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TEMPLATE 3: Module Template

(Will be used individually during the self-paced write shop)

Module No. & Title History of Entomology and Taxonomic specialization

Module Overview Good day! Welcome to module 1, you are about to learn the history
of entomology and Taxonomic specialization, Feel free to discover
new things on the Information given May you deal with the
importance of history of entomology and Taxonomic specialization.
Keep your attention to this matter and enjoy your learning journey!
Module
Objectives/Outcomes Taken from clustered ILOs
 To know what is entomology;
 Recognize the different contributors of the history of
entomology;
 To know the Taxonomic specialization of insect
Lessons in the module For students to have an idea, just simply enumerate lessons
contained in a module.
Lesson 1: History of entomology and taxonomic specialization
Lesson 2: Arthropod and Vertebrates Pests

Lesson 3: Weeds
Lesson 4: PLANT PATHOGENS

TEMPLATE 4: The Lesson Structure

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(Will be used individually during the self-paced write shop)

Module No. and History of Entomology and Taxonomic specialization


Title
Lesson No. and A.History of Entomology
Title B.Taxonomic specialization

Learning Outcomes LO 1. To know what is entomology;

LO 2. Recognize the different contributors of the history of entomology;

LO 3. To know the Taxonomic specialization of insect;

Time Frame 1-2 Week

Introduction Hello, Good day ? Are you ready to start your first lesson in module 1? If it is
yes, begin to study your lesson this will give you sufficient information on the
history of entomology and taxonomic specialization, May you have the best
time and you can start right here!

Activity Identify the Taxonomic function. Tick the blank provided.

Taxonomic name Functions


1.Apiology (or melittology)
2. Coleopterology
3.Dipterology
4.Heteropterology
5.Lepidopterology
6. Myrmecology
7.Orthopterology
8.Trichopterology
9. Culicidology

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.

Will you able to answer the following question based on your own perception,
Analysis
experience and knowledge. Try to assess on the best way you can, so that it will
become easier for you to deal with the every situation given.

1. Can you explain what is entolmology?


_______________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________.
2. In your idea can insect have beneficial effect to plant?
______________________________________________________
______________________________________________________.

3.What will happen if we kill all the species of insect?

______________________________________________________

History of Entomology

With the vast numbers, diversity, and economic importance of insects, it is not
surprising that entomology is rooted in nearly all human cultures from
prehistoric times. However, scientific study only began as recently as the
sixteenth century. Given the voluminous amount of informal and formal study
of insects, only some brief overview of select key developments are presented
in this section.
Prehistory
13,000 BC

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The earliest evidence of man's interest in insects is from rock paintings. The
insects depicted are bees.
1800–1700 BC

Bees were significant in other early civilisations, for instance at Malia, Crete,
where jewellery depicts two golden bees holding a drop of honey

Egypt, Greek and Roman Empires


Scarab Beetle painted on wall of Rameses IX tomb c. 1000 BC
A scarab beetle, depicted on the walls ofTomb KV6 in the Valley of the Kings.
Bee-keeping was particularly well developed in Egypt and was discussed by the
Roman writers Virgil, Gaius Julius Hyginus, Varro and Columella.

620–560 BC
Aesop's Fables relate stories of grasshoppers, ants and other insects

343 BC (circa]
 Aristotle writes History of Animals . In this work Aristotle includes insects
in a class "Entoma" which also includes the arachnids and the myriapods but
not the Crustacea which formed another class "Malacostraca" of the "Anaema"
or "bloodless animals."

AD 77–79
Pliny the Elder publishes Naturalis Historia

Important Contribution/Contributors
1669 Microscopist Jan Swammerdam publishes History of Insects correctly
describing the reproductive organs of insects and metamorphosis.
 The anatomist Marcello Malpighi publishes a treatise on the structure and
development of the silkworm, the first description of the anatomy of an
invertebrate.

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The Malpighian tubule system is a type of excretory and osmoregulatory
system found in some Atelocerata (Insectsand Myriapoda), arachnids and
tardigrades. The system is named after Marcello Malpighi, a seventeenth-
century anatomist.

circa Viventia, quae in Rebus non Viventibus an important work.


1696 The Royal Society of England publishes the studies of the Italian
anatomist Marcaello Malpighi the discoverer of the insect excretory organs
known as Malpighian tubules.

1696 – (from 1696 to 1700) Antonio Vallisneri’s Dialoghi will sopra the
curiosa Origine di molti Insetti, in English, "Dialogues on the curious origin of
several insects", in which he, with Francesco Redi and Malpighi, contradicts
the theory of spontaneous generation of maggots.

18th century

The development of entomology in the 18th century


Maria Sybilla Merian Metamorphosis Insectorum Surinamenis
(Transformations of the insects of Surinam) published by G. Valck in
Amsterdam. It is a masterpiece of both art and science and Maria Merian, "the
mother of entomology", was the first to record the full life cycle of many
species of butterflies and moths.

1740 Charles Bonnet discovers parthenogenesis by observing that female


aphids could reproduce without fertilization.
1758 Tenth edition of Carl Linnaeus' Systema Naturae published. World
explorers brought back to Europe so many exotic plant and animal specimens
that chaos loomed for the 18th-century naturalists attempting to identify,
classify, and communicate what they had gathered. Linnaeus made a great
contribution to science by developing systems of classification to organize

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these processes. His principles of organization, especially his system of
binomial nomenclature, provided essential tools for entomology. The tenth
edition (1758–59), was chosen as the starting point for zoological
nomenclature.

1759 William Kirby (19 September 1759 – 4 July 1850)- an English


entomologist called the “Father of Entomology” in England. He was a minister
for 58 years and extensively studied insects. Together with William Spence
they published the first volume of AN INTRODUCTION TO ENTOMOLOGY
in 1815. He is considered the "founder of entomology”.

1761 Jacob Hübner (1761–1826) born. Jacob Hübner was the first great world
lepidopterist. Christian Rudolph Wilhelm Wiedemann (1770–1840) born. He
was a specialist in Diptera (world species).

1771 Johann Reinhold Forster produces first list of American insects.


1787 Thomas Say (1787–1834) born. THOMAS SAY published AMERICAN
ENTOMOLOGY which merited him become the FATHER OF AMERICAN
ENTOMOLOGY.

Additional Information
Theophrastus (380 BC), included in his botanical works some observations of
plant pests and diseases.

1667 to 1668 – birth of Entomology as a formal science:


REDI disproved the theory of spontaneous generation using insects.
MALPHIGI AND SWAMMERDAM -1st complete anatomical studies on
insects.

1758 – CAROLUS LINNAEUS effectively used the BINOMIAL SYSTEM OF


NOMENCLATURE. He is also known after his ennoblement as Carl von

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Linné, was a Swedish botanist, physician, and zoologist, who laid the
foundations for the modern biological naming scheme of binomial
nomenclature.

William Kirby (19 September 1759 – 4 July 1850)- an English entomologist as


well as a country priest, called the “Father of Entomology” in England. He was
a minister for 58 years and extensively studied insects. Together with William
Spence they published the first volume of AN INTRODUCTION TO
ENTOMOLOGY in 1815. He is considered the "founder of entomology”.

1828 – THOMAS SAY published AMERICAN ENTOMOLOGY which


merited him become the FATHER OF AMERICAN ENTOMOLOGY.
1795 – 1856 THADDEUS HARRIS earned the title FATHER OF APPLIED
ENTOMOLOGY for his works on the economic importance of many insects.

1870 – BIOLOGICAL CONTROL was 1st demonstrated as a practical control.


The Vedalia lady bird beetle Rodolia cardinalis (Coleoptera:Coccinellidae) was
introduced to control the cottony cushion scale, Icerya purchasi
(Homoptera:Coccoidea), a very serious pest of citrus in California.

1879 – PATRICK MASON discovered in South China that the mosquito was
the agent for carrying the FILARIASIS organism.

1898- RON ROSS – working in India, discovered the relationship between the
Anopheline mosquito and the transmission of malaria.

1900 – WALTER REED – working in Panama proved a mosquito, Aedes


aegypti carried yellow fever.

1916 – HARVEY – confirmed the mechanism of the oxidative nature of the


luciferase enzyme acting on the luciferin (the luminous cells of fireflies) in light

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production.

1939 – PAUL MULLER (Swiss scientist) in Europe discovered DDT


(Dichloro-Diphenyl-Trichloroethane), which proved to be a remarkably
effective means of killing the mosquitoes responsible for the transmission of
malaria, the deadly infectious disease that had afflicted the human race since
the dawn of time. DDT is the compound that revolutionize the pest control
industry.

Paul Hermann Müller- awardee of The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine


1948- "for his discovery of the high efficiency of DDT as a contact poison
against several arthropods"

1960s –a new emphasis on the application of ecological principles in pest


management developed. RACHEL CARLSON’S book SILENT SPRING
caused significant public awareness of the environment . Carson dies April 14,
1964 in Silver Spring, Maryland (MD), of cancer at the age of 56.
Receivesnumerous awards, including election to the prestigious American
Academy of Arts and Sciences (one of only 50 members). Later (1980)
posthumously receives Presidential Medal of Freedom.

BIOLOGICAL MAGNIFICATION PHENOMENON of DDT


became the concern of many environmentalists .

Biological magnification often refers to the process whereby certain substances


such as pesticides or heavy metals move up the food chain, work their way into
rivers or lakes, and are eaten by aquatic organisms such as fish, which in turn
are eaten by large birds, animals or humans.

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Early 1970s – federally funded IPM programs as a result of the recognition of
misuse of pesticides and environmental contamination

1976 to 1977 – Federal legislation brought into being the implementation of


PESTICIDE APPLICATOR CERTIFICATION

History of Philippine Entomology

 1521- Pigafetta’s account of Palawan leaf insects was the first recognizable
written record of Philippine Insects.
 1569 – Earliest recorded account of locust swarm in the Philippines in Panay
Island.
 1593 – Spanish priest Padre Antonio Sedeno first planted mulberry and
introduced sericulture in the Philippines. Silk worm – Bombyx mori-; mulberry
– Morus alba.
 1849 – Successful introduction of a starling, locally known as “Martinez”,
Aetheopsar cristatellus Linn. From Southern China to control locusts. This was
the first attempt at biological control of insects in the Philippines.
 1902 – Bureau of Agriculture was established control of migratory locust
became one of its important activity first time a microbial agent, a fungus, was
used for the control of
migratory locust.
 Charles Banks – an American, was the first government entomologist in the
Philippines. Later he became the Head of the Department of Entomology,
UPCA.
 1912 –Charles Fuller Baker (March 22, 1872, Lansing, Michigan – July 22,
1927, Manila) was an American entomologist, botanist, agronomist and
collector. He is the second dean of the University of the Philippines College of
Agriculture, now the University of the Philippines Los Baños. He collaborated
with 115 world authorities resulting in the publication of 400 papers on
Philippine insects.

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 1913-Mitzmain, MS found that SURRA, a disease of carabao is transmitted
by the common horsefly, Tabanus stratus Fabricius. Mitzmain was the first to
establish
veterinary entomology in the country. Beekeeping using imported Italian bees
was first
attempted in the Philippines by CH Schultz.

 1915 - Locust Act No. 2472 enacted- This act conferred on the Bureau of
Agriculture the power of directing and supervising the locust control campaign
all over the country.
 1916 – The first Filipino instructor in Entomology was Leopoldo B.
Uichanco . He is considered as the Father of Philippine Entomology.
 1906 – Founding of the Philippine Journal of Science where most of the
taxonomic work on Philippine insects were published especially during the
early American Period.
 1909 – Department of Entomology established at UPCA.
 1922 – Woodworth published the 1st comprehensive host-index of insects
injurious to Philippine crops - Leopoldo B. Uichanco- first Filipino to obtain a
doctoral degree in Entomology

- Cendaña reported on the banana weevil.


 1925 – First time an airplane was used in the control of migratory locust.
 1926 – Report of Dr. Gerardo .O. Ocfemia ( Dean of Filipino Plant
Pathologists) on the transmission of the bunchy top of abaca virus by an aphid,
Pentalonia nigronervosa
 1929 – Introduction of bio-control agents at UPCA, Dept of Entomology.
 1933- 1st study on pesticide residue on vegetable crops.

- founding of the National Research Council of the Philippines.

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 1934 – Cendaña – 1st Filipino trained on biological control of insects

- 1st report of mites on crops in the Philippines by Fajardo and Bellosillo.


 1946 – Introduction of inorganic insecticides in the Philippines with DDT
used against houseflies and migratory locust.
 1947 – Clare R Baltazar, first Filipino woman entomologist with college
degree major in Entomology. She is sometimes referred to as the mother of
Philippine Entomology.
 1954 – First studies conducted on host plant resistance to insects by
Cendaña
using corn hybrid and inbred strains against corn earworm and corn borer.
 1960 – Entomology research in the Philippines further boosted especially on
insect affecting rice with the establishment of IRRI.
 1961-- L.C. Rimando, first Filipino acarologist spearheaded research on
mites in the Philippines.
 1962 –founding of the Philippine Entomological Society now the Philippine
Association of Entomologists.
 1968 – Founding of the Philippine Entomologist, with LC Rimando as the
1st editor.
 1976 – National Crop Protection Center was established with Dr. Fernando
Sanchez as the 1st Director.

Taxonomic Specialization

Given the vast number and diversity of insects, many entomologists specialize
in a single order or even a family of insects. A number of these subspecialties
are given their own informal names, typically (but not always) derived from the
scientific name of the group:
Apiology (or melittology) - (study of) bees
Coleopterology - beetles

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Dipterology - flies
Heteropterology - true bugs
Lepidopterology - moths and butterflies
Myrmecology - ants
Orthopterology - grasshoppers, crickets, etc.
Trichopterology - caddis flies
Culicidology – mosquitoes

Application Finally, you are on the stage of self-checking. Answer the activities provided
below, and you are reminded to follow the instructions carefully. Enjoy your
learning application! Do your best and be honest.
Exercise A.
Instruction: Encircle the letter of the correct answer.
1. The earliest evidence of man's interest in insects start from______.
a. wood painting b. teacher c. rock painting d. all of the above
2.In what year that the birth of Entomology considered as a formal science.
a.1667 – 1668 b. 1758-1760 c. 1795 – 1856 d. 1976 to 1977
3. CAROLUS LINNAEUS effectively used the BINOMIAL SYSTEM OF
NOMENCLATURE.
a. 1828 b. 1758 c. 1889 1828

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4. A person who 1st complete anatomical studies on insects.
a. Carolous Linnaeus b. MALPHIGI AND SWAMMERDAM c. William
Kirby d. THADDEUS HARRIS
5. An English entomologist as well as a country priest, called the “Father of
Entomology” in England.
a. Carolous Linnaeus b. MALPHIGI AND SWAMMERDAM c. William
Kirby d. THADDEUS HARRIS
6. Earned The title FATHER OF APPLIED ENTOMOLOGY for his works
on the economic importance of many insects.
a. THADDEUS HARRIS b. PATRICK MASON c. WALTER REED d. PAUL
MULLER
7. In 1939 A Swiss scientist in Europe discovered DDT (Dichloro-Diphenyl-
Trichloroethane), which proved to be a remarkably effective means of killing
the mosquitoes responsible for the transmission of malaria, the deadly
infectious disease that had afflicted the human race since the dawn of time.
a. PAUL MULLER b. PATRICK MASON c. THOMAS SAY d.
THADDEUS HARRIS
8. In 1900 , a person working in Panama proved a mosquito, Aedes aegypti
carried yellow fever.
a. PATRICK MASON b. WALTER REED c. THOMAS SAY d. PAUL
MULLER
9. A person awardee of The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1948- "for
his discovery of the high efficiency of DDT as a contact poison against several
arthropods".
a. RON ROSS b. Paul Hermann Müller c. THOMAS SAY d. PAUL
MULLER
10. first Filipino woman entomologist with college degree major in
Entomology. She is sometimes referred to as the mother of Philippine
Entomology.
a. Clare R Baltazar b. Cendaña c. Dr. Gerardo .O. Ocfemia d.
Charles Banks

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11.In what year that Dr. Gerardo .O. Ocfemia ( Dean of Filipino Plant
Pathologists) Report on the transmission of the bunchy top of abaca virus by an
aphid, Pentalonia nigronervosa .
a. 1933 b.1926 c. 1945 d. 1934
12. 1916 – The first Filipino instructor in Entomology and He is considered as
the Father of Philippine Entomology.
a. Clare R Baltazar b.Leopoldo B. Uichanco c. Charles Banks d.
Pigafetta’s

13. In what year Pigafetta’s account of Palawan leaf insects was the first
recognizable written record of Philippine Insects.
a. 1933 b.1926 c. 1945 d. 1934
14. An American, was the first government entomologist in the Philippines.
Later he became the Head of the Department of Entomology, UPCA.
a. Clare R Baltazar b.Leopoldo B. Uichanco c. Charles Banks d.
Pigafetta’s
15. In what year that the Spanish priest Padre Antonio Sedeno first planted
mulberry and introduced sericulture in the Philippines. Silk worm – Bombyx
mori-; mulberry – Morus alba.
a. 1933 b.1593 c. 1945 d. 1934
16. In what year that the Bureau of Agriculture was established control of
migratory locust became one of its important activity first time a microbial
agent, a fungus, was used for the control of migratory locust.
a. 1933 b.1902 c. 1945 d. 1934
17. Who is the person, that found SURRA, 1913 a disease of carabao is
transmitted by the common horsefly, Tabanus stratus Fabricius.Mitzmain was
the first to establish veterinary entomology in the country. Beekeeping using
imported Italian bees was. first attempted in the Philippines by CH Schultz.
a. Clare R Baltazar b. Cendaña c. Dr. Gerardo .O. Ocfemia d.
Charles Banks d. Mitzmain
18.Which of the following are not a harmful effect of insect.

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a. Economic pests b. Transmitters of diseases c. Sources of annoyance or
injury d. Increase production
19.Which of the following are not a beneficial effect of insects.
a.Pollination b.Natural enemies c. Sources of useful
products (honey, silk d. transmitter of disease.
20. In what year that the National Crop Protection Center was established with
Dr. Fernacndo Sanchez as the 1st Director.
a. 1976 b. 1990 c. 1987 d.1956

Closure Congratulations! You hurdle lesson 1 successfully. You may proceed to the last
task given below. Keep your enthusiasm!

MODULE ASSESSMENT

Present a video clip minimum of 3-5 minutes, describing the name and contribution on
entomologist to Philippine entomology.

Rubrics:

Content - 50%
Presentation sound and video - 30%
Creativity - 20%
100%

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MODULE SUMMARY

Entomology is the study of insects, the most abundant form of animal life on earth. From a
population standpoint, insects rule our planet. Scientists have gotten around to naming almost
900,000 different species of insects, but some experts suggest that there may be as many as 30
million more species that haven't yet been christened [source: Smithsonian]. These same
scientists estimate that about 10 quintillion--that's 10 with 18 zeroes behind it--insects are alive
on Earth at this very minute. With numbers this staggering, it's no wonder that insects affect our
lives and civilization, influencing everything from religion to agriculture to technology. No
matter where we live or what we do, we will be able to find insects. They can live in just about
any situation or climate. They’re known as vermin, pests, and nuisances. “If we save the living
world, we will also automatically save the physical world, because in order to achieve the first
we must also achieve the second.” E. O Wilson

REFERENCES

1. Module in Entomology
College of Agriculture, MSU-Maguindanao, Datu Odin Sinsuat, Maguindanao
2.http://www.cals.ncsu.edu/course/ent425/library/tutorials/importance_of_insects/impact_of_ins
ects.html

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