Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 101

МИНИСТЕРСТВО ОБРАЗОВАНИЯ И НАУКИ РОССИЙСКОЙ

ФЕДЕРАЦИИ
Федеральное государственное бюджетное образовательное учреждение
высшего образования
«Московский государственный лингвистический университет»

Демография и экология:
проблемы и решения.
Учебное пособие

для студентов 4 курса

переводческого факультета

специальность:

«Лингвистика»,

«Лингвистическое обеспечение военной деятельности»

Москва 2018
Печатается по решению Ученого совета
Московского государственного лингвистического университета

Авторы:
канд.филол.наук, доцент Е.В.Морозова
доцент Н.Г.Гусева
доцент Е.К.Белых

Рецензенты:

канд.филол.наук, доцент Е.И.Кондрашина


От авторов
Данное пособие предназначено для студентов старших курсов,
обучающихся по специальностям 45.05.01 Лингвистическое обеспечение
военной деятельности и 45. 03. 02 Лингвистика.
Пособие полностью соответствует Государственным требованиям к
минимуму содержания и уровню подготовки выпускников по данным
специальностям, а также содержит необходимые дидактические требования,
предусмотренные программой указанной образовательной дисциплины.
Работа с данным пособием призвана закрепить языковые компетенции,
которые обеспечивают уверенное владение иностранным языком в
профессиональных целях во всех видах речевой деятельности: понимании,
говорении и письме. Не менее важной задачей является углубление фоновых
знаний обучающихся в вопросах демографии, экологии и изменения
климата, а также расширение тематического словаря, связанного с этой
сферой.
В пособие включены аутентичные неадаптированные тексты из
англоязычной прессы и Интернет источников.
Пособие состоит из 8-ми разделов. Первые три раздела посвящены
изучению таких актуальных тем, как демография, экология и устойчивое
развитие. Разделы включают в себя тематические тексты, сопровождаемые
набором вопросно-ответных упражнений и заданий на поиск эквивалентной
лексики. Другие предлагаемые типы упражнений также направлены на
проверку понимания текста и расширение тематического словаря.
В четвертый и пятый раздел пособия включены упражнения на
закрепление тематической лексики, в том числе и переводные, а также
тексты для развития навыков реферирования как с английского языка на
русский, так и с русского на английский из англоязычных газет и журналов
по темам, изучаемым в первых трех разделах. Задачей данного раздела
является формирование профессиональной компетенции: развитие навыков
реферирования и перевода, отработка умения эффективно извлекать
наиболее важную информацию из текста и адекватно её интерпретировать,
развитие навыков устной и письменной форм общения.
В шестом разделе представлены самые разнообразные задания
тренировочного, коммуникативного и творческого характера,
предназначенные для усвоения и закрепления слов и словосочетаний по
изучаемой тематике. В частности, предлагаются задания на подстановку
активизируемых слов и выражений, перевод русских словосочетаний по
изучаемой лексике на английский язык, задания на подборку определений к
изучаемым терминам и понятиям, наконец, задания на двусторонний
перевод небольших текстов по изучаемой теме.
В седьмом разделе предлагаются ключи к упражнениям, что позволяет
использовать данное пособие для самостоятельной работы студентов.
Восьмой раздел включает словарь по изучаемой тематике.
Пособие разработано в соответствии с требованиями дисциплины
«Практикум по культуре речевого общения» и может быть включено в
программу обучения бакалавров самых разных профилей для повышения их
эрудиции, углубления фоновых знаний, активного усвоения
функциональной лексики, а также развития навыков перевода.
CONTENTS
ВВЕДЕНИЕ………………………………………………………………

UNIT 1. DEMOGRAPHY………..

Text 1. Demography as a science. Demography and


economy.……………………………
Text 2. The main concepts of demography. Data and methods.
Text 3. Demographic changes — overpopulation…………………………………..
Text 4. Chapter 22 from THE INFERNO by D.Brown ……………………
Text 5. The Malthusian catastrophe vs the theory of demographic
transition…………

Translation…………………………………………………………………

Unit 2. THE ENVIRONMENT: PROBLEMS & SOLUTIONS………..

Text 1. Environmental picture around the world……………………………


Text 2. Global warming ……………
Text 3. Europe’s climate change assessed …
Text 4. Why the news about warming is worse than we thought: feedback ……
Text 5. Desertification …………………………………………………..
Text 6. Water scarcity, desalination and pollution ………………………………..
Text 7. Sewerage and fertilizers ‘are killing the seas’……………………

Translation…………………………………………………………………

Unit 3. SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT………………………………

Text 1. Sustainable development: the essence……………………………..


Text 2. Earth-friendly management………………………………………..
Text 3. Sustainable architecture ……………………………………………..
Text 4. Power plants eye technology for green coal fuel…………………….
Text 5. Combining ecology with economy…………………………………
Text 6. Counters face up to green beans………………………..
Text 7. Investing in doing good can be good risk
management………………………..

Translation……………………………………………………………………

Unit 4. TEXTS FOR rendering and summing up……………….


Text 1. America’s demography ………………………….
Text 2. The legacy of the baby boom in Australia…………………
Text 3. TUC Urges ‘greenhouse effect’ study…………………………
Text 4. UK air pollution ‘will claim more lives’………………………….
Text 5. Paving stones to fight pollution……………………………………
Text 6. Cool kettles bring climate to boil………………………………….
Text 7. Sea ‘lawn’ clue to climate change…………………………………
Text 8. Dumped TVs and computers sold to developing world……………
Text 9. PC wastes electricity…………………………………………………
Text 10. Water Scarcity: Best ways to conserve water…………………………
Text 11. Noxious mud from oil well hits road traffic …………………………

Unit 5. TEXTS FOR rendering into English……………………..

Текст 1. Демографическая политика


Текст 2. Демографическая ситуация в Южной Корее
Текст 3. Доклад: к 2020 году Россия потеряет 5,5 млн. рабочих рук
Текст 4. Опустынивание…………………………………………………….
Текст 5. Вода. Вопрос жизни и смерти…………………………………….
Текст 6. Дышать вредно…………………………………………………….
Текст 7. Все зеленое………………………………………………………
Текст 8. “ Хранители климата” снижают выбросы ………………………
Текст 9. Мировой океан «прокисает»……………………………………
Текст 10. Вклад метана…………………………………………………….
Текст 11. Озоновое «сито»……………………………………………….

UNIT 6. EXERCISES………………………………………………………

UNIT 7. KEYS TO THE EXERCISES……………………………………..

UNIT 8. VOCABULARY………………………………………………….
Unit I
DEMOGRAPHY

Text 1
DEMOGRAPHY AS A SCIENCE. DEMOGRAPHY AND ECONOMY.
Demography, the size of population, the speed at which it changes and its age
structure, is an important factor in determining how a country’s economy will
perform and what economic policy a government should pursue. For example, in a
country where the population growth is very fast, the economy has to grow quickly
if the income per head is not to fall. In a country like South Africa, where the
population is rising by about 2.7 per cent a year, politicians are worried about
generating enough extra national income to at least match that level of increase. In
Britain, however, the population has grown by less than 2 per cent over the last 10
years. Therefore almost all the economic growth in Britain during that time has
meant higher average income per head, even if the distribution of income is
unequal.
It is also important to know how many of the people in the total population will be
economically active. Some will be children and therefore too young to work. Some
will be elderly and will have retired. It is only the group in the middle – say
between the ages of 16 and 60 or 65 – who are available for work.
The very young, schoolchildren, students and people who have retired are known
as the “dependent” population, because they depend on other people or the state for
their income. The relationship between the number of dependent people and those
who are of working age is known as the “dependency ratio”: the greater the
proportion of dependent people, the higher the ratio. This ratio is sometimes
referred to as the “welfare burden”; it increases if more people stay on at school or
go to college. It will also increase if people retire or live longer after they have
retired.
Over the last 50 years, the dependency ratio in Britain has stayed roughly the same:
as a percentage of the population of working age, the dependent population has
been between 55 and 65 percent. But people are now living longer. In 1931, a
man’s life expectancy in Britain was 60. Now it is 73. Europe’s population is
aging. So there will be more old people who will need pensions provided for them
through income taxes paid by those at work.
The dependency ratio is not a completely accurate measure of how many non-
working people need to be supported by those with jobs. After all, not every man
between 16 and 65 and every woman between 16 and 60 has paid employment. In
many societies it is frowned upon for married women – particularly those with
young children – to have jobs.
Attitudes have changed in recent years. Yet the “participation rate” – the
proportion of women of working age who do go out to work – is still lower than
that of men. In 1989, some 94 per cent of British men aged 25 to 44 were in the
labour force; the proportion of women was 72 per cent. And only one woman in
eight with a child under five had a full-time job. However, women’s representation
in the labour force is steadily increasing. More women are working than
before. Today, over two-thirds of women aged 16-64 are employed.

Exercise 1. Give Russian equivalents for the following:


to determine how a country’s economy will perform; to generate enough extra
national income; to match that level of income; economically active population;
dependency ratio; welfare burden; it is frowned upon , participation rate.

Exercise 2. Find in the text the English equivalents for the following:
проводить политику; население увеличивается на 2,7 процента; средний
доход на душу населения; подоходный налог; продолжительность жизни.

Exercise 3. Answer the following questions:

1. What is the subject of demography and what can you say about the
relationship between demography and economy?
2. How is ”dependency ratio” defined ? Is it an accurate measure? Why?
3. Do you think a rising dependency ratio is a concern in many countries?
Why?
4. What is participation rate?

Text 2
THE MAIN CONCEPTS OF DEMOGRAPHY. DATA AND METHODS.

Demography is the study of the size, structure and distribution of populations, and
spatial and/or temporal changes in them in response to birth, migration, aging and
death.
Human demography is the most well known discipline of demography, and
typically what people refer to when using the term demography. Demographic
analysis can be applied to whole societies or to groups defined by criteria such as
education, nationality, religion and ethnicity. In academia, demography is often
regarded as a branch of either anthropology, economics, or sociology. Formal
demography limits its object of study to the measurement of populations processes,
while the broader field of social demography also analyzes the relationships
between economic, social, cultural and biological processes influencing a
population.
Data and methods
There are two methods of data collection: direct and indirect. Direct data come
from vital statistics registries that track all births and deaths as well as certain
changes in legal status such as marriage, divorce, and migration (registration of
place of residence). In developed countries with good registration systems (such as
the United States and much of Europe), registry statistics are the best method for
estimating the number of births and deaths.
The census is the other common direct method of collecting demographic data. A
census is usually conducted by a national government and attempts to enumerate
every person in a country. However, in contrast to vital statistics data, which are
typically collected continuously and summarized on an annual basis, censuses
typically occur only every 10 years or so, and thus are not usually the best source
of data on births and deaths. Analyses are conducted after a census to estimate how
much over- or undercounting took place. Censuses do more than just count people.
They typically collect information about families or households, as well as about
such individual characteristics as age, sex, marital status, literacy/education,
employment status and occupation, and geographical location. They may also
collect data on migration (or place of birth or of previous residence), language,
religion, nationality (or ethnicity or race), and citizenship. In countries in which the
vital registration system may be incomplete, the censuses are also used as a direct
source of information about fertility and mortality; for example the censuses of the
People's Republic of China gather information on births and deaths that occurred in
the 18 months immediately preceding the census.
Indirect methods of data collecting are required in countries where full data are not
available, such as is the case in much of the developing world. One of these
techniques is the sister method, where survey researchers ask women how many of
their sisters have died or had children and at what age. With these surveys,
researchers can then indirectly estimate birth or death rates for the entire
population. Other indirect methods include asking people about siblings, parents,
and children.
Important concepts
Important concepts in demography include:
• The crude birth rate, the annual number of live births per 1000 people.
• The general fertility rate, the annual number of live births per 1000 women
of childbearing age (often taken to be from 15 to 49 years old, but sometimes from
15 to 44).
• age-specific fertility rates, the annual number of live births per 1000 women
in particular age groups (usually age 15-19, 20-24 etc.)
• The crude death rate, the annual number of deaths per 1000 people.
• The infant mortality rate, the annual number of deaths of children less than 1
year old per 1000 live births.
• The expectation of life (or life expectancy), the number of years which an
individual at a given age could expect to live at present mortality levels.

Note that the crude death rate as defined above and applied to a whole population
can give a misleading impression. For example, the number of deaths per 1000
people can be higher for developed nations than in less developed countries,
despite standards of health being better in developed countries. This is because
developed countries have relatively more elderly people, who are more likely to
die in a given year, so that the overall mortality rate can be higher even if the
mortality rate at any given age is lower. A more complete picture of mortality is
given by a life table which summarises mortality separately at each age. A life
table is necessary to give a good estimate of life expectancy.
The fertility rates can also give a misleading impression that a population is
growing faster than it in fact is, because measurement of fertility rates only
involves the reproductive rate of women, and does not adjust for the sex ratio. For
example, if a population has a total fertility rate of 4.0 but the sex ratio is 66/34
(twice as many men as women), this population is actually growing at a slower
natural increase rate than would a population having a fertility rate of 3.0 and a sex
ratio of 50/50. This distortion is greatest in India and Myanmar, and is present in
China as well.

Exercise 1. Give Russian equivalents for the following:

the income per head; social demography; vital statistics; the crude birth rate; the
crude death rate; the general fertility rate; life expectancy; the infant mortality
rate; reproductive rate; life table; sex ratio.

Exercise 2. Find in the text the English equivalents for the following:
пространственные и временные изменения; методы получения
демографических данных; запись актов гражданского состояния; перепись
населения; семейное положение; этническая принадлежность; женщины
детородного возраста; расхождение, искажение.
Exercise 3. Answer the following questions:
1. How can you define the term «demography»? What does it study?
2. What are the two direct methods of collecting demographic data? How do they
differ?
3. How are indirect methods of data collecting used? Where are they required?
4. What are the most important concepts in demography?
5. Why can the crude death rate give a misleading impression?
6. What is a life table? What information does it provide?
7. Why can the fertility rates give misleading information of the population
growth?

Text 3
DEMOGRAPHIC CHANGES — OVERPOPULATION
The surge in population is both a cause of the changed relationship and one of the
clearest illustrations of how startling the change has been, especially when viewed
in a historical context. From the emergence of modern humans 200,000 years ago
until Julius Caesar's time, fewer than 250 million people walked on the face of
Earth. When Christopher Columbus set sail for the New World 1,500 years later,
there were approximately 500 million people on Earth. By the time Thomas
Jefferson wrote the Declaration of Independence in 1776, the number had doubled
again, to 1 billion. By midway through this century, at the end of World War II, the
number had risen to just above 2 billion people.

In other words, from the beginning of humanity's appearance on Earth to 1945, it


took more than ten thousand generations to reach a world population of 2 billion
people. Now, in the course of one human lifetime - mine - the world population
will increase from 2 to more than 9 billion, and it is already more than halfway
there.

Overpopulation is often defined as the condition of having more people than can
live on Earth in comfort, happiness, and health and still leave the planet a fit place
for future generations. To many environmentalists, the data suggest that the planet
is already overpopulated. Because of differing concepts of carrying capacity,
however, experts differ widely over what level of population is considered too
high.

Some project that if everyone existed at a minimum survival level, the earth could
support 20 to 48 billion people. This anthill existence would require that everyone
exist only on a diet of grain, cultivating all arable land, and mining much of the
earth's crust to a depth of 1.6 kilometres (1 mile). Other analysts believe the earth
could support 7 to 12 billion people at a decent standard of living by distributing
the world's land and food supply more equitably and shifting from non- renewable
resources (such as lead, tin, uranium, oil, and natural gas) to renewable resources
(the energy of wind, waves and various forms of solar energy).

These analysts recognize that population growth is not the only cause of our
environmental and resource problems. They believe, however, that adding several
hundred million more people in developed countries and several billion more in the
developing world will intensify many environmental and social problems by
increasing resource use and waste, environmental degradation, rapid climate
change and pollution. They see overpopulation as a threat to Earth's life support
systems for us and other species.

Proponents of population regulation point to the fact that even today we are not
providing adequate basic necessities for one out of five people, who don't have the
opportunity to be a net economic gain for their country. To proponents of
population regulation, it is unethical for us not to encourage a sharp drop in birth
rates and unsustainable forms of resource use to prevent a sharp rise in death rates
and human misery and a decrease in Earth's biodiversity in the future.

Others opposed to population regulation feel that all people should have the
freedom to have as many children as they want. To some, population regulation is
a violation of their deep religious beliefs. To others, it is an intrusion into their
personal privacy and freedom. To minorities, population regulation is sometimes
seen as a form of genocide to keep their numbers and power from rising.

Despite promises about sharing the world's wealth, the gap between the rich and
the poor has been getting larger since 1960. Proponents of population regulation
believe this is caused by a combination of population growth and unwillingness of
the wealthy to share the world's wealth and resources more fairly. They call on the
richer countries to use their economic systems to reward population regulation and
sustainable forms of economic growth instead of continuing their unsustainable
forms of economic growth and encouraging the poorer countries to follow this
unsustainable and eventually disastrous path for the planet.

Recently, the Population Crisis Committee compiled a human suffering index for
each of 130 countries based on ten measures of human welfare. They found a high
correlation between the level of human suffering and the rate of population
increase in countries. The 30 countries falling in the extreme human-suffering
range - all in Africa and Asia - averaged a high annual rate of population increase
of 2.8%. The 44 countries with a high human suffering index - all in Africa, Asia,
and Latin America - also had an average annual population increase of 2.8 %.

Exercise 1. Translate the following phrases from the text:


the surge in population; carrying capacity; to distribute land and food more
equitably; a threat to Earth's life support systems; population regulation; to be a
net economic gain for the country; unsustainable forms of resource use; Earth's
biodiversity; the Population Crisis Committee compiled a human suffering index.

Exercise 2. Find in the text the English equivalents for the following:
оставить планету местом, пригодным для жизни будущих поколений;
существовать на уровне выживания; возобновляемые – не возобновляемые
источники энергии; противники – сторонники; резкое сокращение
рождаемости; вмешательство в личную жизнь; тесная взаимосвязь; темпы
роста населения.

Exercise 3. Answer the following questions about the text:

1. What statistical data serve as proof of the recent surge in Earth’s population?
2. What is overpopulation?
3. What theories of Earth’s carrying capacity are mentioned in the text? Do you
know any other theories?
4. What are the arguments of proponents and opponents of population regulation?
5. What was revealed by the Population Crisis Committee when they compiled a
human suffering index for each of 130 countries?

Text 4
Chapter 22 from THE INFERNO by D.Brown, abridged

(Elizabeth Sinskey is director of the World Health Organization)

The New York headquarters of the Council on Foreign Relations was an


unobtrusive neoclassical building on the corner of Park and Sixty-eighth. “Dr.
Sinskey,” a female receptionist greeted her. “This way, please. He’s expecting
you.” She went into the small, dark conference room that was illuminated only by
the glow of a video screen, and the door closed behind her… . In front of the
screen, a very tall and lanky silhouette faced her. “Dr. Sinskey,” the man’s sharp
voice declared. “Thank you for joining me.” “Please sit,” he said, motioning to a
chair near the front of the room. Elizabeth sat. The bizarre image being projected
on the video screen did nothing to calm her nerves. “I was at your presentation this
morning,” declared the silhouette. “I came a long distance to hear you speak. An
impressive performance.” “Thank you,” she replied. “Who are you? And why have
you called me here?” “The image on the screen will explain why you’re here.”
Sinskey eyed the horrific visual—a painting depicting a vast sea of humanity,
throngs of sickly people, all climbing over one another in a dense tangle of naked
bodies. “The great artist Doré,” the man announced. “His spectacularly grim
interpretation of Dante Alighieri’s vision of hell. I hope it looks comfortable to
you … because that’s where we’re headed.” He paused, drifting slowly toward her.
“And let me tell you why.” He kept moving toward her, seeming to grow taller
with every step. “If I were to take this piece of paper and tear it in two …” He
paused at a table, picked up a sheet of paper, and ripped it loudly in half. “And
then if I were to place the two halves on top of each other …” He stacked the two
halves. “And then if I were to repeat the process …” He again tore the papers,
stacking them. “I produce a stack of paper that is now four times the thickness of
the original, correct?” His eyes seemed to smolder in the darkness of the room.
Elizabeth did not appreciate his condescending tone and aggressive posture. She
said nothing. “Hypothetically speaking,” he continued, moving closer still, “if the
original sheet of paper is a mere one-tenth of a millimeter thick, and I were to
repeat this process … say, fifty times … do you know how tall this stack would
be?” Elizabeth bristled. “I do,” she replied with more hostility than she intended.
“It would be one-tenth of a millimeter times two to the fiftieth power. It’s called
geometric progression. Might I ask what I’m doing here?” The man smirked and
gave an impressed nod. “Yes, and can you guess what that actual value might look
like? One-tenth of a millimeter times two to the fiftieth power? Do you know how
tall our stack of paper has become?” He paused only an instant. “Our stack of
paper, after only fifty doublings, now reaches almost all the way … to the sun.”
Elizabeth was not surprised. The staggering power of geometric growth was
something she dealt with all the time in her work. Circles of contamination …
replication of infected cells … death-toll estimates. “I apologize if I seem naive,”
she said, making no effort to hide her annoyance. “But I’m missing your point.”
“My point?” he chuckled quietly. “My point is that the history of our human
population growth is even more dramatic. The earth’s population had very meager
beginnings … but alarming potential.” He was pacing again. “Consider this. It took
the earth’s population thousands of years—from the early dawn of man all the way
to the early 1800s—to reach one billion people. Then, astoundingly, it took only
about a hundred years to double the population to two billion in the 1920s. After
that, it took a mere fifty years for the population to double again to four billion in
the 1970s. As you can imagine, we’re well on track to reach eight billion very
soon. Just today, the human race added another quarter-million people to planet
Earth. A quarter million. And this happens every day—rain or shine. Currently,
every year, we’re adding the equivalent of the entire country of Germany. Did you
know that if you live another nineteen years, you will witness the population triple
in your lifetime. One lifetime - a tripling. Think of the implications. As you know,
your World Health Organization has again increased its forecasts, predicting there
will be some nine billion people on earth before the midpoint of this century.
Animal species are going extinct at a precipitously accelerated rate. The demand
for dwindling natural resources is skyrocketing. Clean water is harder and harder to
come by. By any biological gauge, our species has exceeded our sustainable
numbers. And in the face of this disaster, the World Health Organization—the
gatekeeper of the planet’s health—is investing in things like curing diabetes, filling
blood banks, battling cancer.” He paused, staring directly at her. “And so I brought
you here to ask you directly why the hell the World Health Organization does not
have the guts to deal with this issue head-on?” Elizabeth was seething now.
“Whoever you are, you know damned well the WHO takes overpopulation very
seriously. Recently we spent millions of dollars sending doctors into Africa to
deliver free condoms and educate people about birth control.” “Ah, yes!” the lanky
man derided. “And an even bigger army of Catholic missionaries marched in on
your heels and told the Africans that if they used the condoms, they’d all go to hell.
Africa has a new environmental issue now—landfills overflowing with unused
condoms.” Elizabeth strained to hold her tongue. He was correct on this point, and
yet modern Catholics were starting to fight back against the Vatican’s meddling in
reproductive issues. Most notably, Melinda Gates, a devout Catholic herself, had
bravely risked the wrath of her own church by pledging $560 million to help
improve access to birth control around the world. Elizabeth Sinskey had gone on
record many times saying that Bill and Melinda Gates deserved to be canonized for
all they’d done through their foundation to improve world health. Sadly, the only
institution capable of conferring sainthood somehow failed to see the Christian
nature of their efforts. “Dr. Sinskey,” the shadow continued. “What the World
Health Organization fails to recognize is that there is only one global health issue.”
He pointed again to the grim image on the screen—a sea of tangled, cloying
humanity. “And this is it.” He paused. “I realize you are a scientist, and therefore
perhaps not a student of the classics or the fine arts, so let me offer another image
that may speak to you in a language you can better understand.” The room went
dark for an instant, and the screen refreshed. The new image was one Elizabeth had
seen many times … and it always brought an eerie sense of inevitability. A heavy
silence settled in the room. “Yes,” the lanky man finally said. “Silent terror is an
apt response to this graph. Seeing it is a bit like staring into the headlight of an
oncoming locomotive.” Slowly, the man turned to Elizabeth and gave her a tight,
condescending smile. “Any questions, Dr. Sinskey?” “Just one,” she fired back.
“Did you bring me here to lecture me or insult me?” “Neither.” His voice turned
eerily cajoling. “I brought you here to work with you. I have no doubt you
understand that overpopulation is a health issue. But what I fear you don’t
understand is that it will affect the very soul of man. Under the stress of
overpopulation, those who have never considered stealing will become thieves to
feed their families. Those who have never considered killing will kill to provide for
their young. All of Dante’s deadly sins—greed, gluttony, treachery, murder, and
the rest—will begin percolating … rising up to the surface of humanity, amplified
by our evaporating comforts. We are facing a battle for the very soul of man.” “I’m
a biologist. I save lives … not souls.” “Well, I can assure you that saving lives will
become increasingly difficult in the coming years. Overpopulation breeds far more
than spiritual discontent. There is a passage in Machiavelli—” “Yes,” she
interrupted, reciting her recollection of the famous quote. “ ‘When every province
of the world so teems with inhabitants that they can neither subsist where they are
nor remove themselves elsewhere … the world will purge itself.’ ” She stared up at
him. “All of us at the WHO are familiar with that quotation.” “Good, then you
know that Machiavelli went on to talk about plagues as the world’s natural way of
self-purging.” “Yes, and as I mentioned in my talk, we are well aware of the direct
correlation between population density and the likelihood of wide-scale epidemics,
but we are constantly devising new detection and treatment methods. The WHO
remains confident that we can prevent future pandemics.” “That’s a pity.”
Elizabeth stared in disbelief. “I beg your pardon?!” “Dr. Sinskey,” the man said
with a strange laugh, “you talk about controlling epidemics as if it’s a good thing.”
She gaped up at the man in mute disbelief. “There you have it,” the lanky man
declared, sounding like an attorney resting his case. “Here I stand with the head of
the World Health Organization—the best the WHO has to offer. A terrifying
thought if you consider it. I have shown you this image of impending misery.” He
refreshed the screen, again displaying the image of the bodies. “I have reminded
you of the awesome power of unchecked population growth.” I have enlightened
you about the fact that we are on the brink of a spiritual collapse.” He paused and
turned directly toward her. “And your response? Free condoms in Africa.” The
man gave a derisive sneer. “This is like swinging a flyswatter at an incoming
asteroid. The time bomb is no longer ticking. It has already gone off, and without
drastic measures, exponential mathematics will become your new God … and ‘He’
is a vengeful God. He will bring to you Dante’s vision of hell right outside on Park
Avenue … huddled masses wallowing in their own excrement. A global culling
orchestrated by Nature herself.” “Is that so?” Elizabeth snapped. “So tell me, in
your vision of a sustainable future, what is the ideal population of earth? What is
the magic number at which humankind can hope to sustain itself indefinitely …
and in relative comfort?” The tall man smiled, clearly appreciating the question.
“Any environmental biologist or statistician will tell you that humankind’s best
chance of long-term survival occurs with a global population of around four
billion.” “Four billion?” Elizabeth fired back. “We’re at seven billion now, so it’s a
little late for that.” The tall man’s green eyes flashed fire. “Is it?”

Exercise 1. Give Russian equivalents for the following:


the World Health Organization, one-tenth of a millimeter times two to the fiftieth
power, rain or shine, to be on track to do sth, eerie sense of inevitability,
overpopulation is a health issue, at a precipitously accelerated rate, gatekeeper of
the planet’s health, skyrocketing demand, to exceed sustainable numbers, blood
banks, to have the guts to deal with the issue head-on, evaporating comforts,
impending misery, global culling orchestrated by Nature, a sustainable future,
long-term survival.

Exercise 2. Find in the text the English equivalents for the following:
неприметное здание, приехать издалека, чтобы…, толпы больных, плотный
клубок тел, планета Земля, на заре человечества, рост населения,
увеличиться в два (три) раза, подходящий ответ, вымирать, мусорные свалки,
истощающиеся природные ресурсы, смертный грех, натянутая улыбка,
порождать недовольство, самоочищение, причинная связь, эпидемия,
неконтролируемый прирост населения, решительные меры.

Exercise 3. Answer the following questions:


1. Where is the scene laid?
2. Had the characters met before?
3. What horrific images did Dr. Sinskey see on the screen?
4. How did the man illustrate the geometric growth of the Earth’s population?
5. What did the man say about the on-going increase in population?
6. What devastating effects of overpopulation did the man mention?
7. What did the man accuse WHO of? Did Dr. Sinskey agree with his accusations?
8. What Machiavelli’s famous quote did they mention?
9. What grim picture of the near future did the man draw?
10. What, according to the man, is the Earth’s carrying capacity?
11. What way of solving the problem of overpopulation did the man hint at?

Text 5

The Malthusian catastrophe vs the theory of demographic transition

The Malthusian catastrophe


At the end of the 18th century, Thomas Malthus concluded that, if unchecked,
populations would be subject to exponential growth. He feared that population
growth would tend to outstrip growth in food production, leading to ever
increasing famine and poverty; he is seen as the intellectual father of ideas of
overpopulation and the limits to growth.
The Malthusian catastrophe [malˈθjuːzɪən kə'tæstrəfɪ] (also phrased Malthusian
check, Malthusian crisis, Malthusian disaster, Malthusian fallacy, Malthusian
nightmare, or Malthusian theory of population) was originally foreseen to be a
forced return to subsistence-level conditions once population growth had outpaced
agricultural production.
English economist Thomas Robert Malthus (1766–1834) is best known for his
hugely influential theories on population growth.
Malthus's most well-known work 'An Essay on the Principle of Population' was
published in 1798, although he was the author of many pamphlets and other longer
tracts. The main tenets of his argument were radically opposed to current thinking
at the time. He argued that increases in population would eventually diminish the
ability of the world to feed itself and based this conclusion on the thesis that
populations expand in such a way as to overtake the development of sufficient land
for crops.
Between 1798 and 1826 Malthus published six editions of his famous treatise, An
Essay on the Principle of Population. These famous books on population by
Malthus grew out of his conversations with his father, Daniel, who was an
enthusiastic believer in the optimistic philosophy of the Enlightenment. Daniel
Malthus believed that the application of scientific progress to agriculture and
industry would inevitably lead humanity forward to a golden age. Robert was more
pessimistic. He pointed out that the benefits of scientific progress would probably
be eaten up by a growing population. In his book, Malthus pointed out that under
optimum conditions, every biological population, including that of humans, is
capable of increasing exponentially. For humans under optimum conditions, the
population can double every twenty-five years and increase by a factor of 8 every
seventy-five years. It can grow by a factor of 16 every century, and so on.
Obviously, human populations cannot increase at this rate for very long, since if
they did, the earth would be completely choked with people in a very few
centuries. Therefore, Malthus pointed out, various forces must be operating to hold
the population in check. Malthus listed first the “positive checks” to population
growth - disease, famine, and war. In addition, he listed “preventive checks” - birth
control (which he called “Vice”), late marriage, and moral restraint. The positive
checks raise the death rate, while the preventive checks lower fertility.
According to Malthus, a population need not outrun its food supply, provided that
late marriage, birth control or moral restraint are practiced; but without these less
painful checks, the population will quickly grow to the point where the grim
Malthusian forces - famine, disease and war – will begin to act. Today, as the
population of humans and the size of the global economy rapidly approach
absolute limits set by the carrying capacity of the earth’s environment, it is
important to listen to the warning voice of Malthus.
The demographic transition
Contrary to Malthus' predictions and in line with his thoughts on moral restraint,
natural population growth in most developed countries has diminished to close to
zero, without being held in check by famine or lack of resources, as people in
developed nations have shown a tendency to have fewer children. The fall in
population growth has occurred despite large rises in life expectancy in these
countries. This pattern of population growth, with slow (or no) growth in pre-
industrial societies, followed by fast growth as the society develops and
industrialises, followed by slow growth again as it becomes more affluent, is
known as the demographic transition.
Similar trends are now becoming visible in developing countries, so that far from
spiralling out of control, world population growth is expected to slow markedly in
the next century, coming to an eventual standstill or even declining. The change is
likely to be accompanied by major shifts in the proportion of world population in
particular regions. The United Nations Population Division expects the absolute
number of infants and toddlers in the world to begin to fall by 2015, and the
number of children under 15 by 2025. Working independently, demographers at
the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis in Austria expect the
world population to peak at 9 billion by 2070. Throughout the 21st century, the
average age of the population is likely to continue to rise.

Exercise 1. Give Russian equivalents for the following:


if unchecked, populations would be subject to exponential growth; subsistence
level; to be opposed to current thinking at the time; the tenets of an argument; the
Enlightenment; to increase by a factor of 8; to be choked with; positive checks;
preventive checks; demographic transition; The United Nations Population
Division.

Exercise 2. Find in the text the English equivalents for the following:
опережать рост сельскохозяйственного производства; голод и бедность;
ограничение роста; контролировать рост населения; снизиться почти до нуля;
выйти из-под контроля; заметно замедлиться; в конце концов остановиться;
достичь максимальной отметки в 9 миллиардов.

Exercise 3. Answer the following questions:

1. What is meant by “The Malthusian catastrophe”? What are the main tenets of T.
R. Malthus’s theory?
2. Did T. R. Malthus’s father agree with his son’s pessimistic forecast?
3. What did T. R. Malthus mean by preventive checks and positive checks?
4. What does the theory of demographic transition say about population growth
today? What is its forecast for the future?

Exercise 4.
Watch the film «Demographic
Transition» https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QsBT5EQt348&index=11&list=P
LFs4vir_WsTzcfD7ZE8uO3yX-GCKUk9xZ and sum it up in writing.
Which theory, in your opinion, will pass the test of time?

Translate into English:


1. Демография - это научное исследование численности, территориального
размещения и состава населения. Также в рамках данной науки изучают
причины изменения в составе населения и пути решения, неблагоприятных
для страны демографических ситуаций.
2. Население является объектом исследования демографии. В качестве
единицы совокупности (unit of population) выделяют человека, которого
рассматривают с точки зрения различных признаков. Это позволяет говорить
о том, что демография - это наука о человеке, его возрасте, половой
принадлежности, семейном положении, роде занятий, образовании,
национальности и прочих характеристиках.
3. В середине прошлого века демография выходит на новый уровень и
начинает играть важную роль в решении многих экономических и
социальных проблем. Социальная демография - это совокупность двух наук,
социологии и демографии. В ее основе лежит изучение взаимовлияния
демографии на социологию и наоборот.

4. Прогноз будущего роста (или сокращения) населения страны необходим


для выработки экономической политики. Прогноз численности населения
трудоспособного возраста позволяет оценить будущие трудовые ресурсы.

5. Чем выше процент нетрудоспособного населения в стране, тем выше


коэффициент демографической нагрузки.

6. Источником фактических данных для демографии служат результаты


переписей, которые проводятся каждые 10 лет. Перепись населения -
сплошной массовый учет населения, проводимый на определенный момент
времени по особой программе и организационному плану. Перепись
населения проводится с целью изучения численности населения, расселения
по территории страны, плотности размещения, состава по полу, возрасту,
национальности, а также изучения социально-экономической структуры,
уровня образования и др.

7. Первая и единственная всеобщая перепись населения Российской Империи


была проведена в начале 1897 г. Инициатором ее стал выдающийся русский
ученый П. П. Семенов-Тян-Шанский. Эта перепись представляет собой
единственный источник достоверных данных о численности и составе
населения России в конце XIX веке.

8. К демографическим данным относятся показатели


естественного движения населения — рождаемость, смертность (общая,
младенческая), средняя продолжительность жизни.

9. Общий коэффициент рождаемости рассчитывается как отношение


абсолютного числа рождений за год к средней численности населения.

10. Как показывают данные статистики, низкий уровень жизни не имеет


никакого отношения к уменьшению рождаемости. Как раз наоборот, бедные
страны, как правило, имеют более высокую рождаемость по сравнению с
богатыми. Точно также внутри одного общества рождаемость среди богатых
граждан в большинстве стран ниже, чем среди бедных.

11. Исландия - одна из немногих развитых стран, где уровень рождаемости


обеспечивает воспроизводство поколений (выше двух детей на женщину).

12. Земля может прокормить большее количество людей, чем живет сегодня.
Но "выносливость" нашей планеты зависит от стиля жизни человечества в
целом и каждого из нас в отдельности.
13. Перенаселённость планеты чревата серьёзными последствиями:
истощением природных ресурсов, нехваткой воды и пищи, ухудшением
состояния окружающей среды. Перенаселённость представляет угрозу для
систем жизнеобеспечения Земли.

14. В настоящее время Индия занимает 2-е место в мире по численности


населения. Со второй половины ХХ века в Индии наблюдается
демографический взрыв, связанный с высокими коэффициентами
рождаемости и снижением коэффициентов смертности. Демографический
взрыв сильно осложняет решение социально-экономических задач по
сокращению бедности, стоящих перед страной.

15. Таблица показателей человеческого неблагополучия, составленная


экспертами ООН для 130 стран, показала наличие тесной взаимосвязи между
темпами роста населения в стране и степенью человеческого
неблагополучия.

16. Сторонники контроля численности населения говорят о том, что 20%


населения Земли не имеют даже предметов первой необходимости; они не
обеспечены работой и жильём и не имеют возможности проявить свой
потенциал и внести вклад в экономику и культуру своей страны и всего мира.
17. Демографы из Международного института прикладных систем анализа
предсказывают, что к 2070 году численность населения на планете
увеличится до 9 млрд. человек.

18. По данным отдела народонаселения ООН с 2015 года количество


новорожденных и детей младшего возраста в мире начало сокращаться.
19. Томас Р. Мальтус предупреждал, что при отсутствии контроля население
растёт в геометрической прогрессии, опережая темпы производства
продуктов питания, что может привести к голоду, болезням и войнам.
20. Под демографическим переходом понимается изменение темпов роста
населения от низких в доиндустриальных обществах с высокой смертностью
до высоких в связи с развитием промышленности и улучшением качества
жизни с последующим их замедлением и возможной остановкой.

Unit 2
The environment: problems & solutions

Text 1
ENVIRONMENTAL PICTURE AROUND THE WORLD
Carl Schreck. Guardian
The scientific and technological progress of the past century resulted in
widespread mechanization, computerized management, huge atomic plants and in a
number of other things that help us to make our lives better so that we can enjoy
more spare time.
On the other hand, some people barely understand that humankind has been
approaching catastrophe since the beginning of industrialization. Nowadays the
most vital problems are:
▪ population growth
▪ global warming
▪ depletion of the ozone layer
▪ air and water pollution
▪ groundwater depletion
▪ drinking water shortage
▪ habitat destruction and species extinction
▪ desertification
▪ chemical risks
In November 1992 a document entitled Warning to Humanity was released. This
alarm was signed by 1500 scientists from around the world, including 99 Nobel
laureates, a dozen national academies of science, the Pontifical Academy of
Science, and the director general of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and
Cultural Organization (UNESCO). The document was bold and clear, stating that
“human beings and the natural world are on a collision course”, which “may so
alter the living world that it will be unable to sustain life in the manner that we
know”.
The environment is faced with a lot of serious problems. Destruction of the
world’s rain forests, global warming, and the depletion of the ozone layer are just
some of them and they will reach critical proportions in the coming decades. Their
rates will be directly affected by the size of the human population.
Human population growth may seem to be at the root of virtually all of the
world’s environmental problems. As the number of people increases, more
pollution is generated, more habitats are destroyed, and more natural resources are
used up. Even if new technological advances were able to cut in half the
environmental impact that each person had, as soon as the world’s population size
doubles, the earth will be no better off than before.
Within the last century, the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere has
increased dramatically, largely because of the practice of burning fossil fuels – coal
and petroleum and its derivatives. Global temperature has also increased 1 o C
(about 1.8o F) within the past century. Atmospheric scientists have now concluded
that at least half of that increase can be attributed to human activity, and they have
predicted that unless urgent action is taken, temperature will continue to rise
dramatically.
The ozone layer serves to shield the earth from the sun’s harmful ultraviolet rays.
In the 1970s, scientists discovered that the layer was being attacked by
chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), chemicals used in refrigeration, air-conditioning
systems, cleaning solvents, and aerosol sprays. CFCs release chlorine into the
atmosphere; chlorine, in turn, breaks ozone down into its constituent parts of
oxygen. Because chlorine is not affected by its interaction with ozone, each
chlorine molecule has the ability to destroy a large amount of ozone for an
extended period of time. The consequences of the depletion of the ozone layer are
dramatic. Increased ultraviolet radiation will lead to a growing number of skin
cancers and cataracts and also reduce the ability of people’s immune systems to
respond to infection. Additionally, the growth rates of the world’s oceanic
plankton, the base of most marine food chains, will be negatively affected, perhaps
leading to increased atmospheric carbon dioxide and thus to global warming. Even
if the manufacture of CFCs was immediately banned, the chlorine already released
into the atmosphere would continue to destroy the ozone layer for many decades.
The car is another health hazard, because exhaust fumes from automobiles are the
biggest source of air pollution.
To begin with, plastic materials, which are now quickly replacing metals in car
production, release toxic gases when burned. Car tyres are produced from synthetic
rubber which is very difficult to recycle, and that is why they are simply dumped
into rivers. Car air conditioners use about 30% of all chlorofluorocarbons, which
are known to attack the ozone layer. As a result, ultraviolet light burns plants and
causes skin cancer. This chemical is also used to make auto interiors and exteriors.
Then it should be noted that in the process of oil pumping huge amounts of water
are used. Besides, solvents used in car production contaminate groundwater, and
toxic tar contains cadmium and mercury, which together with salt and carcinogenic
herbicides kill fish and destroy aquatic life, and cause cancer.
Suspended particulate pollution causes acute changes in lung function, respiratory
illnesses, heart disease and aggravation of asthma and bronchitis. During major
pollution events, when particulate levels in the air increase up to 200 micrograms
of particulate matter per cubic meter, daily mortality rates could increase as much
as 20 per cent.
Such chemicals as sulphur and nitrogen oxides contribute to acid rains. Acid falls
down to earth as rain and snow. Black snow, as acid as vinegar, fell in Scotland in
1984. Acid rain emerged as a concern in the 1960s with observations of dying
lakes and forest damage in Northern Europe, the United States and Canada. It was
one of the first environmental issues to demonstrate how the chief pollutants –
oxides of sulphur and nitrogen – can be carried hundreds of miles by winds before
being washed out of the atmosphere in rain, snow and fog.
So to our regret the environmental picture on is rather sad. If we don’t unite our
efforts in solving the mentioned problems, the damage to the environment may
become irreversible.

Exercise 1. Give Russian equivalents for the following:


human beings and the natural world are on a collision course; to sustain life;
technological advances; the amount of carbon dioxide has increased dramatically;
fossil fuels; petroleum and its derivatives; to shield the earth from ultraviolet rays;
to reduce the ability of the immune system to respond to infection; growth rate;
exhaust fumes; respiratory illness; suspended particulate pollution; aggravation of
asthma; daily mortality rates.

Exercise 2. Find in the text the English equivalents for the following:
истончение озонового слоя; всемирное потепление; вымирание видов
животных и разрушение ареалов их обитания; генеральный директор
ЮНЕСКО; истощение природных ресурсов; содержание в атмосфере
двуокиси углерода; чистящие средства; разрушать озон; выбрасывать
токсичные газы; автомобильные шины; загрязнять грунтовые воды;
канцерогенные гербициды; кислотные дожди; основные загрязняющие
вещества; необратимый ущерб.

Exercise 3. Answer the following questions:


1. What vital environmental problems are we facing now?
2. What can you say about the document entitled “Warning to Humanity”?
3. How does human population growth affect the environment?
4. What is the main reason for the increase in the amount of carbon dioxide in the
atmosphere?
5. What causes the depletion of the ozone layer and what are the implications?
6. Why does the author call the car a health hazard?
7. What important conclusion was made due to the phenomenon of acid rains?

Text 2
GLOBAL WARMING
What a week of weather it has been. What a month. What a year. Deluges,
droughts, fires, landslides, avalanches, gales, tornadoes: Is it our imagination, or is
Europe’s weather getting worse?
The short answer is yes, the weather certainly is getting worse. The cause is
air pollution that pours greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide and methane into
the atmosphere to produce global warming that can alter weather patterns. Most
climate experts agree that so-called extreme weather events are becoming more
frequent, and that the weather worldwide over the coming 100 years will change
drastically.
Europeans can expect more rain and flooding in the north as well as drought
and desertification in the south. Glaciers will melt in the Alps, parts of Spain and
Italy will turn as dry as the Sahel, forests will thrive in Sweden and, yes, tornadoes
will rip up trees in places like Bognor Regis. The scientists say that even if the
world’s governments and industries meet international goals on reducing
greenhouse gases – which they probably will not – it still won’t be enough to
prevent severe changes to the world’s weather. Their advice to governments,
businesses and private citizens about this is grim: get used to it.
A landmark report released last week by a team of 27 European
climatologists warns that the trend in global warming may be irreversible, at least
over most of the century. That, they say, means governments should start planning
immediately to adapt to the new extremes of weather that their citizens will face –
with bans on building in potential flood plains in the north, for example, and water
conservation measures in the south. “We make almost 50 recommendations for
policy and research in this report”, says Martin Parry, a scientist at Britain’s
University of East Anglia who edited the so-called Acacia report assessing effects
and adaptation to future weather changes in Europe. “It really is imperative that we
take the first steps in adapting to climate change now.”
That represents a subtle but significant shift in attitudes toward global
warming, and some activists are dismayed at the suggestion that the world should
adapt to the warming trend rather than try to halt or reverse it.
Parry and his colleagues say there will be a general warming of Europe, with
much wetter weather in the north and much drier conditions in the south. That will
mean extensive northern flooding, while parts of the agriculturally productive
south will turn into near-desert. In the Alps, much less water will be held on
mountains in the form of snow and instead will run off to feed devastating flash
floods. Alpine glaciers will melt and tundra from Lapland to Siberia will vanish.
The level of the Mediterranean Sea will rise half a meter by 2050, inundating
coastal wetlands and wiping out whole species of bird and sea life.
“There will be a south to north shift of climatic resources”, says Parry. “This
will change the political geography of the Continent. The most adverse effects will
be in poor, rural areas, the least adverse in wealthy urban areas. That’s the global
situation as well – dry areas getting drier, wet areas getting wetter.”
Africa will suffer in ways that scientists cannot fully predict, but the Sahel
will probably become even drier and more prone to drought and famine than it
already is. For Europe, that will mean a growing influx of hungry Africans who
could come to be knows as “weather refugees”.
Some argue that the ultimate result of global warming will be a paradoxical
but even more catastrophic development: global cooling. As the arctic ice cap
melts, a flow of fresh water into the North Atlantic could disrupt conveyer currents
including the Gulf Stream, which is what keeps Northern Europe warm. “There is
an argument that short-term global warming could actually lead to long-term
cooling”, observes Steve Hall, an oceanographer at Britain’s Southampton
Oceanography Centre. “One moment we are basking in a Mediterranean climate
and the next, icebergs are floating down the English Channel.”
But the growing scientific consensus is that momentous changes are coming.
Not all of them, however, are bad. Forests of Scandinavia and northern Russia will
grow faster and farther north than before, helping draw off CO 2. “We may have
longer growing seasons in northern latitudes, which farmers can exploit to have
more than one harvest in a single year”, says Michele Bernardi, an
agrometeorologist at the UN’s Food and Agriculture Organization in Rome.
Indeed, some of the climatic changes will produce limits on emission: soil left
fallow in the hotter south will serve as a “sink” to absorb CO2. Heating needs will
plummet in the warmer north, greatly reducing emissions – although high heat in
the south will turn on millions of CO2-spewing air conditioners.
It is also possible that, despite governmental and industrial foot dragging,
greenhouse emissions will come down. The environment-conscious Germans have
shown that relatively simple changes in attitudes and lifestyle can bring significant
reductions in the industrialized world, where about a third of emissions come from
private households. Recycling cans and paper, lowering thermostats, improving
home insulation and switching off unused lights have helped Germany reduce
emissions by an impressive 18.5% since 1990, far surpassing the Kyoto target. But
Europe overall is lagging.
Most climate scientists believe that global warming is already irreversible.
“Even if we achieved zero emissions now, which is impossible, we will have a rise
of sea level for centuries to come”, says Hans-Joachim Schellnhuber, director of
the Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research. It may be possible to limit the
extent of the changes if the world is willing to cut emissions by 80% over the
course of this century. But that means huge changes in lifestyle, and soon.
“Climate protection will be successful only if we manage to change our energy
system in the next decade or two”, he says.
Only an optimist, and an uninformed optimist at that, could hope humankind
will succeed in making such radical changes in time to avert the bad weather
ahead. So the best advice is to get out the umbrellas and hip boots and head for
high ground. Storms are coming; the water is rising. We – and our descendants –
will have to learn to live with it.
THE FORECAST FOR 2050
According to a three-year study by a team of European scientists global
warming will produce drastic changes in climate over the next century. Northern
regions will be wetter and warmer, southern regions will be drier and hotter. Sea
levels will rise, floods will be more frequent, tornadoes will strike and some forests
will grow faster. This is what Europe’s weather will look like by around 2050.
UNITED KINGDOM
Mild temperatures with bursts of heavy rain bringing flooding in winter; hot
summers with droughts every three years; new crops, like grapes and soybeans.
SPAIN
Central and southern areas become near-deserts; farming of fruits and
vegetables is abandoned.

Time
Ex.1. Give Russian equivalents for the following:
extremes of weather; water conservation measures; to inundate coastal wetlands
and wipe out whole species of bird and sea life; to be prone to drought and famine;
CO2-spewing air conditioners; environment-conscious Germans; lowering
thermostats and improving home insulation; to achieve zero emissions; an
uninformed optimist.

Ex.2. Find in the text the English equivalents for the following:
наводнение; буря; засуха; оползень; снежная лавина; парниковые газы;
изменять погодные условия; резко измениться; приводить в соответствие с
намеченными показателями; необратимый процесс всемирного потепления;
наиболее пагубное воздействие; увеличение наплыва беженцев; загорать;
важные перемены; резко сокращаться; потомки.

Ex.3. Answer the following questions:


1. What weather events prove that the weather is becoming worse? What is the
reason for this fact?
2. What possible climate changes may Europeans face in the near future?
3. What positive climate changes may we expect?
4. Why does the author call Germans ‘environment-conscious’ people?
5. What may become the ultimate result of global warming?
6. Can we stop global warming now?
7. What advice do climatologists give to humankind?

Text 3
EUROPE’S CLIMATE CHANGE ASSESSED
Emma Ross. The Associated Press
London – South and East Europeans are likely to suffer a result of climate
change predicted over the next century, while their northern neighbors are
expected overall to reap advantages from the changes brought by global warming,
scientists said Wednesday.
Even the greatest international efforts to reduce greenhouse gas emissions
will not prevent the climate change, which means Europe will inevitably have
some adapting to do, the scientists said.
Europe is technically capable of it. European Union policies in agriculture,
fisheries and development should be now to accommodate the changes and give
the region the best chance of minimizing the harm and making the most of the
opportunities, the experts said in a report launched in London.
The findings of 30 independent scientists commissioned by the European
Union represent Europe’s contribution to the intergovernmental assessment of
global climate change, due to be completed next year.
While previous research has gauged the likely impact of the changing
climate on a global scale, this is the first time the effect on the European region has
been examined in detail.
Changes at an EU level would be necessary to cope with such expected
problems as small regional insurers facing collapse from flood claims, the report
said.
Other likely challenges include the possibility of salmon disappearing from
France’s Loire area, forcing fishermen there to find another career, the scientists
said, and by the middle of the century it could be too hot to enjoy a holiday on the
beaches of Greece in July and August.
Traditional Mediterranean crops will have to shift northward as the region
becomes more desert-like, forest fires will scorch the land there and industries will
increasingly be competing with each other and with the general population for
dwindling water supplies, the report predicts.
Deteriorating air quality in cities and excessively hot temperatures on
beaches could make it tougher for the recreation industry, the report adds.
In the north, meanwhile, cold winters will be half as frequent by 2020 and
nonexistent by 2080, reducing energy consumption for heating and slashing the
number of work days lost due to cold weather, the report says.
The warming trend will also be good for northern agriculture, fisheries and
forestry and water would be plentiful, the scientists predicted.
The north would benefit more because it is richer and also because its
geography makes it less vulnerable to the climate change, the scientists said.
It won’t be all good in the north, though. Floods will be common.
“That could be a very important minus in the north”, Parry said.
Overall, global warming is likely to bring both problems and opportunities
to Europe, the experts said.
“While these pluses and minuses are scattered around a lot, it varies between
sectors and across and within regions. But overall, there are more pluses in the
north and more minuses in the south”, Parry said.

Ex.1. Give Russian equivalents for the following:


to reap advantages; to accommodate changes and make the most of the
opportunities; the findings of independent scientists commissioned by the
European union; to gauge the likely impact of the changing climate; such expected
problems as small regional insurers facing collapse from flood claims; fisheries
and forestry.

Ex.2. Find in the text the English equivalents for the following:
оценка изменения климата на планете; сокращение запасов воды; ухудшение
качества воздуха; индустрия отдыха; количество холодных зим сократится
вдвое; быть менее зависимым от изменения климата.

Ex.3. Answer the following questions:


1. What task is the European Union facing concerning the climate change?
2. What are the likely challenges that Europe may face due to the expected climate
change?
3. Why will the warming trend be good for Northern Europe? What will be the
minuses?
4. What overall conclusion do climate experts make concerning the coming
changes?

Text 4
WHY THE NEWS ABOUT WARMING IS WORSE THAN WE THOUGHT:
FEEDBACK
Oceans, soil and trees will become worse at absorbing carbon dioxide
as temperatures rise
Predictions by international scientists that global warming will lead to a
sharper rise in temperatures than previously thought made sobering reading
yesterday. But what is the major factor that has driven their gloomy conclusion?
Dramatic flips in the way ecosystems absorb carbon dioxide will see oceans
and vast swaths of land falter in their ability to draw up the greenhouse gas,
allowing it to build up in the atmosphere and cause more warming. The
phenomenon is known as a positive feedback – where global warming drives
changes in ecosystems that themselves cause more heating.
The warning came in a major report on climate change published yesterday
that suggests average temperatures could rise more than expected – by as much as
6.4˚C by 2100, unless greenhouse gas emissions are reined in. The report, from the
UN’s Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, has upgraded its 2001 estimate
that temperatures would rise by at most 5.8˚C, because at the time the feedback
mechanisms were either unknown or poorly understood.
The latest report states that the predicted temperature rise for 2100 was
raised because “the broader range of models now available suggests stronger
climate-carbon cycle feedbacks”.
Early climate change predictions were calculated predominantly by
anticipating levels of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases in the
atmosphere. The gases allow radiation from the sun to warm the planet but block it
as it is radiated back off the surface, forming a virtual blanket around the globe.
But scientists have steadily uncovered ecological feedback mechanisms
driven by climate change that complicate the outcome. In some cases global
warming triggers feedbacks that act to cool the planet, but others exacerbate the
warming.
One of the earliest feedback mechanisms identified was the melting of ice
sheets and sea ice. The vast sheets of bright white ice reflect nearly 80% of
sunlight that falls on them. But as they melt they reveal dark waters or soils
beneath that absorb sunlight, warm up and cause yet more melting.
The latest IPCC report for the first time includes climate models that take
into account two other ecological feedback mechanisms that accelerate global
warming: the ability of the oceans and land to absorb carbon.
“The oceans and the soils and trees absorb a half of the carbon dioxide
released into the atmosphere from human activity. With climate change, they will
get worse and worse at doing that, so more of our human emissions of carbon
dioxide will remain in the atmosphere”, said Corinne Le Quéré, an IPCC author
and expert on the carbon cycle at the University of East Anglia Climatic Research
Unit.
As the world warms up the oceans become less able to dissolve carbon
dioxide. Warmer oceans are also having an adverse effect on carbon-absorbing
marine phytoplankton, the organisms that lie at the very bottom of the aquatic food
chain. As warming continues scientists fear that phytoplankton will begin to die
off, creating a positive feedback cycle where warmer oceans release more carbon
which in turn leads to more warming.
At the same time carbon dioxide which now fertilizes soils and boosts the
growth of forests and other plants will reach saturation point, so the land’s ability
to soak up carbon dioxide will stall. As temperatures rise even further many plants
will become stressed by drought conditions and microbes in the soil will start
breaking down organic matter from dead plants faster, meaning large areas of land
will begin emitting carbon dioxide instead of acting as an overall sink for the gas.
Signs that soils were beginning to become part of the problem of global
warming emerged in 2005 when researchers discovered that a vast expanse of
western Siberia was undergoing an unprecedented thaw. The region, the largest
frozen peat bog in the world, covering an area the size of France and Germany
combined, had begun to melt for the first time since it formed 11,000 years ago at
the end of the last ice age.
The team, from Tomsk State and Oxford universities, believe the million
square kilometre peat bog could begin to release billions of tons of methane locked
up in the soils. Methane is a greenhouse gas 20 times more potent than carbon
dioxide.
The team found that even if methane seeped from the peat bog over the next
100 years it would add 700m tons of carbon into the atmosphere every year,
roughly the same that is released annually from the world’s wetlands and
agriculture. It would effectively double the atmospheric levels of the gas, leading
to a 10% to 25% increase in global warming.
Last year Peter Cox, a climate modeler at Exeter University, found a similar
feedback mechanism and warned that warmer temperatures could force soils
around the world to release their stocks of carbon into the atmosphere, potentially
driving temperatures up by a further 1.5˚C. He called for poorer countries to be
paid not to cut down their forests as a possible solution.

Ex.1. Give Russian equivalents for the following:


to make sobering reading; a positive feedback; the UN’s Intergovernmental Panel
on Climate Change; to upgrade an estimate; to exacerbate the warming; to reach
saturation point; the land’s ability to soak up carbon dioxide will stall.

Ex.2. Find in the text the English equivalents for:


поглощать углекислый газ; накапливаться в атмосфере; повыситься на 5,8о;
окутывать земной шар как одеялом; ускорять процесс глобального
потепления; удобрять почву; страдать от засухи; беспрецедентная оттепель;
торфяник; миллиарды тонн метана.

Ex.3. Answer the following questions:


1. Why did the UN’s Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change have to upgrade
its 2001 estimate that temperatures would rise by 5.8˚C by 2100? What is its
new estimate?
2. What is a positive feedback?
3. What was one of the earliest feedback mechanisms identified?
4. What other ecological feedback mechanisms are included in the latest IPCC
report?

Text 5
Desertification

The world's great deserts were formed by natural processes interacting over long
intervals of time. During most of these times, deserts have grown and shrunk
independent of human activities. Paleodeserts, large sand seas now inactive
because they are stabilized by vegetation, extend well beyond the present margins
of core deserts, such as the Sahara. In some regions, deserts are separated sharply
from surrounding, less arid areas by mountains and other contrasting landforms
that reflect basic structural differences in the regional geology. In other areas,
desert fringes form a gradual transition from a dry to a more humid environment,
making it more difficult to define the desert border.
These transition zones have very fragile, delicately balanced ecosystems. Desert
fringes often are a mosaic of microclimates. Small hollows support vegetation that
picks up heat from the hot winds and protects the land from the prevailing winds.
After rainfall the vegetated areas are distinctly cooler than the surroundings. In
these marginal areas, human activity may stress the ecosystem beyond its tolerance
limit, resulting in degradation of the land. By pounding the soil with their hooves,
livestock compact the substrate, increase the proportion of fine material, and
reduce the percolation rate of the soil, thus encouraging erosion by wind and water.
Grazing and collection of firewood reduce or eliminate plants that help to bind the
soil.
This degradation of formerly productive land – desertification - is a complex
process. It involves multiple causes, and it proceeds at varying rates in different
climates. Desertification may intensify a general climatic trend toward greater
aridity, or it may initiate a change in local climate.
Desertification does not occur in linear, easily mappable patterns. Deserts
advance erratically, forming patches on their borders. Areas far from natural
deserts can degrade quickly to barren soil, rock, or sand through poor land
management. The presence of a nearby desert has no direct relationship to
desertification. Unfortunately, an area undergoing desertification is brought to
public attention only after the process is well underway. Often little or no data are
available to indicate the previous state of the ecosystem or the rate of degradation.
Scientists still question whether desertification, as a process of global change, is
permanent or how and when it can be halted or reversed.
Problem
Desertification presently affects millions of people in almost every continent.
Increased population and livestock pressure on marginal lands has accelerated
desertification. In some areas, nomads moving to less arid areas disrupt the local
ecosystem and increase the rate of erosion of the land. Nomads are trying to escape
the desert, but because of their land-use practices, they are bringing the desert with
them.
It is a misconception that droughts cause desertification. Droughts are common
in arid and semiarid lands. Well-managed lands can recover from drought when the
rains return. Continued land abuse during droughts, however, increases land
degradation. By 1973, the drought that began in 1968 in the Sahel of West Africa
and the land-use practices there had caused the deaths of more than 100,000 people
and 12 million cattle, as well as the disruption of social organizations from villages
to the national level.
While desertification has received tremendous publicity by the political and news
media, there are still many things that we don't know about the degradation of
productive lands and the expansion of deserts. There is no consensus among
researchers as to the specific causes, extent, or degree of desertification. Contrary
to many popular reports, desertification is actually a subtle and complex process of
deterioration that may often be reversible.
Local Remedies
At the local level, individuals and governments can help to reclaim and protect
their lands. In areas of sand dunes, covering the dunes with large boulders or
petroleum will interrupt the wind regime near the face of the dunes and prevent the
sand from moving. Sand fences are used throughout the Middle East and the
United States, in the same way snow fences are used in the north. Placement of
straw grids, each up to a square meter in area, will also decrease the surface wind
velocity. Shrubs and trees planted within the grids are protected by the straw until
they take root. In areas where some water is available for irrigation, shrubs planted
on the lower one-third of a dune's windward side will stabilize the dune. This
vegetation decreases the wind velocity near the base of the dune and prevents
much of the sand from moving. Higher velocity winds at the top of the dune level
it off and trees can be planted atop these flattened surfaces.
Oases and farmlands in windy regions can be protected by planting tree fences or
grass belts. Small plots of trees may also be scattered inside oases to stabilize the
area. On a much larger scale, a "Green Wall," which will eventually stretch more
than 5,700 kilometres in length, much longer than the famous Great Wall, is being
planted in northeastern China to protect "sandy lands" - deserts believed to have
been created by human activity.
More efficient use of existing water resources and control of salinization are
other effective tools for improving arid lands. New ways are being sought to use
surface-water resources such as rain water, harvesting or irrigating with seasonal
runoff from adjacent highlands. New ways are also being sought to find and tap
groundwater resources and to develop more effective ways of irrigating arid and
semiarid lands. Research on the reclamation of deserts is also focusing on
discovering proper crop rotation to protect the fragile soil, on understanding how
sand-fixing plants can be adapted to local environments, and on how grazing lands
and water resources can be developed effectively without being overused.
If we are to stop and reverse the degradation of arid and semiarid lands, we must
understand how and why the rates of climate change, population growth, and food
production adversely affect these environments. The most effective intervention
can come only from the wise use of the best earth-science information available.

Ex.1. Find in the text the following words and word combinations and translate
them into Russian:
transition zones; fragile, delicately balanced ecosystems; to stress the ecosystem
beyond its tolerance limit; to reduce the percolation rate of the soil; linear, easily
mappable patterns; to advance erratically; it is a misconception that…; harvesting
or irrigating with seasonal runoff from adjacent highlands; reclamation of deserts.

Ex.2. Find in the text the English equivalents for the following:
засушливые районы; границы пустынь; выпас скота; скреплять почву;
бесплодная земля; кочевники; нарушить экосистему; засуха; обратимый
процесс; уменьшить силу ветра на поверхности земли; в гораздо большем
масштабе; засоление почвы; севооборот.

Ex.3. Answer the following questions:


1. What is desertification?
2. What role does human activity play in desertification?
3. Are droughts among the root causes of desertification?
4. Is desertification a reversible process?
5. What can be done to protect and reclaim the land? What has been in the focus of
recent research?

Text 6

Water scarcity, desalination and pollution

Water shortage, exacerbated by rapid population growth, urbanization and


higher living standards worldwide, has led many countries (especially in arid and
semi-arid regions) to adopt desalination technologies, above all to meet household
demand. The desalination industry became commercial in the 1950s and 1960s.
With major decreases in costs and increases in efficiency, particularly since the
1970s, desalination has become a strategic and dependable source for meeting
household needs.
Today there are 13,600 desalination plants of various types in over 120
countries in the Middle Eastern, European and Mediterranean regions as well as in
North America and the Caribbean. World desalination capacity is about 9.6 billion
cubic meters (BCM). About 47% of the total is in the Gulf Cooperation Council
(GCC) states (Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, United Arab Emirates, Bahrain, Qatar and
Oman).
Desalination plants release gases, which contribute to the pollution of the
surrounding environment. The observed negative impacts of desalination on health
and the environment have so far been limited. However, with the desalination
expected to increase over the long term, the potential effects of such plants in both
coastal zones and inland cannot be ignored.
Domestic water supply and desalinated water
The GCC states provide a good example of how rapid urbanization and population
growth are leading to substantial increases in household water demand. The area’s
average population growth rate is over 3.4% . Household water demand has risen
from 2.6 BCM to nearly 4 BCM. It is expected to reach 10.4 BCM.
For more than 30 years GCC countries have been building desalination plants and
expanding the existing ones to meet growing demands. The six states have now 36
large seawater and brackish water desalination plants: 21 on the coast of the Red
Sea and 15 on the Gulf. The combined production capacity of desalination plants
in the GCC countries has increased considerably. Saudi Arabia is the world’s
largest desalinated water producer.
Over 85% of the desalination plants in GCC use multistage flash systems. These
systems, which are dual-purpose, can produce both water and electricity.
Impacts of desalination plants
Effects of energy use on air quality
Many desalination plants use fuel oil, some use crude oil, and a few use natural
gas. The sulphur content of crude oil used is 2.9% by weight, while that of fuel oil
used is 1.7 – 3.7% by weight. The major primary pollutants emitted are sulphur
dioxide, nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide. Other emissions include volatile
organic compounds (VOC) and ozone.
The health effects of repeated exposure to these air pollutants have been
extensively reported. They include chronic respiratory disease and eye and throat
irritation. High levels of sulphur dioxide aggravate chronic diseases such as
asthma. Some of the constituents of VOC are highly toxic and carcinogenic.
The levels of sulphur dioxide produced at a large desalination plant exceed the
permissible limits when power production reaches about 3600 PW. Because of the
expected long-term increase in power generation, it will be necessary to shift from
oil to natural gas in order to lower emission levels enough to eliminate long-term
health and environmental hazards. GCC countries have begun implementing fuel
shifting plans accordingly.
Effects on the marine environment
Marine resources near a desalination plant are affected by increases in salinity,
temperature, nutrients, and metals such as copper, nickel, iron, chromium and zinc.
The brine discharged from desalination plants carries small amounts of
copper, nickel and manganese resulting from the corrosion of metals in tubes. The
metals concentrated in the upper few millimetres of the ocean can be toxic to fish
eggs, plankton and larvae.
The high salt concentration of the discharged water and fluctuations in
salinity levels can kill organisms near outfalls. In addition, discharges from
desalination plants are denser than seawater and can sink to the bottom, potentially
harming benthic communities. Intake of water directly from the sea entails loss of
marine organisms. These effects can be significantly reduced if desalination plant
discharges are diluted with cooling water discharges (or discharges from sewage
treatment plants) that are less dense than seawater.
With the expected large and long-term increase in desalination
capacity worldwide, the potential coastal zone impacts of desalination cannot be
ignored. With proper planning, the negative impacts can be minimized by using
natural gas as fuel and introducing buffer zones around plants. The number and
lengths of expected expansion pipelines and power transmission lines should be
minimized and the size of new seawater intake and outfall structures should be
reduced. Chemicals with less impact should be substituted wherever possible to
minimize hazards to marine ecosystem.
To assess the environmental and human health impacts of desalination projects, a
systematic step-by-step approach should be followed in conducting impact
assessments. This will help to minimize the impact and to identify mitigation
measures.

Ex.1. Find in the text the following words and word combinations and translate
them into Russian:
world desalination capacity, an increase in household water demand, multistage
flash systems, crude oil, fuel oil, volatile organic compounds, repeated exposure to
sth.; to implement fuel shifting plans, fluctuations in salinity levels, mitigation
measures.

Ex.2. Find in the text the English equivalents for the following:
засушливые (полузасушливые) районы, опреснение воды, отрицательные
последствия, средний прирост населения, способствовать загрязнению
окружающей среды, мощность завода по деминерализации морской воды,
высокотоксичные канцерогенные вещества, превышать предельно
допустимую концентрацию, канализационно-очистные сооружения.

Ex.3. Answer the following questions:


1. When and why was the desalination industry created?
2. What can you say about the desalination industry in the GCC states?
3. What system do most desalination plants in the GCC countries use? What are
the advantages of this system?
4. How do desalination plants contribute to air pollution?
5. What are the health effects of repeated exposure to the emissions of desalination
plants?
6. What are the effects of desalination plants on marine resources?
8. How can long-term environmental and health hazards be eliminated and the
negative impact minimized?

Text 7
SEWERAGE AND FERTILISERS ‘ARE KILLING THE SEAS’
Marine life is being suffocated, UN warns
John Vidal. Guardian
Last summer every sea creature across an area twice the size of Wales was
asphyxiated by severely depleted oxygen levels in the Gulf of Mexico. The same
phenomenon, the marine equivalent of the ozone hole, happened off South
America, China, Japan, south-east Australia, New Zealand, and up to 150 other
places.
A United Nations agency warned yesterday that the number of these “dead
zones”, caused mainly by the run-off of nitrogen fertilisers from intensive farming
and sewerage from large cities, had doubled in the past 15 years and was
increasing all over the world.
In a new report, the UN environment programme says that 150 sea areas are
now regularly starved of oxygen and are becoming major threats to already
declining fish stocks, including those in Europe, where areas of the Baltic Sea have
been lifeless for several months, as have parts of the Irish Sea and the Adriatic.
The Black Sea – the largest and oldest “dead zone” in the world – supports
only a few bacteria to a depth of 150 metres.
“Humankind is engaged in a gigantic, global experiment as a result of the
inefficient and often over-use of fertilisers, the discharge of untreated sewage and
the ever rising emissions from vehicles and factories”, says Klaus Toepfer, the UN
environment programme (UNEP) director. “The nitrogen and phosphorus from
these sources are being discharged into rivers and the coastal environment or being
deposited from the atmosphere, triggering these alarming and sometimes
irreversible effects.”
Some of the dead zones are less than one square kilometer, whereas others
are up to 70,000 sq km. Many have been found near the outlets of big rivers such
as the Mississippi and the Yangtze, which drain huge industrial areas. Most lie off
countries which heavily subsidise their agriculture.
“What is clear is that unless urgent action is taken to tackle the sources of
the problem, it is likely to escalate rapidly”, he said.
“Dead zones are especially dangerous to fisheries because they afflict coastal
areas where many fish spawn and spend most of their lives before moving to
deeper water”, said UNEP officer Marion Cheatle. “It is getting noticeably worse.”
She advised countries, which often share water basins, to cooperate in
reducing nitrogen discharges by cutting fertiliser use or planting forests along
rivers to soak up excess nitrogen. The “creeping dead zones” have been noted
since the 1970s but the speed of their growth has surprised scientists who are only
now beginning to understand their mechanism.
Robert Diaz, professor of marine science at Maryland University and author
of the marine section of the report, says dead zones are fast becoming a bigger
threat to fish stocks than overfishing.
He warns that global warming, with its likely increase in rainfall, is likely to
aggravate the problem, because it will increase significantly the discharge of
polluted water from rivers into oceans.
The report, launched in South Korea at a meeting of 150 of the world’s
environment ministers, ranked dead zones as one of the top 20 threats to the global
environment. Others included dust and sand storms, more frequent around the
world as land is degraded, and impending global water shortages.
More than one in three of the world’s population is likely to suffer chronic
water shortages in the next few decades, according to the report, while more than
2.4 billion people lack access to basic sanitation.

Ex.1. Give Russian equivalents for the following:


the phenomenon happened off South America, China, Japan, etc.; declining fish
stocks; discharge of untreated sewage; rising emissions from vehicles; to trigger
irreversible effects; to tackle a problem; to soak up excess nitrogen; creeping dead
zones; overfishing.

Ex.2. Find in the text the English equivalents for the following:
резкое сокращение содержания кислорода; утечка удобрений;
провоцировать; резко увеличиться; поражать прибрежную зону; заметно
ухудшиться; сокращать выброс азота; усугубить проблему; отнести проблему
мертвых зон к числу…; грозящая нехватка воды.

Ex.3. Answer the following questions:


1. What is a “dead zone”?
2. Why do “dead zones” appear?
3. What does the UN environment programme say about the harmful effects of
“dead zones”?
4. How large are “dead zones” and where are they typically found?
5. What is mostly affected by “dead zones”?
6. How can global warming aggravate the situation?
7. What threats to the global environment were mentioned at a meeting of
environment ministers in South Korea?

Translate into English:


1. Из-за сжигания ископаемого топлива – нефти, газа, угля – растет
концентрация углекислого газа в атмосфере.
2. До недавних пор не было точных данных, позволяющих определить грань,
за которой начнется необратимая экологическая катастрофа. Сегодня у нас
есть достоверные сведения: исследования последних лет позволяют
предположить, что опасная концентрация молекул углекислого газа в
атмосфере составляет 450 миллионных долей. Как полагают ученые, переход
этой черты может вызвать полное таяние ледникового покрова Гренландии и
льдов Западной Антарктики. Это всего лишь прогноз, к тому же не
учитывающий влияние других парниковых газов, например метана и закиси
азота.
3. В результате глобального потепления нарушился механизм распределения
осадков, началось таяние ледников, участились штормы и ураганы,
повысился уровень моря.
4. Cрок жизни молекул углекислого газа в атмосфере составляет примерно
200 лет. Поэтому даже если загрязнение атмосферы прекратится сегодня,
потепление на Земле, возможно, замедлится, но будет продолжаться ещё
несколько столетий.
5. Рост автомобильного парка привел к образованию огромного количества
отработанных шин, аккумуляторов и пластмассового лома. Все это
обострило проблему утилизации, хранения и переработки отходов.
6. Озоновый слой защищает землю от губительного воздействия
ультрафиолетового излучения. Истончение озонового слоя влечёт серьёзные
последствия: рост заболеваний раком кожи, катарактой, ослабление
иммунной системы. Но даже если сейчас запретить использование фреона и
других подобных газов, хлор, уже содержащийся в атмосфере, ещё несколько
десятилетий будет продолжать разрушать озоновый слой.
7. Опреснение морской воды – один из надежных способов решения
проблемы нехватки питьевой воды, особенно в засушливых районах. Заводы
по опреснению воды часто выполняют двойную функцию: помимо
опреснения воды, они также производят электроэнергию. Вместе с тем,
токсичные выбросы заводов, содержащие двуокись серы, закись азота,
некоторые опасные для здоровья органические соединения, способствуют
загрязнению окружающей территории.
8. Жизнь крошечных обитателей морских глубин всегда полна опасности.
Но человек создает дополнительную угрозу. Повышение в атмосфере уровня
углекислого газа ведет не только к глобальному потеплению. Мировой океан
становится естественным резервуаром для газа, поглощая больше четверти
выбросов. Уровень кислотности океанических вод постоянно растет, а для
раковинных животных это разрушающий и даже смертельный фактор. К
2100 году ареал многих видов раковинных радикально сократится, и это
существенно скажется на всей пищевой цепочке.
9. Одной из мер по ограничению выбросов углекислого газа было бы
введение налога на углеводороды. Но поскольку топливо приходится
использовать всем, налог в первую очередь, затронет людей со скромным
достатком.
10. Некоторые экологи считают, что тенденция глобального потепления,
возможно, уже необратима, по крайней мере, в текущем столетии. Поэтому
задача правительств заключается не столько в борьбе с изменением климата,
сколько в выработке программ адаптации к новым климатическим условиям
– от запретов на строительство в районах потенциального затопления на
севере до мер максимальной экономии воды на юге.

Unit 3
SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

Text 1
SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT: THE ESSENCE
Sustainability is the idea that the economy should be organized in ways that
can be continued without causing irreversible damage to the environment or
depletion of natural resources. Businesses should be run not for short-term profit,
but in a way that takes account of the long-term interests of society and the
environment.
There are many definitions of sustainable development, including this
landmark one which first appeared in 1987: “Development that meets the needs of
the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their
own needs”. People concerned about sustainable development suggest that meeting
the needs of the future depends on how well we balance social, economic, and
environmental objectives – or needs – when making decisions today.
These three make up the triple bottom line (TBL) of sustainable
development. The TBL makes corporations concentrate not just on the economic
value they add, but also on the environmental and social value they add – and
destroy. The TBL is used to sum up the values, issues and processes that
companies must pay attention to in order to minimize any harm resulting from their
activities and to create economic, social and environmental value. These objectives
may seem to conflict with each other in the short term. For example, industrial
growth might conflict with preserving natural resources. Yet, in the long term,
responsible use of natural resources now will help ensure that there are resources
available for sustained industrial growth far into the future. Unless we start to
make real progress toward reconciling these contradictions, we all, wherever we
live, face a future that is less certain and less secure than what we have had over
the past fifty years. We need to make a decisive move toward more sustainable
development both because it is the right thing to do – and because it is in our own
long-term best interests. It offers the best hope for securing the future.
Sustainable development has been practiced by many cultures, but the
industrialised world first became interested in the concept in the 1960s. Many
credit Rachel Carson and her book The Silent Spring (1962, Penguin Books) as the
catalyst for worldwide acknowledgment of environmental problems.
In 1992, the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development
(commonly referred to as the Earth Summit) in Rio de Janeiro produced Agenda
21, a major publication that sets out a blueprint for sustainable activity across all
areas of human endeavour.
The goal of sustainable development is to improve living standards and the
quality of people’s lives, both now and for future generations. Environmental
issues are an important piece of the development “puzzle”. Industrial and
developing countries share environmental concerns. Both must strive to ensure that
citizens in both cities and rural areas have clean air to breathe, safe drinking water,
and adequate supplies of clean renewable energy. Agriculture and industry must
make efficient and responsible use of the natural resources – land, soil, forests,
rivers, oceans, mineral deposits – upon which they rely. Some environmental
issues are highly localized, but many others cross national borders. Industrial and
human waste dumped into a river by one country may affect the health and
livelihoods of citizens in another country hundreds of miles downstream. Ozone-
depleting gases cause changes in the earth’s atmosphere that may result in rising
cancer rates and lower crop yields in countries around the world. As global
interdependence increases, solving environmental problems requires greater
cooperation and coordination between nations regionally and worldwide.
Environmental concerns are inextricably linked to economic issues. The
economy depends on the sustainable use of renewable resources. Overuse of these
resources for short-term gain may undercut a country’s long-term economic future.
Environmental concerns are also linked with social issues such as population
growth. A rapidly growing population places strains on a country’s natural
resources, as well as on its ability to provide housing, health care, education, safe
water, and sanitation for all. People living in poverty may damage the environment
as they struggle simply to survive, cutting down trees for fuel wood, exhausting
crop land, and contaminating urban water supplies with waste they cannot afford to
treat.
The challenge for governments is to create development strategies that
incorporate values of environmental sustainability, while increasing economic
growth and providing adequate social services and also environment defense.
It is only when information about the economy is combined with social and
environmental data that the full meaning of sustainable development can be
understood.

Ex.1. Give Russian equivalents for the following:


sustainable development; short-term profit; the triple bottom line of sustainable
development; sustained industrial growth; to set out a blueprint for sth; to affect the
health and livelihoods of citizens; sustainable use of renewable resources; to
undercut a country’s economic future; to place strains on sth/sb; the challenge for
governments.

Ex.2. Find in the text the English equivalents for the following:
наносить непоправимый вред; истощение природных ресурсов; принимать во
внимание чьи-то интересы; удовлетворять потребности; сглаживать
противоречия; катализатор; месторождения полезных ископаемых;
промышленные и бытовые отходы; газы, разрушающие озоновый слой;
снижение урожайности.

Ex.3. Answer the following questions:


1. Give a definition of sustainable development.
2. What is meant by the triple bottom line of sustainable development?
3. Are there any contradictions between the three aspects of sustainable
development?
4. Speak about the significance of the Earth Summit of 1992.
5. Prove that environmental issues are not confined to one country; they cross
national borders.
6. How are environmental issues linked to
a) economic issues b) social issues?

Text 2
EARTH-FRIENDLY MANAGEMENT
Proven environmental commitment helps create committed customers
Investors are concerned about sustainability which among other things
provides for integrating long-term economic, environmental and social aspects into
business practices. In selecting companies to invest their money in, they look
closely at how they are managed. They try to avoid companies that have a bad
record on social and ethical ways. There is more and more relevant information
about ethically run companies that people can put money into. In the UK,
FTSE4GOOD is an index of ethically managed companies. In the USA they have
the Dow Jones Sustainability Indexes – DJSI World and DJSI Stoxx, containing
companies that are run in a way that takes account of the long-term interests of
society and the environment. The FTSE4Good and DJSI indexes give the overall
value of the share prices of the ethical firms, and the performance of individual
firms can be compared against them.
As consumers become increasingly concerned about the environment, many
companies claim to be producing environmentally-friendly products. Patagonia is a
Californian company known as a company with environmentally-friendly policies.
Patagonia tries to conduct business in a socially responsible manner.
1. When self-proclaimed ‘Patagonics’ dial up Patagonia, they know they will
receive more than a high-quality fleece anorak or a waterproof pair of hiking boots.
Thanks to the California-based retail firm’s outdoor clothing catalog and its
exemplary method of communicating its corporate environmentalism, customers
are not only knowledgeable about the company’s environmental progress, they are
loyal, too.
2. When purchasing products from Patagonia, customers also buy into a
commitment to environmental restoration. Patagonia’s example demonstrates good
green marketing strategies.
3. Patagonia takes pains to explain its products’ earth-friendliness and show
customers the big picture. For example, in the mid-1990s, Patagonia began using
organically-grown cotton exclusively. In addition to highlighting the organic
merchandise in product descriptions in catalogs, essays explained why organically-
produced products are environmentally preferable.
4. Other essays expanded the issue beyond individual products and
processes. In a 1996 catalog essay, for example, CEO Yvon Chouinard explained
the rationale behind the company’s switch to organically-grown cotton, including
the problems associated with producing conventional cotton, the larger long-term
benefits of investing in organically-grown products and the need to think about
long-term sustainability issues when choosing products.
5. One might assume that explaining the benefits of organic cotton in
catalogs was a strategic move, since the company had to justify the $2 to $10
premium per garment. But other essays, for instance, addressed environmental
issues not directly linked to company profit.
6. Broad environmental education teaches consumers that although thinking
and buying green is more expensive, environmentalism is less taxing on the earth
in the long run, and therefore, on individuals.
7. Patagonia’s advertising and company literature aim to educate. Instead of
a catalog packed only with sales information, Patagonia’s catalog is more like
National Geographic. Demonstrations in Patagonia’s retail stores engage customers
with interactive displays of the earth’s processes. Annual reports, pamphlets and
other company literature explain new ideas in environmentalism. And Patagonia
was one of the first companies to discuss sustainability in paid media.
8. Patagonia realizes that customers sometimes doubt corporate
environmental claims. To avoid consumer backlash, Patagonia publishes the results
of its internal environmental assessment.
9. This report reviews all office, production and merchandising activities and
uncovers opportunities to cut waste and reduce energy. Readers can see how
Patagonia tries to conduct business in a socially responsible manner, from
choosing long-lasting efficient light bulbs to providing on-site child care for
employees’ children. The grounds around the company’s headquarters even feature
edible landscaping – banana trees.
10. Through an environmental grants program, dubbed Earth Tax, Patagonia
pledges 1% of its sales or 10% of its pre-tax profit, whichever is greater, to small
local preservation and restoration efforts. Patagonia had already contributed more
than $8m to hundreds of such organizations.
11. Believing that grass roots efforts do the most to raise community
awareness of local problems, the Earth Tax program targets smaller grass roots
organizations committed to issues such as biodiversity, old-growth forests,
environmentally preferable methods of resource extraction, alternative energy and
water, social activism and environmental education. By funding more than 350 of
these efforts each year, Patagonia helps raise community awareness nationwide.
12. An annual Earth Tax Report invites customers to apply for grants for
local projects. Participants are quick to apply and inform the company about
environmental successes. One recent catalog featured a customer sporting an
insulated Patagonia guide jacket as she rescued a calf born during a Colorado snow
storm.
13. With powerful communication, meaningful corporate environmental
progress and avenues for consumer activism, it is no wonder that even skeptics
become Patagonia customers and customers become ‘Patagonics’.

Ex.1. Find the following words and expressions in the text and translate them into
Russian:
environmental commitment; a committed customer; a retail firm; to buy into a
commitment to environmental restoration; to take pains; CEO; to explain the
rationale behind smth.; a strategic move; to think and buy green; to be less taxing
on smth.; to avoid consumer backlash; on-site child care; the program dubbed
Earth Tax; pre-tax profit; the grass roots; to raise community awareness.

Ex.2. Find in the text the English equivalents for the following:
экологически чистый хлопок; обычный хлопок; долгосрочная выгода; в
конечном итоге; не верить заявлениям; уменьшить количество отходов;
сократить потребление электроэнергии; вести бизнес, понимая свою
ответственность перед обществом; экономичные лампочки; разнообразие
биологических видов; добыча полезных ископаемых.

Ex.3. Answer the following questions:


1. What is Patagonia?
2. What is meant by the company’s green marketing strategies?
3. How do they educate their customers?
4. How does Patagonia reassure customers who might question their claim to
earth friendliness? What does the company reveal to customers in their
report on internal environmental assessment?
5. What is Patagonia’s environmental grants program? Who does it target?
6. What is the result of Patagonia’s efforts?
Ex.4. Discuss the following statements:
A good business should be part of society and you should take pride in what
you do. There is no pride in making millions of dollars, but there is pride in
helping people and the environment.
In the next decade environmentalism will be the most important issue for
business.

Text 3
SUSTAINABLE ARCHITECTURE
The rise of the green building
Architecture: New buildings use design and technology to reduce environmental
impact, cut costs and provide better places to work
It is officially known as the Swiss Re Tower, or 30 St Mary Axe. But
Londoners universally refer to the newest addition to their skyline as “the
Gherkin”, thanks to the 41-storey building’s distinctive, curved profile, which
actually looks more like a pine cone. What is most remarkable about the building is
not its name or its shape, however, but its energy-efficiency. Thanks to its artful
design and some fancy technology, it is expected to consume up to 50% less
energy than a comparable conventional office building.
Most people are not used to thinking of large buildings as vast, energy-
guzzling machines. But that is what they are. In America, buildings account for
65% of electricity consumption, 36% of total energy use and 30% of greenhouse-
gas emissions. So making buildings more energy-efficient could have a significant
impact on energy policy, notes Rebecca Flora of the Green Building Alliance, a
group that promotes sustainable architecture. That is a key goal of the “green
architecture” movement, which is changing the way buildings are designed, built
and run.
Proponents of green architecture argue that the approach has many benefits.
In the case of a large office, for example, the combination of green design
techniques and clever technology can not only reduce energy consumption and
environmental impact, but also reduce running costs, create a more pleasant
working environment, improve employees’ health and productivity, reduce legal
liability, and boost property values and rental returns.
The term “green architecture” only came into use in the 1990s, but the
movement’s roots can be traced back a long way. Crystal Palace in London and
Milan’s Galleria Vittorio Emanuele II, for example, built in 1851 and 1877
respectively, used roof ventilators and underground air-cooling chambers to
regulate the indoor temperature. Today’s enthusiasm for green architecture has its
origins in the energy crisis of the 1970s, when architects began to question the
wisdom of building enclosed glass-and-steel boxes that required massive heating
and cooling systems. Early proponents of more energy-efficient architecture
included William McDonough, Bruce Fowle and Robert Fox in America, Thomas
Herzog in Germany, and Norman Foster and Richard Rogers in Britain.
These forward-thinking architects began to explore designs that focused on
the long-term environmental impact of maintaining and operating a building,
looking beyond the so-called “first costs” of getting it built in the first place. This
approach has since been formalized in a number of assessment and rating systems,
such as the BREEAM standard introduced in Britain in 1990, and the LEED
(Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design) standards developed by the
United States Green Building Council (USGBC) starting in 2000.
The LEED standards are intended to produce “the world’s greenest and best
buildings” by giving developers a straightforward checklist of criteria by which the
greenness of a building can be judged. Points are awarded in various categories,
from energy use (up to 17 points) to water-efficiency (up to five points) to indoor
environment quality (up to 15 points); the total then determines the building’s
LEED rating. Extra points can be earned by installing particular features, such as
renewable-energy generators or carbon-dioxide monitoring systems. A building
that achieves a score of 39 points earns a “gold” rating; 52 points earns a
“platinum” rating. A gold-rated building is estimated to have reduced its
environmental impact by 50% compared with an equivalent conventional building,
and a platinum-rated building by over 70%.
Rating buildings in this way reveals how inefficient traditional buildings and
building processes are. “We can sometimes waste up to 30 cents on the dollar”,
says Phillip Bernstein, an architect and professor at Yale University. “It’s not just
the consumption of energy, it’s the use of materials, the waste of water, the
incredibly inefficient strategies we use for choosing the subsystems of our
buildings. It’s a scary thing”. In part, he says, this is because the construction
industry is so fragmented. Designers, architects, engineers, developers and builders
each make decisions that serve their own interests, but create huge inefficiencies
overall.

Green is good
But things are now changing, as green architecture moves into the mainstream. In
the spring of 2003, Toyota completed a 624,000-square-foot office complex in
Torrance, California, that received a LEED gold rating, thanks to the inclusion of
features such as solar cells to provide up to 20% of the building’s energy needs.
Also last year, Pittsburgh opened the doors on its 1.5m-square-foot convention
centre, the largest building to be awarded a gold LEED rating so far. The USGBC
says nearly 1,700 buildings in 50 states are now seeking LEED certification and
137 have been constructed and certified so far. And America’s General Services
Administration, which oversees all non-military government construction, recently
decreed that all new projects and renovations must meet the minimum LEED
standards.
In Britain, meanwhile, 70 office buildings constructed during 2003, representing
25% of the total by floor area, met the BREEAM standard. Similar standards have
been adopted in New Zealand, Australia and Canada. In China, the Beijing
Organising Committee of the Olympic Games aims to host the first zero-net-
emissions games, which will include constructing all buildings and sports venues
using green-architecture principles.
There are many ways to reduce a building’s environmental impact. Consider the
48-storey Condé Nast Building at 4 Times Square in New York, for example,
which was designed by Fox & Fowle Architects. It was one of the first examples in
which green-architecture principles were applied to a large urban office building,
and informed the drawing up of the LEED points system, since it uses almost every
energy-saving technique imaginable.
Special glass allows daylight in to reduce the need for interior lighting, keeps heat
and ultraviolet rays out, and minimizes heat loss in winter. Two natural-gas-
powered fuel cells provide 400 kilowatts of power, enough to provide all the
electricity needed at night, and 5% of the building’s needs during the day. The hot-
water exhaust produced by the fuel cells is used to help heat the building and
provide hot water. The heating and cooling systems, located on the roof, are gas-
powered rather than electric, which reduces energy losses associated with electrical
power transmission. Photovoltaic panels on the building’s exterior provide up to an
additional 15 kilowatts of power. Inside the building, motion sensors control fans
and switch off lights in seldom-occupied areas such as stairwells. Exit signs are
illuminated by low-power light-emitting diodes. The result is that the building’s
energy consumption is 35-40% lower than that of a comparable conventional
building.
30 St Mary Axe, designed by Foster and Partners, is also packed with energy-
saving features. In particular, it uses natural lighting and ventilation wherever
possible. The façade consists of two layers of glass (the outer one double-glazed)
enclosing a ventilated cavity with computer-controlled blinds. A system of weather
sensors on the outside of the building monitors the temperature, wind speed and
level of sunlight, closing blinds and opening window panels as necessary. The
building’s shape maximizes the use of natural daylight, reducing the need for
artificial lighting and providing impressive long-distance views even from deep
inside the building.
The highest-profile green building currently on the drawing board is the Freedom
Tower, which will be built on the site of the World Trade Centre in New York. The
architects, Skidmore, Owings & Merrill and Studio Daniel Libeskind, have
incorporated environmental design features throughout the huge complex. The
main tower, which will rise 1,776 feet, will include solar panels and a wind farm,
the turbines of which are expected to deliver around one megawatt of power,
enough to provide up to 20% of the building’s expected demand. Like other green
buildings, it will rely on natural light and ventilation, and energy-efficient lighting.
High energy costs, environmental concerns and anxiety about the “sick building
syndrome” associated with the sealed-box structures of the 1970s all helped to
jump-start the green-architecture movement. But now economics is driving the
shift towards greener design, as new materials and techniques fall in price, argues
Michael Crosbie, an architect at Steven Winter Associates, a consultancy based in
Norwalk, Connecticut. He says his clients “are much more demanding because
they see the incredible amount of money it takes to get something constructed, and
they want a return on that investment”.

Why it pays to be green


Going green saves money by reducing long-term energy costs: a survey of 99
green buildings in America found that on average, they use 30% less energy than
comparable conventional buildings. So any additional building costs can be
recovered quickly: according to the USGBC, the 2% increase in construction costs
required to achieve a LEED gold rating typically pays for itself in lower running
costs within two years. The traditional approach of trying to minimise construction
costs, by contrast, can lead to higher energy bills and wasted materials.
Energy-saving techniques need not all be as exotic as installing coated glass,
computer-controlled blinds or photovoltaic cells. Mr Crosbie says builders are now
insulating buildings more effectively, in some cases using materials such as
recycled paper and fabrics, including old, shredded jeans. It is more effective than
traditional insulation, he says, saves money and is easier on the environment.
Green buildings can also have less obvious economic benefits. The use of natural
daylight in office buildings, for example, as well as reducing energy costs, also
seems to make workers more productive. Studies conducted by Rachel and
Stephen Kaplan, environmental psychologists at the University of Michigan, found
that employees with views of a natural landscape report greater job satisfaction,
less stress and fewer illnesses. Lockheed Martin, an aerospace firm, found that
absenteeism fell by 15% after it moved 2,500 employees into a new green building
in Sunnyvale, California. The increase in productivity paid for the building’s
higher construction costs within a year.
Similarly, the use of daylight in shopping complexes appears to increase sales. The
Heschong Mahone Group, a California-based consultancy that specialises in
energy-efficient building technologies, found that sales were as much as 40%
higher in stores lit with skylights. It also found that students in naturally lit
classrooms performed up to 20% better. Green buildings can also reduce legal
liabilities for their owners, since they are less likely to give rise to “sick building”
lawsuits. But more studies are needed, says Caren Glotfelty, director of the
environmental programme at the Heinz Endowments, a non-profit foundation run
by Teresa Heinz Kerry that funds sustainable initiatives.
Despite its benefits and its growing popularity, green architecture is still the
exception, not the rule, however. The main problem is co-ordination, says Mr
Bernstein, who is also vice-president of the building solutions division at
Autodesk, a software company. Green buildings require much more planning by
architects, engineers, builders and developers than traditional buildings. “The
building industry is very disaggregated”, he says, “so adoption patterns are really,
really slow”. But new software is now improving planning by simulating how a
building will perform before it is built.

Ex.1. Find in the text the following word-combinations and translate them into
Russian:
energy efficiency; vast, energy-guzzling machines; to account for 65% of
electricity consumption; sustainable architecture; to reduce running costs; to reduce
legal liability; to boost property values and rental returns; to question the wisdom
of building enclosed glass-and-steel boxes; solar cells; to meet the minimum LEED
standards; the first zero-net-emissions games; seldom-occupied areas; the highest-
profile green building; anxiety about the “sick building syndrome”; to be easier on
the environment; absenteeism fell by 15%; “sick building” lawsuits; to fund
sustainable initiatives.

Ex.2. Find in the text the English equivalents for the following:
потреблять до 50% меньше энергии; обычное офисное здание;
сторонники/противники чего-то; сократить потребление энергии; повысить
производительность; рациональное использование воды; генераторы,
работающие от источника возобновляемой энергии; система контроля над
уровнем углекислого газа; уменьшить воздействие на окружающую среду; не
пропускать ультрафиолетовые лучи; элементы питания; датчики движения;
светодиоды; естественное/искусственное освещение; ветряная установка;
энергосберегающие технологии; некоммерческий фонд.

Ex.3. Answer the following questions:


1. What does the text say about large conventional buildings in terms of energy
consumption? Supplement your answer with figures.
2. How far back can the term “green architecture” be traced?
3. What is meant by the LEED standard? How does it work? Are there similar
standards in other countries?
4. How many certified green buildings are there in the US? Give examples of
green buildings with incorporated environmental design features.
5. Why does it pay to be green?
6. What is the main problem of green architecture?

Text 4
Power plants eye technology for green coal fuel

Dubai: An energy alternative to gas and oil could see some power plants running
on coal in the next two to three years in the country.

Rather than burning coal directly, gasification breaks it down to produce clean
synthetic gas, which has even less carbon dioxide than natural gas, according to
Wasim Choudhury, chief executive of Sino Eastern, which is taking on the
independent project.
According to Waleed Ali Salman, project manager of the Emirates National
Grid, using coal as an energy source is making the most of an opportunity while
exploring alternatives to oil and gas.
Power generation using gasification of coal can cut carbon dioxide emission by
up to 40 per cent compared to a conventional coal-burning plant.
"Coal is old but gasification is new. The technology needs to be used in the
proper way to keep side effects and emissions under control. We have to look at
this as an opportunity while alternatives to oil and gas are worked out," said
Salman.
Up to three coal power stations compliant with the Kyoto Protocol could be
dotted around the emirates in three years.
"Introducing more technologies makes the market more competitive. The limited
resources in oil and gas mean there will be a definite increase in the cost of oil and
gas and we have to find alternative energy sources, either in coal or renewable
energy sources," said Salman. He added the Arab countries are already using the
technology but it should be well regulated.
"Coal, considered 'dirty', has been used to make clean fuel for a long time but the
technology may not have taken off as much as it could have because we had cheap
oil and gas," Choudhury said.
A power station based upon Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC)
using coal can offer more energy options, said Choudhury.
Burning coal without filtering out harmful chemicals is the leading cause of
smog, acid rain, global warming and air pollutants.
In an average year, a typical coal plant generates as much carbon dioxide as
cutting down 161 million trees and 10,000 tons of sulphur dioxide, which causes
acid rain. It produces 10,200 tons of nitrogen oxide, which is equal to emissions
released by half a million late-model cars, according to the Union of Concerned
Scientists in the United States.

Ex.1. Find in the text the following words and word combinations and translate
them into Russian:
a power plant; green coal fuel; gasification; the Emirates National Grid; to make
the most of an opportunity; a conventional coal-burning plant; compliant with the
Kyoto Protocol; to offer more energy options; to filter out harmful chemicals;
sulphur dioxide; nitrogen oxide; late-model cars; the Union of Concerned
Scientists.

Ex.2. Find in the text the English equivalents for the following:
электростанция; альтернативные источники энергии; работать на угле;
природный газ; производство электроэнергии; сократить выбросы
углекислого газа; побочные эффекты; конкурентоспособный; ограниченные
ресурсы; возобновляемые источники энергии; чистое топливо.

Ex.3. Answer the following questions:


1. What is the new technology discussed in the text?
2. What are the consequences of burning coal at conventional coal-burning plants?
3. What are the advantages of the new technology?
4. Is the new technology being used in the Arab states? What are the plans for the
future in the Emirates?
Text 5
COMBINING ECOLOGY WITH ECONOMY

By Jyoti Kalsi, Special to Gulf News

The amount of fresh water literally flushed down the drain and its cost is
staggering. Urimat brings to Dubai a device based on a simple concept that uses
no water, no chemicals and no elaborate machinery.

Water management efforts usually focus on efficient irrigation and conservation


in industrial and household use. An area of water wastage generally neglected is its
use for sanitation in large public facilities such as stadiums, airports, malls and
schools. Did you know that flush tanks in conventional urinals use up to six litres
of good drinking water to flush out two decilitres of urine? Multiply this by the
thousands of times the flush is used during major games and other events. The
amount of fresh water literally flushed down the drain and its cost is staggering.
Motivated by a desire to prevent such wastage, Swiss engineer Hans Keller has
developed an eco-friendly and economic alternative, called Urimat. Widely used in
Europe, Urimat is now available in Dubai. The first units have been installed at the
Jules Bar at the Le Meridien Dubai and it is being tested in several other public
facilities such as The Dubai World Trade Centre and the Dubai International
Airport.
Like most path-breaking inventions, Urimat is based on a simple concept that
uses no water, no chemicals and no elaborate machinery. It can be easily installed
in place of conventional urinals by connecting to the existing outlet pipe and
disconnecting the water inlet.
The ingenious mechanism has several design features that not only save water
but also make the urinal stain-proof and completely odour free. "Urimat is
manufactured from an extremely stable special injection-moulded plastic, which is
lightweight, break resistant and vandal proof. Its novel shape ensures efficient
drainage and no back spray.
The material does not get affected by the air-conditioning thus avoiding stains
caused due to cold induced reactions of urine with water. Maintenance costs are
lower because with no water, urine stones do not develop in the pipes. And Urimat
is easy to clean," says Urban Iten, spokesperson for Urimat Swiss Ltd. Rueti,
Switzerland.
The simple mechanism is activated by a sensor embedded in the toilet bowl.
When the urinal is not in use, the drain is tightly closed by a plastic float, known as
the 'stench trap' that fits snugly into a flexible sealing lip and seals in the odour.
When somebody approaches the urinal, the sensor activates electromagnets at the
bottom of the float and the base of the urinal, pulling the stench trap down and
opening the drain.
As the toilet chamber fills up, the float gradually rises, once again sealing the
chamber. The contents of the chamber flow out of a siphon overflow into the
sewage outlet pipe.
"Most people find it difficult to believe that a urinal without water, sealants or
other chemicals can be hygienic. But they do not realise that the odour and stains
are actually caused by water mixing with the urine. Scientific studies have
indicated that the bacterial count in Urimat bowls is significantly lower than that in
conventional urinals because of the materials used and the design of the bowl,"
says Urban.
"The initial cost of Urimat is higher and the 'stench trap' needs to be replaced
every few months. But the savings in cost of water and other maintenance makes it
cost effective in the long run. It is useful on construction sites and mountain resorts
where water connections are difficult. It is particularly relevant to this region
because fresh water resources are scarce," he adds.
The eco-friendly device can actually help to generate profits. "Facilities that
install them can rent out an advertising display integrated into the unit in the area
where the flush tank would have been. The sensor controlled, backlit display lights
up when anybody approaches and advertisers are guaranteed a captive audience for
30 seconds.
In Europe, these displays have been used for commercial as well as social and
ecological messages; and surveys have indicated good recall among 90 per cent of
users," claims Urban.
Some statistics:
The Middle East and North Africa region is the driest in the world, with only one
percent of the world's accessible fresh water and five percent of the world's
population.
Current available water resources per capita are one sixth of the world average
and 45 million people in the region lack access to safe drinking water and 80
million lack access to safe sanitation.
Concurrently, water use efficiency is poor with unaccounted for water averaging
50 per cent in urban areas and in surface irrigation only 40 per cent of the available
water reaches the crops.

Scarcity no more:
Water conservation was one of the issues discussed at the IMF meetings, held in
Dubai recently. A seminar titled Water: From Scarcity to Security was on the
agenda for September 21. Presentations included an overview of the use and
misuse of water resources in the Middle East and North Africa region. The session
was expected to provide insights into reform in the management and uses of water
with a focus on water supply sanitation and irrigation. It concluded with a 'call for
action' for more substantial reform efforts. The three main issues discussed were:
managing water scarcity, public-private partnerships for urban water supply and
managing the allocation of water — the implications for trade.

Urimat advantages:
• Eco-friendly water-conserving urinal;
• Easy installation; no water connection required;
• Shape and material guarantee hygiene and no staining;
• Formation of urine stones in plumbing eliminated;
• Patented 'stench trap' prevents escaping of odours;
• No chemical sealants required for preventing odours;
• Simple to clean;
• Economical in use and maintenance;
• Possibility of advertising display to generate revenue.

Ex.1. Give Russian equivalents for the following:

water literally flushed down the drain; water management efforts; an area of water
wastage generally neglected; a path-breaking invention; an ingenious mechanism;
stain-proof; cost-effective; the “stench trap”; in the long run; the bacterial count; a
captive audience; unaccounted for water.

Ex.2. Find in the text the English equivalents for the following:

пресная вода, сливной бачок, обычный писсуар, общественные места,


конструкторские решения, экономить воду, стоимость обслуживания,
активироваться при помощи датчика, герметик, запасы воды на душу
населения, не иметь доступа к безопасной питьевой воде, быть на повестке
дня, экономичный, приносить доход/прибыль.

Ex.3. Answer the following questions:

1. What path-breaking invention does the text describe?


2. What area of water wastage is targeted by Urimat?
3. How much water is used in conventional urinals?
4. How is Urimat different from conventional urinals? What new design features
does it have? How does it work?
5. Why is Urimat cost-effective in the long run?
6. How can it help to generate profits?
7. Sum up Urimat’s advantages.
8. Why is Urimat particularly relevant to the Middle East and North Africa region?
9. What issues were discussed at the recent IMF meetings in Dubai?

Text 6
Counters face up to green beans
by Robert Bruceт, FT
When it comes to taking action on climate change, few outsiders would view
accountancy as being a green profession. A few years ago, that would have been
true. Finance directors did not consider environmental or social factors, except for
rare cases such as Exxon Valdez oil-spill disaster, in their annual reports.
But times are changing. The reason is simple: figures. If accountants have figures
to measure, then they can see how environmental issues affect an organisation's
overall strategy.
In 2006, EDF Energy set up a Sustainable Future project using corporate social
responsibility (CSR) as a business performance driver. They wanted to radically
transform their business culture, and set a target to reduce carbon emissions from
their energy generation activities by 60 per cent by 2020.
Mark Bromley, Head of Business Performance at EDF Energy, became involved in
the work of the Prince of Wales's Accounting for Sustainability Project. He wanted
to find an effective reporting system for the company. So he started trialing the
connected reporting framework, which the project had devised and promoted.
“This was fully in line with our thinking, and we used it as a dynamic
management reporting tool,” he says. The framework aims to ensure that
sustainability measures are not isolated in a CSR report but are connected to the
main financial reporting system. This way, they can have a direct impact on
corporate strategy.
Louella Eastman, Group CSR Director at insurance group Aviva, pioneered the use
of the connected reporting framework within the group, aligning non-financial and
financial data. In partnership with the finance function, the CSR team collected
information on the five environmental areas outlined in the report: polluting
emissions, waste and usage of water, energy and other finite resources. The
findings were extremely interesting, and the connection of the two disciplines
produced strategic change.
She says, 'It became a discussion about cost. For example, we moved our cleaners
onto a day shift from evenings and told the security staff to switch the lights off.'
This was a simple action which brought about serious financial change. It came
from connecting the CSR information and personnel with the finance function. It
translated into significant savings and, more importantly, moved sustainability
onto senior executives' agendas.
Pharmaceuticals group Astra Zeneca also got rid of its sustainability section in the
annual report and put the important information into the main figures. Instead of
being an add-on, sustainability has become 'fully embedded' in the normal
reporting processes of the business. If you show how it links with strategy, it
becomes more fundamental to running the business.
Sustainability issues are moving up the priority lists of both the private and
public sector. Companies now consider being sustainable more of a business
priority than just a means of persuading the public that they are doing 'good things'.
However, the change is being driven from outside, as well as inside organisations.
It has become an important issue when recruiting the best graduates into an
organisation, for example. Equally, it has become a key issue with customers,
particularly in the retail sector.
Up to now, however, it has mainly been a question of accountants learning
to manage the information and allowing their organisations to see the true
strategic effects of sustainability figures.

Exercise 1. Find in the text the following words and word combinations and
translate them into Russian:
green profession
to set up a Sustainable future project
business performance driver
connected reporting framework
sustainability measures
to align financial and non-financial data
it translated into significant savings
moved sustainability onto senior executives’ agenda
‘fully embedded’ in the normal reporting processes
to move up the priority lists

Exercise 2. Give Russian equivalents for the following:


утечка нефти
поставить задачу
сократить выброс углерода на 60%
в соответствии c
непосредственное воздействие на стратегию компании
не возобновляемые ресурсы
результаты
привести к изменениям
дополнительный пункт
управление предприятием
розничная продажа

Exercise 3. Answer the following questions:

1. Why didn’t company accountants generally report on environmental or social


issues in the past?
2. Which fundamental change did Mark Bromley, Head of business Performance
at EDF want to bring about in the company?
3. Which external project did he participate in?
4. Which financial tool did Prince of Wales project create to help businesses with
their financial reporting?
5. What is the main aim of the tool?
6. Was Aviva CSR Director Louella Eastman’s trialing of this tool success or
failure?
7. Which five environmental factors did Aviva monitor?
8. At Aviva, what positive changes resulted from the trial?
9. What changed in the annual report of Pharmaceuticals group Astra Zeneca?
10. What is the best way to make company directors take notice of sustainability
issues?
11. There is a pun in the title. Which two words can be combined to form an
informal expression which is used to describe accountants.

Text 7

Investing in doing good can be good risk management

by Alice Clegg
Choosing investments by simply looking at a company's financial statements and
deciding how the current share price relates to the fair value of the stock is so old-
fashioned!
These days, even the most commercially minded asset managers are talking about
a sustainable investment process, including a checklist of corporate responsibility
and human rights issues. Many industry participants agree that this is the way
forward.
One significant driver of the increasing interest in ESG (environmental,
social and governance) factors is the part they play in improving risk management.
People don't want any surprises these days, and an ESG framework helps you
manage an aspect of risk.
'This isn't a manifesto for saving the planet, it's a tool for better assessing
risk,' says Charles Cronin , Head of the Chartered Financial Analyst (CFA)
Institute Centre for Financial Market Integrity, Europe, Middle East and Africa
(EMEA). 'It's just another way of peeling the investment onion.' The
CFA Institute provides at manual for investors on how to identify ESG factors at
listed companies, and how to integrate these factors into traditional financial
analysis.
Helena Vines Fiestas, a policy analyst for Oxfam, says, 'Responsible investors
benefit from better risk management, greater transparency and an active
engagement with companies to promote better management.' ESG issues are key
features of their investment analysis. Whilst Oxfam clearly has an agenda, such as
reducing third world poverty, it is engaging with investors who feel that their legal
duty to maximise financial returns is far more important than 'doing good' .
'If you invest in ways that don't undermine the financial system [by being
careful about the long-term impact of your investment behaviour], that's
economically rational,' says Colin Melvin, Chief Executive of Hermes Equity
Ownership Services. 'That economic rationality has been absent for some time.'
Although many sustainable investment initiatives involve equities, this is not the
only class of assets affected by the new ways of thinking. Real-estate investment
is also changing, although environmentally friendly property management is much
easier to justify to investors because it involves saving energy, which in turn saves
costs.
Oxford Group invested in sustainable property projects in Eastern Europe and Near
Asia, involving renewable energy, which promised to deliver a minimum of 25 per
cent per annum over the three-and-a-half-year life of the fund.
However, that is not the only way for property investment to be sustainable.
By investing in areas designated as regeneration targets, integrating developments
into local infrastructure (sustainable community building) and using a sustainable
supply chain, Hadley Barrett, Oxford Group's CEO, is confident he can meet this
goal. 'Even in a falling market, our investment philosophy of adding value to
projects, rather than simply engaging in price speculation, creates value for
investors.'
Whether it is about better risk management, a clear conscience, greater financial
returns or good PR, more and more asset managers are jumping on the bandwagon.
The argument is that growth will have to come from these sectors if the future of
humanity is to be secure. Therefore they provide an excellent investment
opportunity. Whether being green is really profitable in difficult markets, however,
remains to be seen .

Exercise 1. Find in the text the following words and word combinations and
translate them into Russian:

sustainable investment
commercially-minded asset managers
a checklist of corporate responsibility and human rights issues
driver of the increasing interest in ESG
ESG framework
peel investment onion
environmentally friendly property management
engage in price speculation
deliver a minimum of 25 per cent per annum over the three-and-half-year life of
the fund
sustainable community building
jump on the bandwagon

Exercise 2.
финансовый отчет
цена акции
реальная стоимость акции
управление рисками
извлечь пользу
оценить риски
программа действий
компания, акции которой котируются на бирже
максимально увеличить прибыль
воздействие в течение длительного периода времени
инвестиция в недвижимость
экономия энергии
сокращение расходов
возобновляемые источник энергии

Exercise 3. Answer the following questions:

1. Which factors have asset managers traditionally considered when choosing


investments?
2. What sort of investment process are they more interested now?
3. What aspect of investing does this process improve as well as helping the
planet?
4. How does sustainable investment help to ensure the long-term financial
stability?
5. Which class of assets do many sustainable investments involve?
6. Why is it often easier to persuade investors to invest in sustainable property
management than in real estate?
7 What is Oxford Group's investment philosophy?

Translate into English:


1. Концепция устойчивого развития была принята в качестве стратегии
мирового развития Конференцией ООН по окружающей среде и развитию,
состоявшейся в Рио-де-Жанейро в 1992 году. Речь идет о развитии, которое
удовлетворяет потребности настоящего поколения людей, но не ухудшает
возможностей будущих поколений обеспечивать их потребности.
Устойчивое развитие должно приводить к улучшению качества жизни всего
мирового населения без превышения допустимых пределов нагрузки на
природные ресурсы.
2. Через десять лет, в 2002 году, состоялся Всемирный саммит по
устойчивому развитию (Йоханнесбург, ЮАР), на котором подводились итоги
выполнения решений конференции в Рио-де-Жанейро. Участники «Саммита
Земли» вновь подтвердили приверженность целям и задачам устойчивого
развития, одобренным на экологическом форуме в Рио-де-Жанейро.
3. В концепции устойчивого развития все элементы важны – и экология, и
социальная ответственность, и экономическая составляющая.
Сегодня, в эпоху стремительного развития высоких технологий, компании
могут и должны уделять особое внимание вопросам экологической
ответственности, анализировать и оптимизировать свой экологический след,
эффективно использовать технологии для сохранения окружающей среды.
4. Чтобы предотвратить глобальную катастрофу, необходимо в ближайшие
50 лет сократить объём выбросов углекислого газа как минимум вдвое.
Увеличение производства атомной энергии, замена угольных
теплоэлектростанций газовыми, увеличение производства ветряной,
солнечной энергии – лишь небольшой перечень мер, направленных на
улучшение состояния окружающей среды.
5. Поскольку на долю автотранспорта приходится более 50% загрязнения
воздуха в городах, необходимы такие меры как повышение эффективности
расхода бензина, производство неэтилированного бензина, переход на
альтернативные виды автомобильного горючего.
6. Каждый год осенью в Вашингтоне проходит конкурс экологически-
чистых коттеджей. В нем участвуют легкие в сборке дома, работающие на
альтернативных источниках энергии. Группа студентов из Германии
предложила проект дома со встроенной компьютерной системой, которая
постоянно измеряет температуру внутри дома, влажность, текущий расход и
приход энергии и даже уровень углекислого газа.
7. Многие экологи призывают последовать примеру Германии и Японии -
субсидировать строительство энергосберегающих домов, установку
солнечных батарей на крышах.
8. Существующие в ряде стран системы оценки «экологичности» зданий
включают такие критерии как энерго- и водопотребление, вентиляция,
отопление и охлаждение, освещение и др.
9. Здание, получившее платиновый сертификат по системе LEED, потребляет
до 70% меньше энергии, чем обычное здание, сопоставимое по площади.
10. Пример экологически сознательной Германии доказывает, что
относительно простые изменения в отношении и образе жизни могут
привести к значительному сокращению выбросов. Раздельный сбор и
переработка бытовых отходов, хорошая теплоизоляция в домах, экономия
электричества позволили Германии сократить выбросы на 18,5% к уровню
1990 года.
11. Экономии электроэнергии в общественных местах можно добиться
использованием энергосберегающих электрических лампочек и установкой
датчиков движения, включающих и выключающих свет в малопосещаемых
помещениях.
12. Акции компании N особенно привлекательны для тех инвесторов,
которые при принятии инвестиционного решения принимают во внимание
вопросы защиты окружающей среды, социальной ответственности и
корпоративного управления.
13. Социальная (нефинансовая) отчетность становится главной тенденцией
в развитии современного бизнеса. Благодаря такой отчетности,
предприниматели получают возможность донести до акционеров
систематизированную информацию об их социальных инициативах. Понятие
социальной отчетности появилось недавно. Если годовые финансовые
отчеты выпускаются уже около 150 лет, то сама идея выпуска нефинансовых
отчетов возникла лет 20 назад: крупные корпоративные скандалы заставили
компании задуматься о том, как преподнести общественности свой бизнес
в лучшем свете.

Unit 4
texts for rendering and summing up
Read the following texts. Render them in English using the given words and word-
combinations. Sum them up in writing.

Text 1
America’s demography

Americans are more racially and ethnically diverse than in the past, and the
U.S. is projected to be even more diverse in the coming decades.
By 2055, the U.S. will not have a single racial or ethnic majority. Much of this
change has been (and will be) driven by immigration. Nearly 59 million
immigrants have arrived in the U.S. in the past 50 years, mostly from Latin
America and Asia. Today, a near-record 14% of the country’s population is foreign
born compared with just 5% in 1965. Over the next five decades, the majority of
U.S. population growth is projected to be linked to new Asian and Hispanic
immigration. American attitudes about immigration and diversity are supportive of
these changes for the most part. More Americans say immigrants rather strengthen
the country than burden it, and most say the U.S.’s increasing ethnic diversity
makes it a better place to live.
Asia has replaced Latin America (including Mexico) as the biggest source of
new immigrants to the U.S. In a reversal of one of the largest mass migrations in
modern history, net migration flows from Mexico to the U.S. turned
negative between 2009 and 2014. And after rising steadily since 1990, the
unauthorized immigrant population has leveled off in recent years, falling to 11.3
million in 2014 from a high of 12.2 million in 2007. Meanwhile, Asians are now
the only major racial or ethnic group whose numbers are rising mainly because of
immigration. And while African immigrants make up a small share of the U.S.
immigrant population, their numbers are also growing steadily – roughly doubling
every decade since 1970.
America’s demographic changes are shifting the electorate – and American
politics. The 2016 electorate will be the most diverse in U.S. history due to strong
growth among Hispanic eligible voters, particularly U.S.-born youth. There are
also wide gaps opening up between the generations on many social and political
issues. Young adult Millennials are much more likely than their elders to hold
liberal views on many political and social issues, though they are also less likely to
identify with either political party: 50% call themselves political independents.
Millennials, young adults born after 1980, are the new generation to watch.
They have probably surpassed Baby Boomers (born 1946-1964) as the largest
U.S. generation and differ significantly from their elders in many ways. They are
the most racially diverse generation in American history
Women’s role in the labor force and leadership positions has grown
dramatically.
The labor force participation rate for American women has risen steadily since the
1960s. In fact, mothers were the sole or primary breadwinner in a record 40% of all
households with children in 2011. The gender pay gap has narrowed over this
period of time, especially for young women just entering the labor force, but it still
persists. As more women have entered the workforce, the share of women in top
leadership jobs has risen, but they still make up a small share of the nation’s
political and business leaders relative to men.
The American family is changing. After decades of declining marriage rates,
the share of American adults who have never been married is at an historic high.
Two-parent households are on the decline in the U.S., while divorce, remarriage
and cohabitation are on the rise. About one-in-six American kids now live in a
blended family. And the roles of mothers and fathers are converging, due in part to
the rise of breadwinner moms.
The share of Americans who live in middle class households is shrinking. The
share of U.S. adults living in middle-income households fell to 50% in 2015, after
more than four decades in which those households served as the nation’s economic
majority. And the financial gaps between middle- and upper-income Americans
have widened.

(racially and ethnically diverse, drive a change, population growth, net migration
flows, rise steadily, level off, make up a small share, roughly double, shift the
electorate, eligible voters, hold liberal views , participation rate, breadwinner,
households, persist, enter workforce, pay gap, on the decline, on the rise, blended
family, shrink, middle-income household)

Text 2
(rapidly expanding economies; enhanced living standards; labour shortages;
fertility rate; to peak at; the population is projected to continue ageing; to have
many implications; social expenditure; an acceptable standard of living; taxation
levels; labour force participation; an influential market sector)

Text 3
TUC URGES ‘GREENHOUSE EFFECT’ STUDY
Government failure to tackle the “greenhouse effect” – global warming –
could threaten the earth with widespread devastation,
the TUC warned yesterday

Industrial Reporter
In its submission to the Commons select committee on energy, the TUC
urges the government to begin a research and development programme to find
solutions to the growing problem.
Scientists believe that by the middle of the century the earth’s temperature
will have risen several degrees due to the warming of the atmosphere through the
emission of gases such as carbon dioxide – the so-called greenhouse effect.
The TUC argues that British coal must be allowed to make a vital
contribution to the country’s energy supplies, but not at the expense of the physical
environment.
Nuclear energy, which does not entail the release of combustion gases can
make a partial contribution to reducing harmful emissions, but should form part of
a wider balanced energy policy, the TUC says.
Other greenhouse effect gases include methane, nitrous oxides and
chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) – most commonly sprayed from aerosol canisters.
A continuing increase in the warming effect could change the world’s
climate and cause sea levels to rise, flooding many low-lying countries.
The TUC document suggests a range of areas in which research could be
pursued including the development of a “low depletion” substitute for CFCs and
increased use of clean-combustion techniques.

(the Commons select committee, the TUC, a growing problem, emission of gases,
greenhouse effect, at the expense of the physical environment, to entail the release
of combustion gases, to reduce harmful emissions, an increase in the warming
effect, the development of a low depletion substitute for CFCs, clean-combustion
techniques)

Text 4
UK AIR POLLUTION ‘WILL CLAIM MORE LIVES’
Air pollution will continue to claim lives in Britain because the air quality
targets set for 2020 will not be met, Mike Pilling of the University of Leeds told
the British Association meeting.
London will remain polluted with nitrogen dioxide and particles from traffic
and other fossil fuel burning.
Roads and main urban centres are likely to remain unhealthy environments.
Further problems will blow in from abroad, according to aircraft studies of drifting
pollution.
He added: “There are also other changes occurring. Temperatures will
increase.”
“We saw a big episode during August 2013, a heat wave, and there were
something like 2,000 deaths ascribed to that heat. It is clear that perhaps 700 of
those were due to the reduction in air quality.”
“Changes will take place in the chemistry in the next 60 to 70 years, and in
addition we will see increases in the incidence of these heat waves.”
“So by 2070 we will be seeing something like a 10-fold increase in heat
waves of the sort we saw last year.”
“The government aimed to reduce concentrations of small particles of soot
and oxides of nitrogen as if they were separate problems, but they should be treated
together”, he said. “The pollutants interacted with each other, and even the
abatement measures could interfere with each other.”
Some measures to reduce nitrogen oxides might lead to increases in ozone, a
toxic form of oxygen important in the stratosphere, but a health hazard in the lower
atmosphere.
“We need to take these into account as we frame legislation”, Professor
Pilling said. “Some complex processes are occurring in the atmosphere.”
Moreover, pollution was no longer a local problem: British environmental
researchers on a flight in July recorded plumes of carbon monoxide from forest
fires in Alaska.
“It’s going all the way round the globe”, Professor Pilling added. “The
Americans suffer pollution from Asia, and we get pollution transported from the
US. We are exporting to Asia. We are not just recipients, but it is affecting the
pollution we experience in this country.”

(air pollution, to claim lives, particles from traffic, unhealthy environments,


drifting pollution, to ascribe deaths to heat, the reduction in air quality, to reduce
concentrations of small particles, a health hazard, environmental researchers)

Text 5
PAVING STONES TO FIGHT POLLUTION
Nick Nuttall. Environment Correspondent
Paving stones that soak up pollution are to be tested as a low-cost and
politically less fraught way of fighting traffic fumes.
The paving stones contain a compound, titanium oxide, that will remove
oxides of nitrogen, a key air pollutant that leads to smogs and is linked with
breathing difficulties in asthmatics and other vulnerable groups.
The pioneering idea is to be tested in London by engineers at Westminster
City Council. Likely areas for the trial are Oxford Street and Cromwell Road.
The idea is the brainchild of researchers at Mitsubishi Materials Corporation
in Japan, who have tested the stones in the laboratory and on a stretch of Osaka
pavement. The titanium oxide, when hit by the sun’s ultraviolet rays, produces a
high-energy form of oxygen that reacts with the oxide of nitrogen in the air to
produce a mid nitric acid. It is either washed away by the rain or neutralised by the
alkali present in the concrete.
Tests indicate that about 25 per cent of the oxide of nitrogen in the air
surrounding the special pavement is removed. The paving stones are durable and
will be active for several years.

(to soak up pollution, to fight traffic fumes, a key air pollutant, a pioneering idea,
to be a brainchild, to produce a high-energy form of oxygen, to be durable)

Text 6
COOL KETTLES BRING CLIMATE TO BOIL
David Adam. Environment correspondent
Energy experts have identified a new destructive agent of climate change in
our modern lifestyle: the fashionable kettle.
New designs coming on to the market that hold more water and boil faster
will use more electricity and produce more greenhouse pollution than older
versions, according to research commissioned by the government. Features such as
a hot plate to keep boiled water warm, electronic whistles and a traditional wide-
bottomed shape all waste energy.
An estimated 97% of UK households own kettles, which account for almost
a third of the electricity used by cooking appliances. Some 7m were sold last year.
The “kettle trends” briefing note submitted to the Department for the Environment,
Food and Rural Affairs warns that a nationwide rush for keep-warm kettles would
increase UK carbon dioxide emissions by 220,000 tonnes a year at a time when
ministers are seeking ways to cut emissions to meet targets.

(a destructive agent of climate change, greenhouse pollution, to commission


research, to account for, to increase carbon dioxide emissions, to cut emissions to
meet targets)

Text 7
SEA ‘LAWN’ CLUE TO CLIMATE CHANGE
Tim Radford. Science editor
Scientists have confirmed that the oceans can bloom with trillions of tiny
plants – if someone sprinkles a little mineral fertiliser first.
More importantly, the phytoplankton – the tiny green plants – can soak up
huge quantities of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, provided they have enough
iron in the oceanic equivalent of topsoil.
An international team of scientists reports in Nature today that they tipped
more than three tons of dissolved iron into a 50 square kilometer patch of sea off
Antarctica. Over the next two weeks they measured the levels of dissolved carbon
dioxide in the surface waters and noted that it had fallen by 10% as the algae began
to bloom. They calculated that 1,000 tons of carbon had been taken up by the
plants.
When the scientists checked satellite images six weeks later, their original
50km square “lawn” had been stretched by ocean currents to a ribbon more than
150km long.
All plants need water, and carbon and nitrogen from the air, to grow. But
they also need tiny quantities of other nutrients to make this growth possible. In
2001, an American oceanographer called John Martin argued that the reason the
oceans weren’t teeming with plant life was a shortage of iron.
In 2013, Andrew Watson of the University of East Anglia began a series of
tests. The latest voyage of the “Soiree” team – Soiree stands for southern ocean
iron release experiment – confirmed that the hypothesis was as true for near
freezing oceans as for tropical ones.
But, Prof Watson warned, the experiment did not offer a solution to the
problem of global warming.

(to soak up huge quantities of carbon dioxide, to tip … dissolved iron, to measure
the level of dissolved carbon dioxide, nutrients, to confirm the hypothesis, global
warming)

Text 8
DUMPED TVs AND COMPUTERS SOLD TO DEVELOPING WORLD
Environment Agency to crack down on illegal trade
Paul Brown. Environment correspondent
Millions of television sets and old computer monitors taken to civic amenity
sites as rubbish are being collected and shipped to Africa and Asia in an illegal
trade worth £7m a year, according to an unpublished report by the Environment
Agency and the recycling industry.
The business carried out by totters sifting through rubbish for saleables
became illegal on January 1 2002, under EU legislation designed to prevent toxic
waste materials being shipped to developing countries. Electrical equipment
containing leaded glass, particularly computers and televisions, was reclassified as
toxic waste because of the danger of lead to people handling the equipment or
breaking it up.
The agency is alarmed that half a million televisions and a similar number of
computer monitors that people thought were being disposed of in England are
being re-used or dumped in the developing world. The agency is finding the trade
hard to control but is planning to publish guidance to industry shortly.
Environment groups say this is insufficient to stop an illegal business. Claire
Wilton from Friends of the Earth said: “The agency has known about this situation
for two years but has still failed to act. The companies involved in this illegal trade
must be prevented from dumping Britain’s toxic waste on developing countries,
where workers’ conditions rarely match those expected in Europe. Action must be
taken now to stop this environmental injustice continuing”.
The Environment Agency says if something has been discarded, even if it
can be used again, to export it to a developing country is illegal.
Emer O’Connell, spokeswoman for the agency said: “We are determined to
sort this out… We are cooperating with ports across Europe to … clamp down on
illegal exports”.

(civic amenity sites, to sift through rubbish for saleables, to contain leaded glass, to
reclassify as toxic waste, the developing world, to dump toxic waste,
environmental injustice)

Text 9
PC wastes electricity
Believe it or not, the average desktop PC wastes nearly half the power
delivered to it. Half! This wasted electricity unnecessarily increases the cost of
powering a computer, and it also increases the emission of greenhouse gases.
Improving the energy efficiency of computers is a cost-effective way to
reduce electricity consumption and the emission of greenhouse gases that
contribute to climate change.
The Climate Savers Computing Initiative brings together industry,
consumers and conservation organizations to significantly increase the energy
efficiency of computers and servers.

(the cost of powering a computer; energy efficiency; to reduce electricity


consumption; to contribute to climate change; The Climate Savers Computing
Initiative; conservation organizations)

Text 10
Water Scarcity: Best ways to conserve water

UAE farmers are digging wells deeper to find water. ©Gulf News

The best solutions to the lack of fresh water in the country would be to take a
multi-faceted approach, suggested UAE national geologist and water resources
expert Salem Al Hai.
"It would involve erecting modern irrigation systems, increasing the number of
seawater desalination plants all over the country, increasing the number of sewage
water recycling plants, and growing crops that consume smaller amounts of water
while being able to withstand high salinity."
Building more dams could be an effective solution. Dams play an important role
in detaining the surface rain water flowing from the mountains and would prevent
the loss of rainwater straight into the sea.
In 1983, the Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries constructed the first dams on
the valleys of Al Baih and Ham with a total capacity of around 15 million cubic
metres of water. Other dams have been built since then which are capable of
holding more than 42 million cubic metres of rain water.
"Other suggested solutions to the water shortage may include the imposition of
special tariffs and using water meters to rationalise consumption, in addition to
setting up plants to recycle the sewage water in the East Coast."

(the best solutions to the lack of fresh water, to take a multi-faceted approach, to
erect modern irrigation systems, seawater desalination plants, sewage water
recycling plants, crops able to withstand high salinity, to detain water flowing from
the mountains, a total capacity of…, to rationalise consumption)

Text 11

Noxious mud from oil well hits road traffic

Surabaya, Indonesia: Foul-smelling mud oozing from an exploratory oil well in


Indonesia has forced the partial closure of a key toll road for the fifth time this
month, officials said yesterday.

The mudflow is part of an unfolding environmental disaster in East Java province


and there appear few signs of a resolution soon.
Authorities and well operator PT Lapindo Brantas have been struggling since late
May to plug the mud that has displaced more than 10,000 people from their homes.
A five-kilometre section of the toll road that connects Indonesia's second-largest
city, Surabaya, to its southern industrial suburbs had to be shut, said Joko
Suprapto, an assistant operator at the East Java branch of PT Jasa Marga, the state
firm administering toll roads in Indonesia.
"We closed it last night from kilometre 37 to 42. The muddy water streamed over
the dykes that barricade the toll road," he said.
Bachriansyah, the head operator of the toll road, said the pools could endanger
motorists. But he said his firm had no plans to take legal action against well
operator PT Lapindo Brantas despite falling revenues.
The highway is the main transport artery for goods from industrial areas south of
East Java's provincial capital. The noxious mud gives off fumes that have made
people ill and caused respiratory problems.
The economic cost has also been mounting with swathes of land in four villages
and many shrimp ponds engulfed.

(foul-smelling mud, an exploratory oil well, a key toll road, an unfolding


environmental disaster, a dyke, to endanger motorists, to take legal action, falling
revenues, the main transport artery, noxious mud, to cause respiratory problems,
the economic cost, shrimp ponds)

Unit 5
texts for rendering in English
Render the following texts in English. Use your topical vocabulary.
Текст 1
Демографическая политика

Демографическая политика - это система мер, осуществляемых государством


в отношении населения страны и направленных на регулирование
естественного движения, прежде всего рождаемости. Принятые меры могут
быть прямыми (ограничение или стимулирование законодательным путем
деторождения, вступления в брак) и косвенным (повышение уровня жизни,
создание системы материальной помощи и льгот для многодетных семей,
формирование общественного мнения). В последнее время все большее
количество государств используют комплексные меры демографической
политики и пытаются одновременно с повышением уровня рождаемости
снизить уровень смертности.

Большинство стран первого типа воспроизводства обеспокоены падением


рождаемости, ведь этот процесс приводит к уменьшению доли
трудоспособного населения и старению населения. Поэтому развитые страны
проводят демографическую политику, стимулирующую повышение
рождаемости (пронаталистическую политику) Известно, что европейские
страны (кроме Турции) считают темпы прироста своего населения не очень
высокими. В демографической политике этих стран преобладают несколько
направлений. Особенно выделяются мероприятия, предназначенные для
воздействия на семью и уже через нее - на рождаемость. Используя их, одни
правительства ставят целью укрепить семью, другие - усилить социальное
развитие, третьи - улучшить демографическую ситуацию. Для этого
применяются следующие группы мер: выплаты материальной помощи
матерям (однократно после родов); отпуск по уходу за ребенком;
материальная помощь семье (начисления к заработной плате); скидки в
налогообложении; сокращение рабочего дня для работающих матерей;
формирование сети детских учреждений и предоставление в них мест для
всех желающих; бесплатное или со скидкой дошкольное воспитание;
жилищные льготы; социальное обслуживание; ежемесячные выплаты до
достижения ребенком определенного возраста.
В странах, проводящих пронаталистическую политику, существуют и
жилищные льготы, которые помогают молодым семьям в решении
жилищной проблемы. Так, можно получить жилье с уменьшенной
квартирной платой, имеется доступ к кредиту с низким процентом на
покупку жилья или строительство своего дома. В некоторых странах
предоставляются жилищные денежные пособия, позволяющие выплатить
заем, поскольку в Европе квартира, как правило, приобретается в кредит.
Молодым парам могут выдаваться долгосрочные займы, которые часто
бывают беспроцентными. После рождения ребенка долги по займам могут
списываться. В Исландии при заключении брака молодоженам выдаются
ключи от квартиры.
Во многом благодаря пронаталистической политике Франции, которая
первой столкнулась с демографическим кризисом, удалось преодолеть его.
В ближайшие десятилетия основной прирост населения в мире ожидается в
развивающихся странах. Это увеличивает и без того сложную проблему
ликвидации экономической отсталости этих стран, поэтому для большинства
из них характерно желание ограничить быстрый прирост населения. Такую
демографическую политику проводят примерно 80 государств. Во многих из
них это рассматривается как один из путей решения проблем голода и
нищеты. Некоторые государства существенно не вмешиваются в процесс
естественного движения населения, среди таковых широко представлены
мусульманские страны.
Политика ограничения рождаемости наиболее ярко выразилась в Китае. С
конца 70-х годов прошлого века правительство Китая проводит политику
контроля роста населения и повышения его качественных характеристик.

Text 2
Демографическая ситуация в Южной Корее

Жители Южной Кореи будут находиться на грани вымирания к 2750 году,


если не исправят свою демографическую ситуацию. Такие выводы сделали
ученые из-за продолжительной тенденции снижения рождаемости в стране.
Неутешительный вердикт населению азиатской страны вынесли учёные
Национальной ассамблеи. Исследовав сложившую демографическую
ситуацию, специалисты подчеркнули, что если в Южной Корее не
увеличится рождаемость, то в дальнейшей перспективе южных корейцев
вообще не останется на Земле.
В настоящее время в Южной Корее проживают 50 миллионов человек. В
2013 году коэффициент рождаемости составлял приблизительно один
ребенок на женщину. Если такая тенденция продолжится, то население
Кореи чуть меньше чем через 50 лет сократится до 40 миллионов человек
и до 20 миллионов в 2100 году; тогда эта отметка сравняется с показателями
1930 года (годы японской оккупации).
Далее с каждым десятилетием, по прогнозам специалистов, население
продолжит неминуемо убывать. Так уже к 2136 году численность населения
в стране сократится до отметки в десять миллионов человек, а к 2750 году
Южной Корее и вовсе грозит вымирание, предупреждают ученые.
Исследователи отмечают, что сокращение начнется именно с численности
молодых и среднего возраста жителей.
В частности, наибольшему риску подвержен город Пусан, который является
вторым по величине южнокорейским городом после Сеула. Согласно
результатам исследования, в Пусане наблюдается резкое сокращение
молодых людей и людей среднего возраста. Таким образом, последний
ребенок родится в этом населенном пункте уже в 2413 году.
Отметим, что еще в 2006 году ученый Дэвид Коулман из Оксфордского
университета предупреждал, что уровень рождаемости в Южной Корее
настолько низкий, что стране грозит демографическая катастрофа.
Исследователь отметил, что Корея может стать первой страной в мире, чье
население вымрет.

Text 3
Доклад: К 2020 году Россия потеряет 5,5 млн рабочих рук
Число работоспособных жителей России к 2020 году сократится примерно
на 5,5 млн человек, пишет Financial Times со ссылкой на доклад Mercer –
крупнейшей в мире консалтинговой компании по управлению персоналом.
Специалисты Mercer предупредили, что в ближайшие годы ведущие
экономики мира ждут гораздо более резкие демографические изменения,
нежели предсказывали эксперты. Еще до конца десятилетия многие страны
столкнутся с фактической нехваткой рабочих рук, а также неспособностью
выполнять взятые на себя социальные обязательства.
Так, к 2020 году наиболее существенные демографические изменения ждут
Гонконг. Число людей старше 65 лет там вырастет на рекордные 8% (560
тыс. человек) с 12% в 2007 году. То есть всего через восемь лет пятая часть
населения этого специального административного района КНР перейдет
на полное соцобспечение государства. Сохранить при таких условиях
макроэкономический баланс практически невозможно. Скорее всего, властям
Гонконга придется либо обложить работоспособных граждан
дополнительными налогами, либо увеличить верхнюю планку пенсионного
возраста.
Не намного лучше обстоит ситуация и в Японии, где проблема старения
населения возникла еще несколько десятилетий назад. По расчетам Mercer,
к 2020 году число людей в возрасте за 65 лет там возрастет на 4% (5 млн
человек) при нынешних 24%.
Среди стран Европы в самой непростой ситуации оказалась Германия.
«Локомотив» экономики ЕС с каждым годом вынужден все больше
повышать налоги, чтобы обеспечить достойное существование
представителям старшего поколения (21% населения). И хотя через восемь
лет число людей старше 65 лет увеличится в ФРГ не столь значительно –
на 2 % (1,6 млн человек), серьезную озабоченность у специалистов вызывает
именно стабильный и неизменный рост данного показателя.
На этом фоне ситуацию в России авторы доклада Mercer видят
неоднозначной, передает БИЗНЕС-ТАСС. С одной стороны, к 2020 году
число потенциальных пенсионеров в стране вырастет всего на 1% (1,4 млн
человек).
Однако из-за сравнительно невысокой продолжительности жизни этот
показатель едва ли окажет существенное влияние на экономику. Гораздо
большую тревогу, по мнению экспертов, должно вызывать резкое
сокращение численности возрастной группы 15-64 лет, которая считается
оптимальной для труда. По оценкам авторов исследования, в России она
всего за восемь лет уменьшится на 4% (5,5 млн человек). К столь резким
изменениям российская экономика может просто не успеть подготовиться,
резюмируют они.
Президент фонда «Миграция XXI век» Вячеслав Поставнин в интервью
газете ВЗГЛЯД говорил, что ежегодно Россия теряет около миллиона
человек, которых можно отнести к так называемым трудовым ресурсам.
«Это будет продолжаться еще лет 10. Мы потеряем 14 млн трудоспособного
населения. В советское время соотношение было такое: четверо работающих
на одного пенсионера. Сегодня это один работающий и два пенсионера. С
точки зрения экономики нам грозит огромная дыра в пенсионном бюджете,
которую ничем не закроешь», – отмечал он.
Ранее Росстат сообщил, что по итогам Всероссийской переписи населения
2010 года население страны составляет 142 млн 857 тыс. человек. Если
сравнить 1989 год (последняя советская перепись) и 2002 (первая
российская), то за 13 лет страна потеряла 1,8 млн человек. А за последние
восемь лет Россия недосчиталась еще 2,3 млн. В мировом рейтинге
численности населения РФ опустилась на 8-е место: теперь ее опережают
не только Китай, Индия, США, Индонезия, Бразилия, Пакистан, но еще
и Бангладеш.
О проблеме сокращения населения страны в четверг говорил премьер-
министр РФ Дмитрий Медведев. Но его прогнозы относительно
оптимистичные. Уже через два года, рассчитывает Медведев, численность
населения России перестанет снижаться.
«Мы можем стабилизировать численность населения страны и обеспечить
повышение ожидаемой продолжительности жизни до 74 лет к 2018 году»,–
приводит его слова «Интерфакс». Именно на это, отметил премьер, нацелены
соответствующие программы.
Говоря о динамике рождаемости, Медведев отметил, что несколько месяцев
подряд наблюдается естественный прирост населения. Только в сентябре он
составил 11,5 тыс. человек, и это почти в три раза больше, чем в сентябре
2015 года. «Это хороший показатель, если хотите, это просто ключевой
показатель», – подчеркнул премьер.
Правда, эксперты советуют не слишком надеяться на эти цифры.
«Надо понимать, что снижение смертности и увеличение рождаемости,
которое мы сейчас наблюдаем, достигнуто за счет мигрантов из республик
Средний Азии и Закавказья», – поясняет ведущий финансовый аналитик
«Калита Финанс» Алексей Вязовский.
Сейчас в России по разным оценкам проживает до 10 млн незаконных
мигрантов (и около 2 млн законных), и из года в год число мигрантов растет.
«С одной стороны дешевые рабочие руки удешевляют производство
(особенно, в сфере строительства, сфере услуг). С другой –
межнациональный климат в России ухудшается и очевидным образом
ухудшает инвестиционную привлекательность страны», – заключает
Вязовский.

Text 4
ОПУСТЫНИВАНИЕ
Возрастающее опустынивание в мире представляет одну из самых больших
проблем для окружающей среды и откладывает борьбу с бедностью,
говорится в докладе ООН.
Опустынивание определяется как разрушение засушливых и
полузасушливых земель в результате климатических изменений и
деятельности человека и «числится среди основных опасностей для
окружающей среды всей планеты и общества», - подчёркивает документ
созданный в рамках проекта эволюции экосистемы на грани тысячелетия,
возглавляемого ООН.
«Опустынивание становится глобальной проблемой, которая
затрагивает всех и которой уделяется слишком мало внимания»,- поясняет
агентству Франс-пресс Зафар Адель, помощник директора Института воды
Университета ООН и основной автор доклада, опирающегося на наблюдения
1300 специалистов из 95 стран в течение четырёх лет. Это явление может
оказать воздействие на два миллиарда человек, живущих в засушливых и
полузасушливых зонах. Уже сегодня 250 миллионов испытывают прямое
воздействие опустынивания, больше всего в Африке, уточняет Адель. Бедное
население, чьи земли превращаются в пустыню, бегут в развитые страны,
увеличивая их проблемы.
Песчаные бури пустыни Гоби приводят к респираторным заболеваниям
жителей Китая, Корейского полуострова, Японии и даже приводят к
ухудшению качества воздуха в Северной Америке, подчёркивают авторы
доклада «Экосистемы и благополучие населения». Авторы подсчитали, что
ежегодно из Сахары в атмосферу поднимается миллиард тонн песка и пыли.
Песчинки содержат бактерии и микроорганизмы, которые, как думают
учёные, наносят вред коралловым рифам Карибского моря.
Перенаселённость, расширение пастбищ, слишком интенсивные
агротехники, как и плохое водопользование – главные факторы, приводящие
к опустыниванию. В докладе также указывается, что от 10 до 20%
засушливых и полузасушливых земель планеты уже серьезно повреждены.
Перегрев атмосферы, являющийся следствием накопления газов, создающих
парниковый эффект, выделяемых выхлопами автомобилей и
промышленностью, видимо, также усугубит опустынивание в последующие
десятилетия. Это приведёт к еще большей засухе, возникновению волн жары
и наводнений.
Текст 5
Вода. Вопрос жизни и смерти.
Насчитывается более 1 миллиарда человек, не имеющих устойчивого
доступа к чистой воде. 2,4 миллиарда человек — более одной трети
населения мира — не имеют доступа к надлежащим средствам санитарии.
Эта ситуация приводит к катастрофическим последствиям:
- ежегодно более 2,2 миллиона человек, главным образом в развивающихся
странах, умирают от болезней, связанных с низким качеством воды и
неудовлетворительными санитарно-гигиеническими условиями;
- ежедневно 6000 детей умирают от болезней, которые можно предотвратить
путем повышения качества воды и улучшения санитарно-гигиенических
условий;
- ежегодно этими болезнями страдают более 250 миллионов человек.
В настоящее время обеспечение доступа к воде и средствам санитарии,
имеющее такое исключительно важное значение для благосостояния и
развития человека, приобрело характер одного из приоритетных направлений
деятельности международного сообщества. Для того чтобы подчеркнуть
необходимость принятия срочных мер, Организация Объединенных Наций
провозгласила 2003 год Международным годом пресной воды.
Несмотря на жизненно важное значение пресной воды, ее ресурсы
распределяются неравномерно: 70 процентов поверхности земного шара
покрыто водой, однако на 97,5 процента она состоит из соленой воды.
Оставшиеся 2,5 процента приходятся на пресную воду, почти две трети
которой находится в замороженном состоянии в ледниковых шапках.
И хотя в большинстве регионов все еще имеется достаточно воды для
удовлетворения потребностей каждого человека, эти ресурсы необходимо
надлежащим образом использовать. В современном мире растрачивается или
используется неэффективно большое количество воды и зачастую темпы
роста спроса превышают темпы возможного пополнения запасов воды
естественным образом. И хотя борьба за контроль над водными ресурсами
может приводить к возникновению конфликтов, история свидетельствует о
том, что совместное использование водных ресурсов может также выступать
в роли катализатора сотрудничества.
Основные статистические данные
Более 70 процентов всех имеющихся ресурсов пресной воды используется
в сельскохозяйственных целях. Однако в результате неэффективной работы
оросительных систем, существующих, в частности, в развивающихся
странах, 60 процентов этой воды испаряется или возвращается в реки и в
подземные воды;
- с 1960 года объем воды, забираемой на цели орошения, увеличился более
чем на 60 процентов;
- в настоящее время более 40 процентов населения мира живет в районах,
испытывающих среднюю или острую нехватку воды. Предполагается, что к
2025 году приблизительно две трети населения мира — около 5,5
миллиардов человек — будет жить в районах, сталкивающихся с нехваткой
воды в таких масштабах;
- все большее число регионов мира, особенно в Северной Африке, а также
Западной и Южной Азии, сталкивается с проблемой дефицита воды;
- в прошлом веке масштабы водопользования увеличились в шесть раз и
более чем в два раза превысили темпы роста населения;
- на потери воды в результате утечек, незаконных подключений к системе
водоснабжения и непроизводительного использования воды приходится в
общей сложности 50 процентов объема питьевой воды, потребляемой в
развивающихся странах;
- в развивающихся странах около 90 процентов сточных вод и 70 процентов
промышленных стоков сбрасываются без обработки, что часто приводит к
загрязнению годных к употреблению водных ресурсов;
- происходит интенсивная деградация пресноводных экосистем: утрачено
около половины водно-болотистых угодий мира и исчезло более 20
процентов из 10 000 известных в мире пресноводных видов;
- в таких регионах, как Соединенные Штаты Америки, Китай и Индия, темпы
потребления подземных вод превышают темпы их пополнения, и происходит
постоянное снижение уровня грунтовых вод. Некоторые реки, такие, как
Колорадо в западной части Соединенных Штатов Америки и Хуанхэ в Китае,
пересыхают до их впадения в море.

Текст 6
ДЫШАТЬ ВРЕДНО
Жить вредно. А особенно вредно дышать. Как утверждают ученые, в
крупных городах каждый вдох сокращает жизнь человека на полминуты. И
что самое страшное – большинство вредных токсичных соединений,
образующихся в атмосфере, науке неизвестно…
Таблица Менделеева
«За последнее время мы наблюдаем увеличение выбросов на 5-10%, –
говорит специалист Института системного анализа РАН Сергей Пегов. –
Причина – выбросы промышленных предприятий. Очистные сооружения на
заводах устарели. А чтобы сократить количество выбросов на 90%, нужно 4
тысячи долларов на тонну. Мы делали проверки – таких установок на старых
предприятиях практически нет. Особенно плохи дела в машиностроении и
черной металлургии».
Что выбрасывают заводы? Да почти всю таблицу Менделеева: кадмий,
цинк, свинец, медь, никель, кобальт, молибден; химпредприятия – фтор.
Кстати, допустимый объем на кубический метр, к примеру, кадмия на
порядок меньше допустимого объема цианистого калия.
И тем не менее это не самая большая проблема. В конце концов,
российские ПДК (предельно допустимые концентрации) в три раза строже
тех же американских. И там, где выбросы превосходят ПДК, проверяющие
службы борются за их сокращение.
«Вот был случай в городе Кириши, – рассказывают в Институте
системного анализа РАН. – Люди стали жаловаться на плохое самочувствие,
увеличилось количество больных аллергией. В городе было два
промышленных предприятия, стояли себе по обе стороны речки. Проверили
выбросы: и там и там – в норме. А горожане болеют… Тогда взяли пробы не
в непосредственной близости от предприятия, а над речкой – так там такую
смесь обнаружили, которая все нормы превышала в 50 раз! Оказывается,
небольшие выбросы двух предприятий вступили в реакцию (а еще в
сочетании с водой) и дали совершенно новые токсичные соединения!
Автобум
Доля загрязнений воздуха от автотранспорта в городах составляет от 60
до 80%. «Вещества, которые выбрасываются автомобилями, даже опаснее,
чем отходы промышленных предприятий, – говорит Сергей Пегов. – Причем
чем старее автомобиль, тем больше в выхлопах канцерогенов и частичек
сажи. Особенно опасны окись углерода (СО) и окисный азот. СО связан с
гемоглобином, он резко сокращает поглощение кислорода и приводит к
астме и бронхиту. Окисный азот разрушает межклеточные перегородки в
легких и вызывает рак. А в реакции с теми же выбросами химпредприятий
они дают совершенно новые соединения, которые никто не исследует – это
очень дорого».
Текст 7
ВСЕ ЗЕЛЕНОЕ
После того как проблема здорового питания и здоровой косметики
была решена, наступил черед домашнего хозяйства. Правильное с
экологической точки зрения жилище должно быть построено из экологичных
материалов, покрашено экологичными красками и правильно
теплоизолировано для экономии энергоресурсов. Чтобы уберечь от
заражения воду, необходимы экодружественные моющие средства, начиная
от жидкости для мытья посуды и стирального порошка и кончая средством
для ликвидации засоров в канализации.
Как только проблема была осознана, нашлись люди, которые взялись
ответить на вызов времени. Почти все необходимые при строительстве и в
быту вещи теперь имеют экодублеров. В экокрасках, например, в качестве
растворителей используется лимонный и апельсиновый сок, а в качестве
красящего вещества – растительные экстракты. Экологические ковры
сделаны из бразильских трав, водорослей и волокон кокоса, а в качестве
основы используется лен или джут, а не синтетика. Памперсы, еще недавно
казавшиеся величайшим достижением человечества, теперь заклеймены как
не поддающиеся разложению (использованный сегодня памперс исчезнет с
лица земли только через 500 лет), поэтому экосознательные родители теперь
растят детей по старинке, в многоразовых тряпичных подгузниках. Самые
бескомпромиссные потребители могут даже приобрести одежду из
органического хлопка, выращенного не только в соответствии со всеми
требованиями органического земледелия, но и учетом фаз луны. Если еще к
тому же есть гарантия, что хлопкоробы работали в гуманных условиях и
получили приличную зарплату, счастливый обладатель такого одеяния может
с чистой совестью наслаждаться гармонией с мирозданием.
Разработана целая система обозначений, чтобы сторонники
экологической и политической корректности могли оценить достоинства
покупаемого предмета. BIO означает «разложимый биологическими
агентами», RCBL (recyclable) – «поддается вторичной переработке и/или
является ее результатом», CF (Cruelty-Free) – «произведен без причинения
вреда животным», SRB (Socially Responsible Business) – «продукция
социально-ответственного бизнеса», NAT – «не содержит гормонов,
искусственных красителей и консервантов», NT – «не содержит токсичных
химических веществ», а WOM – «сделан с использованием женского труда»,
что для феминисток – несомненное достоинство.

Текст 8
“Хранители климата ” снижают выбросы
В ситуации, когда США вне Киотского протокола, Всемирный фонд
защиты диких животных (The World Wildlife Fund – WWF) предпринял
инициативу по добровольному снижению выбросов крупнейшими
американскими компаниями.
В кампании WWF «Хранители климата» уже участвуют такие
компании, как IBM, Dell, Microsoft и др. А теперь к ним присоединились и
другие крупнейшие американские компьютерные компании.
Компании Intel и Google объявили о создании на основе программы
WWF «Хранители климата» кампании по повышению энергоэффективности
компьютерной техники.
Цель – сделать компьютеры более энергоэффективными и снизить
расходы на энергию на 5,5 миллиардов долларов, а также сократить выбросы
парниковых газов на 54 миллиона тонн в год.
«Сегодня стандартный компьютер тратит впустую половину своей
мощности, а стандартный сервер – треть мощности, – считает Урс Хольцле,
первый вице-президент компании Google. – В рамках кампании мы
поставили цель повысить эффективность источников питания до 90%. Если
этого удастся достичь, то выбросы парниковых газов сократятся на 54
миллиона тонн в год, и более 5,5 миллиардов долларов будут сэкономлены
благодаря сбережению энергии».
«К 2020 году сокращение выбросов парниковых газов, достигнутое в
рамках нашей кампании, можно будет сравнить с исчезновением 11
миллионов машин с дорог или закрытием каменноугольных тепловых
электростанций общей мощностью 20 500 мегаватт», – заявила первый вице-
президент и генеральный менеджер Intel Пат Гельсингер.

Текст 9
МИРОВОЙ ОКЕАН «ПРОКИСАЕТ»
В последнем сентябрьском номере журнала Nature исследователи из
Ливерморской национальной лаборатории (США) сообщают, что Мировой
океан становится все «кислее». По мнению авторов публикации, это вызвано
ростом содержания углекислого газа в атмосфере. Дело в том, что большая
его часть поглощается в океане, где этот газ превращается в угольную
кислоту. Это изменение пока не так уж велико, однако, считают ученые, если
выбросы не сократятся, это создаст серьезную угрозу жизни не только в
море, но и на планете в целом.
От повышения кислотности в той или иной мере пострадают все
морские организмы, но больше всего – обитающие у поверхности воды, где
эти изменения выражены особенно сильно. Наиболее велик риск для
коралловых рифов и других организмов, чьи скелеты или раковины содержат
карбонат кальция.

Текст 10
ВКЛАД МЕТАНА
Некоторые специалисты, в частности доктор геолого-
минералогических наук Н.А.Ясаманов, предполагают, что в нынешнем
глобальном потеплении «повинен» в основном метан, в то время как многие
«климатические активисты» считают синонимами парниковый эффект и
антропогенные выбросы углекислого газа.
Между тем этот газ не поднимается в верхние слои атмосферы, а в
нижних успешно поглощается растительностью и почвенными организмами,
растворяется в реках, озерах и морях. Большая часть углекислого газа
тратится на постройку скелета водных организмов и усваивается
фитопланктоном, а избыток аккумулируется в донных осадках. Метан же с
земной поверхности быстро попадает на границу тропосферы и стратосферы.
Мало того, что он активно участвует в парниковом эффекте; на высоте 15-20
км под действием солнечных лучей он разлагается на водород и углерод,
который, соединяясь с кислородом, образует углекислый газ.
Откуда же метан поступает в атмосферу? Он образуется в болотах при
гниении органики. Недаром его еще называют болотным газом. В немалых
количествах поставляют его и обширные мангровые заросли в тропиках.
Попадает он в атмосферу и из тектонических разломов и трещин при
землетрясениях.

Текст 11
ОЗОНОВОЕ «СИТО»
В биологической истории планеты можно выделить два характерных
периода. Первый продолжался около 3 миллиардов лет, когда непрерывно
формировались все новые организмы. Появлялись и исчезали виды,
семейства и роды организмов. На втором – его продолжительность «всего»
десятки миллионов лет – состав обитателей планеты в общем
стабилизировался, и новые организмы появлялись редко. Что же произошло?
По мнению некоторых ученых, в том числе заведующего кафедрой
химии Рыбинской авиационной технологической академии профессора
Г.М.Кимстача, причина может крыться в том, что на границе двух эпох
сформировался равновесный состав атмосферы и тот озоновый слой,
который сейчас истощается. Главное химическое свойство озона – его
высокая окислительная способность, выражающаяся, в частности, в сильном
стерилизующем действии: в озоне гибнут не только бактерии, но и грибы, и
вирусы.
Озоновый слой мог стать мощным «санитарным барьером»,
защитившим сформировавшееся на планете сообщество живых организмов
от вероятных «пришельцев». Но сейчас, когда озоновый слой быстро
превращается в «сито», возникает куда более серьезная угроза появления на
планете новых – и опасных – организмов.

Unit 6
Exercises
Grammar Exercises
Ex.1. Use the correct tense form:
In the 1980s, scientists around the world began to notice something strange: frogs
(disappeared, were disappearing) (1). More recent research (showed, has shown)
(2) that many kinds of amphibians (are declining, decline) (3) or (have become,
became) (4) extinct. Amphibians are animals, such as frogs, that (live, are living)
(5) partly on land, and they (have been, were) (6) around for a long time – over 350
million years. They (survived, have survived) (7) three main extinctions, including
the extinction of the dinosaur. Why (are they dying, do they die)? (8)
Scientists are seriously concerned about this problem. By studying amphibians,
scientists (have learned, learned) (9) about new substances that could be useful for
treating human diseases. Further research could lead to many discoveries, but that
will be impossible if the amphibians (will disappear, disappear) (10).
The most serious aspect of the amphibian loss, however, (goes, is going)
(11) beyond the amphibians themselves. Scientists (begin, are beginning) (12) to
think about what amphibian decline (means, is meaning) (13) for the planet. If the
earth (is becoming, becomes) (14) unlivable for amphibians, (is it also becoming,
does it also become) (15) unlivable for other species of animals and human beings
as well?
Scientists now (believe, are believing) (16) that amphibian decline is due to several
environmental factors. One of these factors is the destruction of habitat.
Amphibians are very sensitive to changes in their habitat. If they (will not be able
to, cannot) (17) find the right conditions, they will not lay their eggs.
These days, as wild areas are covered with houses, roads, farms or factories, the
arroyo toad of southern California will lay eggs on the sandy bottom of a slow
moving stream. There are very few streams left in South Carolina, and those
streams are often muddy because of building projects. Not surprisingly, the arroyo
toad is now in danger of extinction.
There are a number of other factors in amphibian decline. Pollution is one of them.
In many industrial areas, air pollution (has poisoned, poisoned) (18) the rain which
then falls on the ponds and kills the frogs and toads that (live, are living) (19)
there. In farming areas, the heavy use of chemicals on crops (has killed, killed)
(20) off amphibians. Another factor is that air pollution (has led, led) (21) to
increased levels of ultraviolet (UV) light. This (endangers, is endangering) (22)
amphibians, which seem to be especially sensitive to UV light.

Ex. 2. Use the correct tense form:

At the beginning of the twenty-first century, the earth is at a critical point in its
history. People (change, are changing) (1) it. They (pollute, are polluting) (2) the
air and water. They (cut, are cutting) (3) down forests and (build, are building) (4)
houses, roads and factories everywhere. As a result, global temperatures (rise, are
rising) (5). Thousands of species of plants and animals (are becoming, become) (6)
extinct, and the sea level ( is rising, rises) (7). Lately the sea levels (rose, have
risen) (8) 20 cm. Scientists (believe, are believing) (9) the sea levels could rise 50
cm by the year 2010. This could put many heavily populated coastal areas at risk.
Along with the rising air temperature, the ocean temperatures (rise, are rising).(10)
It (has brought, brought) (11) about changes in weather patterns with more
frequent and more severe storms. Rising ocean temperatures are one of the reasons
for the death of coral reefs. Reefs are a vital part of the ocean ecology, as they
(provide, are providing) (12) homes for 65 percent of the world’s fish. Scientists
predict that unless the situation (changes, will change) (13) the reefs will be gone.
When the reefs die, so do the fish.
Scientists also (noticed, have noticed) (14) that some animals (have moved,
moved) (15) to new areas where the temperatures are cooler.
Why are the temperatures rising? The burning of fossil fuel (releases, is releasing)
(16) carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. CO2 always (was, has been) (17) part of
the atmosphere. However, the amount of CO2 released into the atmosphere
(increased, has increased) (18) enormously. The forests that once (absorbed, have
absorbed) (19) CO2, (are being, are) (20) cut down. The result is a thick blanket
that (is covering, covers) (21) the earth, making it warmer.
Ex.3. Complete the following passage with the appropriate passive forms of the
verbs in brackets:
A new campaign 1 was launched (launch) earlier this year by the UK government
which aims to reduce the amount of domestic waste. Households 2__________
(encourage) to recycle certain waste products and to sort and prepare others for
collection at specific sites. From there they 3__________ (take) to special waste
treatment plants where special machinery will process them for reuse as recycled
material.
In Britain today, when the contents of the average household dustbin 4__________
(analyse), we find that, in terms of weight, 35% of the total 5__________
(compose) of paper and cardboard, 22% of kitchen waste, 12% of plastics with
glass, dust and ashes each representing a further 10%.
There are in fact only a few items of domestic waste that cannot 6__________
(recycle). One common example is disposable nappies which, as their name
suggests, 7__________ (design) to be thrown away after use. However, a lot of
progress could 8__________ (make) to reduce the amount of kitchen waste most of
which can 9__________ (transform) into a useful garden fertilizer. Indeed, if more
people chose to do this then the weight of the average dustbin 10__________
(reduce) quite significantly.
In terms of glass products, the situation is more encouraging as nearly 20% of all
the glass that 11__________ (use) every year in the country 12__________ (take)
back for recycling.
Nonetheless, it is clear that the mountains of domestic waste will only decrease if
efforts 13__________ (make) both by individual households and local government
authorities. Special equipment such as collection trucks must 14__________
(purchase) and people must 15__________ (make) aware of how they can
contribute to improving the situation. This 16__________ (achieve) with increasing
success in a number of regions in Europe during the last few years, a trend that
17
__________ (expect) to continue in the future.

Ex.4. Complete the following passage with the appropriate passive forms of the
verbs in brackets:
One hundred years ago, the invention of the automobile (view) (1) as a great step.
Today autos (not consider) (2) such wonderful machines. They are the cause of a
number of environmental problems. The most serious is pollution. Many
chemicals including large amounts of carbon dioxide (CO2) (release) (3) into the
atmosphere as a result of gasoline and diesel fuel burning. People should
(encourage) (4) to use motor vehicles less. If it (achieve) (5), the amount of CO2
produced by cars and trucks (limit) (6). Public transport should (make) (7)
attractive and convenient. The number of cars on the roads can (limit) (8) by
charging drivers fees and taxes. Lately, fees (charge) (9) for going downtown in
some countries. These fees keep people from driving unnecessarily. The money
(use) (10) for public transportation.
Pollution can (reduce) (11) by using nonpolluting fuels. There are several
nonpolluting fuels already available. One is natural gas. In some cities of the USA
older buses and vans (replace) (12) with vehicles that burn natural gas. Electricity
is another less polluting source of energy. The “hybrid car” running on gasoline
and electricity already (put) (13) on the market in many countries.
Of all the new fuels, hydrogen (consider) (14) “clean”. Hydrogen (believe) (15) to
be the fuel of the future.

Ex.5. Insert the required articles:


On March 24, …(1) enormous ship called …(2) Exxon Valdez was carrying
about 50 million gallons of …(3) petroleum from …(4) Alaskan oil fields. In
Prince William Sound … (5) captain ran … (6)ship aground. …(7) ship’s tanks
broke open. 10.8 gallons of petroleum poured out. It took three years to clean
…(8) oil. In …(9) court case about …(10) accident … (11) judges ruled that
…(12) Exxon shipping company was responsible for it and had to pay $ 900
million in …(13) damages. Even that sum was not enough to pay for cleaning up
the Sound. … (14) total cost of all …(15) workers, equipment and research for
…(16) cleanup effort was about $2.5 billion.
…(17) tourist passing through Prince William Sound today would see no
…(18) sign of …(19) 1989 oil spill. … (20) coast is once more …(21) spectacular,
wild place with clean water beaches. However to …(22) more expert eye, … (23)
consequences of … (24)oil spill are still visible. For one thing, …(25) beaches are
even cleaner than normal. …(26) workers used … (27) hot water to clean off
…(28) rocks and sand. But in …(29) process they killed many kinds of marine
plants. Rockweed, for example is …(30) brown plant that grows on … (31) rocks
in … (32) shallow water. Before …(33) cleanup it was very common along …(34)
coast, but afterwards it completely disappeared.

Vocabulary and speech exercises


Ex.1. Match the two parts of the sentences containing the following
expressions with “environmental”:

environmental degradation (damage to the environment)


environmental devastation (severe damage to the environment)
environmental lobby (pressure groups such as Greenpeace and Friends of the
Earth who campaign on issues together)
environmental credentials (evidence that you care about the environment)
environmental standards (rules that companies and government authorities
should follow in relation to the environment)
environmental concerns (worry about the effect of human activity on the natural
world)
environmental impact (the effect on the natural world)

1. He led a political campaign against a. lobby, this type of plastic is such a


the company, saying its oil production dangerous substance to manufacture and
caused environmental dispose of that it should be banned.

2. According to the environmental b. credentials, there are several


household cleaning products that will
cause less damage to the environment,
but are likely to cost slightly more.
3. Landfill sites raise some important
environmental c. devastation in the area.

d. impact of the products they buy.


4. If you really want to show your e. standards, the amount of household
environmental waste is growing more slowly than the
economy as a whole.
5. The project will boost Brazilian f. degradation in the Amazon basin.
efforts to fight environmental
6. In the richest countries with the g. concerns.
toughest environmental
7. Consumers today are more discerning
about the environmental

Ex.2.
A. Match the verbs with their definitions:
1. to face a. to fail to pay attention to or look after
2. to deplete b. to influence, cause damage to
3. to affect c. to get rid of smth. that you no longer
want or need
4. to conserve d. to free smth. of smth. bad or
unpleasant
5. to neglect e. to remove or get rid of completely
6. to cleanse f. to lessen greatly in amount, contents,
etc.
7. to allocate g. to keep from being damaged, wasted,
or destroyed; to preserve
8. to eliminate h. to remain unaffected or unharmed by
9. to resist i. to be in a position in which one must
deal with a problem which is likely or
certain to happen
10. to dispose of j. to give officially or decide that smth.
can be used for a specific purpose

B. Complete the sentences with the verbs from A in the correct form:
1. We must … our forests and woodlands for future generations. 2. The garden is
wild and overgrown; it must have been … for a long time. 3. The mayor has
promised to … the city streets of crime. 4. Many species are … extinction due to
deforestation. 5. Shelters are designed to … the weather. 6. Wars in the region
have … the country’s food supplies. 7. The government has … over ₤100 million
to the job creation programme. 8. We are sending emergency relief for the areas …
by drought. 9. The new process has … the need for checking the products by hand.
10. Please … your litter thoughtfully.

C. Supply derivatives of the verbs from A:


Example: to resist – resistance (n), resistant (adj)

Ex.3.
A. Match the adjectives with their definitions:
1. efficient a. of the usual, traditional, or accepted
type
2. arid b. thorough, broad, including many
details or aspects of something
3. sustainable c. that can be restored, esp. by natural
processes or good management
4. comprehensive d. working well, quickly, and without
waste
5. urban e. not much or many, hard to find
6. sound f. relating to towns and cities or
happening there
7. renewable g. (of land) having so little rain as to be
very dry and unproductive
8. conventional h. using new and clever ideas
9. ingenious i. healthy; sensible and reliable; safe or
in good condition
10. scarce j. capable of continuing for a long time
at the same level using methods that do
not harm the environment

B. Complete the sentences with the adjectives from A:


1. Sun, wind, and waves are … sources of energy. 2. The newspaper provides …
coverage of world affairs. 3. The diesel motor of this bus emits far less harmful
exhaust fumes than … buses. 4. … agriculture integrates three main goals –
environmental health, economic profitability, and social and economic equity. 5.
Fresh water and medicines were … in the flooded regions. 6. Runaway … growth
can be stemmed by making rural and small-town life more attractive. 7. It is an …
device for opening cans. 8. This process makes … use of limited resources. 9.
Investigators found the plane to be structurally … . 10. Life is scarce in the …
wastes of the Sahara.

C. Form nouns from the adjectives in A where possible:


Example: efficient – efficiency

Ex.4. Complete the sentences with the following words and word combinations:

sustainable, overfishing, natural resources, logging, renewable energy sources,


deforestation, depleted, greenwash

1. Illegal ….. could accelerate degradation or even cause ….., which has affected
more than 9.8 million acres of forest in the past thirty years.
2. Fishermen are being encouraged to catch alternative fish species because …..
has ….. the stocks to near-collapse.
3. The country’s society is maturing and adopting a model of economic
development that balances economic growth, social justice and the ….. use of ….. .
4. They accuse multinational companies of “…..” – polishing up their images on
environmental issues, trying to give a more favourable impression than is justified
by the real facts.
5. The country is reviving research into ….. like solar and wave power.

Ex.5. Fill each space with one of the words given:

a pilot scheme, environmentally-friendly, developers, applied, to suit,


environment, to abide.

25 buildings sought for green scheme

By Emmanuelle Landais, Staff Reporter

Dubai
Buildings in the UAE could soon have a new set of standards(1)….. by to make
sure they are as energy-efficient and (2)….. as possible.
Twenty-five buildings in the UAE are being sought by the Emirates Green
Building Council for (3)….. in which a combination of standards based on the
Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) system will be (4)….. .
The systems all have similar criteria, but contain different details tailored
(5)….the particular country in which they were developed and are used.
The adapted concept targeting designers and (6)….. in the UAE has been given the
proposed name of LEED Emirates, and a draft version has been produced by the
Emirates Green Building Council (Emirates GBC) tailored for the UAE (7)…..and
its construction market.

Ex.6. Read the text passage by passage and fill the spaces with one of the words
given:

Student guide to climate change


Nina Mathew, Staff Intern

1. droughts, humidity, decrease, patterns, global, change, temperatures,


Earth’s, hotter

Climate (1)… is an issue we all are increasingly hearing about. We all know it
exists but honestly, how many of us know what it actually is and why it is such a
big deal? Let's find out. This is a student's handbook to climate change.

What exactly is climate change?


Don't we complain about how much (2)… summers in the UAE are becoming?
Well, that is not just a figment of our imagination but has to do with climate
change. Change in climate represents a change in long-term weather (3)… .

They can become warmer or colder. Annual amounts of rainfall or (4)… can
increase or (5)… .

Before we get into the topic head on, let's get acquainted with some of the terms
we need to know and understand.

(6)… warming.

Global warming refers to the average increase in the (7)… temperature, which in
turn causes changes in climate. When the Earth gets warmer, it may lead to (8)… ,
a rise in sea levels, with resultant effects on animal and plant life.

The greenhouse effect is believed to be responsible for the increase in (9)… .

2. gases, infra-red, fossil, dioxide, rays, thermal, releases, rise (n), greenhouse,
greenhouse gases, coal

(10)… effect.

This is largely believed to be causing the (11)… in temperature that the Earth is
experiencing. Certain (12)… in the atmosphere such as carbon (13)…, nitrous
oxide and methane – known as (14)… allow solar (15)… to pass through the
Earth's atmosphere but trap (16)… radiation emitted by the Earth's surface. This is
a natural phenomenon responsible for sustaining life on earth.

But when the concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere increases, more
(17)… energy is trapped, making our planet warmer. Burning (18)… fuels such as
(19)…, oil, natural gas (20)… carbon dioxide into the atmosphere contributing to
the greenhouse effect.

3. burning, affect, sea levels, conditioner, pollution, supply, release, ozone,


amount of, electricity, depletion, dish, dryer, glaciers, health, contribute,
radiation

The (21)… layer.

This refers to a protective layer in the atmosphere about 30 to 50 kilometres above


the ground that traps some of the sun's ultraviolet rays, thereby reducing the
amount of potentially harmful (22)… reaching the Earth's surface.
What's a hole in the ozone layer?

This refers to the (23)… of the ozone layer, caused by the (24)… of chlorine and
bromine gases into the atmosphere. Why is it bad? Because it will let UV rays
reach the Earth's surface.

What happens next?

Now the question is what might happen? What we know for sure is that the Earth
is going to continue to get warmer. The melting (25)…, the rising (26)… all give
us clues that as long as we continue increasing the (27)… greenhouse gases in the
atmosphere, the problem will persist.

Do we (28)… to the problem?

Our everyday activities increase the amount of greenhouse gases in the air.
Surprising?

But if you do any of the following on the list, you do contribute to the problem.
Watch TV
Use the air (29)…
Turn on a light
Use a hair (30)…
Ride in a car
Play a video game
Listen to a stereo
Wash or dry clothes
Use a (31)… washer
Microwave a meal

Why?

To perform many of these functions, you need to use (32)… . It comes from power
plants. Most power plants use coal and oil to make electricity. (33)… coal and oil
produces greenhouse gases.

So what is the big deal?

If temperatures rise above normal for a few days, it is no big deal. But if it does so
over a longer period of time, then the Earth may face some problems such as:

Human (34)... :
High temperatures and humidity cause heat stress and other heat-related health
problems. Air (35)…, change in food and water (36)…, coastal flooding will also
(37)… human health indirectly.

4. famine, environmental, climate, species, melting, awareness, scarcity,


ecological, emissions, upset, rise (n), solar, habitats.

(38)… systems:
(39)… change may alter the world's (40)… and ecosystems. A rapid change in
climate could (41)… the delicate balance of rainfall, temperature and soil type and
seriously endanger many living (42)… .

Sea level (43)…:


Global warming may make the sea levels rise as the (44)… glaciers add more
water to the oceans.

Food supply:
Climate change also might bring about droughts, leading to water (45)… and
(46)… .

We can make a difference.

According to Professor Lana Chaar, students have to be educated about saving


energy. Carbon (47)… in the city have to be reduced and in order to achieve this,
awareness has to be spread.

At the American University in Dubai, a group of students are advocating the


increased usage of (48)… energy.

The university is in the process of forming an (49)… group to raise (50)… about
the issue.

Ex.7. Complete each space with one of the words given:


unrivaled challenge, anti-poverty targets, aggravate, global warming, curb, to
adapt, unprecedented response, scourge, reducing, greenhouse gas

Desertification, climate change threats to development: UN


Regional, Environment, 9/14/2007
The linked (1)… of desertification and climate change are impeding the
achievement of key development targets, United Nations Secretary-General Ban
Ki-moon said Wednesday.
The "twin threats" of desertification and climate change "pose an (2)… to
humanity," he said in a message to the Conference of the Parties to the UN
Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD).
"They demand an (3)… from all of us." Desertification and climate change, which
he characterized as "two major manifestations of the same problem," are also
obstacles to reaching the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), the series of
eight (4)… by 2015, a press release issued by the UN Information Center (UNIC)
said here Thursday.
(5)… emissions from human activities have contributed to global warming, he
noted, while shifting weather patterns could potentially (6)… desertification,
drought and food security for people living in dry areas, especially in Africa.
The secretary-general said that (7)… can also lead to increased poverty, forced
migration and vulnerability to conflict in regions impacted by extreme weather
events.
"Conversely, concerted efforts to combat desertification - by reclaiming degraded
land, combating soil loss and restoring vegetation - can help (8)… emissions,
strengthen the resilience of affected countries and build their capacity (9)… to
climate change," he said.
That meeting seeks to determine future action on mitigation, adaptation, the global
carbon market and financing responses to climate change for the period after the
expiry of the Kyoto Protocol - the current global framework for (10)… greenhouse
gas emissions - in 2012.

Ex.8. Choose the most suitable word for each space:

Libya hopes Green Mountain project will cleanse tainted past

By Heba Saleh, Financial Times

Cyrene In a new sign of its determination to (1)….to the world, Libya plans to
launch an ambitious project aimed at bringing environmentally (2)… tourism and
(3)… development to its vast Green Mountain coastal region, an area rich in Greek
and Roman antiquities in the east of the country.

"We started this project because in our [region] it is not common to talk about the
environment or about carbon (4) … . These [are seen] as the problems of Europe
and North America," said Seif Al Islam Al Gaddafi, son of Libyan leader
Muammar Gaddafi. "But it is now time to join the developed countries and to show
that in environmental and cultural issues we are civilised."

Surrounded by the imposing columns of the gymnasium of the ancient Greek city
of Cyrene on the Mediterranean, Gaddafi recently told an audience of architects,
international financiers and western journalists that the project would conserve the
region's antiquities, provide jobs, develop (5)… energy sources and improve the
standard of living for the local population.
The Green Mountain project, which (6)… say will create the world's first large-
scale conservation and development area, is being billed as his initiative.

He has hired international experts such as the architects Foster and Partners to
develop plans for the region. But his involvement is likely to fuel (7) … that the
project is aimed more at helping the international rehabilitation of Libya than
anything else. No announcements have been made about the cost of the project or a
timeline for its implementation.

Behling presented plans for a region with controlled urban sprawl, wind and (8)…
power, hotel and tourist facilities sited discreetly and the Mediterranean coastline
kept free of construction.

Foster and Partners will also design the area's first three hotels to be built by a
leading Libyan businessman, Hassan Tatanaki, who plans to (9)… up to $1 billion
in the next two years.

But the lavish launch with foreign journalists housed in a specially constructed tent
city in the shadow of the Temple of Zeus in Cyrene is bound to (10)… doubts that
this is aimed largely at (11)…the image of Libya and Muammar Gaddafi.

1). A) rip off B) close down C) open up D) come off


2). A) clever B) bright C) nice D) sound
3). A) long-lasting B) eternal C) sustainable D) endless
4). A) penetration B) release C) leak D) emissions
5). A) limitless B) renewable C )endless D) final
6). A) followers B successors C) backers D) fans
7). A) cheers B) scepticism C) indifference D) enthusiasm
8). A) nuclear B) electric C) cosmic D) solar
9). A) lose B) ask C) invest D) present
10).A) rise B) applaud C) speculate D) fuel
11). A) creating B) spoiling C) polishing D) changing

Ex.9 Choose the most suitable word for each space:

The Natural World


Whenever we read about the natural world nowadays, it is generally to be (1)…
dire predictions about its imminent destruction. Some scientists go so (2)… as to
assert that from now on, the world can no longer be called ‘natural', insofar as
future processes of weather, (3)…, and all the interactions of plant and animal life
will no longer carry on in their time-honoured way, (4)… by man. There will never
be such a thing as 'natural weather' again, say such writers, only weather (5)... by
global warming.
It is hard to know whether to believe such (6)... of doom, possibly, because
what they are saying seems too terrible to be (7)... .
There are other equally influential scientists who argue that climate, for
example, has changed many times over the (8)..., and that what we are experienc-
ing now may simply be part of an endless cycle of change, rather than a disaster
on a global (9)... .One cannot help wondering whether these attempts to
wish the problem away simply underline the extent (10)… which western
industrialised countries are to blame for upsetting the world's (11)... . It is not our
fault, they seem to be saying, because everything is all right, really!
One certain fact which is (12)… in its implications, is that there is no longer a
place anywhere on the earth's (13)..., whether in the depths of the oceans or in the
polar wastes, which is not (14)... by polluted air or (15)... with empty cans and
bottles. Now we are having to come to terms with understanding just what that
means, and it is far from easy.
.
1) A) made B) given C) said D) granted
2) A) much B) often C) really D) far
3) A)change B) atmosphere C) climate D) even
4) A) B) unaffected C) unknown D)
unrivaled unsurpassed
5) A) built B) C) allowed D) organised
manufactured
6) A) B) champions C) warriors D) giants
prophets
7) A) B) true C) guessed D) here
stopped
8) A) period B) again C) centuries D) world
9) A) sense B) form C) scale D) existence
10) A) to B) at C) with D) for
11)A) future B) ecology C) balance D)
population
12) A) B) encouraging C) faultless D) amusing
chilling
13) A) planet B) atmosphere C) anywhere D) surface
14) A) full B) stained C) breathing D) perfected
15) A) even B) recycled C) littered D) bothered

Ex.10. Fill in the blanks with the following words and word combinations:

sustainable; biodegradable; discard; average; waste paper collection; recycled


fibres; virgin fibre (2); recycled content; rougher texture; inferior quality; non-
renewable; emissions; be disposed of; replaceable; pose much threat;
contaminants; recycling technologies; contaminated; treatment

Paper recycling
Paper is different because it comes from a … (1) resource: trees . Unlike the
minerals and oil used to make plastics and metals, trees are … (2). Paper is also …
(3). So it does not … (4) to the environment when it is discarded.. While 45 out of
every 100 tons of wood fibre used to make paper in Australia comes from waste
paper, the rest comes directly from … (5) from forests and plantation. By world
standards it is a good performance since the world-wide … (6) is 33 per cent waste
paper.
Governments have encouraged … (7) and sorting schemes. At the same time
the industry has responded by developing new … (8) that have paved the way for
even greater utilization of used fibre. As a result, industry’s use of … (9) is
expected to increase at twice the rate of … (10) over the coming years.
Already, waste paper constitutes 70% of paper used for packaging. Advances in
the technology required to remove ink from the paper have allowed a higher …
(11) in newsprint and writing paper. To achieve the benefits of recycling the
community must also contribute. We need to accept a change in the quality of
paper products; stationery may be less white and of a … (12). The community
needs to support the waste paper collection programme. Paper not only needs to be
made available to collectors, but also separated into different types and sorted from
… (13) such as staples, paperclips, string and other miscellaneous items.
There are technical limitations to the amount of paper which can be recycled
and some paper products cannot be collected for re-use. These include paper in the
form of books and permanent records, photographic paper and paper which is
badly … (14) .
The four most common sources of paper for recycling are factories and retail
stores, which gather large amounts of packaging materials in which goods are
delivered, as well as offices, which have unwanted business documents and
computer output, and households, which … (15) newspapers and packaging
materials.
Most paper must contain some virgin fibre as well as recycled fibres and unlike
glass, paper cannot be recycled indefinitely. Most paper is down-cycled, which
means that a product made from recycled paper is of … (16) to the original paper.
Recycling paper is beneficial in that it saves energy, labour and capital that go into
producing virgin pulp. However recycling requires the use of fossil fuel, a … (17)
energy source to collect the waste paper from the community and to process it to
produce new paper. And the recycling process still creates … (18), which require
… (19) before they can … (20) safely.

Ex.11. Fill in the blanks with the following words and word combinations:

wind turbines; improve the environment; solar; the wind, the sun and water; meet
Britain’s growing demands; barren

The technical experts and politicians agree that the … (1), windswept cliffs of
Scotland are ideal sites for huge … (2) which will help to … (3) for power. Some
even argue that the scale, shape and motion of the turbines will … (4) in the same
way that a beautiful statue enhances a garden. Locals like Jim Campbell are not
convinced: “I can see that one of these things on its own might look good to some
people but when you get a hundred of them threshing away it is like an eyesore.”
Today the Centre for Alternative Technology produces almost all the electricity
it needs using … (5). Water supplies about 55% of electricity, the wind supplies
25%, and 10% is from … (6) energy.

Ex.12. Translate the Russian insertions:


Is fur green?
If the beginning of the 21st сentury has brought with it one positive development, it
is a greater (1- осознание воздействия, которое мы оказываем) on animals, the
environment, other human beings, as well as future generations. Individuals are
accepting responsibility for their actions and in doing so are trying to make (2-
осознанный выбор). They are asking corporations and industries how ethical the
organisation is; if their products or services are green, and what is being done for
the environment.
In response, organisations now market themselves in a way to promote
environmental and social responsibility. The Fur Council of Canada has recently
(3- начал подобную кампанию, заявив:) “fur is green” and, more specifically,
“an ecological choice in harmony with nature.” No doubt in response to fresh
consumer scrutiny, it is designed to convince individuals that fur is (4- эколого-
ориентированный продукт). So, what does it mean to be green and is this an
accurate description?
To be green something must have positive environmental attributes or objectives.
Consumers typically want to see if a product or service
is natural, renewable, or sustainable, so perhaps by looking at these potential
qualities we will see if the claim is true.
Is fur “natural”?
Fur as a raw material is natural but once transformed into a coat it isn’t. Not only
has it been removed from the animal, where it had formed, but the raw pelt must be
“tanned” to ensure it doesn’t biodegrade. This unnatural process uses several
chemicals and toxins (5- включая аммиак, красители на основе цианида) and
formaldehyde, some of which are (6- канцерогенны) and all of which are (7-
загрязнители), which are then released into the air, ground, and water supply.
On fur farms animals live in overcrowded cages stacked together in long sheds that
provide little or no shelter. This is not a natural environment for either foxes or
mink, and with that come many unnatural problems, such as the development of
disease that can wipe out a whole farm in one season. In Canada 70-75% of fur
comes from these farms because the animals can be (8- выводить породу) to
produce the color, quality and size of pelts demanded. Once the pelts are in their
prime the animals are killed and skinned, their carcasses thrown into landfill or the
woods.
Even if their lives followed a completely natural path until death, such as that of
the wild fur-bearer, it should be recognised that fur isn’t a “natural resource” the
animals have given anyone consent to use. Businesses see the environment and
nature as (9- то, что можно эксплуатировать) by them, but are fur garments
natural when an animal is skinned and slaughtered to produce it? After all, if it
wasn’t for human intervention the fur-bearer wouldn’t live and/or die in such a
way.
Is fur “renewable”?
Anywhere between 800,000 and a million fur-bearers are (deliberately)
killed annually. Unluckily, at present (10- шкурки, приносящие наибольший
доход) are those from species which exist, and reproduce, naturally in low
numbers. With no legislation or enforced regulation these animals continue to be
killed in an unrestricted manner which, in time, could (11- привести к их
исчезновению). Plus, while the production of almost everything is based (12- на
использовании не возобновляемого ископаемого топлива) , the fur industry is
no different. Fur farms and associated facilities use a significant amount of energy.
It is estimated that the manufacture of a fur coat consumes between three and
twenty times more energy than that of a synthetic alternative.
Is fur “sustainable”?
It isn’t only those animals actually targeted that are killed but any animal can walk
into a trap. Each year millions of “trash animals,” including (13-виды,
находящиеся под угрозой исчезновения), fall into this category. None of these
deaths are factored into the sustainability of the industry because they are
discarded, but it is for this very reason they should be included. The fact that up to
ten times more animals are killed than actually “needed” suggests a distinct lack of
responsibility and sustainability.
So… is fur “green”?
The fur industry is neither green nor an ecological choice, and if someone
genuinely cared about nourishing the environment or nature they wouldn’t
purchase a product contributing directly to its destruction. In fact, advertising
standards agencies in England, Denmark, Finland, Italy and the Netherlands have
ruled any advertising declaring fur as “environmentally friendly” or “safe” to be
false and misleading.
Regrettably, society has taught us to believe we are not only superior to all other
life but that we are separate too. We can’t be separated, of course, but because we
act as if we can we now find ourselves in a situation where we are living in
complete disharmony with nature. The fur industry is a prime example, with those
who work in it calling themselves conservationists, despite the fact that they (14-
нарушают сложный и хрупкий баланс) that would otherwise exist.
It is for all these reasons that the Fur Council of Canada has launched their
campaign; it is (15- форма «зелёного пиара»), i.e. marketing spin used to
promote organisations as environmentally friendly. These days environmental or
social responsibility programmes are not about wanting to be responsible but
wanting to be seen to be responsible. Organizations are so far removed from the
environment and society that their ethical and moral beliefs aren’t going to change
even if something is deemed to be “bad,” so they tend only to establish these
programmes – which are entirely voluntary – (16- в ответ на запрос
потребителя).
Consumers need to be aware of greenwashing to ensure they are still making
informed choices and are not being influenced to support that which would
otherwise be seen as dubious. To do so, it is important to separate fact from fiction,
and a newly launched spoof website (www.furisgreen.ca) does exactly that.
Written as if created by the Fur Council of Canada, it is a frank and honest account
of the fur industry proving that fur is not green.

Ex. 13. Make up sentences out of the jumbled words below:

1. the catastrophic neglect \Because of \ residents\ surrounded by mountains of


waste, sewage and garbage\ find themselves.
2. the natural springs \irreversible destruction\ The sewage and waste cause\
and\ to\ in this region\ damage.
3. degradation\ The\ entire \ that exists\ system\ in the neigbouring territories\
faces\ ecological\ delicate.
4. aquifers\ The destruction of \and\ nature reserves\ lead to \in the entire
region\ \ecological systems\ may \irreversible destruction\of.
5. from industrial zones\ into a neigbouring agricultural pasture\ settlements
areas\ and\daily routine.\ Toxic sewage \and its pouring\is .
6. into the sea \play an important role\in detaining\the surface rain water \
and\ water flowing from the mountains\ the loss of \ Dams \straight \prevent.
7. \ to rationalise \consumption\ to the water shortage \may \ of special tariffs\
and \using water meters\ Other suggested solutions \ the imposition\ include.
8. depletion of groundwater\ is building\ at least\ increasing\ two new
treatment plants\ to overcome\water scarcity \and \ Oman.
9. of the plant\ waste water\ from \environmental pollution\ environmental
prosperity \The management\ to convert \a source of\ plans\ to\ a source of .
10 to take \solution\ to\ the lack of\ in the country\ would be\a multi-faceted
approach \fresh water\ The best.

Ex.14. Make sure you know what these abbreviations stand for:

UNESCO
CFC
CEO
IPCC
OECD
WWF
WTO
UV
NGO
TUC
ACTIVITIES

Ex.1. Discuss with other students the following statement “People are pollution”.
Choose arguments for or against it. Motivate your choice.
I. Answer the following questions:
1. What will happen to the world population in the next decade?
2. Do you think we must have fewer people?
3. Why do we destroy living things?
4. Why will there be famines if there are more people?
5. What is meant by a “population control policy”?
6. Who hates mankind?
7. Is the whole world overcrowded?
8. Would fewer people mean less pollution?
9. What effects would a small population have on industry and society?
10. Where does pollution come from?
II. Debate population control:
1. State the argument 2. State the argument
for population control. against population control.
a. Pollution increasing; a. Hate mankind; value
people create pollution. trees – not people.
Fewer people –
less pollution.
b. Destroy living things b. Who can say - too
for people; many people?
people can’t exist without
living
things – lower population
needed.
c. Limited land – farms, c. Cities overcrowded,
housing – famine. not world.
d. Solution: population d. Just as much
policy – two children; pollution if fewer
additional tax for more. people; industry, cities,
cars.
e. Fewer people –
negative effects
on industry, society.
f. Policy – politically
unacceptable.
III. Take a stand. Give reasons for your opinion.
11. Which of the two opinions do you agree with?
12. Would a population control policy work in this country?
13. Would this country suffer of benefit if there were more people?
14. Population is the least of our problems nowadays. What do you think about
this statement?
15. What is an acceptable standard of living?
16. What is being done to house people in this country? Is it enough? Could
more be done? What, for example?
IV. Discussion Points:
17. Is birth control right or wrong? Why?
18. What are your views on emigration and immigration?
19. Talk about world population. What parts of the world are overcrowded?
Why? What can we learn from this?
20. Talk about the effects of population increase on the resources of a city.
What happens to schools, hospitals, water supply, etc.?
21. Talk about the effects of modern technology on the environment.

Ex.2. Prepare a short talk on the demographic situation in a country (students in


a group are supposed to choose different countries). Listen to each other and
write down the main demographic data. Compare the data and come up with
conclusions.

Ex.3. You have recently been leading a committee looking into ways of making
your place of work ‘greener’. Write a short memo to the heads of department
outlining six of the suggestions that your committee has made.

Ex.4. In groups (pairs) discuss the benefits and drawbacks of using atomic
plants.

Ex.5. In groups (pairs) discuss the difficulties you may come across in trying to
persuade people to use alternative sources of energy.

Ex.6. Write an article about the ecological problem that affects your local area to
a newspaper that runs articles on global problems. Your article should include
suggestions for a solution to the problem.
- Make sure that this magazine would require a formal or neutral register.
- Remember to include an appropriate title. It must encourage the reader to go on
reading.
- Clearly outline the problem.
- Introduce your topic in the opening paragraph.
- Be clear and informative.
- Engage the reader’s interest throughout.
Unit 7
Keys to the exercises

Grammar exercises

Ex.1. 1. were disappearing, 2. has shown, 3. are declining, 4. have become extinct,
5. live, 6. have been around, 7. have survived, 8. are they dying, 9. have learned,
10. disappear, 11. goes, 12. are beginning, 13. means, 14. is becoming, 15. is it
becoming, 16. believe, 17. cannot, 18. has poisoned, 19. live, 20. has killed, 21.
has led, 22. endangers

Ex.2. 1. are changing, 2. are polluting, 3. are cutting, 4. are building, 5. are rising,
6. are becoming, 7. is rising, 8. have risen, 9. believe, 10. are rising, 11. has
brought about, 12. provide, 13. changes, 14. have also noticed, 15. have moved, 16.
releases, 17. has always been, 18. has increased, 19. absorbed, 20. are being, 22.
covers

Ex.3. 1. was launched 2. are encouraged 3. are taken 4. are analysed 5. is


composed 6. be recycled 7. are designed 8. be made 9. be transformed 10. would
be reduced 11. is used 12. is taken 13. are made 14. be purchased 15. be made 16.
has been achieved 17. is expected

Ex.4. 1. was viewed, 2. are not considered, 3. are released, 4. be encouraged, 5. is


achieved, 6. will be limited, 7. be made, 8. be limited, 9. have been charged, 10. is
used, 11. be reduced, 12. are being replaced, 13. has already been put, 14. is
considered, 15. is believed
Ex.5. 1 an, 2 the, 3 -, 4 the, 5 the, 6 the, 7 the, 8 the, 9 the, 10 the, 11 the, 12 the, 13
-, 14 the, 15 the, 16 the, 17 a, 18 -, 19 the, 20 the, 21 a, 22 a, 23 the, 24 the, 25 the,
26 the, 27 -, 28 the, 29 the, 30 a, 31 -, 32 -, 33 the, 34 the.

Vocabulary and speech exercises

Ex.1. 1c, 2a, 3b, 4e, 5d

Ex.2. A. 1i, 2f, 3b, 4g, 5a, 6d, 7j, 8e, 9h, 10c
B. 1. conserve 2. neglected 3. cleanse 4. facing 5. resist 6. depleted 7. allocated 8.
affected 9. eliminated 10. dispose of

Ex.3. A. 1d, 2g, 3j, 4b, 5f, 6i, 7c, 8a, 9h, 10e
B. 1. renewable 2. comprehensive 3. conventional 4. sustainable 5. scarce 6. urban
7. ingenious 8. efficient 9. sound 10. arid

Ex.4.
1. logging, deforestation
1. overfishing, depleted
2. sustainable, natural resources
3. greenwash
4. renewable energy sources

Ex.5. 1. abide by 2. environmentally-friendly 3. a pilot scheme 4. applied 5. to suit


6. developers 7. environment

Ex.6. 1. change, 2. hotter, 3. patterns, 4. humidity, 5. decrease, 6. global, 7.


Earth’s, 8. droughts, 9. temperatures, 10. greenhouse, 11. rise, 12. gases, 13.
dioxide, 14. greenhouse gases, 15. rays, 16. infra-red, 17. thermal, 18. fossil, 19.
coal, 20. releases, 21. ozone, 22. radiation, 23. depletion, 24. release, 25.glaciers,
26. sea levels, 27. amount of, 28. contribute, 29. conditioner, 30. dryer, 31. dish,
32. electricity, 33. burning, 34. health, 35. pollution, 36. supply, 37. affect, 38.
ecological, 39. climate, 40. habitats, 41. upset, 42. species, 43. rise, 44. melting, 45.
scarcity, 46. famine, 47. emissions, 48. solar, 49. environmental, 50. awareness

Ex.7. 1. scourge, 2. an unrivaled challenge, 3. unprecedented response, 4.anti-


poverty targets, 5. greenhouse gas, 6. aggravate , 7. global warming, 8. curb, 9. to
adapt, 10. reducing.

Ex.8. 1)c, 2)d, 3)c, 4)d, 5)b, 6)c, 7)b, 8)d, 9)c, 10)d, 11)c

Ex.9. 1)b, 2)d, 3)c, 4)b, 5)b, 6)a, 7)b, 8)c, 9)c, 10)a, 11)b,12)a, 13)d, 14)b, 15)c
Ex.10. 1. sustainable, 2. replaceable, 3. biodegradable, 4. pose much threat, 5.
virgin fibre, 6. average, 7. waste paper collection, 8. recycling technologies, 9.
recycled fibres, 10. virgin fibre, 11. recycled content, 12. rougher texture, 13.
contaminants, 14. contaminated, 15. discard, 16. inferior quality, 17. non-
renewable, 18. emissions, 19. treatment, 20. be disposed of

Ex.11. 1. barren, 2. wind turbines, 3. meet Britain’s growing demands, 4. improve


the environment, 5. the wind, the sun and water, 6. solar

Ex.12 . 1. awareness of the impact we have 2. informed choices 3. launched such a


campaign claiming 4. an environmentally-friendly product 5. including ammonia,
cyanide-based dyes 6. carcinogenic 7. environmental pollutants 8. bred 9.
exploitable 10. the most lucrative pelts 11. lead to their extinction 12. on the use of
non-renewable fossil fuels 13. endangered or threatened species 14. upset the
complex and delicate balances 15. a form of greenwashing 16. in response to
consumer demand

Ex.13 .
1. Because of the catastrophic neglect, residents find themselves surrounded
by mountains of waste, sewage and garbage.
2. The sewage and waste cause irreversible destruction and damage to the
natural springs in this region.
3. The delicate ecological system that exists in the neigbouring territories faces
entire degradation.
4. The destruction of aquifers and nature reserves may lead to irreversible
destruction of ecological systems in the entire region.
5. Toxic sewage from industrial zones and its pouring into a neigbouring
agricultural pasture and settlements areas is daily routine.
6. Dams prevent the loss of the surface rainwater and play an important role in
detaining water flowing from the mountains straight into the sea.
7. Other suggested solutions to the water shortage may include using water
meters and the imposition of special tariffs to rationalise consumption.
8. Oman is building at least two new treatment plants to overcome increasing
depletion of groundwater and water scarcity.
9. The management of the plant plans to convert waste water from a source of
environmental pollution to a source of environmental prosperity.
10. The best solution would be to take a multi-faceted approach to the lack of
fresh water in the country.

UNIT 8

VOCABULARY
II
absorb (carbon dioxide)
accident (technological, managerial), accidental (catastrophes)
acid, acid rain, acidity
arid (area, region, desert, landscape), semi-arid, aridity
atmosphere
carbon, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide
carcinogen, carcinogenic
chemicals, toxic chemicals
clean-up campaign, clean-air campaign
climate, climate change, climatic catastrophes, climatologist
combat (climate change)
compensate for problems done to the environment
concentration of toxic chemicals, the permissible level of concentration (PLC),
exceed/surpass the PLC (the PLC exceeds the norm … times)
conservation, stimulate energy/ water/soil conservation
contaminate, contamination, contaminant
danger, (pose serious danger to), endanger, endangered species
dead zone
desertification
deplete (the stocks/resources), depletion (of the ozone layer)
disaster, disastrous dumping
dispose of, disposal, nuclear waste disposal
drought
dump (v), dump waste on soil/into rivers, a dump, to turn the country into a dump
ecology
ecological problems (catastrophe, consequences, disaster, security), grave
ecological situation, ecologically-friendly.
emergency, (to declare) a state of emergency, the Ministry of Emergency
Situations
emission, to emit, to reduce / cut emissions by …%, harmful/zero emissions
environment, ( polluted, unhealthy, pristine environment), environmentalist
environmental regulations (woes, integration, staff, degradation, protection,
research)
Environmental Protection Organization (Greenpeace)
extinct (adj), to become extinct, extinction, lead/drive to extinction
fertilise (soil), (nitrogen) fertilisers
fight to reduce pollution (contamination, concentration of chemicals)
forest, rain forest, deforestation, reforestation
fuel, nuclear/ mineral/fossil fuel (coal, oil, etc)
fume, exhaust fumes
global warming/cooling/environment
greenhouse ( effect/ gases/pollution)
habitat, habitat destruction
health hazard, hazardous, hazardous waste (dumping)
heavy metals
incinerate, incineration (facilities)
layer of (oil), to form a 10cm thick layer
leak, leakage
logging, logger
nuclear (danger, facility, fuel, reactor)
oxygen
pollution, pollutant, polluter, reduce pollution, particulate pollution, key pollutant
population, (heavily/sparsely populated area)
release (v), release (n)(of toxic gases)
recycle, recycled paper/glass, recycling, recycling schemes/initiatives
reprocess, reprocessing, on-site waste reprocessing
reserve (n), oil/gas reserves, a natural (game) reserve
resources, natural resources, thrifty use of resources, renewable/non-
renewable/finite resources, use up/exhaust resources
salinity, desalination
sewage, untreated sewage, to release/discharge sewage into rivers
solar (energy)
source (of enhanced danger, potential danger)
spill, spilt (oil), spillage
standards, introduce tough standards
storage (of used-up nuclear fuel), storage facility
sustainable, sustainable development
toxic (fumes, emissions, substances), toxin
ultraviolet ( rays, radiation)
violation, violation of regulations
waste, toxic waste, to handle a flood of waste, to dump toxic waste, solid/liquid
waste
water (drinking, potable, pure, fresh), water supply, water shortage, water scarcity