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IEEE PES PowerAfrica 2007 Conference and Exposition

Johannesburg, South Africa, 16-20 July 2007

Optimization of the Efficiency of Aeolian Vibration Dampers


H. J. Krispin
RIBE Electrical Fittings, Bahnhofstrasse 8-16, 91126 Schwabach, Germany
Phone: +49-9122-87_1355. Fax: +49-9122-87-1370, Email: hansjoerg.krispin@ribe.de

S. Fuchs and P. Hagedorn


Department of Mechanical Engineering, Technical University of Darmstadt, Germany
Hochschulstrasse 1, 64289 Darmstadt, Germany
Phone: +49-6151-16-2185, Fax: +49-6151-16-4125, Email: svfuchs@gmail.com, hagedorn@dyn.tu-darmstadt.de

Abstract - Stockbridge-type aeolian vibration dampers, if properly


chosen and applied, have proven to be effective to protect overhead
lines from harmful wind-induced vibrations. However,
conventional dampers with bolted clamps may have shortcomings
in damping high frequency vibrations of small diameter optical
ground wires (OPGW) due to their high clamp mass. Theoretical
considerations based on wave impedance analysis predict that Fig. 1. Conventional Stockbridge-type vibration damper with bolted
reduction of damper clamp mass should be beneficialfor damping clamp.
efficiency at high frequencies. A damper clamp designed for
attachment by means of helicalfactory-formed rods is introduced,
leading to a considerable reduction of damper clamp mass. jA
Measurements of power dissipation characteristics using testing
techniques described in IEEE Std 664 confirm the predicted
improvement of damper performance at higher frequencies.

I. INTRODUCTION
Stockbridge-type vibration dampers are widely used to
control wind-induced conductor vibrations (aeolian
vibrations) to safe levels. Conventional Stockbridge-type
dampers are attached to the conductor with bolted clamps
(Fig. 1). They need to be designed with sufficient structural
strength to withstand the clamping forces needed for a firm
and secure grip of the clamp on the conductor. For that
reason, these clamps are usually relatively heavy.
When applied to optical ground wires (OPGW), clamping
forces exerted by bolted clamps may jeopardize proper Fig. 2. Stockbridge-type vibration damper with low mass clamp and
function of the incorporated telecommunication unit because attachment by means of helical factor-formed rods.
optical fibers are sensitive to radial pressure.
A clamp using helical factory-formed rods (Fig. 2)
circumvents any problems due to clamping strains.
Furthermore, such dampers are easy to install as no tools are II. THEORETICAL ANALYSIS
required, and proper installation can easily be inspected from
the ground with binoculars as it suffices to make sure that the Wave impedance analysis as first introduced by [1], later
rods are in place. on refined by [2], was used to model the conductor and its
A side effect is a substantial reduction in clamp mass interaction with the vibration damper attached to it. The
(99 grams for a clamp as per Fig. 2 versus 393 grams for a dynamic properties of the vibration damper were
bolted clamp made of forged aluminium with a steel bolt). characterized by its complex impedance taking into account
To explore the effect of that "low mass" clamp on the its translatory motion transverse to the conductor axis. Clamp
dynamic characteristics of the damper, an analytical approach mass is reflected in the imaginary part of the complex damper
was taken in the first step. In a second step, tests were carried impedance which will increase with increasing clamp mass.
out on a laboratory test span to validate the results obtained For "low clamp mass" dampers compared to conventional
by theoretical analysis. "bolted clamp" dampers, parameter studies predict improved

1-4244-1478-4/07/$25.00 ©2007 IEEE


power dissipation (damping performance) in the upper range In a second series, the same damper sample was tested,
of frequencies still excited by the wind. This is particularly however, with a mass rigidly attached to the clamp to arrive
interesting for OPGWs, because they usually have a small at the total mass of the equivalent bolted clamp. The results
diameter and therefore will vibrate at higher frequencies. are depicted as open circles line in Fig. 4.

III. EXPERIMENTAL WORK U,U I -


_r ] X V _

Measurements of damper characteristics were carried out 0,7 WT 4 K*>E \\-l\

/ I
. (9
.

on a test span following procedures outlined in [3] to validate


':'
8 0,6 \ w
4.
the theoretical predictions. In particular, the Wave Separation 0,5-
1
- "low mass"clamp
_ _

0,4 - conventional bolted clamp _ _


Method (WSM) [4] was used. It employs two displacement
_,a0,3 -
transducers at arbitrary points along the conductor to N_ I
0,2
determine power flow from the vibration shaker to the _ __

vibration damper located at the opposite span end. u -


10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90

i I30m m Frequency [Hz]

lOSm 4m
Fig. 4. Measured coefficients of absorption vs vibration frequency -

OPGWI
comparison Stockbridge-type damper with "low mass" clamp and
conventional bolted clamp, respectively.

Additionally, the impedance of the tested damper sample


was measured with the Forced Response Method as per [3].
Measurements were taken at shaker table velocities of 0,05,
Vibration damper 0,10, 0,15 and 0,20 m/s to reflect the non-linearity of
Non-contact
displacereerit se risor VUibraltibn' shakeri Stockbridge-type dampers. Real and imaginary part of
damper impedance are plotted in Figs. 5 and 6, respectively.
Fig. 3. Schematical diagram of test span. 3501

An OPGW was strung in the test span (diameter 16,0 mm,


mass per unit length 0,622 kg/m, tensile load 10,45 kN). A 250 g A 0,025 m/s
-0,05 m/s
vibration damper was installed at 0,8 m from the clamped a1)
200 f
aA \
\
-0,075 m/s
span end. Power dissipation was measured at tuneable a)
E
-0,1 m/s
-o-0,125 m/s
resonance frequencies from 10 to 80 Hz. This is the N
.-
Ou I
'b -e,- 015 m/s
-&-0,175 m/s
frequency range to be expected in the wind velocity range of
CZ
^ - 1 00
% flI /7TWNbZ 0,2 m/s
1 to 7 m/s that is commonly nominated to be conducive to
50 11
aeolian conductor vibration. Power dissipation was measured
at a constant antinode velocity of 200 mm/s as specified 0 20 40 60 80 100
by [3]. Frequency [Hz]

In a first measurement series, a damper with rod


Fig. 5. Real part of damper impedance for clamp velocities
attachment ("low mass" clamp) was tested. Measurement from 0,025 to 0,2 m/s
values are shown as filled circles in Fig. 4 in terms of the
coefficient of absorption CoA. This coefficient is defined as: 200 T

In 1 11 111

CoA = Pin Pout (1)


-ff
,;)1100 mI 0,025 m/s
Pin 0
C:
-0,05 m/s
-0,075 m/s
CZ 50 - \ /\
(D-0 -0,1 m/s
Q-
E -o-0,125 m/s
where Pin and Pout are, respectively, the powers transmitted 0

A
-e,- 015 m/S
,z'b 10
-&-0,175 m/s
by the incoming wave and the outgoing wave reflected at the -Fz Q---50
Q)
0,2 m/s
span end with the damper. The CoA will be 1 for total
rr

absorption (all the incoming power is dissipated, no reflection -150


takes place) and 0 for zero absorption (the incoming power is 0 20 40 60 80 100
totally reflected at the span end). Practically, the CoA will be Frequency [Hz]

somewhere in between. The objective of the design engineer Fig. 6. Imaginary part of damper impedance.
will be to make it as close to 1 as possible.
The CoA was computed using the previously developped REFERENCES
analytical model. Damper impedance for intermediate clamp
velocities was interpolated based on the measured impedance [1] J. S. Tompkins, L. L. Merril, and B. L. Jones, "Quantitative
values. The respective results are shown in Figs. 7 and 8 for Relationships in Conductor Vibration Damping". AIEE Transactions
on Power Apparatus and Systems, Vol. 75, pt III, pp 879-894, 1956.
the "low clamp mass" damper and for the damper with the [2] P. Hagedorn, "On the Computation of Damped Wind-Excited
clamp mass of the equivalent conventional bolted clamp. Vibrations of Overhead Transmission Lines". J. of Sound and
Vibration, Vol. 83(2).
[3] "IEEE Guide for Laboratory Measurement of the Power Dissipation
1 _
Characteristics of Aeolian Vibration Dampers for Single Conductors".
IEEE Std 664-1993.

.g~
0,82

07- I v ' .0
/

,
7\<
.
.
[4] J. T. Schmidt, G. Biedenbach, H. J. Krispin "Laboratory Measurement
of the Power Dissipation Characteristics of Aeolian Vibration
Dampers". IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, Vol. 12, No. 4, pp.
0,5__ _ _
1614-1621, October 1997.
0
04
* "low mass" clamp, measured values 0

0
03-
- "low mass" clamp, computed values
0,2 t
0,1

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90
Frequency [Hz]

Fig. 7. Coefficient of absorption (measured and predicted) vs vibration


frequency for Stockbridge-type damper with low mass clamp and
attachment by means of helical factory-formed rods.

0,9 w

0,8 -f.-/0w \04


. -,

n7 - X

0'5 I 6
\

a, 0,4-
.0
a) 0,3- 0 conventional clamp, measured values
02 - conventional clamp, computed values * t
0,1
u
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90
Frequency [Hz]

Fig. 8. Coefficient of absorption (measured and predicted) vs vibration


frequency for Stockbridge-type damper with clamp with attachment by
means of helical factory-formed rods and added mass to simulate the
total mass of the equivalent bolted clamp.

Agreement between prediction and measurement is good


except at frequencies around 80 Hz. It may be surmised that
rotational effects play a role at these frequencies, as the
vibration damper comes close to a node point of the vibrating
conductor with reduced transverse displacement and
increased rotational displacement. This effect will be further
studied.

IV. CONCLUSION

Analytical considerations and experimental data show that


a substantial gain in damping performance can be obtained by
a light-weight design of the vibration damper clamp.

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