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P R O D U C T D A T A B U L L E T I N

409 STEEL
STAINLESS

UNS S40920

• Lowest Cost Stainless


• Good Oxidation Resistance
• Good Formability
• Various Qualities Available
to Meet Specific Needs

Economical Oxidation Resistance


Applications Potential

AK Steel 409 Stainless Steels are especially useful for applications requiring

oxidation or corrosion protection beyond the capability of carbon steel and some

coated steels.

Current uses include automotive and truck exhaust systems, including

tubular manifolds, agricultural spreaders, gas turbine exhaust silencers, and heat

exchangers. AK Steel 409 Stainless Steels are also useful for “difficult-to-form”

hardware such as fuel filters.

AK Steel 409 Stainless Steels have the lowest price of all our stainless steels.

These alloys provide an excellent combination of economy and good resistance to

oxidation and corrosion for automotive exhaust and non-exhaust applications.

409-B-08-01-07
AK STEEL 409 STAINLESS STEEL PRODUCT DESCRIPTION

These stainless steels are essentially non-hardenable by Composition


heat treatment because of their titanium and low-car- ASTM A240
bon levels. The titanium additions not only stabilize the UNS S40920 AK Steel 409
steels to prevent hardening during welding, but also pre- % %
vent the formation of harmful chromium carbides. Carbon 0.03 max 0.02 max
Manganese 1.00 max 0.75 max
Laboratory tests and service records show these alloys
Phosphorus 0.040 max 0.040 max
have about the same corrosion resistance as hardened
Sulfur 0.02 max 0.020 max
Type 410 stainless steel. Welds and weld areas per-
Silicon 1.00 max 1.00 max
form nearly as well as the base metal in corrosion resis-
Chromium 10.50 - 11.70 10.50 - 11.70
tance and forming.
Nickel 0.50 max 0.50 max
Nitrogen 0.03 max 0.02 max
Titanium 8x(C+N) min 8x(C+N) min
Available Forms
0.15 - .50 0.15 - .50
AK Steel produces 409 stainless coils and cut lengths in
thicknesses 0.015" to 0.250" (0.381 to 6.350 mm) in
widths up to and including 48" (1219 mm). For welded Metric Practice
applications over 0.120" (3.048 mm) thick, AK Steel Type The values shown in this bulletin were established in
409 Ni Stainless Steel will provide improved toughness U. S. customary units. The metric equivalents of U. S.
and weldability. customary units shown may be approximate. Conversion
to the metric system, known as the International System
The surface finish of 409 stainless is obtained by of Units (SI), has been accomplished in accordance with
annealing and pickling after rolling. The pickled surface ASTM E380.
is relatively dull and, like other titanium stabilized
stainless steels, it may have some cosmetic titanium The newton (N) has been adopted by the SI as the metric
streaks. Therefore, where a uniform surface finish is standard unit of force. The term for force per square meter
required, these stainless steels may not be satisfac- (N/m2). Since this can be a large number, the prefix mega
tory. In cases where surface appearance is important, is used to indicate 1,000,000 units and the term
and titanium streaks are objectionable, AK Steel 400 meganewton per square meter (MN/m2) is used. The unit
Stainless Steel should be considered. (N/m2) has been designated a pascal (Pa). The relation-
ship between the U. S. and the SI units for stress is: 1000
AK Steel also offers 409 stainless steels especially suited pounds/in2 (psi) = 1 kip/in2 (ksi) = 6.8948 meganewtons/
for special quality requirements. These specially routed m2 (MN/m2) = 6.8948 megapascals (MPa). Other units
versions provide benefits such as cold work are discussed in ASTM E380.
embrittlement resistance, low roping, low ridging, high
resistance to thinning or deep drawing at minimal extra The information and data in this product bulletin are accurate to
cost. the best of our knowledge and belief, but are intended for general
information only. Applications suggested for the materials are
described only to help readers make their own evaluations and
decisions, and are neither guarantees nor to be construed as
express or implied warranties of suitability for these or other
applications.

Data referring to mechanical properties and chemical analyses


are the result of tests performed on specimens obtained from
specific locations of the products in accordance with prescribed
sampling procedures; any warranty thereof is limited to the
values obtained at such locations and by such procedures. There
is no warranty with respect to values of the materials at other
locations.

AK Steel and the AK Steel logo are registered trademarks of


AK Steel Corporation.
2
Mechanical Properties

Table 1
Typical Mechanical Properties
(Annealed Condition)

AK Steel 409
ASTM A240 0.040" - 0.070"
UNS S40920 (1.016 - 1.778 mm)

Ultimate Tensile Strength, ksi (MPa) 55 (379) min 60 - 68 (414 - 469)


0.2% Yield Strength, ksi (MPa) 25 (172) min 35 - 41 (241 - 283)
Elongation, % in 2" (50.8 mm) 20 min 31-39
Hardness, Rockwell B88 max B66-B72

Table 2 Table 3
Properties Acceptable for Material Density, lb/in3 (kg/m3) 0.280 (7740)
Specification Specific Electrical Resistance
0.041" to 0.075" (1.04 to 1.78 mm) microhm-cm 60.0
Modulus of Elasticity in Tension
UTS, ksi (MPa) 55 min (345) at room temperature 30.2 x 106
0.2% YS, ksi (MPa) 30 min (207) psi (MPa) (20.8 x 104)
Elongation, % in 2" 25 min
Hardness, Rockwell B76 max

Table 4
Effect of Cold Work on Mechanical Properties
0.078" (1.98 mm) Thick Initial Gauge

UTS 0.2% YS Elongation Hardness


Condition ksi (MPa) ksi (MPa) % in 2" (50.8 mm) Rockwell

Annealed 64.4 (444) 37.5 (258) 35.8 B69.2


Cold Worked 5% 67.2 (463) 57.5 (396) 25.2 B83.5
Cold Worked 10% 74.5 (514) 73.5 (505) 16.0 B87.0
Cold Worked 16.4% 82.1 (566) 81.3 (580) 9.5 B90.8
Cold Worked 32.5% 99.3 (685) 96.4 (665) – B95.8
Cold Worked 45.4% 104.4 (719) 102.1 (704) 3.0 B97.2

3
Table 5
Effect of 900ºF (492ºC) on Room-Temperature Properties and
Room-Temperature Properties after 30% Cold Work

Unlike higher alloyed ferritic stainless steels, AK Steel 409 Stainless Steels annealed and cold
worked do not show any detrimental effect on ductility after exposure of up to 1,000 hours
within the 885ºF (474ºC) embrittlement range.

Elongation
UTS 0.2% YS % in 2" Hardness
Condition ksi (MPa) ksi (MPa) (50.8 mm) Rockwell

Annealed 64.4 (444) 37.5 (258) 35.8 B69.2


Annealed + 10 hrs 64.0 (441) 38.4 (265) 35.0 B70.0
@900ºF (492ºC)
Annealed + 100 hrs 64.2 (443) 39.3 (271) 35.0 B71.5
@900ºF (492ºC)
Annealed + 1000 hrs 64.8 (447) 39.8 (275) 34.0 B70.2
@900ºF
Cold Worked 30% 99.3 (685) 96.4 (631) – B95.8
Cold Worked 30% 99.5 (687) 96.6 (632) 13.0 B98.5
+ 100 hrs @ 900ºF
(492ºC)

Table 6
Typical Short-Time Elevated-Temperature Properties
(Average of duplicate tests on randomly selected coils)

Temperature UTS 0.2% YS


ºF ºC ksi (MPa) ksi (MPa)

Room 59.0 (407) 33.9 (233)


400 204 52.0 (358) 25.0 (172)
700 427 48.0 (330) 23.0 (159)
1000 538 34.9 (241) 17.4 (120)
1200 649 22.8 (157) 12.5 (86)
1300 704 10.6 (73) 7.5 (52)
1400 760 6.1 (42) 4.4 (30)
1500 816 4.2 (29) 3.0 (21)
1600 871 3.0 (21) 2.4 (16)

4
Table 7
Elevated-Temperature Fatigue Strength (Tension/Tension R=0.1)

Temperature Fatigue Strength to Surpass 107 Cycles


ºF ºC ksi (MPa)
70 21 47 (324)
700 371 45 (310)
1100 593 17.0 (117)
1300 704 5.0 (34)
1500 816 1.5 (10)

Table 8
Stress Rupture Properties
0.045" – 0.060" (1.14 – 1.52 mm)

Temperature Maximum Stress to Failure, ksi (MPa)


ºF ºC 100 hours 1000 hours
1300 704 4.1 (27.5) 3.2 (22.0)
1500 816 1.5 (10.3) 0.9 (6.2)

Physical Properties

Figure 1: Specific Heat


Temperature, F
200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400
1.00

0.16 0.18 0.20 0.22


0.90

409
Specific Heat, W-sec/gm-K

Specific Heat, BTU/lb-F

Stainless
Steel
0.80
0.70
0.60

ALUMINIZED
0.10 0.12 0.14

STEEL Type 1
0.40 0.50

0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800


Temperature, C
5
Figure 2: Elevated Temperature Thermal Expansion Data
7.5

AVERAGE COEFFICIENT - 10 in/in/F

6.5
-6

5.5
409
11Cr-Cb
18 Cr-Cb
439

4.5
0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 1100 1200 1300 1400 1500 1600 1700
TEST TEMPERATURE - F

0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900


TEST TEMPERATURE - C

Table 9: Thermal Conductivity, Specific Heat And Diffusivity

Temperature Conductivity Specific Heat Diffusivity


°F °C W/(m-°K) BTU/(hr-ft-°F) J/(Kg-°K) BTU/(lb-°F) mm2/sec ft2/hr

73 23 25.7 14.8 466 0.111 7.26 0.281


212 100 25.8 14.9 492 0.118 6.90 0.267
392 200 26.4 15.2 529 0.126 6.55 0.254
572 300 27.1 15.7 567 0.135 6.29 0.244
752 400 26.9 15.6 608 0.145 5.82 0.226
932 500 27.5 15.9 680 0.162 5.31 0.206
1112 600 26.9 15.5 767 0.183 4.61 0.179
1292 700 25.4 14.7 921 0.220 3.62 0.140
1472 800 30.7 17.7 882* 0.211 4.57 0.177
1598 870 32.3 18.7 846* 0.202 5.02 0.194
* EXTRAPOLATED VALUES

6
Table 10: Modulus of Elasticity Test Data
E = average Young’s modulus of elasticity at temperature, based on triplicate
longitudinal sample tests.

Temperature Test E ASME(1) E


°F °C psi x 106 MPa x 104 psi x 106 MPa x 104
70 21 30.2 20.8 29.2 20.1
200 93 29.4 20.3 28.5 19.6
300 149 – – 27.9 19.2
400 204 28.9 19.9 27.3 18.8
500 260 – – 26.7 18.4
600 316 27.9 19.2 26.1 18.0
700 371 – – 25.6 17.6
800 427 26.1 18.0 24.7 17.0
900 482 – – 23.2 16.0
1000 538 23.5 16.2
1200 649 16.6 11.4

Notes: (1) Data from 1989 ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section VIII,
Division 2, Table AMG-2, Cromium steels 12Cr - 17Cr (Group F).
Note that 409 is nominally 11Cr.

Corrosion Resistance
In general, the corrosion resistance of AK Steel 409 Stainless Steel is about the same as Type 410
stainless steel. This is confirmed by standard and special corrosion tests, as well as extensive
service experience. Tests also have been conducted to simulate exhaust system conditions as
shown in the Figures that follow.

Corrosion resistance of welds and weld areas is nearly comparable to that of the base metal. In
this respect, AK Steel 409 stainless is superior to Type 410 stainless steel because welding does
not greatly impair the corrosion resistance of weld areas prone to chromium carbide sensitization.

AK Steel 409 stainless contains a certain number of surface inclusions which are the normal result
of titanium stabilization additions to improve the steel. Occasionally, rusting may occur at these
inclusion sites and lead to problems with cosmetic appearance. As a result, this steel is not
suggested for applications where surface appearance is a factor.

7
Corrosion Resistance of Automotive Exhaust Materials (LABORATORY ACCELERATED TESTS)

Figure 3a: Cold End Salt Corrosion: Bold Exposure Figure 3b: Cold End Salt Corrosion: in Crevice
.04 .04

Perforated Perforated
409 409

.03 .03
Pit Depth (inches)

Pit Depth (inches)


.02 .02

.01
.01

439
439

0
0 5 10 15 20 25 0
0 5 10 15 20 25
Cycles (Weeks) in Test
Cycles (Weeks) in Test
Cold End Synthetic Salt Corrosion Test
1 Test Cycle = 1 Week Daily...15 minute dip in 5% NaCl and air dry for 1.25 hours...humidity cabinet at 85% RH for
22.5 hours. Temperature is cycled through 95 to 140°F eight times in 22.5 hours. Once a week...1 hour at 600°F.

Figure 4a: Figure 4b:


Synthetic Condensate Corrosion: Bold Exposure Synthetic Condensate Corrosion: in Crevice
.04 .04
Perforated Perforated
409 409

.03 .03
Pit Depth (inches)
Pit Depth (inches)

.02 .02
439
436/439
436

.01 .01

0 0
0 10 20 30 0 10 20 25
Cycles (Weeks) in Test Cycles (Weeks) in Test

Cold End Synthetic Condensate Corrosion Test


1 Test Cycle = 1 Week Daily...15 minute dip in a solution of 5000 ppm sulfate and 50 ppm chlorides at pH 2.5 and air
dry for 1.25 hours...humidity cabinet at 85% RH and 140°F for 22.5 hrs. Once a week...1 hour at 600°F.

General Note: ALT1 Carbon Steel is not included above. It does not fail by pitting but fails due to general
and/or galvanic corrosion at welds, cut edges and cold worked areas. Field experience shows ALT1 durability to be
8 approximately 50% that of T409.
Boiling Beaker Internal Condensate High Temperature Salt Corrosion Resistance
Corrosion Comparisons The following two accelerated lab tests were designed
to simulate hot end (downpipe and converter) operating
conditions.
Figure 5
Figure 6a: Test 1 evaluates the effect of residual salt
reacting with exhaust components at elevated
temperatures.

Figure 6b: Test 2 evaluates the effect of exterior salt


reacting on an exhaust component at ambient tempera-
tures after being exposed to high temperatures where
thicker oxide layers developed.

Test setup: Figure 6a: Test 1


Partial immersion of 3"x4" coupon in
Hot Salt Corrosion
synthetic condensate 500
475 20 hot cycles–1200°F Test Procedure:
Test solution: Sheet sample with 90°
400
5000 ppm SO4-3 bend and 0.2"
100 ppm CI- Olson cup dome
2

100 ppm NO3-


Weight Loss mg/in

300

Hot cycle:
100 ppm HCOOH…Initial pH 5.3-5.5…Final pH 3.3-3.5 250

200 205
dip 5 min. in 5% NaCl
Test cycle procedure:
195
and then expose
Boil condensate 16 hours, then heat 1 hour at 500°F 100
140
1200°F/90 min.
Expose 6 hours in 85% humidity at 125°F water quench 1 min.
…repeat 4 times/day…
humidity (85%RH/
18Cr-Cb
439

18SR
11Cr-Cb
409

(Muffler Simulation Test) 140°F) 18 hours/day


0.030
0.028
0.026 Figure 6b: Test 2
0.024 Ambient Salt Corrosion
0.022
After High Temp Exposure
Pit Penetration (in.)

0.020 409
.050
0.018
0.016 439 Test Procedure:
0.014 436S Sheet sample
.040
0.012
0.010
439 Daily:
304
15 min. dip in 5% NaCl
Weight Loss (inches per year)

409 11Cr-Cb
0.008 .030
0.006 air dry 1.25
0.004 304 hrs....humidity
0.002
(85%RH/140°F)
.020 18Cr-Cb

0
0 10 20 30 40 22.5 hrs.
18SR
No. of test Cycles (5 cycles/wk) .010
Weekly:
1400°F/1hr.
0
0 3 5 1 test cycle = 1 week
Test Cycles

9
Oxidation Resistance Figure 7: Cyclic Service Scaling Tests*
The temperature at which AK Steel 409 Stainless Steels
start to exhibit destructive scaling in air is 1450°F (789°C). 7.2 mg/cm 2
16.9 mg/cm2
15.4 mg/cm2
This is considered the general maximum service
3.0 AK Steel 409 High
Performance-10
* *
temperature for continuous exposure in air. However, 1600°F (871°C) *
maximum service temperatures will vary appreciably, 430—1600°F (871°C)

depending on the atmospheres involved.

Weight Gain, mg/cm2


2.0
Table 11
Continuous Service Scaling Tests

Typical Weight Gain, mg/in2* 1.0


Temperature, °F (°C)
Alloy 1400 (760) 1550 (843) AK Steel 409 High Performance-10
AK Steel 409 0.33 to 0.44 0.78 to 0.99 1500°F (816°C)
AK Steel 409 High Performance-10
Type 430 0.22 to 0.31 0.78 to 1.01 1400°F (760°C)
0
Type 304 0.19 to 0.26 0.51 to 0.57 0 250 500 750 1000
Number of Cycles
*Constant temperature for 100-hour exposure in air. *Cyclic Oxidation Resistance in a Combusted
Gas Atmosphere—Cycle of 25 Minutes Heat/5 Minutes Cool.

Figure 8: Cyclic Oxidation Tests at 1700ºF


30 min. cycle (25 min. heat - 5 min. cool)

2000
409
1500
WEIGHT CHANGE - mgs. / square in.

1000

500 439
0 439
439 LT
LT

-500 444

-1000
-1500

-2000

-2500

-3000
304
-3500
72

96
48

120

144

168

192

216

238

261

284

307

330

401

424

448

492

566

662

700
24
0

TIME - hrs.

409 439 439 LT 444 304

10
Fabrication rolling to 0.075" (1.9 mm) thick material and annealing,
AK Steel 409 Stainless Steels provide good fabricating the DBTT is below -75ºF (-59ºC).
characteristics and can be cut, blanked and formed with-
AK Steel 409 Stainless Steel offers benefits in tubing
out difficulty. These steels provide fabricating charac-
applications. Using 409 stainless with notably improved
teristics that are much improved when compared to stan-
levels of formability in exhaust tubing in the
dard ASTM A240 Type 409 stainless steel. Brakes and
as-high frequency welded condition is shown in the
presses used normally on carbon steel can be used on
following photograph (Figure 9).
AK Steel 409 Stainless Steels.
-
The plastic strain ratio or rm (r) value may be thought
Forming practices indicate that sheet 0.050" to 0.187"
of as a material’s resistance to thinning during
(1.27 mm to 4.75 mm) requires a minimum bend radius
drawing or tube bending operations. The higher the
equal to the metal thickness, 1T; and material over 0.187"
value, the greater the resistance to tearing or thinning.
(4.75 mm), a radius of 1-1/2 T. -
These stainless steels have a typical rm (r) value of 1.1
to 1.7 based on chemistry and processing variations to
Table 12 control properties.
Cyclic Scaling With Temperature Variations expressed
in weight loss (mgs/in2) Figure 9
1500°F (816°C) Cycles of 25 min. heat - 5 min. cool
1650°F (899°C) Excursions cycles daily for 2 hrs.
564 cycles
564 cycles 1500°F/ 10 cycles
Alloy 1500°F (816°C) 1650°F (899°C)

409 9.7 10.3

439 1.4 2.9

11Cr-Cb 1.4 2.4

304 -141 -253


While 1450°F (789°C) is considered the practical upper tempera-
ture oxidation service limit, brief excursions above 1600°F (871°C)
Welding
can be tolerated.
AK Steel 409 stainless is readily welded by arc welding
Note the austenitic 304 alloy shows large negative weight processes. When gauge thickness and weld joint geom-
changes indicating oxide spalling due to thermal expansion etry permit the use of gas shielded metal-arc welding,
differences between the oxide and base metal. joints having good properties are easily obtained.
The electrode wires most often suggested are
AWS ER309 or ER308L austenitic stainless steel when
Standard forming tests show a typical Olsen Cup Height the application does not include exposure to high
value of 0.400" (10.16 mm) and a Limiting Draw Ratio of temperatures. AWS ER309 or ER308L stainless wire may
2.20 for AK Steel 409 Stainless Steels. also be employed for joining these stainless steels to mild
At times, forming ability has been affected by tempera- steel. Thin wall components for elevated-temperature
ture – in particular ductile-to-brittle transition tempera- service should be weld fabricated with a matching weld
tures (DBTT). AK Steel 409 Ni Stainless Steel offers im- filler such as 409 Cb. AWS ER430 and W18 Cr-Cb filler
proved resistance to brittle impact fractures at lower wires are suitable alternatives.
temperatures. The DBTT for hot-rolled 0.200" (5.08 mm)
thick material is below -20ºF (-29ºC), while after cold

11
AK STEEL 409 STAINLESS STEEL PRODUCT DESCRIPTION

Guidelines for the Shielded Metal-Arc (SMA) process


and selection of electrodes are about the same as those
employed for GMA and GTA welding, except that match-
ing fillers for thermal application are not available in cov-
ered electrode form. Suitable substitutes are E410NiMo
and E330.

AK Steel 409 stainless also is readily adaptable to resis-


tance spot and seam welding.

Tubing Production
409 stainless steels are readily produced on both high-
frequency and GTAW tubing mills. Such tubing
generally has good formability. Even greater formability
develops with a short-time post-weld anneal near 1600-
1650°F (871-899°C).

Specifications
AK Steel 409 Stainless Steels are covered by the fol-
lowing specification. It is suggested that the issuing
agency be contacted for the latest revision of the speci-
fication. ASTM A240/A240M

Customer Service 800-331-5050


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© 2007 AK Steel Corporation 7100-0086 PDF 7/07