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GTU’s Enrollment No: 097690592111

A
PROJECT REPORT ON
Market Analysis of Progesterone Therapy
.
AT LINCOLN PHARMACEUTICAL LTD.

Submitted By:
DHARMESH PARMAR M. (B35 )
MBA PROGRAMME 2009-2011 (SEMESTER II)
In partial fulfillment of the requirements for Summer Internship Programme for the award of
the degree of
MASTER OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION
SHRI JAIRAMBHAI PATEL INSTITUTE OF BUSINESS MANAGEMENT AND
COMPUTER APPLICATIONS (NICM-MBA)

Submitted to
GUJARAT TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY,
AHMEDABAD

Declaration

This project report entitled “Market Analysis of Progesterone Therapy” has been
submitted to Gujarat Technological University, Ahmedabad in partial fulfillment for the
award of degree of
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Master of Business Administration. I, the undersigned hereby declare that this report has
been
completed by me under the guidance of Mr. Tushar Patel(Product Executive) and
Mr.Somasekhar (GPM-Teresa Department) and Shahir Bhatt (FacultyMember, Shri
Jairambhai Patel Institute of Business Management & ComputerApplications, Gandhinagar.)

The report is entirely the result of my own efforts and has not been submitted either in part or
whole to any other institute or university for any degree.

Name:Dharmesh Parmar M.
GTU’s Enrollment No:097690592111
Date:22/07/2010
Place:Gandhinagar

Name and Signature of the Faculty Guide:Shahir Bhatt


Date:22/07/2010
Place:Gandhinagar

PREFACE

This project was undertaken after my first year of MBA (Pharmaceutical), at Lincoln
Pharmaceutical Pvt. Ltd, Ahmedabad. This project is a part of Master of Business
Administration.

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Understanding how work done in market/companies has become a serious
component to survive in highly competitive environment that we, the student Master of
Business Management find it an integral part of our studies.

In competitive corporate world it is very essential for any company or organization to


continuously evaluate satisfaction of their customers which increases performance compare
with the others in the same industry.

The objective behind preparing this project report is to analysed the market of
progesterone therapy at Lincoln pharamaceutical ltd. The preparation of this project report is
based on facts and findings during the survey(questionnaire) and information collected from
various secondary sources such as internet and written and published documents.

In spite of my best efforts, there may be some errors of omissions and commissions
which may please be excused.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

In successfully completing my project report, I am indeed indebted to a large number of people


who have encouraged and helped me in a variety of ways.

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It’s indeed a privilege to express my gratitude to the people involved.My profound and sincere
thanks to Mr. TUSHAR PATELand Mr. SOMASEKHAR, who consented to be my project
advisor. He give me constant support and help during the project and I also like to thank the
members of Sales department for helping me at each step.

It is with pleasure of immense gratitude that I express my most cordial and humble thanks to
director Dr. Mahendra G. Patel and my esteemed professor and guide Prof. Shahir Bhatt, for
their valuable guidance, constant help, motivation, suggestion and encouragement throughout
course of my work.

I have paucity of words to express my obeisance before them for their keen interest, valuable
guidance, unflinching judgment and constant encouragement during the entire course of my
study.

I would like to thank all the members of LINCOLN Pharmaceutical ltd. for providing me a
friendly atmosphere during my project work.Besides we are also thankful to our faculty
members and all other persons who have directly/indirectly helped us carrying out our study
successfully.

Last but not the least, I owe my sincere regards to the ‘Almighty’ for making me able to
believe in myself and letting me utilize my potential to the fullest of my energy during the
entire course of the study.

With Best regards


Dharmesh M. Parmar

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

The Executive summary includes following points

 Preparation before the field work

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 Field work and collection of data

 Analysis of the collected data

The Initial 2 - 3 days I got the information about the Progesterone Therapy, the company’s
product range in Progesterone therapy, about company’s organization structure for marketing
division.

After getting orientation about the company and knowledge of product, I prepared the
questions to ask Doctors and Chemist during the field work, when felt to corrective them
modify it. The convenient sample size was taken for the purpose. Than I went to Meet
Doctors and Chemist, where I give Questionnaire to fill. Here in my project I have used
open-ended Questionnaire, so they can provide the answer with ease. Sometimes I also got
help from Medical Representative.

The last step was to analysis the data, and to take into consideration all point, information
and implement them. The information from the Chemist and the Doctors has analyzed
separately.

CONTENTS

SR NO. PARTICULARS PAGE NO.


Title page I
Declaration II
Certificate of Company

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Certificate of college
Preface III
Acknowledgement IV
Executive summary V
1 Introduction of Pharmaceutical Sector 1-16
2 Company Profile 17-23
2.1Genesis 18
2.2Mission and Vision 19
2.3Board of Director 19
2.4Group of Company 20
2.5Certificate 21
2.6R &D 21
2.7Marketing tie up with Biocorn 21
2.8Product List 22
2.9Successful Product of Lincoln 23
3 Progesterone Therapy 24-34
3.1What is Progesterone 25
3.2Source 25
3.3Biosynthesis 27
3.4Level of Progesterone 28
3.5Effects 29
3.6Medical application 30
3.7Difference B/w natural and synthetic Progesterone therapy 32
3.8Side effects 32
3.9Different route of Administration 33
3.10Product of Lincoln Progesterone therapy 34
4 Strategic Marketing Techniques 35-40
4.1Four P of Prolin Brand 36
4.2Porter’s Five force model 40
5 Research Methodology 41-43
5.1Research Objective 42
5.2Research Methodology 43
6 Doctors and Retailors Analysis 45-61
LIMITATION 62
FINDINGS 63
CONCLUSION 64
SUGGESTION/RECOMMENDATION 65
BIBLIOGRAPHY &WEBLIOGRAPHY 66
ANNEXURE 68

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CHAPTER:-1
INDIAN
PHARMACEUTICAL
SECTOR

The Indian Pharmaceuticals sector has come a long way, being almost non-existing during
1970, to a prominent provider of health care products, meeting almost 95% of country’s
pharmaceutical needs. The domestic pharmaceutical output has increased at a compound
growth rate (CAGR) of 13.7% per annum. Currently the Indian pharmaceutical industry is
valued at approximately $ 8.0 billion. Globally, the Indian industry ranks 4th in terms of
volume and 13th in terms of value. Indian pharmaceuticals industry has over 20,000 units.
Around 260 constitute the organized sector, while others exist in the small scale sector.
The pharmaceutical industry in India is going through a major shift in its business model in
the last few years in order to get ready for a product patent regime from 2005 onwards.
This shift in the model has become necessary due to the earlier process patent regime put in
place since 1972 by the Government of India. This was done deliberately to promote and
encourage the domestic health care industry in producing cheap and affordable drugs. As

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prior to this the Indian pharmaceutical sector was completely dominated by multinational
companies (MNCs). These firms imported most of the bulk drugs (the active pharmaceutical
ingredients) from their parent companies abroad and sold the formulations (the end products
in the form of tablets and capsules, syrups etc.) at prices unaffordable for a majority of the
Indian population.

The Indian Pharmaceutical Industry today is in the front rank of India’s science-based
industries with wide ranging capabilities in the complex field of drug manufacture and
technology. A highly organized sector, the Indian Pharmaceutical Industry is estimated to be
worth $ 4.5 billion, growing at about 8 to 9 percent annually. It ranks very high in the third
world, in terms of technology, quality and range of medicines manufactured. From simple
headache pills to sophisticated antibiotics and complex cardiac compounds, almost every
type of medicine is now made indigenously.
Playing a key role in promoting and sustaining development in the vital field of medicines,
Indian Pharmaceutical Industry boasts of quality producers and many units approved by
regulatory authorities in USA and UK. International companies associated with this sector
have stimulated, assisted and spearheaded this dynamic development in the past 53 years and
helped to put India on the pharmaceutical map of the world.
The Indian Pharmaceutical sector is highly fragmented with more than 20,000 registered
units. It has expanded drastically in the last two decades. The leading 250 pharmaceutical
companies control 70% of the market with market leader holding nearly 7% of the market
share. It is an extremely fragmented market with severe price competition and government
price control.
The pharmaceutical industry in India meets around 70% of the country's demand for bulk
drugs, drug intermediates, pharmaceutical formulations, chemicals, tablets, capsules, orals
and injectibles. There are about 250 large units and about 8000 Small Scale Units, which
form the core of the pharmaceutical industry in India (including 5 Central Public Sector
Units). These units produce the complete range of pharmaceutical formulations, i.e.,
medicines ready for consumption by patients and about 350 bulk drugs, i.e., chemicals
having therapeutic value and used for production of pharmaceutical formulations.

Following the de-licensing of the pharmaceutical industry, industrial licensing for most of the
drugs and pharmaceutical products has been done away with. Manufacturers are free to

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produce any drug duly approved by the Drug Control Authority. Technologically strong and
totally self-reliant, the pharmaceutical industry in India has low costs of production, low
R&D costs, innovative scientific manpower, strength of national laboratories and an
increasing balance of trade. The Pharmaceutical Industry, with its rich scientific talents and
research capabilities, supported by Intellectual Property Protection regime is well set to take
on the international market.
Indian pharmaceutical industry is undergoing fast paced changes. The Indian Generics
market is witnessing rapid growth opening up immense opportunities for firms. This is
further triggered by the fact that generics worth over $40 billion are going off patent in the
coming few years which is close to 15% of the total prescription market of the US. The
Indian pharmaceutical companies have been doing extremely well in developed markets such
as US and Europe, notable among these being Ranbaxy, Dr. Reddy’s Labs, Wockhardt,
Cipla, Nicholas Piramal and Lupin. The companies have their strategies in place to leverage
opportunities and appropriate values existing in formulations, bulk drugs, generics, Novel
Drug Delivery Systems, New Chemical Entities, Biotechnology etc. The industry ranks
fourth globally in terms of volume and in terms of value, it is ranked thirteenth. The industry
has thrived so far on reverse engineering skills exploiting the lack of process patent in the
country. This has resulted in the Indian pharmaceutical players offering their products at
some of the lowest prices in the world. The quality of the products is reflected in the fact that
India has the highest number of manufacturing plants approved by US FDA, which is next
only to that in the US. Multinational companies have traditionally dominated the industry,
which is another trend seeing a reversal. Currently, it is the Indian companies which are
dominating the marketplace with the local players dominating a number of key therapeutic
segments. The market is also very fragmented with about 30,000 entities and the organized
sector consisting of about 300 entities. Consolidation is increasing in the industry with many
local players building a global outlook and also growing inorganically through mergers and
acquisitions.
The Key to success in this industry is research & development. R&D is the starting of the
industry value chain and is also the most important value creator. Companies that involve in
R&D do so in specific areas. They chose specific therapeutic areas to target based on their
strengths in the market, and the commercial potential.
This led to a revision of Government of India’s (GOI) policy towards this industry in 1972
allowing Indian firms to reverse engineer the patented drugs and produce them using a

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different process that was not under patent. The entry of MNC’s was also discouraged by
restricting foreign equity to 40%. The licensing policy was also biased towards indigenous
firms and firms with lesser foreign equity1. All these measures by GOI laid foundations to a
strong manufacturing base for bulk drugs and formulations and accelerated the growth in the
Indian Pharmaceutical Industry (IPI), which today consists of more than 20,000 players1. As
a result the Indian pharmaceutical industry today not only meets the domestic requirement
but has started exporting bulk drugs as well as formulations to the international market.

Currently the main activities of Indian pharmaceutical industry are broadly restricted
to producing,
(i) Bulk drugs and (ii) formulations with very few companies risking investing in primary
research aimed at developing and patenting new drugs. The bulk drug business is essentially
a commodity business, where as the formulation business is primarily a market driven and
brand oriented business. Multinational companies which have entered the Indian market have
mostly restricted themselves to formulation segment till date. The domestic pharmaceutical
industry (MNC’s and Domestic) meets about 90% of the country’s bulk drug requirement
and almost the entire demand for formulations2. The economics of bulk drug business and
that of formulation business are quite different. Since a majority of the Indian companies are
producing both bulk as well as formulations, these are considered together for the purpose of
the present study.

1.1) Market Share of MNCs & Local Companies

The exports constitute almost 40% of the total production of pharmaceuticals in India. India’s
pharmaceutical exports are to the tune of $3.5bn currently, of which formulations contribute
nearly 55% and the rest 45% comes from bulk drugs.
The export revenue now contributes almost half of the total revenue for the top 3
pharmaceutical majors: Dr Reddy’s, Ranbaxy and Copal. The other major exporters are
Wockhardt Limited, Sun Pharmaceutical Industries Ltd. and Lupin Laboratories. The
formulations and exports are largely to developing nations in CIS, South East Asia, Africa,
and Latin America. In the last 3 years generic exports to developed countries have picked up.

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New Business Models include:
• Contract research (drug discovery and clinical trials)
• Contract manufacturing
• Co-marketing alliances

1.2) Advantage India:-

Competent workforce: India has a pool of personnel with high managerial and technical
competence as also skilled workforce. It has an educated work force and English is
commonly used.

Cost-effective chemical synthesis: Its track record of development, particularly in the area
of improved cost-beneficial chemical synthesis for various drug molecules is excellent. It
provides a wide variety of bulk drugs and exports sophisticated bulk drugs.

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Legal & Financial Framework: India has a 53 year old democracy and hence has a solid
legal framework and strong financial markets. There is already an established international
industry and business community.

Information & Technology: It has a good network of world-class educational institutions


and established strengths in Information Technology.

Globalization: The country is committed to a free market economy and globalization. Above
all, it has a 70 million middle class market, which is continuously growing.

Consolidation: For the first time in many years, the international pharmaceutical industry is
finding great opportunities in India. The process of consolidation, which has become a
generalized phenomenon in the world pharmaceutical industry, has started taking place in
India.

1.3) The Growth Scenario:-

India's US$ 5.5 billion Pharmaceutical industry is growing at the rate of 14 percent per year.
It is one of the largest and most advanced among the developing countries. Over 20,000
registered Pharmaceutical manufacturers exist in the country. The domestic Pharmaceuticals
industry output is expected to exceed Rs520 billion in the financial year 2007, which
accounts for merely 1.3% of the global Pharmaceutical sector. Of this, bulk drugs will
account for Rs 54 bn (21%) and formulations, the remaining Rs 210 bn (79%). In financial
year 2005, imports were Rs 37 bn while exports were Rs98 bn.

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So far as Indian Pharmaceutical industry is concern it is adorn by different advantage
available in India due to this reason other country’s MNCs also attracted towards it and try to
enter in Indian market.

1.4) Steps to Strengthen the Industry:-

Indian companies need to attain the right product-mix for sustained future growth. Core
competencies will play an important role in determining the future of many Indian
pharmaceutical companies in the post product-patent regime after 2005. Indian companies, in
an effort to consolidate their position, will have to increasingly look at merger and
acquisition options of either companies or products. This would help them to offset loss of
new product options, improve their R&D efforts and improve distribution to penetrate
markets.

Research and development has always taken the back seat amongst Indian pharmaceutical
companies. In order to stay competitive in the future, Indian companies will have to refocus
and invest heavily in R&D.

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Sector structure/Market size

The Indian pharmaceutical industry is driving product development and breaking new
grounds in medicine research worldwide.

The Indian domestic pharmaceutical market is estimated to be US$ 10.76 billion in 2008 and
is expected to grow at a high compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 9.9 per cent till 2010
and thereafter at a CAGR of 9.5 per cent till 2015.

Currently, the Indian pharmaceutical industry is one of the world's largest and most
developed, ranking 4th in volume terms and 13th in value terms. The country accounted for 8
per cent of global production and 2 per cent of world markets in pharmaceuticals.

The Indian pharmaceutical off shoring industry is slated to become a US$ 2.5 billion
opportunity by 2012, thanks to lower R&D costs and a high-talent pool in India.

Exports

India exported drugs worth US$ 7.2 billion in 2007-08 to the US and Europe, followed by
Central and Eastern Europe, Latin America and Africa.

A report by industry research firm, RNCOS forecasts that pharmaceutical exports will grow
at a CAGR of 18.5 per cent between 2007-08 and 2011-12. This growth will be fuelled by
multi-billion dollar patent expirations and growth in the global generics market.

Pharmaceuticals exports (valued in US dollar terms) registered an impressive growth rate at


30.7 per cent during April-October 2008 compared to the corresponding period last year.

Growth

India's pharmaceuticals market is expected to grow by about 12-13 per cent in 2009, says a
study by consulting firm IMS.

During February 2009, India's drug retail industry continued its healthy growth recording
13.3 per cent higher sales over the same month last year.

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A recent study by Yes Bank estimates the domestic formulations market to touch US$ 21.5
billion by 2015.

The Indian vaccine market was worth US$ 665 million in 2007-08 and is growing at over 20
per cent. Exports contribute over US$ 360 million, while the domestic market for vaccines is
US$ 300 million.

Rural Market

According to estimates rural areas account for 21 per cent of the country's pharmaceuticals
market. In 2008-09, the rural Indian pharmaceuticals market was estimated at around US$
1.4 billion, having grown at about 40 per cent in 2008-09 against 21 per cent in the previous
year.

Pharmaceutical Retail

India has 5.5 million chemists and druggists, and the organized retail market accounts for just
2 per cent of the industry but is posting a year-on-year growth of 30-40 per cent. The
country's pharmaceutical retail market is expected to cross the US$ 10 billion mark in 2010
and be worth an estimated US$ 12 billion- US$ 13 billion by 2012.

Generics

According to a report by IMS Health, the Indian generic manufacturers will grow to more
than US$ 70 billion as drugs worth approximately US$ 20 billion in annual sales faced patent
expiry in 2008. With nearly US$ 80 billion worth of patent-protected drugs to go off patent
by 2012, Indian generic manufacturers are positioning themselves to offer generic versions of
these drugs.

Diagnostics Outsourcing/ Clinical Trials

The Indian diagnostics and pathology laboratory business is presently around US$ 864
million and is growing at a rate of 20 per cent annually.

Moreover, the US$ 200-million Indian clinical research outsourcing market will reach up to
US$ 600 million by 2010, according to a joint study done by KPMG and the Confederation
of Indian Industry (CII) in September 2008.

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Research & Development

• In a bid to boost R&D in the pharmaceutical sector, the government will provide US$
422.96 million for establishing six National Institutes of Pharmaceutical Education
and Research over the next five years.
• Biotechnology major, Biocon, will be investing US$ 20.11 million in the next fiscal
in enhancing its R&D.

Government Initiative

The Government has taken various policy initiatives for the pharmaceutical sector

• Government has offered tax-breaks to the pharmaceutical sector. Units are eligible for
weighted tax deduction at 150 per cent for the R&D expenditure incurred.
• Steps have been taken to streamline procedures covering development of new drug
molecules, clinical research etc.
• Government has launched two new schemes—New Millennium Indian Technology
Leadership Initiative and the Drugs and Pharmaceuticals Research Programme—
specially targeted at drugs and pharmaceutical research.

Investment

• According to Ministry of Commerce, domestic investment in the pharmaceutical


sector is estimated at US$ 6.31 billion.
• The drugs and pharmaceuticals sector has attracted FDI worth US$ 1.43 billion from
April 2000 to December 2009.

Road Ahead

The Indian pharmaceutical industry will see tremendous growth in the coming years as
consumer spending on healthcare is increasing in India. Consumer spending on healthcare is
expected to increase from 7 per cent of GDP in 2007 to 13 per cent of GDP by 2015.

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1.5) Role of Pharmaceutical Industry in India GDP:-

• The Pharmaceutical Industry in India is one of the largest in the world


• It ranks 4th in the world, pertaining to the volume of sales
• The estimated worth of the Indian Pharmaceutical Industry is US$ 6 billion
• The growth rate of the industry is 13% per year
• Almost most 70% of the domestic demand for bulk drugs is catered by the Indian
Pharmaceutical Industry
• The Pharmaceutical Industry in India produces around 20% to 24% of the global
generic drugs
• The Indian Pharmaceutical Industry is one of the biggest producers of the active
pharmaceutical ingredients (API) in the international arena
• The Indian Pharmaceutical sector leads the science-based industries in the country
• The pharmaceutical sector has the capacity and technology pertaining to complex
drug manufacturing
• Around 40% of the total pharmaceutical produce is exported
• 55% of the total exports constitute of formulations and the other 45% comprises
of bulk drugs
• The Indian Pharmaceutical Industry includes small scaled, medium scaled, large
scaled players, which totals nearly 300 different companies
• There are several other small units operating in the domestic sector

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1.6) Booming Pharmaceutical Sector in India

India, a US$ 8.2 Billion pharmaceutical market, represents one of the most emerging
pharmaceutical markets in the world. According to the RNCOS latest report “Booming
Pharmaceutical Sector in India”, in near future, the potential and opportunities within this
market will increase by several folds. The market, presently driven by over a billion
population, an expanding GDP, and rapid epidemiological transitions, is expected to be the
major player in the global pharmaceutical market both in terms of its large domestic market
and also as a pharmaceutical export hub.

The research study contains unique market-based research and provides detailed and
objective analysis on the Indian pharmaceutical market. It presents a thorough statistical and
analytical overview on the Indian pharmaceutical market, and provides past, present and
future data on the entire structure, composition and working of the Indian pharmaceutical
market. The research extensively discusses the opportunities and challenges that are expected
to arise within and from the pharmaceutical market.

Research Highlights

Between 2007-08 and 2011-12, the Indian domestic pharmaceutical market is expected to
grow at a CAGR of nearly 16%. The size of the domestic pharmaceutical market is larger
than export market. However, owing to the growth of global generics market, stringent price
controls in the domestic market, and better margins, the export market is growing much
faster than the domestic market. Traditional branded generics presently dominate the Indian
pharmaceutical market but the future will see strong growth in the specialty branded generics
and patented drug segments .Drugs for diabetes and cardiovascular diseases are expected to
see the fastest growth among all therapy areas during 2007-2011.The retail pharmaceutical
market in India is presently highly unorganized; however, a vast opportunity exists for the

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organized market. Over the last few years, Cipla, Ranbaxy and GlaxoSmithKline are
controlling the top three positions in the Indian pharmaceutical market.

1.7) Pharmaceutical company’s growth Overview (Tab:-1)

India’s Domestic Pharmaceutical Market (FEB MAT 2010)

Company Value Rs Market Growth


Cr Share Rate (%)
(%)
IPM (Indian 41121.4 100 17.6
Pharmaceutical
Market)

Cipla 2217.2 5.4 18.9

Ranbaxy 2017.5 4.9 13.0

Glaxosmithkline 1778.1 4.3 18.2

Piramal Healthcare 1696.9 4.1 21.4

Zydus Cadila 1534.2 3.7 22.5

Sun 1515.3 3.7 26.0

Alkem 1314.2 3.2 21.2

Pfizer 1244.9 3.0 17.9

Mankind 1160.4 2.8 30.4

Lupin Ltd. 1133.0 2.8 17.9

Aristo Pharma 989.7 2.4 17.3

Abbott 943.7 2.3 16.9

Dr. Reddys Labs 919.7 2.2 20.6

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Sanofi Aventis 836.1 2.0 14.8

Wockhardt-Merind 829.2 2.0 14.3

Torrentpharmaceutical 819.8 2.0 18.8


Emcure 812.4 2.0 11.3

Intas Pharmaceutical 808.5 2.0 24.1

Alembic 790.7 1.9 25.7

Micro Labs 742.2 1.8 24.4


1.8) Therapeutic area wise pharmaceutical market:-

Category Value Market Share%

Anti-Infective 16.4

Gastrointestinal 10.9

Cardiac 10.3

Respiratory 10.2

Vitamins./Minerals/Nutrient 9.6

Pain/Analgesics 9.5

Dermatologic 5.4

Gynecology 5.3

Neuropsychiatry 5.3

Antidiabetics 4.4

Opthologicals 1.7

Others 11.0

Total 100.00

Tab: 2

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Fig:-1

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Fig:-2
Presents market share of top therapeutic segment in the year 2005 with projection made for
year 2010

1.9) SWOT ANALYSIS OF INDIAN PHARMACETICAL INDUSTRY

STRENGTHS

 Low cost of production.


 Efficient technologies for large number of Generics
 Large pool of skilled technical manpower
 Liberalization of government policies.

WEAKNEES

 Non-availability of major intermediaries for bulk drugs


 R&D Expenses.
 Low share of India in World Pharmaceutical Production (1.2% of world
production but having 16.1% of world’s population).
 Very low level of Biotechnology in India and also for New Drug Discovery
Systems.

OPPORTUNITIES

 Aging of the world population


 Growing incomes.
 Growing attention for health.
 Spreading attitude for soft medication (OTC drugs).
 Spreading use of Generic Drugs.
 Globalization.
 New markets are opening.

THREATS

 High entry cost in newer markets.


 High cost of sales and marketing.
 Competition, particularly from generic products.
 Switching over form process patent to product patent.
 Entry of multy national company in India.

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CHAPTER:-2

COMPANY PROFILE

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2.1) Genesis:-

The dawn of 50’s ushered in era of awakening. Having broken free from the bondage of
dormant history, a need arose for country to be self sufficient in all spheres.

Healthcare at this time was the sole domain of a few pharmaceutical giant. Coupled to this
was the enormous task fighting the myth and malady by cutting across the barriers of
communication so as to reach out to people and to ensure the most effective cure in the
shortest possible Time? Under such circumstances, with tenacity of purpose and unfailing
zeal to achieve perfection in quality Lincoln pharmaceutical was established at 18th January
1979 as partnership firm. The business was started in Naroda GIDC estate with its main
objective of manufacturing pharmaceutical formulation. The firm was carrying on its
business by getting its product manufactured on loan and lincence basis from 1979 to 1982.

At 1994 all the partners decided and agreed that all the member of co-partnership should
register said the firm as public limited company for the sake of smooth working ,better
working and effective management and advancement of business.

At the1995 The Company has now decided to establish modern formulation manufacturing
plant at Village Khatraj to manufacture small volume Parenterals like Dry powder
injectables, liquid vial, liquid ampoules and eye drops and expand Its.

In 2000 - The Company has signed agreements with NSDL & CDSL for dematerialisation.

In 2003 - The Joint Director of General Goverment of India has given the certificate of
recognition of Export House to the company.

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2.2) Mission and vision:-

1) Mission:- Through perfect and persistent strategies, Lincoln Pharmaceuticals wishes to


translate into reality its mission.
1. To extend a helping hand to the medical fraternity in their noble cause of treating the
masses at an affordable cost.
2. To make “Healthcare for All” a reality through humble contribution of world class yet
affordable pharma product.

2) Vision:- To stimulate a globalized effort to find cures of diseases through concentrated


Research and Development, by strategic alliance both in India and Abroad.

2.3) Board of Directors


The Lincoln team comprises dedicated professionals at various levels.

Mr. Kishor M. Shah (Chairman)


Based at Nairobi, he takes care of the sales and distribution network in African countries. He
also manages international liaison Joint Ventures and helps in enhancing the global presence
and positioning.

Mr. Mahendra G. Patel (B.A, LLB)


Chairman and Managing Director of the company, he has a varied experience with
chemicals, steel, finance etc.. He handles corporate planning strategies, policies, corporate
finance etc.

Mr. Rajani G. Patel (B. Pharma)


He is the Joint Managing Director and a young entrepreneur in setting up this company. He
has 25 years of experience in the pharmaceutical industry and looks after the manufacturing
and marketing.

Mr. Hasmukh I. Patel (B.Sc.)


He is a full time Director, managing the entire gamut of domestic marketing as well as the
entire sales distribution system of the company.

Mr. Arvind G. Patel (B.E.)


A Director, looking after the export business of the company.

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2.4) Group of Company:-

Lincoln Pharmaceutical Pvt. Ltd.

The company manufactures parenterals and also undertaking contract manufacturing for
other companies including Lincoln Pharmaceuticals Ltd.

Karnavati Distributors Pvt. Ltd.

The company is distributing goods to all India distributors; also involved in marketing efforts
on behalf of Company.

Down Town Travels

The firm is engaged in tours and travels business. We are organizing conducted tours for
Gujarat and other parts of India and we have arrangement of sophisticated vehicles for
traveling 3 persons to 50 persons. We have more than 50 vehicles for our travel purpose.
Provides efficient and cost effective services.

Shelavi Paper Mills

This company has a paper manufacturing unit where very good quality craft papers and all
range of papers are manufactured.

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2.5) Certificate:-
WHO GMP (LPL)
WHO GMP (LPPL)
R&D unit
ISO-9002
EXPORT HOUSE

2.6) Research and Development:

State of art R & D facility of LPL with dedicated and highly qualified scientists are working
round clock to cope up with science of 21st Century for serving towards the health of our
society. LPL try to extend the boundaries of pharmaceutical world and bringing the products
that have potential to make our lives far healthier.
LPL R & D department is a compilation of multi disciplinary activities like formulations and
development pharmacological research synthesis and new analytical method of molecular
development.

Recently Launched Products Develop At R & D Division

1) ARH-L FORTE/ DS TABLET

2) VIVIAN 1ML INJECTION

3) NAM- COLD BILAYER TABLET

2.7) Marketing Tie up with Biocore:

Lincoln Pharmaceutical recently joined hand with Biocore Inc. USA to market their
Biotechnology Product in india, Africa and South – East Asia. In First phase LPL will Bring
finished product from USA and in second phase LPL and Biocore Inc. will Manufactured
these product in India.

Biocore Medical Technology Inc. Maryland USA is an R & D driven company focusing on
bringing Biotechnology Health Care solution.Biocore pioneered the use of Kollagen TM
Technology to the Tissue Regenration.

 Incorporated in 1996
 First company to obtain FDA approval for sale of collagen based wound care product
 Establised guidelines and obtained approvals from Medicare
 Manufacturing facility fully compliant with FDA and international regulatory
requirement.
27
 Expertise in new product development using core competency in collagen and
sciences.

2.8) Domestic Product List of Lincoln:

ALKYLISERS ANALGESIC
ANTI
ANTI BACTERIALS
ASTHMATIC
ANTI
ANTI PROTIZOALS & ANTI
HELMINTHICS &
AMOEBICS
ANTI INFESTIVES
ANTI
ANTI TUBERCULARS
PSYCHOTICS
ANTI
ANTIALLERGICS
ULCERANTS
ANTIDIABETIC ANTIDIARRHOEALS
ANTIFUNGAL ANTIMALARIAL
ANTIMETICS & ANTITUSSIVES/EXPECTORANTS
ANTINAUSEANTS & MUCOLYTICS
BONE
DISORDERS & CARDIOVASCULAR DRUGS
MISC.
ELECTROLYTES FERTILITY AGENTS
GYNAEC & OBST. HAEMOSTATS
IRON
LUXATIVES
PREPARATIONS
SEDATIVES &
TONICS & VITAMINS
TRANQUILIZER
TOPICAL
STEROIDS

Tab:-3

28
2.9) Successful Product of Lincoln:-

Nam Cold Series is most successful brand of Lincoln Pharmaceutical. Photo image are as
follow:

Nam-Cold Tablet Nam-Cold Nasal Drop

Fig: 3 Fig: 4

29
Nam-cold Syrup

Fig: 5

CHAPTER:-3
PROGESTERONE
THERAPY

30
3.1) what is progesterone?

Progesterone also known is steroid hormone involved in the female menstrual cycle,
pregnancy and embryogenesis of humans and other species. Progesterone belongs to a
class of hormones called progestogens, and is the major naturally occurring human
progestogens.

Progesterone is commonly manufactured from the yam family, Dioscorea. Dioscorea


produces large amounts of a steroid called diosgenin, which can be converted into
progesterone in the laboratory.

Progesterone was independently discovered by four research groups.

Willard Myron Allen co-discovered progesterone with his anatomy professor George
Washington Corner at the University of Rochester Medical School in 1933. Allen first
determined its melting point, molecular weight, and partial molecular structure. He also gave
it the name Progesterone derived from Progestational Steroidal ketone.

Like other steroids, progesterone consists of four interconnected cyclic hydrocarbons.


Progesterone contains ketone and oxygenated functional groups, as well as two methyl
branches. Like all steroid hormones, it is hydrophobic.

3.2)Source:-

1) Animal:-

Progesterone is produced in the ovaries , the adrenal glands and during pregnancy in the
placenta. Progesterone is also stored in adipose (fat) tissue.

In humans, increasing amounts of progesterone are produced during pregnancy:

• At first, the source is the corpus luteum that has been "rescued" by the presence of
human chorionic gonadotropins from the conceptus.

• However, after the 8th week, production of progesterone shifts to the placenta. The
placenta utilizes maternal cholesterol as the initial substrate, and most of the produced
progesterone enters the maternal circulation, but some is picked up by the fetal
circulation and used as substrate for fetal corticosteroids. At term the placenta
produces about 250 mg progesterone per day.

• An additional source of progesterone is milk products. They contain much


progesterone because on dairy farms cows are milked during pregnancy, when the
progesterone content of the milk is high. After consumption of milk products the level
of bioavailable progesterone goes up.

31
2) Plant:-

Progesterone-like steroids are found in Dioscorea Mexicana. Dioscorea Mexicana is a


plant that is part of the yam family native to Mexico. It contains a steroid called
diosgenin that is taken from the plant and is converted into progesterone. Diosgenin and
progesterone are found in other Dioscorea species as well.

Another plant that contains substances readily convertible to progesterone is Dioscorea


Psuedojaponica native to Taiwan. Research has shown that the Taiwanese yam contains
saponins steroids that can be converted to diosgenin and to progesterone.

Many other Dioscorea species of the yam family contain steroidal substances from which
progesterone can be produced. Among the more notable of these are Dioscorea Villosa
and Dioscorea Polygonoides. One study showed that the Dioscorea Villosa contains 3.5%
diosgenin.Dioscorea Polygonoides has been found to contain 2.64% diosgenin as shown
by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Many of the Dioscorea species that originate
from the yam family grow in countries that have tropical and subtropical climates.

32
3.3) Bio synthesis:-

In mammals, progesterone (6), like all other steroid hormones, is synthesized from
pregnenolone (3), which in turn is derived from cholesterol (1).

Cholesterol (1) undergoes double oxidation to produce 20, 22-dihydroxycholesterol (2).


This vicinal diol is then further oxidized with loss of the side chain starting at position C-
22 to produce pregnenolone (3). This reaction is catalyzed by cytochrome P450scc.

The conversion of pregnenolone to progesterone takes place in two steps. First, the 3-
hydroxyl group is oxidized to a keto group (4) and second, the double bond is moved to
C-4, from C-5 through a keto/enol tautomerization reaction. This reaction is catalyzed by
3beta-hydroxysteroid.

Progesterone in turn is the precursor of the mineralocorticoid aldosterone and after


conversion to 17-hydroxyprogesterone (another natural progestogen) of cortisol and
androstenedione. Androstenedione can be converted to testosterone, estrone and estradiol.

Pregenolone and progesterone can also be synthesized by yeast.

Fig:-6

33
Top: Conversion of cholesterol (1) into pregnenolone (3) to progesterone (6).
Bottom: Progesterone is important for aldosterone (mineralocorticoid) synthesis, as 17-
hydroxyprogesterone is for cortisol (glucocorticoid), and androstenedione for sex steroids

3.4)Level of Progesterone:-

Fig: 7

In women, progesterone levels are relatively low during the preovulatory phase of the
menstrual cycle, rise after ovulation, and are elevated during the luteal phase.
Progesterone levels tend to be less than 2 ng/ml prior to ovulation, and more than
5 ng/ml after ovulation. If pregnancy occurs, progesterone levels are initially maintained
at luteal levels. With the onset of the luteal-placental shift in progesterone support of the
pregnancy, levels start to rise further and may reach 100-200 ng/ml at term.

After delivery of the placenta and during lactation, progesterone levels are very low.

Progesterone levels are relatively low in children and postmenopausal women. Adult
males have levels similar to those in women during the follicular phase of the menstrual
cycle.

34
3.5)Effects:-

Progesterone exerts its primary action through the intracellular progesterone receptor.

In addition, progesterone is a highly potent antagonist of the mineralocorticoid receptor .


It prevents MR activation by binding to this receptor with an affinity exceeding even
those of aldosterone and other corticosteroids such as cortisol and corticosterone.

Reproductive system:-

Progesterone is sometimes called the "hormone of pregnancy", and it has many roles
relating to the development of the fetus:

 Progesterone converts the endometrium to its secretory stage to prepare the uterus for
implantation. At the same time progesterone affects the vaginal epithelium and
cervical mucus, making it thick and impermeable to sperm. If pregnancy does not
occur, progesterone levels will decrease, leading, in the human, to menstruation.
Normal menstrual bleeding is progesterone-withdrawal bleeding.
 During implantation and gestation, progesterone appears to decrease the maternal
immune response to allow for the acceptance of the pregnancy.
 Progesterone decreases contractility of the uterine smooth muscle.
 In addition progesterone inhibits lactation during pregnancy. The fall in progesterone
levels following delivery is one of the triggers for milk production.
 A drop in progesterone levels is possibly one step that facilitates the onset of labor.

Nervous System:-

Progesterone, like pregnenolone and dehydroepiandrosterone, belongs to the group of


neurosteroids. It can be synthesized within the central nervous system and also serves as
a precursor to another major neurosteroid, allopregnanolone.

Neurosteroids affect synaptic functioning, are neuroprotective and affect myelination.


They are investigated for their potential to improve memory and cognitive ability.

Other system

 It raises epidermal growth factor-1 levels, a factor often used to induce proliferation,
and used to sustain cultures, of stem cells.
 It increases core temperature during ovulation.
 It reduces spasm and relaxes smooth muscle. Bronchi are widened and mucus
regulated.
 It acts as an anti inflammatory agent and regulates the immune response.
 It reduces gall-bladder activity.
 It normalizes blood clotting and vascular tone, zinc and copper levels, cell oxygen
levels, and use of fat stores for energy.

35
 It may affect gum health, increasing risk of gingivitis and tooth decay.
 It appears to prevent endometrial cancer by regulating the effects of estrogen.

3.6) Medical Application of Progesterone Therapy:-

Assisted Reproductive Technology

Progesterone is used to support pregnancy in Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART)


cycles such as In-vitro Fertilization (IVF). While daily intramuscular injections of
progesterone-in-oil (PIO) have been the standard route of administration, PIO injections are
not FDA-approved for use in pregnancy. A recent meta-analysis showed that the intravaginal
route with an appropriate dose and dosing frequency is equivalent to daily intramuscular
injections.In addition, a recent case-matched study comparing vaginal progesterone with PIO
injections showed that live birth rates were nearly identical with both methods.

Anovulatory Bleeding

Abnormal uterine bleeding that occurs without ovulation taking place. Anovulatory bleeding
is also known as dysfunctional uterine bleeding or DUB. This type of bleeding is abnormal
uterine bleeding, not menstrual bleeding.

There are no specific guidelines regarding the amount of blood loss during anovulatory
bleeding, or the length of time this type of abnormal uterine bleeding lasts. Blood flow can be
anything from brief and spotting to excessively heavy or long lasting. Anovulatory bleeding
occurs irregularly.

Preterm Birth

In humans, preterm birth refers to the birth of a baby of less than 37 weeks gestational age.
The cause for preterm birth is in many situations elusive and unknown; many factors appear
to be associated with the development of preterm birth, making the reduction of preterm birth
a challenging proposition.

Premature birth, commonly used as a synonym for preterm birth, refers to the birth of a baby
before its organs mature enough to allow normal postnatal survival, and growth and
development as a child. Premature infants are at greater risk for short and long term
complications, including disabilities and impediments in growth and mental deve lopment.

Miscarriage

Miscarriage is the spontaneous end of a pregnancy at a stage where the embryo or fetus is
incapable of surviving, generally defined in humans at prior to 20 weeks of gestation.
Miscarriage is the most common complication of early pregnancy.

36
Miscarriages can occur for many reasons, not all of which can be identified. Some of these
causes include genetic, uterine or hormonal abnormalities, reproductive tract infections, and
tissue rejection.

Progesterone and progestin (synthetically produced progesterone) supplementation during


pregnancy may help prevent miscarriage in at-risk women, a new study conducted by
researchers in Hungary suggests.

Menopause

The word "menopause" literally means the "end of monthly cycles" where the end of Cycle
is traditionally indicated by the permanent stopping of monthly menstruation.

HRT (hormonal replacement therapy) use for menopause refers to the use of estrogen plus
progestin. Traditionally such therapy was provided as tablets but now is available in a range
of formulations including skin patches, gels, skin sprays, subcutaneous implants and so
forth..

Endometrial Cancer

Endometrial cancer refers to several types of malignancy which arise from the endometrium,
or lining of the uterus. Endometrial cancers are the most common gynecologic cancers in the
United States, with over 35,000 women diagnosed each year in the U.S.

hormonal therapy with progestins and antiestrogens has been used for the treatment of
endometrial stromal sarcomas.

Amenorrhoea

Amenorrhoea (BE), amenorrhea (AmE), or amenorrhœa, is the absence of a menstrual period


in a woman of reproductive age. Physiological states of amenorrhoea are seen during
pregnancy and lactation.

Amenorrhoea is a symptom with many potential causes. Primary amenorrhoea (menstruation


cycles never starting) may be caused by developmental problems such as the congenital
absence of the uterus, or failure of the ovary to receive or maintain egg cells.

Secondary amenorrhoea (menstruation cycles ceasing) is often caused by hormonal


disturbances from the hypothalamus and the pituitary gland or from premature menopause, or
intrauterine scar formation.

Maintainace of Pregnancy

Physiological mechanisms that sustain the state of pregnancy.

Establishment and maintainace of pregnancy result from singnaling by the conceptus and
required progesterone produced by corpus luteam.

Synthetic progesterone therapy also use for maintainace of pregnancy.

37
Other

There are other medical Applications are also there like in Contraception,
Menorrhagia,Uterine Bleeding etc.

3.7) Difference Between Natural and Synthetic Progesterone:-

The difference between synthetic progesterone and natural progesterone is that natural
progesterone is “Bio Identical”. “Natural Progesterone” is the name of the hormone that
chemically is Exatlylike the hormone progesterone produced in the human body.

 Bio-identical means that it is the same as what the body makes. This makes them
more effective with no side effects when used correctly in dosages similar to the
body's normal production.
 Since natural progesterone exists in humans and nature, it cannot be patented by
pharmaceutical companies.
 For patent pharmaceutical companies have to alter the chemical structure of
natural progesterone.
 By doing so, the synthetic progesterone products they have created become a
different substance from the natural one. Synthetic progesterone is called
progestin.

3.8) Side Effect of Progesterone Therapy:-

Progesterone may cause side effects.

 headache
 breast tenderness or pain
 upset stomach
 vomiting
 diarrhea
 constipation
 tiredness
 muscle, joint, or bone pain
 mood swings
 irritability
 runny nose
 sneezing
 cough
 vaginal discharge
 problems urinating

Some side effects can be serious. The following symptoms are uncommon.

38
 migraine headache
 severe dizziness or faintness
 slow or difficult speech
 weakness or numbness of an arm or leg
 lack of coordination or loss of balance
 shortness of breath
 fast heartbeat
 sharp chest pain
 coughing up blood
 leg swelling or pain
 loss of vision or blurred vision etc.

3.9) Different Route of Administration of Progesterone therapy

Oral route : Progesterone Preparation can be Administerd by oral Route. In the oral
route there are form are available one is Tablet and another is Capsule. But Orally
Administerd Progesterone rapidly Metabolized in the gastrointestinal tract and its Bio
Availability is less than Intra Mascular route.

Intra Muscular: Progesterone Preparation can be administered by Intra muscular


Route. For the Administered by Intra Muscular route progesterone preparation is also
available in Injection form. Intra Muscular Route has better bio availability than oral
route.

Vaginal: Progesterone therapy can also give by vaginal route. In Vaginal route there
are many dosage form are available like vaginal or rectal suppositories or
pessaries,transdermally through gel and cream.

Comparison:-

One Research done on effectiveness of different route which result are as under.

 Different routes of natural progesterone supplementation have been tried in


infertility treatments. Orally administered progesterone is rapidly metabolized in
the gastrointestinal tract and its use has proved to be inferior to i.m. and vaginal
routes.
 Progesterone i.m. achieves serum progesterone and results in sufficient
secretory transformation of the endometrium and satisfactory pregnancy rates.
 The comparison between i.m. and vaginal progesterone has led to controversial
results However there is increasing evidence in the literature to favour the use
of vaginal progesterone.
 Vaginally administered progesterone achieves adequate endometrial secretory
transformation but its pharmacokinetic properties are greatly dependent on the
formulation used.
 After vaginal progesterone application, discrepancies have been detected
between serum progesterone values and histological endometrial features.
Vaginally administered progesterone results in adequate secretory endometrial
transformation, despite serum progesterone values lower than those observed

39
after i.m. administration, even if they are lower than those observed during the
luteal phase of the natural cycle. This discrepancy is indicative of the first
uterine pass effect and therefore of a better bioavailability of progesterone in
the uterus, with minimal systematic undesirable effects.

3.10) Product of Lincoln in Progesterone Therapy:

In Progesterone Therapy Lincoln Pharmaceutical have Prolin Brand. In Prolin


Brand four products are there. These products have offered Synthetic as well as
Natural Progesterone therapy. Product Range is as follow:

Fig:-8 Products In Prolin

Sr.No Product Content Type


.

40
1 Prolin injection Hydroxy Progesterone Caproate Synthetic

2 Prolin Capsule Natural Micronised Progesterone Natural

3 Prolin-A Norethisterone Synthetic


Tablet

4 Prolin-N Allylestrenol Synthetic


Tablet

Tab:-4

CHAPTER:-4
STRATEGIC
MARKETING
TECHNIQUES

41
4.1) FOUR P’S OF THE PROLIN BRAND

1) Product:-

The term Product for Prolin range of Lincoln pharmaceutical include:

PRODUCT STRENGTH

Prolin-Injection 250 mg,500mg

Prolin-Capsule 100mg,200mg

Prolin-A Tablet 5mg

Prolin-N Tablet 5mg

Tab:-5

PRODUCT PACAGING

Prolin-Injection One Ampule

Prolin Capsule Strip of ten Capsule

42
Prolin-A Tablet Strip of ten Tab

Prolin-N Tablet Strip of ten Tab

Tab:-6

2)Price Decision:-

The Prices of the Prolin range of Lincoln pharmaceutical are as follow:

PRODUCT STRENGTH PRICE

Prolin Injection 250mg 35 for one injection

Prolin Injection 500mg 56 for one injection

Prolin Capsule 100mg 92.28 for 10 capsule

Prolin Capsule 200mg 164.8 for 10 capsule

Prolin-N Tablet 5mg 41.37 for 10 Tab

Prolin-A Tablet 5mg 61.68 for 10 Tab

43
Tab:-7

3) Distribution Decision (Place):-

This decision most importantly constitutes of the distribution channels. The various

Distribution channels used by the marketing department are as follows:

Company

C & F Agent

Whole Sale Redistribution


Stockists

Retailor Shops Retailor Shops

44
Customers Customers

Fig:-9

4) Promotional Decision:-

The Marketing Department of the Lincoln pharmaceutical has following strategy:

Personal contact or detailing:-

It is a process of sales promotion and advertisement by personal contacts. The Lincoln


Pharmaceutical engage persons (sales representatives and medical representatives) for
making personal contacts with sellers or prescribes and influence them in favor of their
products. This method of advertisement is very costly. By this method Lincoln
pharmaceutical able to:

 Provides an opportunity to inform the physician about new products of the


firm

 Helps to refresh the memory of physicians regarding the old products


of the firm.

 It clears doubts a physician may have regarding a particular product of the


company

 It helps to have a Feed Back from physicians regarding the products of the
firm

 It provides the company with an opportunity to demonstrate and explain its


products.

45
Miscellaneous methods:-

Lincoln Pharmaceutical offer gift items to the physicians and retailers to pass on to selective
customers. These items may be diaries, Ball pen, penholders, desk trays, key chains,
paperweights and calendars. These articles are of the daily use and therefore they
continuously remind their uses of the firm and its products. Generally the name and address
of the advertiser is printed or inscribed on those items. And also give Advertisement in
professional magazines and journals.

4.2) PORTER’S FIVE FORCE MODEL FOR PROGESTERONE


PREPARATION

46
Fig:-10

47
CHAPTER:-5
RESEARCH
METHODOLOGY

5.1) RESEARCH OBJECTIVE:-

1) To find out acceptance level of physician of progesterone preparation in hormone therapy.

2) To find out dose and duration of progesterone preparation for one particular indication.

48
3) To know preference of doctor for type of progesterone therapy.

4) To find out leading brand in progesterone therapy

5) To find out major problems encounter by patient during progesterone therapy.

5.2) RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

Research Design: DESCRIPTIVE RESEARCH

Time Scope:- 6 TO 8 Week

49
Sample Element:-

 Sample population:- GYNECOLOGIST (DOCTOR) AND


CHEMIST

 Sampling techniques: In my project, I have used Convenience


Sampling Technique (Without Replacement).

 Sampling Area: In my project I have used different Urban, Semi


Urban, and Rural area.

Urban: Ahemdabad,
Rajkot,
Baroda

Semi urban: Anand,


Nadiad
Mehsana,
Bhavnagar,
Himmatnagar,
Palanpur,

Rural: Godhara,
palitana
Junagadh
Botad
Visnagar,
Amreli
Kalol
Sihor

Sample size :

Sample area No. of Doctors No. of Chemist Sample Size


Urban 24 24 48
Semi urban 24 42 66
Rural 24 32 56
72 98 170

50
Data source:-

 Primary source: In my project I use questionnaire as research instrument for


collection of primary data.

 Secondary source: I have use Internal as well as External Secondary data source.
Internal data:- ready to use data from the company.
External data:- computerized database In that internet is used to collect the data.

51
CHAPTER-6
DOCTORS
AND
RETAILORS ANALYSIS

QUESTION-1

Whether you prefer progesterone for hormonal therapy?

52
Preferanceof progesteronetherapy

44%

56% Yes
No

Fig:-11

Preference of Percentage of Doctor No. of Doctor


progesterone therapy
Yes 55.56% 40
No 44.44% 32
Tab:-8

Interpretation:

From above graph and chart we can interpret that 55.56% of doctors of total sample that
means 40 doctors Prefer Progesterone therapy in hormonal therapy and 44.44% of doctors of
total sample that means 32 doctors say that they do not prefer progesterone therapy when
they prescribe or go for hormonal therapy.

QUESTION-2

What is most common Strength that you prefer for oral as well as parenteral route?

53
Preferenceof strengthin Oral Route

50.00%

40.00%
100mg
30.00%
200mg
%

20.00% 300mg
d
o
trs
c

10.00%

0.00%
Strength

Fig:-12

Strength Percentage of Doctor No. of Doctor


100 mg oral 43.06% 31
200 mg oral 50.00% 36
300 mg oral 6.94% 5

Tab:-9

Interpretation

From above graph and chart we can interpret that out of 70 doctors 31 doctors have
preference for 100mg strength as most common strength they prescribe in oral route. Out of
70 doctors 36 doctors prefer 200mg strength as most common strength they prescribe in oral
route. And 5 doctors that means 6.94% doctors prefer 300mg as most common strength they
prescribe for oral route. So we can interpret that most of doctor prefer 100mg and 200mg as
most common strength and few prefer 300mg as most common strength for oral route.

54
Preferenceof Strength in Parenteral Route

60.00%

50.00%
100mg
40.00%
200mg
30.00%
%

250mg
D
o
trs
c

20.00%

10.00%

0.00%
Strength

Fig:-13

Strength Percentage of No. of Doctor


Doctor
100 mg or less 52.78% 38
200 mg 34.72% 25
250 mg 12.5% 9
Tab:-10

Interpretation:

From above graph we can interpret those 38 doctors that means 52.78% of total prefer 100mg
or less as most common strength they prescribe in parenteral route. Out of 72 doctors 25
doctors prefer 200mg as most common strength they prescribe in parenteral route. And only
9 doctors say that prefer 250mg as most common strength they prescribe in parenteral.so we
can say according to this data most of doctors prefer 100mg or less strength injection.

QUESTION-3

55
Whether you prefer synthetic or natural progesterone therapy?

Preferanceof type of progesterone


therapy

60.00%
50.00%
40.00% Synthetic

30.00% Natural
Both
%
fD

20.00%
trs
co

10.00%
0.00%
%Type of progesteronetherapy

Fig:-14

Type of Progesterone Percentage of No of doctor


Therapy Doctor
Synthetic 11.11% 8
Natural 36.11% 26
Both 52.78% 38
Tab:-11

Interpretation:

From above graph and chart we Can interpret that 52.78% doctors prefer synthetic and
natural progesterone therapy.26 doctors that means 36.11% doctors prefer only natural
progesterone therapy and 11.11%% of doctors prefer only synthetic progesterone therapy. So
that means most of doctors prefer both type of progesterone therapy.

QUESTION-4

56
What are different indication for you prefer progesterone therapy?

IndicationBasedPreference

25.00% Menarrhagia
Maintenance of pregnancy
20.00%
Irregular Period

15.00% Amnorrea
Contraception
%
D

10.00%
o
trs
c

Threaten Abortion

5.00% IVF
Menopause
0.00% Uterine Bleeding
Indication

Fig:-15

Indication Percentage No. Of


Doctors
Menarrhagia 20.83% 15
Maintenance of 18.06% 13
Pregnancy
Irregular Period 15.28% 11
Amnorrea 13.89% 10
Contraception 9.72% 7
Threaten Abortion 9.72% 7
IVF 5.56% 4
Menopause 4.17% 3
Uterine Bleeding 2.78% 2

Tab:-12

QUESTION-5

57
What are the problems that patients generally encounter during Progesterone therapy?

Fig:-16

Side effects Percentage No. of


Doctors
Weight gain 18.06% 13
Vomitting 15.28% 11
Giddiness 15.28% 11
Nausea 11.11% 8
Upset Stomach 11.11% 8
Bleeding 9.72% 7
Pain(injection) 6.94% 5
Can’t say 5.56% 4
Headache 4.17% 3
Tiredness 2.78% 2

Tab:-13

Interpretation:

58
From above graph we can interpret 13 doctors say that patient face Weight gain during
progesterone therapy. According to 11 doctors patient faces Vomiting and Another 11
doctors say Giddiness is most common side Effect.8 doctors say that patient face Nausea side
effect. Another 8 doctors says upset stomach is major side effect.7 doctors say Bleeding and
5 doctors say Pain is side effect Patient face progesterone therapy.3 doctors say side effect
like Headache. According to 2 doctors Tiredness is major side effect. According to 4 doctors
they can not judge about side effect during progesterone therapy. So we can interpret that
Weight gain, Nausea, Vomitting, Giddiness are major side effect face by patient during
therapy.

QUESTION-6

59
Which brand you prefer for Progesterone therapy?

Fig:-17

Brands Percentage No. of


Doctors
Susten 22.22% 16
C-hop 15.28% 11
Puregest 16.67% 12
Naturogest 11.11% 8
Miprogen 8.33% 6
Sugest 7% 5
Nidagen 5.56% 4
Regesteron 5.56% 4
Endogest 4.17% 3
Neogest 2.78% 2
Dubagest 1.37% 1

Tab:-14

Above graph we can interpret that out of 70 Doctors 16 doctors prefer susten more for
Progesterone therapy. In this way another 11 doctors prefer C-hop,12 doctors prefer
Puregest,8 doctors prefer Naturogest,6 doctors prefer miprogen, 5 doctors prefer sugest,4
doctors prefer Nidagen,4 doctors prefer regesteron,3 doctors prefer Endogest,2 doctors prefer
Neogest and 1 doctor prefer Dubagest Brand for progesterone therapy
QUESTION-7

60
What could be your reson for choosing a particular brand?

Fig:-18

Parameter Percentage No. of


Doctor
Quality 50% 36
Patients 29.17% 21
response
Price 11.11% 8
Packaging 2.78% 2
Other 6.94% 5
Tab:-15

Interpretation:

from this data we can interpret that 36 doctors out of 72 doctors choose brand based on
quality.21 doctors choose brand based on patients response and 8 doctors say that they
choose brand based on price. 2 doctors say they choose brand based on packaging and 5
doctors say they choose brand based on Patient acceptance, availability of drug. Most of
doctors choose brand based on quality, price, and patient response.

QUESTION-8

61
Whether you know PROLIN?

Awarenessof prolin

21%

Yes
No
79%

Fig:-19

Awareness of Percentage No. of


prolin of Doctors Doctors
Yes 79.17% 57
No 20.83% 15
Tab:-16

Interpretation:

Out of 72 doctors 79.17% of doctors that means 57 doctors say they aware about prolin brand
where as out of 70 doctors 20.83% of doctors that means 15 doctors say they do not know
about prolin brand of Lincoln pharmaceutical ltd.

QUESTION-9

62
If you use PROLIN then on which parameter you rate it?

Fig:-20

Parameter Percentage No. of


Doctors
Through 27.78% 20
Representative
Price 22.22% 16
Not ans. 20.83% 15
Packaging 18.05% 13
Quality 11.11% 8

Tab:-17

Interpretation:

From above graph and chart we can interpret that 20 doctors rate prolin on the basis of
through representative. 16 doctors rate prolin on price.13 doctors rate prolin on the basis of
packaging. And 8 doctors say they prefer prolin on the basis of quality and 15 doctors not
give answer. So by this data we can say that most of doctors prefer prolin on basis of through
representative and price.

CHEMIST ANALYSIS

63
QUESTION-1

Which brand you have in Progesterone therapy?

Fig:-21

Brand Percentage
Endogest 9.18%
Naturogest 11.22%
Susten 25.51%
ETS 2.04%
Microgest 5.10%
Nidagen 4.08%
Dubagest 3.06%
Miprogen 8.16%
Sofia 1.02%
Neogest 2.04%
C-hop 12.24%
Regesterone 6.12%
Puregest 10.20%

Tab:-18

Interpretation:

64
From above graph and chart we can interpret that most of chemist have Susten brand than it
is follow by the C-hop which is follow by Naturogest which is follow by the Puregest and
Endogest which follow by the Miprogen which is follow by Regesterone which is follow by
Microgest, Nindagen, Dubagest which is follow by Neogest which is follow by Sofia. From
this data we can say that most of chemist have the Susten brand of sun pharma company that
is 25 chemist have Susten out of 100 chemist. 12 chemist have C-hop brand of Corona
company and 11 chemist have Naturogest of Zydus in their stock .this are major brands
which are available with chemist.

QUESTION-2

65
Which form you Prefer most in Progesterone preparation?

Fig:-22

Dosage Percentage
form
Capsule 37.76%
Injection 29.59%
Tablet 24.49%
Gel 8.16%
Tab:-19

Interpretation:

From above graph we can interpret that 37 chemist have capsule form in progesterone
preparation.29 chemist have injection in progesterone preparation.24 chemist have tablet
form in progesterone preparation and 8 chemist have gel form in progesterone preparation.we
can say by this data that most of chemist have capsule and injection form in progesterone
preparation.

QUESTION-3

Which Strength you Prefer more in Progesterone preparation?


66
Fig:-23

Strength Percentage
100mg Capsule 19.39%
200mg Capsule 16.33%
100mg Injection 15.31%
200mg Tablet 12.24%
200mg Injection 11.22%
250mg Injection 9.18%
100mg Tablet 6.12%
100mg Gel 5.10%
200mg gel 3.06%
300mg Capsule 2.04%
Tab-20

Interpretation:

From above data we can interpret that 19 chemists have 100mg capsule, 16 chemists have
200mg capsule and 2 chemists have 300mg Capsule in progesterone preparation.
6 chemist say that they have 100mg tablet and 12 chemist have 200mg tablet in progesterone
preparation.15 chemist have 100mg injection, 11 chemist have 200mg injection and 9
chemist have 250mg Injection in progesterone preparation.5 chemist have 100mg gel
And 3 chemists have 200mg gel in progesterone preparation. So we can say that most of
Chemist has 100mg capsule, 200mg capsule, 100mg injection and 200mg injection.
QUESTION-4

Which Company you prefer more in Progesterone Preparation?

67
CompanyPreferenceof Chemist
25.00% Sun pharma
Zydus
Bharat Serum
20.00%
Systopic
Glenmark
15.00%
Unisankyo
Medio HC
m
%
C
h

10.00%
e
is
t

VHB Biotech
Emecure
5.00%
Corona
Novartis
0.00%
Company Unicure
Cipla

Fig-24
Company Percentage
Sun pharma 20.41%
Zydus 15.31%
Bharat Serum 12.24%
Systopic 7.14%
Glenmark 3.06%
Unisankyo 11.22%
Medio HC 1.02%
VHB Biotech 6.12%
Emecure 2.04%
Corona 9.18%
Novartis 4.08%
Unicure 3.06%
Cipla 5.10%
Tab-21
Interpretation:-

From above data we can interpret that about 20 chemist prefer sun pharma, 15 chemist prefer
Zydus, 12 chemist prefer Bharat serum, 11 chemist prefer Unisankyo, 9 chemist prefer
corona,
7 chemist prefer Systopic,6 chemist prefer VHB Biotech,5 chemist prefer Cipla,4 chemist
prefer Novartis,3 chemist prefer Unicure and another 3chemist prefer Glenmark , 2 chemist
prefer Emecure and 1 chemist prefer Medio Health Care for Progesterone therapy.Major
companies like Sun pharma, Zydus and Bharat serum and Unisankyo are preferred by
chemist.
LIMITATION

Data:
Secondary data may be Manipulated or not updated.

68
Time:
At the afternoon most of doctors are not available so Wastage of time during day. At
morning and evening doctors are very busy so we cannot get proper response.

New Location:
In my project I had field work at new location from which I was not aware very well and i
did not get doctor’s list of that particular area.

Not proper Response;


Sometimes i did not get proper answer from chemist because of they do not want to disclose
information due to high competitive market. They think it will affect their monopoly.

Traveling:
In my project I have travel different location which consumes lot of time.

FINDINGS

69
 Doctors’ preferred100mg and 200mg strength in oral route as well as in parenteral
route in progesterone therapy.

 Most of doctors preferred both (synthetic and natural, type of progesterone therapy.

 Doctors give priorities to progesterone therapy for some of indication like


maintenance of Pregnancy, amnorrea, menarrhagia.

 Weight gain, Nausea, Vomiting and Giddiness are major problems face by patient
during progesterone therapy.

 susten , C-hop,Puregest , Naturogest and Endogest are major brands preferred by


doctors for progesterone therapy.

 Most of doctors rate quality and patients response as most Important Parameters.

 Sun pharma, Zydus, Unisankyo and Bharat serum are major companies preferred by
the chemist for progesterone therapy.

 Most of chemist Preferred Capsule and Injection dosage form in Progesterone


preparation.

70
CONCLUSION

It is obvious that in any business market analysis is most Important aspect from this we can
conclude following:

Acceptance of progesterone therapy in hormonal therapy by doctors is moderate.

Market of progesterone therapy is competitive market Because there are so many brand and
Generic Medicines are available from which few brands like susten,Naturogest,C-hop and
Puregest etc are most preferred brand by doctors and chemist and switching cost of doctors
as well as patients is none so threat of substitution and bargaining of power of customer is
high.

Doctor’s preference for particular brand depends on quality and patients acceptance for
progesterone therapy.

There is high cost for promotional activities like personal detailing in progesterone therapy
and also one hidden fact that brand preference of doctors and chemist is different in rural
urban and semi urban area.

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SUGGESTION/RECOMMENDATION

 In my survey there are so many brands are available for Progesterone therapy so
bargaining power of Chemist is high so company should Develop Scheme which
motivate chemist to push sale of Company.

 According to survey Awareness of prolin brand is not so much high so to create a


awareness among the doctors company should do the following things.

1. Company should provide pamphlet with the full information regarding the drug and
should update time to time.

2. Company should give proper training medical representative in such way that they
can clear the doubts of physician may have regarding the product.

 Company should give priorities to quality of drug.

 Company should make available their product in various strength.

72
BIBLIOGRAPHY
&
WEBLIOGRAPHY

73
BOOKS :-

1. Naresh Malhotra, Satyabhusan Dash, “Marketing Research- an applied orientation”,


5th edition 2010.
2. Philip kotler, Kevin Lane Keller, Abraham Koshy, Mithileshwar Jha, “ Marketing
Management”, 13th edition 2009.

WEBLIOGRAPHY:

www.lincolnpharma.com
www.cismsasia.com
www.medlineplus.com
www.pharma info.net
www.wekipedia.com
www.naturalhormones.net
www.patinentsville.com

74
ANNEXURE

75
QUESTIONNAIRE FOR DOCTOR

1) How many patients do you face in one week to whom you prefer any kind of
hormonal therapy?

……………………

2) Whether you prefer Progesterone for this Hormonal Therapy ?

Yes/No

3) Whether Synthetic , Natural or Both?

………………………

4) What is the most common strength that you prefer for oral as well as for parenteral
route?

Oral …………………………
Parenteral………………………….

4) For which Indication you preference Progesterone Therapy?

Sr Indication Dosage Duration


No.
1
2
3
4
5

5) What are problems that patients generally encounter during Progesterone


Therapy?

………………………..

6) Which brand you prefer for progesterone Therapy?

………………………..

76
7) What could be your reason for choosing a particular brand?

a) Quality

b) Price

c) Packaging

d) Patient Response

e) Patient Acceptance

8) Whether you know PROLIN?

Yes/No

9) If you use PROLIN then on which parameter you rate it?

a) Price

b) Packaging

c) Through representative

d) Quality

77
QUESTIONNAIRE FOR CHEMIST

1) Which company you Prefer in progesterone preparation?

…………………………………

2) Which brand you have in progesterone preparation?

…………………………………

3) Which dosage form you Prefer more in Progesterone brand?

a) Capsule

b) Injection

c) Gel

d) Tablet

4) Which strength you Prefer more in Progesterone brand?

………………………………….

78
ABBREVIATION

IPI – Indian pharmaceutical industry


GOI – Government of India
CAGR – Compound annual growth rate
GDP – Gross domestic product
APIs –Active pharmaceutical ingredients
FDA – Food and drug administration
NDDR – New drug development research
DTC – Direct to consumer
CGMP - current good manufacturing practices

GMP - Good manufacturing practice

MT – Metric tone

79