.21

25 340.45 771.08

33.33 349.27 783.52

50 369.24 808.39

0.1 18.75 340.33 760.04

25 343.51 783.44

33.33 351.14 795.88

50 374.21 826.97

0.2 18.75 344.55 783.36

25 348.21 808.23

33.33 354.95 820.66

50 376.20 834.80

0.5 18.75 358.98 797.42

25 363.24 822.34

33.33 372.84 847.26

50 391.12 859.72

OA-GNP/DO 0.05 18.75 335.11 746.26

25 340.83 783.58

33.33 347.95 796.01

50 375.90 820.89

0.1 18.75 338.25 771.09

25 345.47 795.96

33.33 353.58 808.40

50 383.76 833.27

0.2 18.75 344.29 783.36

25 351.95 808.23

33.33 362.81 820.67

50 418.81 845.54

0.5 18.75 357.72 795.58

25 367.90 820.44

33.33 398.08 832.87

50 443.94 857.73

OA-CNT-GNP/DO 0.05 18.75 315.13 758.63

25 326.08 771.07

33.33 332.26 783.50

50 371.03 820.81

0.1 18.75 320.14 758.50

25 333.05 783.36

33.33 347.16 795.80

50 419.19 820.67

0.2 18.75 326.17 771.05

25 345.07 795.92

33.33 363.24 808.36

50 447.41 833.23

0.5 18.75 350.21 795.58

25 371.33 820.44

33.33 387.00 832.87

50 506.17 857.73

HA-MWCNT/DO 0.05 18.75 320.09 752.55

25 343.00 771.21

33.33 365.41 783.65

50 413.15 820.97

0.1 18.75 313.46 758.67

25 344.55 783.54

33.33 367.08 795.98

50 435.14 820.85

0.2 18.75 325.23 764.80

25 355.22 795.89

33.33 388.31 808.33

50 541.11 833.20

0.5 18.75 345.08 783.29

25 361.10 808.15

33.33 420.23 820.59

50 600.10 845.45

HA-GNP/DO 0.05 18.75 334.12 733.86

25 340.24 764.99

33.33 354.40 783.62

50 512.40 820.93

0.1 18.75 342.21 758.68

25 348.03 771.12

378 A. Naddaf et al. / Powder Technology 352 (2019) 369–380

Table 2 (continued)

50 554.14 833.31

0.2 18.75 355.50 771.03

25 380.57 783.47

33.33 407.64 808.34

50 594.81 833.21

0.5 18.75 380.04 783.32

25 422.67 795.75

33.33 463.23 820.62

hnf concentration of 0.5% and the ﬂow rate of 50 ml/s has the highest per-

formance index. In this manner, functionalized graphene has a higher

hbf

ε¼ ð7Þ performance index than non-covalent one. In the case of carbon nano-

ΔP nf

tubes, except in the case of the ﬂowrate of 18.75 ml/s (lowest ﬂow

ΔP bf

rate), non-covalent functionalized carbon nanotubes have a higher per-

formance index than covalent one. The performance index of MWCNT

and GNP hybrid in concentrations of 0.05% and 0.1%is lower than

In this correlation, hnf and hbf are the average heat transfer coefﬁcient

MWCNT and GNP alone and in higher concentration, has a higher per-

of nanoﬂuids and base ﬂuid respectively and ΔPnf and ΔPbf are the pres-

formance index than GNP and MWCNT alone. Of course, the perfor-

sure drop of nanoﬂuids and base ﬂuid respectively. When the perfor-

mance index of this hybrid is closer to the graphene performance

mance index is greater than one, the role of nanoﬂuids in heat transfer

index alone.

is greater than the pressure drop. In this case, the use of nanoﬂuid

leads to improvement of the thermal performance of the system. To

evaluate this index, the changes in the performance index of nanoﬂuids

3. Uncertainty analysis

for weight concentrations of 0.05–0.5% are shown in Fig. 8.

As seen in Fig. 8, in almost all cases, the performance index of

Frequently, the result of an experiment will not be measured di-

nanoﬂuids is more than one. Therefore, using nanoﬂuids more than in-

rectly. Rather, it will be calculated from several measured physical

creasing the pressure drop, leads to an increase in the heat transfer co-

quantities. Because of that, subsequently will be shown a way to deter-

efﬁcient and the prepared nanoﬂuid samples are suitable for use in the

minate the errors of different parameters when they depend on other

industrial units. The highest performance index is related to the HA-

measured variables. If the quantity P is a function of the parameters

GNP nanoﬂuid at 50 ml/s with a value of 1.6438. Also, among the

x1, x2, …, xn, the effect of the measurement error of the parameter xi

noncovalent functionalized nanoparticles, the OA-GNP nanoﬂuid, at a

a) wt=0.05% c)wt=0.2%

1.6 1.8

1.4 1.6

Performance index

1.2 1.4

Performance index

1 1.2

1

0.8

0.8

0.6

0.6

0.4

0.4

0.2 0.2

0 0

Q=18.75ml/s Q=25ml/s Q=33.33ml/s Q=50ml/s Q=18.75ml/s Q=25ml/s Q=33.33ml/s Q=50ml/s

Flow rate(ml/s) Flowrate(ml/s)

OA-MWCNT OA-GNP HA-MWCNT HA-GNP OA-MWCNT-GNP

OA-MWCNT OA-GNP HA-MWCNT HA-GNP OA-MWCNT-GNP

b)wt=0.1% d)wt=0.5%

1.6 1.8

1.4 1.6

Performance index

Performance index

1.2 1.4

1 1.2

0.8 1

0.6 0.8

0.4 0.6

0.2 0.4

0 0.2

Q=18.75ml/s Q=25ml/s Q=33.33ml/s Q=50ml/s

0

Flow rate(ml/s) Q=18.75ml/s Q=25ml/s Q=33.33ml/s Q=50ml/s

OA-MWCNT OA-GNP HA-MWCNT HA-GNP OA-MWCNT-GNP Flow rate (ml/s)

OA-MWCNT OA-GNP HA-MWCNT HA-GNP OA-MWCNT-GNP

Fig. 8. Performance index of nanoﬂuids at different ﬂowrates a) w = 0.05% ml/s b) w = 0.1% c) w = 0.2% d) w = 0.5%.

A. Naddaf et al. / Powder Technology 352 (2019) 369–380 379

Error values for different measured parameters. percentage of nanoparticles, but this increase is not too high. At low

Variable Error Error value concentrations of nanoparticles, the pressure drop is not signiﬁcantly

Time Ut ±1.6 × 10−2

different from pure oil. Therefore, it does not generate excessive

Volume Uvol ±3 × 10−3 pumping power. The higher ﬂow rate and the higher concentration

Ampere UI ±2.7 × 10−2 of nanoparticles resulted in a higher pressure drop.

Voltage Uv ±1.7 × 10−2 4. Except two of the performance indices which are related to the hy-

Diameter UD ±1.42 × 10−2

brid of graphene and nanotubes that both are equal to 0.99, in all

Length of tube UL ±1 × 10−2

The height of ﬂuid in the manometer Uh ±6 × 10−3 other nanoﬂuids, the performance indices are more than one. There-

Wall temperature UTs ±2.4 × 10−3 fore, the use of nanoﬂuids, more than increasing the drop in pressure

Inlet ﬂuid bulk temperature UTi ±4 × 10−3 leads to an increase in the heat transfer coefﬁcient value and the pre-

Outlet ﬂuid bulk temperature UTo ±2.3 × 10−3 pared samples are suitable for use in the industrial units.

Thermal conductivity coefﬁcient Uk ±5.9 × 10−3

Viscosity Uμ ±7.1 × 10−2

5. The highest performance index is related to HA-GNP nanoﬂuid at the

Density Uρ ±1.25 × 10−6 ﬂow rate of 50 ml/s. Also, among non-covalent functionalized nano-

particles, the OA-GNP has the maximum performance index with a

concentration of 0.5 wt% at the ﬂow rate of 50 ml/s. The covalent

on the quantity P is calculated as [45]: functionalized graphene has a higher performance index than non-

covalent one. In the case of carbon nanotubes, except in the ﬂow

xi ∂P rate of 18.75 ml/s (lowest ﬂow rate), non-covalent carbon nanotubes

UPi ¼ Ux ð8Þ

P ∂xi i have a higher index than the covalencte one. The performance index

of graphene and carbon nanotubes hybrid is closer to graphene per-

In this case, xi, P, Uxi, and UPi are the measurable parameter, the formance index alone and can be a cheaper alternative to graphene.

quantity calculated from measurable parameters, the measurement

error, and the maximum possible error in the calculation of a quantity. Acknowledgments

The total error P is calculated as a result of errors in the parameters xi

[46]. The authors would like to thank South Pars Gas Complex

(Grant:306357) for the ﬁnancial support.

( 2 2 2 )12

x1 ∂P x2 ∂P xn ∂P

UP ¼ Ux1 þ Ux2 þ…þ Uxn ð9Þ References

P ∂x1 P ∂x2 P ∂xn

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