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Министерство образования и науки Российской Федерации

ФЕДЕРАЛЬНОЕ ГОСУДАРСТВЕННОЕ БЮДЖЕТНОЕ


ОБРАЗОВАТЕЛЬНОЕ УЧРЕЖДЕНИЕ
ВЫСШЕГО ПРОФЕССИОНАЛЬНОГО ОБРАЗОВАНИЯ
«САРАТОВСКИЙ ГОСУДАРСТВЕННЫЙ УНИВЕРСИТЕТ
ИМЕНИ Н.Г. ЧЕРНЫШЕВСКОГО»

ENGLISH
FOR PROFESSIONAL
COMMUNICATION

Учебное пособие для магистрантов

Саратов 2014

1
УДК 811.111 (075.8)
ББК 81.2 Англ я 73
Е56

Е56 English for Professional Communication: учеб. пособие / Вислобокова


О.И., Дубровина И.И., Дубровская О.Н., Кленова А.В., Харламова Т.В.
– Саратов: СГУ, 2014. – 200 c.

Рецензент:

Хижняк С.П., доктор филологических наук, профессор, зав. кафедрой


английского языка, теоретической и прикладной лингвистики Саратовской
государственной академии права

Учебное пособие предназначено для магистрантов 1-2 курсов, обучающихся на


направлениях «Филология» и «Журналистика». Пособие состоит из 12 разделов,
каждый из которых включает 4 части (развитие устной речи, стратегии эффективного
чтения, задания на перевод, обучение письменной речи) и направлен на формирование
общекультурных и профессиональных компетенций. Пособие позволит студентам
развить навыки устного и письменного общения в профессиональной сфере, перевода,
а также умение адекватно их использовать при решении профессиональных задач.

УДК 811.111 (075.8)


ББК 81.2 Англ я 73

2
CONTENTS

UNIT 1. Aspiring to an Academic Degree ……………………………………..5


A Exploring a Topic ………………………………………………………...5
B Practising Skills …………………………………………………………..8
C Translation / Interpreting Skills …………………………………………11
D Effective Writing ………………………………………………………..17
UNIT 2. Research Skills ………………………………………………………20
A Exploring a Topic ……………………………………………………….20
B Practising Skills …………………………………………………………24
C Translation / Interpreting Skills …………………………………………28
D Effective Writing ………………………………………………………..31
UNIT 3. Time Management …………………………………………………...36
A Exploring a Topic ……………………………………………………….36
B Practising Skills …………………………………………………………41
C Translation / Interpreting Skills …………………………………………44
D Effective Writing ………………………………………………………..46
UNIT 4. Knowledge Management …………………………………………….53
A Exploring a Topic ……………………………………………………….53
B Practising Skills …………………………………………………………57
C Translation / Interpreting Skills …………………………………………61
D Effective Writing ………………………………………………………..63
UNIT 5. Effective Presentations ………………………………………………69
A Exploring a Topic ……………………………………………………….69
B Practising Skills …………………………………………………………71
C Translation / Interpreting Skills …………………………………………75
D Effective Writing ………………………………………………………..78
UNIT 6. Psychology and Communication …………………………………….87
A Exploring a Topic ……………………………………………………….87
B Practising Skills …………………………………………………………89
C Translation / Interpreting Skills …………………………………………94
D Effective Writing ………………………………………………………..97

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UNIT 7. Work-Life Balance …………………………………………………102
A Exploring a Topic ……………………………………………………...102
B Practising Skills ………………………………………………………..105
C Translation / Interpreting Skills ………………………………………..109
D Effective Writing ……………………………………………………....111
UNIT 8. Leadership ………………………………………………………….117
A Exploring a Topic ……………………………………………………...117
B Practising Skills ………………………………………………………..121
C Translation / Interpreting Skills ………………………………………..124
D Effective Writing ………………………………………………………127
UNIT 9. Team Building ……………………………………………………...132
A Exploring a Topic ……………………………………………………...132
B Practising Skills ………………………………………………………..135
C Translation / Interpreting Skills ………………………………………..139
D Effective Writing ………………………………………………………141
UNIT 10. Teaching Skills ……………………………………………………144
A Exploring a Topic ……………………………………………………...144
B Practising Skills ………………………………………………………..147
C Translation / Interpreting Skills ………………………………………..151
D Effective Writing ………………………………………………………157
UNIT 11. Culture Skills ……………………………………………………...163
A Exploring a Topic ……………………………………………………...163
B Practising Skills ………………………………………………………..167
C Translation / Interpreting Skills ………………………………………..171
D Effective Writing ………………………………………………………175
UNIT 12. Making a Change ………………………………………………….179
A Exploring a Topic ……………………………………………………...179
B Practising Skills ………………………………………………………..184
C Translation / Interpreting Skills ………………………………………..188
D Effective Writing ………………………………………………………191
REFERENCES AND FURTHER READING……………………………..194
ANSWER KEY……………………………………………………………....199

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UNIT 1. ASPIRING TO AN ACADEMIC DEGREE

A EXPLORING A TOPIC

I Expressing an opinion (B1/B2/C1)


1. State your academic ambitions. What do you think will be the most complicated part of
gaining your master’s degree?
2. S. Joseph Levine is Professor Emeritus of Adult Education/Extension Education at
Michigan State University. He has degrees in music education, guidance and counseling, and
curriculum research. Read the introductory fragment of his guide on Writing and Presenting
Your Thesis or Dissertation. What is the main focus of the guide?
Introduction
This guide has been created to assist my graduate students in thinking through the many
aspects of crafting, implementing and defending a thesis or dissertation. It is my attempt to
share some of the many ideas that have surfaced over the past few years that definitely make
the task of finishing a graduate degree so much easier. (This Guide is a companion to the
Guide for Writing a Funding Proposal.)
Usually a guide of this nature focuses on the actual implementation of the research. This is not
the focus of this guide. Instead of examining such aspects as identifying appropriate sample
size, field testing the instrument and selecting appropriate statistical tests, this guide looks at
many of the quasi-political aspects of the process. Such topics as how to select a supportive
committee, making a compelling presentation of your research outcomes and strategies for
actually getting the paper written are discussed.
Of course, many of the ideas that are presented can be used successfully by other graduate
students studying under the guidance of other advisers and from many different disciplines.
However, the use of this guide carries no guarantee - implied or otherwise. When in doubt
check with your adviser. Probably the best advice to start with is the idea of not trying to do
your research entirely by yourself. Do it in conjunction with your adviser. Seek out his/her
input and assistance. Stay in touch with your adviser so that both of you know what's
happening. There's a much better chance of getting to the end of your project and with a smile
on your face.
II Related information (B1/B2/C1)
1. Define the meaning of the following terms: a graduate/postgraduate program, advisor,
thesis, dissertation, academic requirements.
2. S. Joseph Levine in his Writing and Presenting Your Thesis or Dissertation describes the
process of preparing the proposal, writing the thesis or dissertation, thesis or dissertation
defense. The first part of the guide is devoted to the ‘Thinking about it’ stage. Read this
fragment and answer the questions:
Why is this stage important?
What expectations should be?
Define the six stages of writing a thesis or dissertation suggested by the author.

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THE "THINKING ABOUT IT" STAGE

The "thinking about it stage" is when you are finally faced with the reality of completing your
degree. Usually the early phases of a graduate program proceed in clear and very structured
ways. The beginning phases of a graduate program proceed in much the same manner as an
undergraduate degree program. There are clear requirements and expectations, and the
graduate student moves along, step by step, getting ever closer to the completion of the
program. One day, however, the clear structure begins to diminish and now you're
approaching the thesis/dissertation stage. This is a new and different time. These next steps
are more and more defined by you and not your adviser, the program, or the department.
Be inclusive with your thinking. Don't try to eliminate ideas too quickly. Build on your
ideas and see how many different research projects you can identify. Give yourself the
luxury of being expansive in your thinking at this stage -- you won't be able to do this later on.
Try and be creative.
Write down your ideas. This will allow you to revisit an idea later on. Or, you can
modify and change an idea. If you don't write your ideas they tend to be in a continual
state of change and you will probably have the feeling that you're not going anywhere. What a
great feeling it is to be able to sit down and scan the many ideas you have been thinking
about, if they're written down.
Try not to be overly influenced at this time by what you feel others expect from
you (your colleagues, your profession, your academic department, etc.). You have a
much better chance of selecting a topic that will be really of interest to you if it is your topic.
This will be one of the few opportunities you may have in your professional life to focus in on
a research topic that is really of your own choosing.
Don't begin your thinking by assuming that your research will draw international
attention to you!! Instead, be realistic in setting your goal. Make sure your expectations
are tempered by:
... the realization that you are fulfilling an academic requirement,
... the fact that the process of conducting the research may be just as important (or more
important) than the outcomes of the research, and
... the idea that first and foremost the whole research project should be a learning experience
for you.
If you can keep these ideas in mind while you're thinking through your research you stand an
excellent chance of having your research project turn out well.
Be realistic about the time that you're willing to commit to your research project. If it's a
10 year project that you're thinking about admit it at the beginning and then decide
whether or not you have 10 years to give to it. If the project you'd like to do is going to
demand more time than you're willing to commit then you have a problem.
I know it's still early in your thinking but it's never too early to create a draft of a timeline. Try
using the 6 Stages (see the next item) and put a start and a finish time for each. Post your
timeline in a conspicuous place (above your computer monitor?) so that it continually reminds
you how you're doing. Periodically update your timeline with new dates as needed.
If you're going to ask for a leave of absence from your job while you're working on your
research this isn't a good time to do it. Chances are you can do the "thinking about it"
stage without a leave of absence. Assuming that there are six major phases that you will have
during your research project, probably the best time to get the most from a leave of absence is
during the fourth stage - the writing stage. This is the time when you really need to be
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thinking well. To be able to work at your writing in large blocks of time without interruptions
is something really important. A leave of absence from your job can allow this to happen. A
leave of absence from your job prior to this stage may not be a very efficient use of the
valuable time away from your work.
Stage 1 - Thinking About It
Stage 2 - Preparing the Proposal
Stage 3- Conducting the Research
Stage 4- Writing the Research Paper
Stage 5- Sharing the Research Outcomes with Others
Stage 6- Revising the Research Paper
It can be most helpful at this early stage to try a very small preliminary research study to
test out some of your ideas to help you gain further confidence in what you'd like to do.
The study can be as simple as conducting half a dozen informal interviews with no attempt to
document what is said. The key is that it will give you a chance to get closer to your research
and to test out whether or not you really are interested in the topic. And, you can do it before
you have committed yourself to doing something you may not like. Take your time and try it
first.
(From Writing and Presenting Your Thesis or Dissertation by S. Joseph Levine Ph.D.
Michigan State University)

III Developing background knowledge (B1/B2/C1)

1. Study the webpage How To Write a Thesis Statement produced by Writing Tutorial
Services, Indiana University, Bloomington.
2. Summarize the information in a form of pieces of advice on How to Write a Strong
Thesis Statement.

IV Exchanging views and ideas (B1/B2/C1)

1. Study the How to Write a PhD Thesis guide presented at the website of The University of
New South Wales, Sydney, Australia and discuss the following issues with your partner:
- how to meet the deadline of writing a thesis;
- what may be the consequences for your mental and physical health and how to improve the
situation;
- why there is a risk of giving up writing;
- why is writing thesis tough work.
2. Share your ideas with the group.

V Summarizing the topic (B1/B2/C1)

1. Give a talk on Writing The Thesis Or Dissertation. Develop the following ideas of S.
Joseph Levine Ph.D., Michigan State University in your talk.

Begin writing with sections you know the best.


Rewrite your proposal into dissertation sections.
Use real names/places in early drafts of dissertation.
Print each draft on a different color paper.
7
Use hand drawings of graphics/tables for early drafts.
Make your writing clear and unambiguous.
Review other dissertations before you begin to write.
Introduce tables in the text, present the table and then describe it.
Use similar or parallel wording whenever possible.
Let your Table of Contents help you improve your manuscript.
Write real conclusions and implications - don't restate your findings.
Make your Suggestions for Further Research meaningful.
Chapter One should be written last.

2. Give a talk on The Thesis/Dissertation Defense. Develop the following ideas of S. Joseph
Levine Ph.D., Michigan State University in your talk.

Attend some defenses before it's your turn.


Discuss your research with others.
Don't circulate chapters to committee.
The defense should be team effort - you and adviser.
Don't be defensive at your defense.
Organize your defense as an educational presentation.
Consider tape recording your defense.
Prepare an article on the outcomes of your research.

VI Project work (B1/B2/C1)

1. Write an essay on one of the following topics:

1) Do I need a Master’s degree?


2) My ambitions at the University.
3) Why I have chosen this field of study.
4) For whom is a thesis written?
5) How to survive a thesis defense?
2. Create a web-page with resources on the topic How to Write a Thesis and Defend it
Successfully.

B PRACTISING SKILLS

READING TIPS

• To know whether you should read the reading passage first or the questions
first, experiment with both strategies and see what works best for you. Many students have
found it helps to skim through the questions first to get an idea of what to pay attention to in
the reading passage. This method may work for you too, but in reality, it depends on a number
of factors. These include how well or how quickly you read, the type of questions, how
difficult they are, how much time you have, and so on. So, never mind what your teacher
recommends, or what your best friend is going to do. Try both ways and see what
helps you the most.

8
• Read the reading instructions carefully. Don’t try to save time by skipping this part.
The instructions give you critical information about how many words the answer should be,
what exactly you need to do, and so on.
• In many cases, the questions follow the order of the information in the reading
passages. This will help you find the required answers quickly.
• Spelling matters, so take care while writing in the answers. You will lose points for
incorrect spelling.
• Grammar counts too, so make sure you pay attention to this aspect as well.
• In sentence completion tasks, focus on the meaning to select the right answer.
• Read widely from a variety of sources to strengthen your general reading skills and
enrich your vocabulary.
• Look out for key synonyms used in the text or question, to help you identify where to
find the answer quickly.

TEXT 1 (B2)
Choose ONE phrase from the list of phrases A-J below to complete each of the following
sentences 1-9. Remember, ONE phrase is extra here.

A at a college level
B in their knowledge base
C for independent study
D it was entirely untaught
E after you complete an undergraduate degree
F on the level of study
G planned out for me by the university
H it can make all the difference
I have a very specific set schedule
J is not overseeing my course of studies

A
Undergraduate courses are courses you take in your first 4 years of college to get your
undergraduate degree (BS, BA). These include both general college and those classes in your
major. They tend to be very broad 1. __________________________________ .
Postgraduate courses are those classes you take to obtain a Masters degree.
Postgraduate courses are commenced 2. __________________________________ . They
tend to be more focused, giving you a speciality within your field (which is generally
determined by the studies you did as an undergraduate).
You can also continue higher education to a Doctorate degree, also postgraduate
classes, which will take a couple of years longer in school. The degrees build. Of course, a
Masters degree makes you more qualified in your field. And a Doctorate enables you to teach
3.__________________________________.

B
An undergraduate degree is your first degree. It's a course of study that gives a
thorough grounding in a field or subject and usually takes three years of full time studying to
complete.
Part time studying can take longer. If you are finishing your A Levels, you will need
to apply for an undergraduate degree. On successful completion, you will be awarded a
Bachelors degree. Depending on your subject, you will be awarded either a BA (Bachelor of
Arts), BSc (Bachelor of Science), LLB (Bachelor of Laws), or BEng (Bachelor of
Engineering).
9
A postgraduate degree allows you to further explore a subject to attain a high level of
proficiency, with an opportunity 4. ________________________________ . Postgraduate
degrees can be taught courses or research based. Taught courses usually take one year's full
time study to complete after which you get awarded a Masters degree (MA, MSc, MEng, etc.)
based on your subject of study. Research degrees get awarded BPhil, MPhil, PhD based
5.___________________________________ .

C
I think the main difference between undergraduate work and postgraduate work is how
much more structured the undergraduate experience is, even when compared to my MPhil,
which was unique in some respects because 6. ______________________________ . It was
purely a research course so the degree comprised pretty much of me meeting with my
supervisor, meeting various writing deadlines, but it was unstructured in the sense that I didn’t
have any courses. I didn’t formally have to attend any seminars, whereas, of course, when
you’re an undergraduate you 7. __________________________________ .
When I was an undergraduate I had a certain number of hours per week. I had
designated times when I had to meet with various professors and everything was
8.________________ _________________ . When I came to Cambridge for my MPhil, my
course did require me to meet specific deadlines, and I did have to attend some training
sessions and various seminars but it was pretty much all untaught.
The PhD has just magnified that. Now it’s really on me to figure out what I need to be
doing with my daily schedule, what I need to be reading… and even my supervisor
9.__________________________________________, day in day out. It’s really up to me.

TEXT 2 (C1)
Put the word(s) in brackets in the right form.

No books, no lectures, no education?


We seem stuck in a Spam age of artificial learning, where students can gain degrees
without reading any books, says Boarding School Beak
What could be more out of fashion than Spam, the artificial processed meat, butt of all Monty
Python jokes?
Yet we now seem 1. _____________ (LIVE) in an age of Spam-style processed learning –
where even university students can gain excellent degrees without reading any actual books.
Professor Orlando Figes, of Birkbeck College, reports undergraduates see books as a "waste
of time". Everything they need in the way of resources is online: Wikipedia, SparkNotes and
JSTOR.
Why study the real thing, when the substitute 2. ____________ (SPRING) so readily to hand?
Professor Figes’ findings do not surprise me in the slightest. Especially as he rightly blames
the prevailing “exam culture” in schools for starting this whole sorry process.
Too much teaching to tests means teenagers are well-used to 3. _____________ (SKIM)
books, with an eye for likely exam topics.
Nor are they handicapped by this lack of basic knowledge. At schools and universities alike,
the inevitable gaps 4. ______________ (PLUG) with processed notes and handouts by
overhelpful teachers, always with a weather eye on their own exam performance.

10
I’ve quite often had bright A level pupils come up to me once exams are over and announce
something like this: “Thanks for all those helpful handouts, Sir. You do realise I never
actually read ‘Tess’, ‘Wuthering Heights’, ‘Middlemarch’ (delete as appropriate).
Their smug self-satisfaction never fails to irritate. And their reluctance to read anything longer
than a SparkNote or two, even at the highest academic level, could carry far-reaching
consequences.
One result is that traditional lectures, as another recent university report 5.________________
(REVEAL), are being consigned to history.
So many notes, so much pre-prepared material, is available online, what’s the point of
students actually 6. ______________ (TURN UP) to a lecture?
This is all the more depressing, as such precious “contact time” is all too rare now at
universities, anyway.
Just fourteen hours of contact time – seminars, lectures, tutorials – each week for the average
student. Yet 10 per cent of this teaching time 7. ______________ (MISS), with online
resources cited as a major reason for skipping classes.
Thus much of the whole point of the university experience – the sheer excitement of
exchanging ideas with other eager minds – is increasingly eroded.
Some of my best university memories are the anticipation of 8. _______________ (THROW
IN) together for big lectures, with a big-name Prof standing right in front of you, with a
chance 9. _______________ (ASK) questions afterwards. These were not simply classes, but
Occasions.
What’s more, lectures are a great place for unexpectedly bumping into people. How is anyone
ever going to make any new friends, stuck in their rooms poring over JSTOR, without the
wonderful social swirl of lectures?
My daughter currently 10. _______________ (STUDY) for a degree and complains of
constant headaches and migraines. Not necessarily because she’s “hanging” the whole time.
She’s very studious. But because she spends too much time in front of a screen,
11.____________ (STUDY) online notes, when she could be outside, 12. _____________
(ENJOY) a good book.
Something 13. ______________ (MISS), when critical analysis and second-hand ideas
replaces real knowledge. We seem stuck in a Spam age of artificial learning: starting with
GCSEs, running right the way through to Finals.

C TRANSLATION / INTERPRETING SKILLS

1. Vocabulary and language switching exercise.


a) Study the Education Glossary:

A-level британская программа подготовки к поступлению в высшие учебные


заведения страны (в том числе Oxford и Cambridge). Обычно занимает 2
года.
Advanced американская система предметных экзаменов, успешное прохождение
Placement которых приравнивается к пройденному курсу в колледже, позволяя при
поступлении засчитать их на программу бакалавриата
Alumni клуб выпускников
Application специальная форма заявки на поступление (в школу, ВУЗ или на курсы)
11
Application fee взнос, который необходимо оплатить, чтобы подать заявку на
поступление
BSc программа бакалавриата (сокращенно от Bachelor’s degree)

Clearing возможность для студентов, которые по какой-либо причине не


поступили на выбранные программы в британские ВУЗы, повторно
подать документы и получить место за счет того, что кто-то, кто был
принят, передумал или отказался поступать
Conditional приглашение от университета, которое действительно при выполнении
offer ряда индивидуальных требований: получение диплома определенного
уровня, повышение уровня владения языком, наличие дополнительных
сертификатов, рекомендаций и т.д.
Credit единица измерения учебной нагрузки, в которой измеряется каждый
предмет. Для получения степени студент обязан набрать определенное
количество «кредитов».
Deadline крайний срок (подачи документов, сдачи работ, закрытия проекта и т.д.).
Сейчас слово приобрело такую популярность, что в разговорной речи не
переводится на русский язык.
Deferral возможность перенести предложение о поступлении (от университета)
на следуюший год
Diversity требования учебных заведений, относительно обязательного приема на
курс определенного количества студентов из различных стран
Early admission ранняя подача заявки на поступление (как правило, в октябре - ноябре).
Существует негласное правило, согласно которому, чем раньше
абитуриент подает документы, тем больше у него шансов поступить на
выбранную программу.
Extended программа по продолжению обучения, которая не является дипломной,
programme но обеспечивает получение сертификата по прослушанному курсу
First class диплом первой степени. В 100-балльной системе оценки получение first
honors class honors обеспечивают шесть и более оценок в дипломе выше 70
баллов.
Foundation одногодичная программа подготовки к поступлению на программы
бакалавриата Великобритании. Программа Foundation дает 100%
гарантию поступления, но после нее нельзя подавать документы в
топовые ВУЗы страны, как, например, Oxford и Cambridge.
GMAT международный экзамен по математике и англ. языку, который
(Graduate подтверждает способность студента продолжить обучение на
Management программах магистратуры и MBA в области бизнеса и финансов.
Admission Test) Максимальная оценка по экзамену – 800 баллов. Минимальный
проходной балл – 500.
Grade 2:1 / 2:2 то же самое, что и second upper / second lower degree – обозначение
степени диплома бакалавра. В зависимости от образовательных
стандартов, требования для получения определенного уровня диплома
могут варьироваться, но если брать 100-балльную систему оценки,
диплом 2:1 обеспечивают более шести оценок выше 60 баллов, диплом
2:2 – более 50.
Graduate программа постдипломного образования (после получения степени
Program бакалавра). Как правило, graduate program соответствует программе
магистратуры.
GRE (Graduate международный экзамен, который проверяет общие способности
Record абитуриента аналитически мыслить и выражать аргументированную
Examinations) позицию на английском языке. В отличие от GMAT, GRE более
«гуманитарный» и, как правило, является обязательным требованием для
американских программ.
IB международная программа подготовки школьников к поступлению в
(International ВУЗы Европы. Диплом IB признается в более чем 100 странах по всему
12
Baccalaureate) миру.

IELTS международный стандартизированный тест на знание английского


(International языка. Необходим иностранным студентам для поступления в школы и
English ВУЗы Европы.
Language
Testing System)
Internship программа стажировки

Ivy League Лига Плюща – привилегированная группа из восьми частных


американских университетов (University, Columbia University, Cornell
University, Dartmouth College,Harvard University, Princeton University,
University of Pennsylvania, Yale University), которые считаются лучшими
не только в рамках американской образовательной системы, но и в мире.
Letter of рекомендательное письмо
recommendation
(Reference
letter)
Mock interview пробное интервью с целью подготовить студента к формату и
возможным вопросам предстоящего собеседования с работодателем
Motivation letter мотивационное письмо, в котором абитуриент должен аргументированно
(Statement of ответить на вопрос, почему именно он достоин того, чтобы учиться на
Purpose) выбранной программе
MSc программа магистратуры (сокращенно от Master’s degree)
PhD пятилетняя программа, аналог российской аспирантуры (Doctor of
Philosophy)
Pre-masters программа подготовки к магистратуре
Sandwich четырехлетняя программа британского бакалавриата, которая включает
course три академических года и один (третий) год практики.

SAT (Scholastic стандартизированный тест, который сдают американские школьники,


Aptitude Test чтобы поступить в университет
или Scholastic
Assessment
Test)
Scholarship стипендия
TOEFL (Test of международный экзамен на знание академического английского. Как
English as a правило, принимается вузами США
Foreign
Language)
TOP-uni «топовые», ведущие университеты мира

Undergraduate преддипломная программа, соответствует программе бакалавриата


program

b) Translate the word combinations as fast as possible:


alumni – стипендия - Sandwich course – бакалавр - First class honors – заявление на
поступление в ВУЗ – Credit - ранняя подача заявки на поступление - Statement of
Purpose – крайний срок подачи документов - Undergraduate program – абитуриент -
master’s degree – приемная комиссия – major – закончить институт - bachelor’s degree –
поступить в университет - Pre-masters – приемные экзамены – PhD – пробное интервью
– Deferral – оплата за обучение – minor

13
c) Read the text and discuss the equivalents for the phrases in bold type in class. Be ready
to do sight translation of the text.

Will an undergrad degree really help you get a better job?


By Jennifer Lewington
Record numbers of first-year university students flocked to campus this fall—but that hasn’t
stopped nagging questions about the value of a bachelor’s degree. Despite persuasive
statistical evidence that graduates find careers related to their studies and earn more than
others over a lifetime, Canadian universities are under the gun to demonstrate what it means
to have a degree.
Prodded by rising expectations of students, parents, government demands for greater
accountability, and a push from within to rethink undergraduate education, Canadian
universities are expanding efforts to link academic studies to the “real” world. “We know the
[degree] credential has value and that employers are looking at it and making hiring
decisions based on the credential,” says Glen Jones, a professor of higher education at the
Ontario Institute for Studies in Education. “Universities now are trying to expand the notion
of what is associated with the credential that could be helpful to the student, make a better
educational experience and yes, that may have down-the-road implications for
employability.” In addition to co-op education and internships, universities offer co-
curricular records that recognize work-relevant skills, such as communication and
leadership, developed through volunteer activities either on- or off-campus.
Some universities have started pilot projects to include résumé writing and career exploration
in the curriculum, while others spell out course-level learning outcomes—such as the ability
to think critically and work with others—valued by employers. The idea is to help students
develop knowledge and skills that will apply whatever their chosen career. “You don’t want
to equip students to be bankers; you want to equip them to do whatever they might be inclined
to do,” says McMaster University president Patrick Deane, a leading advocate of reforming
undergraduate education. His university and others have embraced “experiential
learning”—such as undergraduate research projects that offer learning opportunities outside
the classroom—as integral to the academic experience.
Melding theory and practice is old hat for professional schools, such as business and
medicine, but new as a campus-wide phenomenon. “It’s a relatively recent thing for
universities across the board to think in terms of the outcome of the learning process to
reasonably equip students for what they want to do,” says Deane.
Since 2002, McMaster’s faculty of social sciences has offered undergraduate research awards
to a dozen or so top students. Over the summer, they earn $6,000 to work on a project of their
choice, in collaboration with a professor, an experience designed to provide insights into
potential careers.
Last summer, fourth-year anthropology student Ana-Maria Dragomir assisted Canada
Research Chair and McMaster professor Megan Brickley with an inventory of skeletal
remains of soldiers from the Stoney Creek battle of the War of 1812. “It was not just a
summer job; it was a life experience,” says Dragomir, who has landed a part-time job with
Brickley this fall. “My research over the summer helped me develop a lot of skills that will be
transferable regardless of the career I will pursue,” she says.
• Increasingly, students draw strong links between a degree and a job. A 2010 survey
of first-year students by the 39-member Canadian University Survey Consortium
found that future employment ranked highest among eight reasons to earn a degree.

14
In the survey, 43% cited preparation for a specific job while 24% ranked getting a
good job as the prime reason to attend university.
(http://www.theglobeandmail.com/news/national/education/will-an-undergrad-degree-really-
help-you-get-a-better-job/article601007/?page=all)

d) Translate the following messages from a linguistic forum:


Hello, all! ^_^
I'm a new user, so be kind lol.
I'm a senior in high school and seriously looking into a major in linguistics. I adore language
and I'm teaching myself 3 different ones right now, and I would love to study how language
works in college and yada yada yada... Only... what happens after that?
What careers are there in linguistics really? I've been looking and all I can really find is a
translator, but I feel like there is so much more than that!
I can barely even find a college that offers it; when I get those silly "Come visit our college
because we rock!!" fliers in the mail, I look under language and more often than not, all they
offer is Spanish. :/ I've read in several places that a degree in linguistics is useless, but I
really, really hope that that isn't true Help?

*
It depends on if you want to stay in the field of linguistics - if you want to graduate with the
degree and then get a job where linguistics is directly applied, your choices are more narrow.
You could work in speech pathology (as a speech pathologist or assistant), become a
translator or interpreter if you are fluent in more than one language, or you could research and
lecture in higher education (which is where opportunities for fieldwork or authorship would
most likely come up).
Of course, once you get a degree in linguistics, you can work in many other positions that find
social science/humanities degrees useful. I'm working in the charity/fundraising sector, and
there are others in my office that have a degree in linguistics. It's not a bad degree to have,
really - you learn a lot of really useful things, and it shows on your CV.
Here are some careers/work that can use a linguistics background:
- academic linguist (obviously)
- translator
- speech pathology
- language instructor (not just at a university level, individuals also pay to have language
instruction from someone who knows how language works, also the military)
- dialect coach (think: theater, movies, immigrants)
- accent reduction
- bioacoustics (studying animal sounds)
- forensic speech analysis
- speech recognition work (a CS degree would help)
- transcription (transcription of garbled messages is forensically-relevant)
- testing speech hardware and software
- consulting on issues where you have interacting languages (e.g., bilingual education in the
US)
- it would aid audiology
- dictionary creation
- it would aid being an editor
- language documentation
- language revitalization (there's money in preserving native languages)
15
*
I personally think that a degree in linguistics is pretty much useless. I realize that I'm probably
the only one on here who will say such a thing, but I hope that that's something that will be
appreciated.
Actually, the question "Is a linguistics degree useless?" is very different from the question "Is
a linguistics degree worth it?". I suppose that technically it's not useless since no degree is
useless, in that there are jobs out there that require a degree but don't care what degree it is.
Obviously then, having a linguistics degree will make you more likely to get a job (or a higher
paying job) than having no degree whatsoever will. But that doesn't answer the question of "Is
it worth it?".
My advice to you would be to come up with a career plan and then only bother with the
college courses that will help you to achieve it. We all need to make money, and we all have
past-times that we would never kid ourselves into thinking can realistically provide
paychecks. Personally, I never bothered with trying to get a degree in linguistics because I
realized that there is no job that corresponds to what I enjoy about linguistics (that is to say,
no one is going to pay me to sit around and study how the grammars of native American
languages work). So, like with so many other things I enjoy (such as listening to music, or
whatever), I decided to keep my passions separate from my source of income.

*
You can try to become a professor if you want, and since you speak languages, then you also
have the option of possibly becoming an interpreter or translator (though, keep in mind that
there's more to those than simply being bilingual). But if those aren't your passions, then
they're just jobs. And if your only reason for having a passionless job is to get money, then
there's no reason why your job needs to have anything to do with linguistics or languages
whatsoever.
Take me for example. There's nothing I love more than studying languages, but I'll soon be
going to college to pursue a degree in biomedical engineering. It's not that biomedical
engineering is something that I necessarily find interesting, it's just something that pays
decently well and something which is expected to be in demand over the next decade without
much of an increase in the supply. Provided then that this job (and the schooling that goes
with it, which I plan to take slowly and with no job on the side) isn't much more demanding
than the jobs I've had to work in the past, then there's no reason why I shouldn't be able to
continue reading grammars in my free time. More importantly than that though, because this
job pays as well as it does (much more than my wife and I require to live), early retirement is
a feasible option.
I'm sure that a lot of what you've heard at your high school had nothing to do with early
retirement, and instead had more to do with finding a job that you won't hate for the next 40
years. I think it's criminal that they put such ideas into kids' heads, and so I just wanted to
present a different option to you.
There are of course other reasons for going to college too. Some people go to college to learn.
Personally, I think that's a bit of a joke, especially when it comes to linguistics. ---- After
being forced to take a bunch of classes that have nothing whatsoever to do with linguistics,
you'll end up getting to the linguistics classes only to find you're being taught a bunch of
various hypotheses that don't really directly relate to any actual languages. Maybe that's your
thing. Maybe you'd be interested in learning about tree diagrams and "universals". But if you
have an interest in ACTUAL languages, then my advice to you would be just to go straight to
books and get your info that way. (I could recommend some books. Just message me if you're
interested.)
16
Anyhow, in conclusion, my advice to you is that your pursue some other degree.
*
Well as ever its use depends on what you want to do with it. If you have it combined with a
foreign language degree as I have then that gives you more possibilities (or another as in the
States I imagine is more widespread i.e computer science). Toshiba are currently recruiting
people who specialize in phonology to make more artificial voice systems. There is also some
work in artificial translators (but you need skills for that that many linguistics degrees won't
give you). In Britain we are lucky that there are many jobs where the entry requirement is a
degree in any subject. In Britain you could become an English teacher with a linguistics
degree (we do a fair bit on dialect, register etc). There is the route of therapy as already
mentioned.
Linguistics could look good if you want to get into language teaching. Knowledge of
linguistics, I have found when teaching in France, helps to get the best out of your pupils too.
There is of course becoming an Academic, but that can be hard to get into, but if you think
you can, never say never. That does require a lot of dedication, including a PhD minimum and
an academic job isn't certain after that (it helps to have at least one member of staff at your
own university that you get on really well with). I'm not saying that to put you off, I want to
do it myself.
(http://www.lingforum.com/forum/viewtopic.php?t=4513&view=previous&sid=5c08e542d11
8d5405eaff4bd84f01222)

D EFFECTIVE WRITING

Getting started
I Defining your purpose
Writing is a process of discovery, and it is so exciting.
(From Keys for Writers by Ann Raimes)
WHAT TO WRITE?
Before you set off on a writing journey, think of what kind of writing it is going to be.
Remember, writing is often described as a ‘messy adventure’ and a ‘process of discovery’
(Raimes, 3). It means a variety of tasks: defining your purpose and topic, generating ideas,
formulating a thesis statement, organizing your ideas, drafting, revising and proofreading. The
process is not linear – you can do it in any order you like!
Still, a reasonable thing to do before you begin writing would be asking the question “What is
the main purpose of this piece?” It leads us to three types of writing that generally correlate
with the main purposes behind college writing:
1) Expository, or explanatory writing,
2) Persuasive, or argumentative writing,
3) Scientific, or analytical writing.
Answer these questions to define what category your piece falls into:
Is your main purpose to describe an experiment or a process or to report on lab results?
__________________________

17
Is your main purpose to explain the idea or provide information?
__________________________
Is your main purpose to persuade readers to see things your way or move them to action?
__________________________
For the purposes of this book, we will be focusing on scientific writing. Nevertheless,
significant attention will be paid to the principles of persuasive composition as these writing
skills will undoubtedly benefit your overall writing capacity.
According to Jack Raymond Baker and Allen Brizee (2011), “a research paper is the
culmination and final product of an involved process of research, critical thinking, source
evaluation, organization, and composition”.
A research paper is not simply an informed summary of a topic by means of primary and
secondary sources. It is neither a book report nor an opinion piece nor an overview of a
particular topic. Instead, it is a genre that requires one to spend time investigating and
evaluating sources with the intent to offer interpretations of the texts. The goal of a research
paper is not to inform the reader what others have to say about a topic, but to engage the
sources in order to offer a unique perspective on the issue at hand.

Exercise 1 (B1/B2/C1)

Define which type of text (expository, academic, or persuasive) these introductions


belong to:

1 An analysis of the college admission process reveals one challenge facing counselors:
accepting students with high test scores or students with strong extracurricular
backgrounds.

2 The life of the typical college student is characterized by time spent studying,
attending class, and socializing with peers.

3 High school graduates should be required to take a year off to pursue community
service projects before entering college in order to increase their maturity and global
awareness.

II Useful Vocabulary: Purpose (B1/B2)


We can use in order to – so as to – to + infinitive to express purpose.
Our research team used only local materials in order to cut the expenses.
They visited him so as to offer their condolences for the death of his wife.
He agreed to cooperate with police not to fall under suspicion.

We can use so (that) to express purpose (so that is usually followed by modal verbs can, could, will
or would).
The police locked the door so that no-one could get in.
Michael went to England so that he would study art.

18
Exercise 2 (B1/B2)
Please, rephrase the following sentences using the words/expressions given.
1 I am going to night school so that I can improve my English. IN ORDER TO
2 Mark changed jobs because he wanted to be nearer to home. SO AS TO
3 I phoned the Student Service as I wanted to get information on the tuition cost. TO
4 The teacher gave me some books to help me better prepare to the exam. SO THAT
5 You should write an outline of the article so that your scientific supervisor would see
it. IN ORDER TO

Useful Vocabulary: Purpose (B2/C1)


We can use so as/in order (for something) + infinitive to talk about the purpose of an action.
These phrases are placed at the beginning of a clause.
The government decided not to introduce the death penalty for fear (that) innocent people would die.
The government decided not to introduce the death penalty so that innocent people would not die.
The government decided not to introduce the death penalty so as to / in order to avoid the deaths of
innocent people.
The government decided not to introduce the death penalty (in order) for innocent people not to fall victim.
We can use in order that, so that and so to talk about the purpose of an action. These phrases
are put at the beginning of a clause.
So that we can meet the deadlines, we’d better get back to work.
We’d better get back to work in order that all the deadlines are met.
Some more formal ways of expressing purpose include prepositional phrases with the aim of,
with the purpose of, with a view to.
Susan went to London with the aim of studying law.
A staff meeting has been held with a view to resolving the issue.
I have mentioned these examples with the sole purpose of overcoming the expert’s objection.

Exercise 3 (B2/C1)
Please, correct the mistakes.
1 So that to watch a meteor storm, the team stayed up all night.
2 A new advertising campaign kicked off in order that launch a new smart phone.
3 I am doing a PR course so to go into advertising.
4 I have drawn a chart for you in order to see the difference.
5 They are willing to sell the technology with a view of making a quick profit while the
going’s good.
6 We have done research in order for to see which processed foods were most popular.
7 I always lock my drawer out of fear somebody looks in it overnight.
(Adapted from http://www.eslflow.com/)

19
UNIT 2. RESEARCH SKILLS

A EXPLORING A TOPIC

I Expressing an opinion (B1/B2/C1)


What is critical thinking? How is it related to academic research?
Comment on the following meaning and interpretation of critical thinking as explained
to students at the website of the University of Canberra, Australia:
When you are thinking critically, you are not just thinking passively and accepting
everything you see and hear. You are thinking actively. You are asking questions about what
you see and hear, evaluating, categorising, and finding relationships.

SOME OF THE ACTIVITIES INVOLVED IN CRITICAL THINKING


Interpreting according to a framework Describing
Relating theory to practice Analysing
Making a claim and supporting it Synthesising
Using appropriate evidence Categorising
Making links between ideas Establishing cause and effect
Asking questions Comparing and contrasting
Evaluating Identifying problems and solutions
Predicting
Critical thinking is the essence of tertiary learning. As a university student, you will be
expected to apply mental actions such as these to all your academic reading, writing, listening
and discussing.
All disciplines will require you to ask questions, relate theory to practice, find and use
appropriate evidence, evaluate, find links, and categorise.
Science is often concerned with interpreting within a framework, describing,
explaining, predicting, and identifying cause and effect.
Some techniques to help you read critically
− When you take notes, divide your notepad into two columns. Jot down the main
ideas in the left hand column, and the supporting comments in the right hand
column. Add your own comments in another colour, or in brackets.
− Talk to other people (anyone who is interested!) about what you have read.
− Relate this text to others by looking for similar or contrasting themes.
− Think of how you might explain what the text means to, say, a high school
student. What would you have to add to make it intelligible? (This will help you
to see the underlying, unstated assumptions.)
− Ask yourself: 'Is it possible to disagree with any of this?'
− Ask yourself: 'How can I convince my peers/teachers that I understand what this
is about?'

20
The skills that you develop at university in critical thinking will support you in your
future professional lives. Professionals constantly need to make decisions based on critical
thinking, to evaluate processes and outcomes, and to reflect upon their practice.

(From Academic Skills: Learning Skills: Critical Thinking, University of Canberra)

II Related information (B1/B2/C1)

1. Define the meaning of the following terms: research, ethics, tool, venue, data collection,
cybercommunity.

2. Read the fragment of the article Internet Research Ethics by Elizabeth A. Buchanan and
Michael Zimmer from The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.

1) Explain the term Internet Research Ethics (IRE).


2) What makes Internet a tool?
3) What are Internet venues?
4) Explain the distinction between the “engaged web-based research” and “non-intrusive web-
based research”.

INTERNET RESEARCH ETHICS

1. Definitions
IRE is defined as the analysis of ethical issues and application of research ethics principles as
they pertain to research conducted on and in the Internet. Internet-based research, broadly
defined, is research which utilizes the Internet to collect information through an online tool,
such as an online survey; studies about how people use the Internet, e.g., through collecting
data and/or examining activities in or on any online environments; and/or, uses of online
datasets, databases, or repositories.
Critical to the definition of Internet research ethics is the concept of the Internet as a research
tool versus a research venue. The distinction between tool and venue plays out across
disciplinary and methodological orientations. As a tool, Internet research is enabled by search
engines, data aggregators, databases, catalogs, and repositories, while venues include such
places or locales as conversation applications (IM/chat rooms, for example), MUDs, MOOs,
MMORPGs, (forms of role playing games, virtual worlds) newsgroups, home pages, blogs,
micro-blogging (i.e., Twitter), RSS feeds, crowd sourcing applications, or online course
software.
Another way of conceptualizing the distinction between tool and locale comes from Kitchin
(2008), who has referred to a distinction in Internet research using the concepts of “engaged
web-based research” versus “non-intrusive web-based research:” “Non-intrusive analyses
refer to techniques of data collection that do not interrupt the naturally occurring state of the
site or cybercommunity, or interfere with premanufactured text. Conversely, engaged analyses
reach into the site or community and thus engage the participants of the web source” (p. 15).
These two constructs provide researchers with a way of discerning if human subjects
protections would apply. McKee and Porter (2009), as well as Banks and Eble (2007) provide
guidance on the continuum of human-subjects research, noting a distinction between person-
based versus text-based. For example, McKee and Porter provide a range of research variables
(public/private, topic sensitivity, degree of interaction, and subject vulnerability) which are
21
useful in determining where on the continuum of text-based versus how person-based the
research is, and whether or not subjects would need to consent to the research (pp. 87–88).
III Developing background knowledge (B1/B2/C1)
There is a blog of Nancy Walton, Ph.D. called The Research Ethics Blog
http://researchethicsblog.com/. This is a blog about human-subjects research ethics. It is
written primarily by Nancy Walton, Ph.D., (with occasional postings by Chris MacDonald,
Ph.D.).
Read about a research ethics scandal in Canada and find some other examples of unethical
research. Report your findings to the group.

IV Exchanging views and ideas (B1/B2/C1)


1. Group work. David B. Resnik, J.D., Ph.D. in the article What is Ethics in Research & Why
is it Important? summarizes specific codes, rules, and policies relating to research ethics
specific codes, rules, and policies relating to research ethics adopted by different professional
associations, government agencies, and universities to conduct the research. Study these
principles and discuss:
1) Which principles are the most important?
2) The application of which principles is limited by the field of study?
3) Which of the principles you would include into your research ethics?
Honesty
Strive for honesty in all scientific communications. Honestly report data, results, methods and
procedures, and publication status. Do not fabricate, falsify, or misrepresent data. Do not
deceive colleagues, granting agencies, or the public.
Objectivity
Strive to avoid bias in experimental design, data analysis, data interpretation, peer review,
personnel decisions, grant writing, expert testimony, and other aspects of research where
objectivity is expected or required. Avoid or minimize bias or self-deception. Disclose
personal or financial interests that may affect research.
Integrity
Keep your promises and agreements; act with sincerity; strive for consistency of thought and
action.
Carefulness
Avoid careless errors and negligence; carefully and critically examine your own work and the
work of your peers. Keep good records of research activities, such as data collection, research
design, and correspondence with agencies or journals.
Openness
Share data, results, ideas, tools, resources. Be open to criticism and new ideas.
Respect for Intellectual Property
Honor patents, copyrights, and other forms of intellectual property. Do not use unpublished
data, methods, or results without permission. Give credit where credit is due. Give proper
acknowledgement or credit for all contributions to research. Never plagiarize.

22
Confidentiality
Protect confidential communications, such as papers or grants submitted for publication,
personnel records, trade or military secrets, and patient records.
Responsible Publication
Publish in order to advance research and scholarship, not to advance just your own career.
Avoid wasteful and duplicative publication.
Responsible Mentoring
Help to educate, mentor, and advise students. Promote their welfare and allow them to make
their own decisions.
Respect for colleagues
Respect your colleagues and treat them fairly.
Social Responsibility
Strive to promote social good and prevent or mitigate social harms through research, public
education, and advocacy.
Non-Discrimination
Avoid discrimination against colleagues or students on the basis of sex, race, ethnicity, or
other factors that are not related to their scientific competence and integrity.
Competence
Maintain and improve your own professional competence and expertise through lifelong
education and learning; take steps to promote competence in science as a whole.
Legality
Know and obey relevant laws and institutional and governmental policies.
Animal Care
Show proper respect and care for animals when using them in research. Do not conduct
unnecessary or poorly designed animal experiments.
Human Subjects Protection
When conducting research on human subjects, minimize harms and risks and maximize
benefits; respect human dignity, privacy, and autonomy; take special precautions with
vulnerable populations; and strive to distribute the benefits and burdens of research fairly.

V Summarizing the topic (B1/B2/C1)


1. Study the definition of the research from Wikivercity. Explain the peculiarities of your
research to your group members.
What is Research?
Research can be defined as the search for knowledge, or as any systematic investigation, with
an open mind, to establish novel facts, usually using a scientific method. It's all about
addressing an issue or asking and answering a question or solving a problem. Research
requires you to conduct a study and provide evidence for how you address the issue or answer
a question. The methods that you apply to provide this evidence must be transparent, so that

23
anyone who looks at your research could replicate it if desired. In sport we generally consider
two types of research:
Quantitative - involves analysis of numerical data (e.g., website hits, blood lactate levels,
jump height)
Qualitative - involves analysis of data such as words (e.g., from interviews), pictures (e.g.,
video), or objects (e.g., an artifact).
2) Make a power point presentation on the topic Approaching Research in
Philology/Linguistics, bearing in mind the principles of an effective presentation (see Unit 5).
Follow the outline:

1) Initial steps.
2) Needed and testable research question.
3) Limitations.
4) Delimitations.
5) Activities.

VI Project work (B1/B2/C1)

1. Write an essay on one of the following topics:


1) Advice on research ethics.
2) What is plagiarism?
3) The difficulties of an academic research.

2. Create a web-page with resources on the topic Research Skills.

B PRACTISING SKILLS

TEXT 1 (B2)
Choose the correct heading for sections 1-5 from the list of headings below.
Write the correct letter A-F in the boxes given below. Remember, ONE heading is extra.

List of Headings
A Handling Data
B Team Leading
C Project Management
D IT Skills
E Researcher Identity
F Handling Budgets

Five Skills You Need to Become a Researcher


Obviously each field, arts, science or social science, has its own specialist skills that you must
acquire, but here are five generic research skills that will help you achieve your goals.

24
Section 1:
Every research project requires good planning. You will have to define your research in terms
of achievable aims, the time and resources needed to do this. You will have to provide a step
by step plan of how you intend to carry this out. This stage of your research must be
completed in order to get external funding, so without this skill your research project will not
even get off the ground. If you are currently working on someone else's project as an assistant,
try to learn as much as possible from them about the details of planning and running a project.
Set achievable aims and realistic estimates of time, manpower and money needed.
Section 2:
As an academic you might have administrative support to help you hold the purse strings, but
the final decision-making and responsibility will come down to you. As with your own
domestic budget, keeping a regular check on monies in and out is vital: do not bury your head
in the sand if things appear to be going wrong. Make sure you match your research goals to
the money you have been awarded. Do not over-commit yourself in the hiring of other staff,
or running collaborative workshops, both of which can cost a lot of money. But equally
remember that the money is there to be spent, do not hoard it! And finally, make sure you
keep good records of your income and spending: your university, funding body or the ‘tax
man' may want to see your records at any time.
Section 3:
Being good at working with others is a difficult skill to achieve especially in the academic
world when we are used to working with a large degree of autonomy. However a research
project often requires the assistance of others: colleagues at your institution and elsewhere,
administrative staff and possibly people in the private sector as well.
If you are managing the project you need to know two main things: how to get the best out of
each of your workers, and how to make their working experience a positive one. Without both
of those factors, your team may fall apart. Being a good communicator is important. Asking
each person to play their part is vital, but so is listening to them, asking for their feedback on
decisions or asking what is wrong if they are not happy. Being able to assess each colleague's
needs and vulnerabilities is essential if you are going to be able to lead them as a team.
Section 4:
Depending on your field the sorts of results you get from your project will vary widely. It
could be results from experiments within a laboratory, statistical evidence gathered from work
in the field or qualitative material gleaned from interviews or from research in an archive or
library. Whatever sort of results you get, you need to be able to handle large amounts of data
efficiently and effectively. Without this skill you will never get to the exciting stage of
actually analysing your results.
So how do you handle data successfully? By being well organised and planning ahead. While
you may not be exactly sure of what you will produce, you will know what sort of data
storage you need, both electronically and on paper, so organise this immediately. You must
not lose any work because of incompetence or disorganisation. So design and set up your
database now; organise storage for hard copies of raw materials and catalogue them clearly.
Make sure you keep records of who is collecting what as you go along, so that when it comes
to writing up your research later, you have all the answers you need at your fingertips.

25
Section 5:
It is unlikely you will be running your own research project without being fairly IT literate,
but there are always new methods or packages to learn about, so don't stop!
For example, are there any data collection or storage packages that would help your research
that you are unfamiliar with? What about analytical tools for working with large amounts of
data? Perhaps you need something bespoke and experimental for your project that you could
help to design. It could be that a bibliographical tool might help you write up your research.
Also think about ways that you can develop your IT skills to present your work in ever more
exciting ways. Can you build your own website for example?
IT is a very important area for researchers. Like our own fields of interest, IT never stands
still, there is always a way to improve your skills even further.
(From Jobs.ac.uk)

TEXT 2 (C1)
Put the word(s) in brackets in the right form.

Academic Integrity and Student Plagiarism: a Question of Education, Not Ethics


By Susan D. Blum
Student plagiarism is a problem on many college campuses. The two main approaches that
institutions use to prevent it call for treating plagiarism either as morally wrong or as a crime.
But neither avenue can be universally successful.
Institutions that approach the problem of plagiarism as a matter of morality often create honor
codes. Such codes appeal to the desire of students to do the right thing. The codes assume
that, with appropriate social 1. ______________ (PRESS), they will. Students are asked to
affirm that they will practice virtuous conduct as members of an academic community.
But while students may subscribe to the principles 2. _____________ (BODY) in the notion
of academic integrity, other principles can lead them to plagiarize or accept their classmates'
infractions. For instance, friendship and friendliness — student solidarity — are virtues that
often take 3. _______________ (PRECEDE) over adherence to an academic code of honor.
The second approach to preventing plagiarism — treating it as breaking a rule, or as a crime
rather than a sin — emphasizes law and enforcement. Many colleges regularly revise
regulations dealing with academic integrity, and call on faculty members and administrators
to vigilantly enforce them. Colleges now also often rely on electronic plagiarism-prevention
resources like Turnitin — whereby professors submit student papers to that Web site and
receive an "originality report" demonstrating whether any part matches existing works in the
database.
Although some students may embrace rules governing academic integrity, others are likely to
see them as akin to other regulations or laws that they follow reluctantly or ignore. The laws
regarding drinking, for instance, are routinely flouted at almost every college, and those
regarding music downloading, a form of sharing intellectual property, are broadly
4._______________ (REGARD).
Traditional efforts by administrators to prevent plagiarism fail for a number of reasons. For
starters, students have only a vague sense of what is meant by the moral quality termed
"academic integrity." Also, rules about intellectual property are in flux.

26
Moreover, students are mostly focused on success and achievement, a bottom-line mentality
that has helped them gain 5. ______________ (ADMIT) to the highly selective institutions
that are, in fact, trying to enforce the norms of academic citation. If students pursued
education for its own sake — as do most professors — they would try to produce academic
work that increases learning and to model their behavior on their professors'. But many
students don't especially value the process of classroom learning — so, in fact, any process
will do.
All of those trends signal that we need an 6. _______________ (ALTER) to the top-down
approaches of plagiarism prevention represented by honor codes and rule enforcement. A
third strategy treats academic integrity, especially the mandate to cite sources, as a set of skills
to be learned. That notion has both philosophical and practical dimensions: Students must be
persuaded of the value of citation — which is far from self-evident — and instructed over
time in how to do it.
The nuances of citation are complicated, even though we summarize them by saying, "Give
credit." Faculty members in various disciplines differ vastly in their 7. _______________
(EXPECT) concerning citation and quotation. In engineering, for instance, quotation is not
considered desirable, while in the humanities it is expected.
Cross-culturally, examples of literal transmission of words and phrases outnumber examples
of each generation's starting afresh and creating something brand new. Young people, with
their astonishing ability to memorize and mimic, are always expected to learn from the old, to
defer to them, to memorize and chant and recite until the rhythms are 8. ________________
(BED) in their psyches and souls, until they are all socialized and can act properly, having
embodied the wisdom of their predecessors. Countless studies demonstrate the value that most
people place on oral transmission of tradition: Jewish and Christian Scriptures, folk tales
throughout the world, and so on.
Professors who teach writing and composition struggle to educate students about what citation
means and how to avoid plagiarism. Unlike administrators and faculty members who merely
announce the guideline "Cite your sources," writing teachers admit the 9._______________
(PARADOX) nature of drawing a firm line between what is original and what is borrowed.
But even sensitive composition teachers can't simply deliver a comprehensive lesson about
citation. Writing specialists know that integrity is a slippery concept that cannot be conveyed
in a single precept uttered once and for all. Of course, writers also see practical and
professional benefits to being quoted by name.
Academics increasingly rely on "citation indexes" in various databases, including Google
Scholar, to demonstrate their scholarly impact. Researchers depend on getting complete
citation information so they can track down sources. But students, whose writing goes into a
vacuum, usually unread by anyone but a single instructor, cannot be expected to understand
the pragmatic reasons for which citations are demanded.
Indeed, the professorial 10. _______________ (INSIST) on citing sources often seems
arbitrary and puzzling to students. Even a member of my senior research team, majoring in a
field that requires a lot of writing, admitted to not understanding why she had to give a page
number for a quotation from a journal article, since inclusive page numbers were given in the
bibliography. She had accepted the basic guidelines about citation but could not quite grasp
all the nuances of their 11. _______________ (APPLY).
Students can recite the guideline for giving credit to anything that is not "common
knowledge" — such as that there are 12 months in the year or that George Washington was
the first American president. But what about technical terms defined in textbooks? What
27
about the selection of certain texts to answer the question posed by the professor? Should the
professor get credit for the question? For the syllabus?
Strict admonishment — "no copying" — is inadequate, whether as timeless morality or as
universal practice. Students need to be taught the genre 12. _______________ (REQUIRE) of
academic writing. They need to be shown how to do what we, their teachers, are asking of
them. They need to learn how to cite, how to refer, how to use quotation marks for direct
quotations as opposed to indirect ones.
Given the nuances of citation and their entanglement with issues of educational goals,
originality, intertextuality, selfhood, and individuality, it is clear that students cannot simply
be handed a brochure and be expected to get it. The message has to be broadcast over and
over, by many sincere people who have given it much thought. Colleges can take the
following steps:
1. Organize conferences with faculty members and students. Put the issues out in public;
spell them out so everyone knows what we are talking about. Allow students a voice in
framing the issue.
2. Admit that the rules are rather arbitrary. Intellectual property is not an eternal value.
3. Raise the problem of intellectual property as a theoretical and historical issue.
4. Separate intellectual, legal, and bureaucratic dimensions of academic citation.
5. Compare students' quotation and intertextual practices with academic citation
practices. Be explicit about the similarities and differences in citing and quoting,
paraphrasing, and borrowing. Show there are different norms in different contexts — for
instance, quoting from movies versus books in papers — all legitimate in their own way.
6. Sort out the various sorts of plagiarism. Just as we distinguish between tasting a grape
at the supermarket and stealing a car, we don't want to lump together all infractions of
academic-citation norms. There are big differences among 13. _______________ (PERFECT)
mastering citation norms, incorporating a sentence, omitting quotation marks, and turning in
someone else's paper.
Treating academic integrity as a constellation of skills, taught largely through the long
apprenticeship of higher education, is the most promising approach for getting students to
follow the rules of academic citation, and the one with the least 14. _______________
(LIKELY) of providing a shortcut. That means teaching students what academic integrity
involves, why professors value it, and how exactly to carry it out.

C TRANSLATION / INTERPRETING SKILLS

1. Read the text and do translation exercises.


a) Translate from English into Russian:
criticality and reflection, required skills, independent research, current and previous Masters
students, increased awareness, assignment submission, extensive background reading, valid
and fit for purpose, to meet the expectations, online databases, to complement journal articles
and textbooks, to reference correctly, paraphrase and summarise, online tutorial, to produce
written work in word processed form, to analyse quantitative data, training and guidance.
b) Translate from Russian into English:

28
научиться использовать компьютерные приложения, анализ количественных данных,
избегать плагиата, снабжать текст ссылками, включать в текст цитаты, библиография и
список ссылок, поиск информации, проводить всестороннее исследование, стандарты и
требования, демонстрировать понимание чего-либо.
2. Translate the text in writing.
Study Skills for Masters
Studying for a Masters requires the ability to apply a range of academic study skills at a
higher level in order to produce outcomes that demonstrate criticality and reflection applied to
a sound understanding of your field of study.
Many of the skills required may have been developed during your undergrad studies but you
will be expected to demonstrate these at a more advanced level through independent research.
For others, studying at a UK university may require learning new procedures, skills and
processes.
The following areas have been identified by current and previous Masters students as
challenging and deserving of preparatory work to understand their meaning and application in
order to be able to apply them in their studies. Lecturers also agree, that students who
demonstrate an increased awareness of many of the study areas mentioned consistently
produce work of a higher standard.
The Basic Principles of Academic Work
Studying for your Masters means that there are certain expectations placed upon you as a
student in terms of how you go about producing your assignments and assessed work. Some
of these may be formal written rules such as the rules regarding assignment submission or
plagiarism. Each academic institution, even Faculties and Schools have their own standards
and requirements, which you will be expected to follow throughout your assessed work.
There are other, less formal, but equally important expectations and they concern the
processes you have go through in order to produce your work. For example, at Masters level
you will be expected to provide discussion and analysis that is supported by extensive
background reading. Therefore research taken from a range of sources that are both valid and
fit for purpose is an expectation placed upon you.
Meeting these expectations does not guarantee a higher grade, however, it is extremely
important that you know the basics on which to build upon.
RESEARCHING
Some of you will be unfamiliar with independent research to support your studies. For a
Masters you will be expected to carry out comprehensive research from a range of sources
including textbooks and journals. Others may be used to library research but will still have to
get used to the information systems.
Online databases: There are a number of databases available when searching for online
journals. At first it will take time to familiarise yourselves with the various methods of
searching for information but eventually you will find your preferred database and develop
your own styles and techniques of researching. The library provides guidance by subject.
Each subject page provides links to databases relevant to your subject area as well as a whole
range of other useful information.
A USEFUL TIP: Spending time at the beginning of your course learning how to use the
online databases will save you a lot of time and effort later on in your studies.

29
Using the internet: The amount of information available on the internet can sometimes be
overwhelming and its value as a source of information is unquestionable. However, there are
dangers associated with researching on the internet and it is important that whilst browsing
you remain aware of these.
BE AWARE: Using the internet as your sole source of information is likely to result in a
disappointing grade so make sure you are using valid, accurate and current sources to
complement journal articles and textbooks.
REFERENCING AND PLAGIARISM
Plagiarism occurs when, in your own work, you use that of others without attributing those
views, images, charts or words to the original author, and it can have serious consequences.
Students found guilty of plagiarism can be removed from their programme of study and the
University. It is therefore important to develop the skills necessary to avoid plagiarism which
include referencing correctly and being able to summarise others' views and opinions in
your own words.
Referencing correctly and consistently means that you avoid the occurance of plagiarism in
your work. However, good academic practice is also achieved when, instead of copying large
sections of another person's work, you paraphrase and summarise.
Students often say that although they know what plagiarism is they find it really hard to
explain things using their own words when the original author did it so much better.
Throughout your work you will be expected to include citations as well as a reference list and
bibliography.
There are a number of referencing systems used throughout universities and each one has
strict rules about how information relating to a source of information is displayed. As a
general rule the Harvard Referencing System is used, but check with each module lecturer
for their individual preferences.
USING I.T. AND COMPUTER SOFTWARE
All students are expected to produce written work in word processed form, this also includes
any presentation material. You will therefore have to become familiar with using applications
such as Microsoft Word and Powerpoint. It is assumed that most students will have a basic
understanding of how to use these computer applications.
There are computer clusters for student use all around the University campus as well as
computer suites for the sole use of Masters students. Each student has their own personal
storage space on the university IT system with excellent computer support teams available to
help you with any problems you may have.
For most Masters students the use of IT will extend to using statistical analysis packages such
as Excel or SPSS. These are useful packages to record and analyse quantitative data,
especially during the writing up of dissertations. If you have any specific concerns regarding
the use of IT.
(http://www.see.leeds.ac.uk/stepup/skillsarea1.html)

30
D EFFECTIVE WRITING

I Topic, research question & aims of study

WHAT AM I WRITING ABOUT?


As Ann Raimes notes (Raimes, 3), “Getting started is hard. That blank page can be terrifying,
but writing offers an advantage over speaking: you can go back and make changes. Once you
remember that you are not locked into what you first put down on paper, starting the process
becomes much easier”.
1. Formulating a research question
The first step in developing a study idea is asking yourself a question, “What do I want to
investigate?” In other words, you first need to “generate” the idea.
As Robson (2002) says, there are no foolproof, automatic ways of generating research
questions. He also makes the point that, whilst it is good practice to follow the ideas of
deciding on a general research area first, and then narrowing and focusing it down, sometimes
it doesn't happen like this. Occasionally, research questions present themselves through
experience or through some theoretical concerns and you then have to find a context or focus
in which to ask the question.
Well-defined research questions lead to clearer aims than those questions are not specific, so
it is important to try to be as clear as possible about the focus of your research.
Research aims are more specific and reflect more precisely what the research wants to find
out.
Exercise 1. Fill in the gaps in the table below.
Research question Aim of study
Example: Do children learn gender To investigate the relationship between
stereotypes from watching television? television viewing time and gender
stereotyped attitudes in children.
Example: Is drug therapy the best way of To compare the success rates of drug
treating anxiety disorders? therapy with behavioural therapies in the
treatment of anxiety disorders.
How are students in this school/college
taught?

Are there better ways of teaching the


students in this school or college?

To establish the extent to which the 'garbage


can' model might influence risk management
decisions
To compare plate fixation to external
fixation in patients who have undergone
surgical treatment of fractures
31
2. Defining project aims and objectives
Setting your aims goes hand in hand with formulating your research question.
At the beginning of your research project you will have to be able to state the aims of your
research. They state what you want to find out. It could be challenging. Very often we have a
general idea of the area we would like to research in.
A clear set of aims also helps to keep you on track during the execution of your research.
Lastly, a well-stated set of research aims give you a ready-made framework for writing the
discussion and conclusions parts of your dissertation. It is very easy to wander away from
your initial aims at the point of writing. It is most effective to write the conclusions chapter
with the aims as sub-headings - this closes the circle by ensuring that you have addressed the
initial aims as effectively as possible.
It might also be useful to draw a line between study aims and objectives. Aims describe what
you want to achieve. Objectives describe how you are going to achieve these aims.

Aims Objectives
Broad statements of desired outcomes, or Steps you are going to take to answer
the general intentions of the research, your research questions or a specific list
which 'paint a picture' of your research of tasks needed to accomplish the goals
project of the project

Here is an example of a project aim and subsidiary objectives:


Aim Objectives
To assess the collection and disposal • To critically assess waste operations by
operations for household waste in order to local authorities, including volumes of
identify factors which contribute to materials and current disposal routes.
technical efficiency.
• To classify and evaluate the operation of
waste disposal schemes nationally.
• To make recommendations to improve the
operational effectiveness of waste
collection.

It isn't worth getting too distracted by this, however. Also, ‘objectives’ are often another term
for ‘specific research aims’. Whether you need to create aims, objectives or both for your
work, the most important matter is that you can answer the question "What do you want to
find out?"
(Adapted from http://ro.uwe.ac.uk/)
II Useful Vocabulary Verbs of objectives (B1/B2/C1)
It is generally recommended not to use the word "investigate" in stating objectives. This is
because what you are doing overall is an investigation, and the objectives should be more
specific. Let’s look at some words that might be helpful in describing your research and study
aims:

32
Noun Collocation

goal have something as a goal, achieve a goal, but not reach your goal

motive a motive for doing

objective meet/achieve objectives

priority top priority, take priority over

target reach/achieve/attain a target

It is highly advisable to use strong positive statements. It could be achieved by means of


‘strong’ verbs:

Weak verbs Strong verbs

appreciate, consider, collect, construct, classify, develop, devise, measure, produce,


enquire, learn, know, revise, select, synthesize
understand, be aware The list of strong verbs could also include: challenge, contribute,
of, listen, perceive devise, discover, establish, explore, explain, evaluate, explicate,
extend, further, infer, instigate

Exercise 2

a) Match the two halves of collocations (more than one option is possible):

B1/B2

develop a new Android application


explain a principle
compare the style of two poems
collect research data
discover a principle of energy conservation
classify the events by date
produce an explanation
evaluate the effects of the economic crisis

B2/C1

challenge traditional research methodologies


contribute to the understanding of the phenomenon
devise a scheme for redeveloping the city centre
establish a new rule
explore the biological effects of radiation
explicate the wave theory
extend the technology

33
further the understanding of the process of word
infer borrowing
instigate a connection between smoking and heart
disease
new creative work across disciplines

b) Write three nouns/noun phrases that collocate with the verbs given. Use a dictionary
if necessary.

3. Defining and narrowing your topic


Finally, having formulated your research question and defined your aims, you might perhaps
determine the topic of your writing.
In academic writing, establishing a clear focus and an interesting topic is a matter of utmost
importance.
You should undoubtedly follow a line from broad to narrow. As you progress, you shall
move from your topic to your thesis, which is your main idea, your statement of opinion.
It is not uncommon for writers to change their topic or question as they discover more
information. The following table demonstrates narrowing one’s topic in order to generate a
thesis with focused ideas and examples.

Research problem Commentary

'Public transport in Scotland’ This sets out your research field but does not frame a
research problem because it is too general. You do not
have time to study everything about a topic, so you
should focus on an aspect that you are interested in.

‘Examination of the influence of This is a much better research problem as it


public transport links on new establishes an argument. However, it is still quite
housing development in Western general and could be improved by further focus.
Scotland’

‘Investigation of the relationship It is better as it shows the limits of the project. You
between public transport links and will be investigating a complex subject (public
the development of new areas of transport in Scotland), but will be focusing on only
housing in Western Scotland: a one aspect of it (possible influence on new housing
comparison of local plans and development). You will make this large subject
building development since 1990’ manageable by focusing on a limited period of time
(1990 onwards), and limited sources.

(Adapted from University of Leicester Writing Resources @ http://www2.le.ac.uk)

34
Exercise 3 (B2/C1)
Analyse the following working titles and choose the one you think is preferable. Give
your reasons.
1 a) Linguistic Ethnography as a Flow of Social Practices: The Case of Residential Child
Care Institutions.
b) The Study of Residential Child Care Institutions.
2 a) Congressional Support for the President in Washington and at Home.
b) Listen to What I Say, Not How I Vote: Congressional Support for the President in
Washington and at Home.
3 a) The Geopolitics of the Eastern Border of the European Union.
b) The Geopolitics of the Eastern Border of the European Union: The Case of
Romania-Moldova-Ukraine.
4 a) A Comparison of the Progressive Era and the Depression Years: Societal Influences
on Predictions of the Future of the Library, 1895-1940.
b) A Comparison of the Progressive Era and the Depression Years: Societal Influences
on Predictions of the Future of the Library.
5 a) What are the ants doing? Vision-based tracking and reconstruction of control
programs.
b) What are the ants doing?

35
UNIT 3. TIME MANAGEMENT

A EXPLORING A TOPIC

I Expressing an opinion (B1/B2/C1)

1. Edward Hall, an American anthropologist, called time one of the key factors defining a
type of culture. He singled out monochronic and polychronic time and, consequently,
monochronic and poychronic cultures:
Monochronic time. M-Time, as E. Hall called it, means doing one thing at a time. It assumes
careful planning and scheduling and is a familiar Western approach that appears in
disciplines such as 'time management'. Monochronic people tend also to be low context (Time
is highly organized. Product is more important than process. Low commitment to
relationship. Task is more important than relationships).
Polychronic time. In Polychronic cultures, human interaction is valued over time and
material things, leading to a lesser concern for 'getting things done' - they do get done, but
more in their own time. Aboriginal and Native Americans have typical polychronic cultures,
where 'talking stick' meetings can go on for as long as somebody has something to say.
Polychronic people tend also to be high context (Time is open and flexible. Process is more
important than product. High commitment to long-term relationships. Relationship is more
important than task).
(Adapted from Hall's cultural factors at Changing Minds.org)
What attitude to time do you have? What type of culture do you belong to?

2. Define the term “Time Management”, using the following clues:

What is the definition of time management?


In a nutshell, time management is the ability to manage time using a range of skills, tools and
techniques to effectively manage tasks, projects, goals and schedules. Time management is a
skill and can be taught either in a classroom or through books and courses which when
mastered can result in a person accomplishing more, accomplishing more in less time and
making time for new projects and tasks or eliminating unessential ones (from Time
Management Advisor at Management Skills Resource Center).
Generally, time management refers to the development of processes and tools that increase
efficiency and productivity. Personal time management is managing our time to waste less of
it on doing the things we have to do so we have more to do the things we want to do. Personal
time management skills include: goal setting; planning; prioritizing; decision-making;
delegating; scheduling.
(Adapted from Time Management by Susan Ward)
II Related information (B1/B2/C1)
1. Define the meaning of the following terms: tertiary study environment, semester planning,
procrastinate.

36
2. Read the tips Study and Time Management, prepared by Academic Skills Centre University
of Canberra.
1) What is peculiar about tertiary study environment?
2) Single out key elements of semester planning.
3) What aspects of your life may affect your daily planning?
4) Summarize the key rules that help you in your studying (what to be aware of and what
to do before, while an after it).

STUDY AND TIME MANAGEMENT

The tertiary study environment requires you to take responsibility for your own study habits.
Therefore, a major challenge for you as a university student will be how to organise your time
to your best advantage. This handout offers advice about how to plan a successful semester of
study from the beginning.
Semester planning
As soon as possible you should make a semester plan — perhaps on a big wall chart where
you can see it at a glance. Mark on it when all your assignments are due and then think about
the various steps involved in preparing that assignment so you can slot those steps into the 3
or 4 week period that precedes each due date:
Management Business stats. Intro to GBR
Marketing
Wk 1

Wk 2 Research Meet group -


research
Wk 3 Planning/drafting Research Research Meet group-write

Wk 4 Research/drafting Research/drafting Research/drafting Oral due


Wk 5 Editing Research/drafting Research/drafting
Wk 6 Report due Editing Editing Research
Wk 7 Exam rev. wks 1-7 Essay due Essay due Research/drafting
Wk 8 Research Research/drafting
Wk 9 Prep speech/slides Research Research Paper due

Wk 10 Oral due Planning/drafting Planning/drafting Research


Wk 11 Exam revision Research/drafting Research/drafting Planning/drafting
Wk 12 Exam revision Research/drafting Research/drafting Research/drafting
Wk 13 Exam revision Editing Editing Final paper due

Wk 14 Exam revision Final Essay due Final Essay due

SWOT Exam revision


Exams Final Exam

37
Weekly planning
Your lecturers generally construct their units with the anticipation that you will spend about
8-10 hours per week on that unit. If you subtract any face-to-face sessions, with the remaining
time, you should:
· Prepare for each lecture by skimming the weekly topics and readings.
· Review your notes afterwards to make sure you’ve got a good understanding.
· Prepare for tutorials (4-6 hours per tutorial) by doing readings, completing any tutorial
questions or exercises and making a list of questions to ask
· Attend ASP workshops on academic skills relevant to your units
· Prepare for assignments; use your semester planner to guide you each week
· Revise for end of semester exams by going over the main ideas for each unit
Daily planning
To effectively plan how you’ll spend your days while at university, ask yourself:
Are you an owl or a fowl?
Do you work better late at night, when everyone else is snoring in bed? Or, do you like
studying in the morning and typically go to bed early? Whatever you are, plan your daily
schedule around you own personal rhythms; there’s no point forcing yourself to get up at the
crack of dawn if you’re going to be falling asleep on your Biology textbook.
Do you work?
Use a calendar, wall planner or diary to mark out your shifts at work, so you can plan your
study around them. Remember, you don’t have to force yourself straight into study right after
a long shift at work: have something to eat and drink, and relax for a while until you have
enough energy to concentrate properly on your assignments. If rent or other payments are an
issue, take advantage of assessment free/light periods, such as the first few weeks of semester,
to work as much as possible so you can afford to miss a few shifts later on.
Do you want to maintain a social life?
Your brain (and body) will work better if you take some time off, so make sure you block out
some solid times for relaxation. If possible, keep a couple of days free (such as the weekend)
by trying to complete all tasks during the other 5 days. Decide what activities you really like
to do and mark them down – this includes TV and sleeping in. What are the crucial life
support activities you need to survive, i.e. exercise, cooking, shopping? Write big events (like
concerts) on in your planner so you can plan around them.
Do you sometimes procrastinate?
Before you begin studying
· Be clear about the task - talk to your lecturer or tutor, or someone at the ASP.
· Prepare your space - set up a spot where you can study successfully.
· Ensure you won’t be interrupted – perhaps with a `Do not Disturb' sign.
· Break the task into manageable bits – write them on a list. Do them one by one.
While you are studying
· Tick off each task as you go - this will provide a sense of achievement.
· Make yourself happy when you study using whatever works for you: music,

38
comfortable clothes, sugary lollies etc.
· Switch between tasks to keep interested and do some easy parts first to get going.
· Have regular breaks and set goals, e.g. “I'll study for 2 hours, then I'll watch Glee!”
After you have studied
· Reward yourself, for example, have a chocolate biscuit after every chapter you read.
· Use positive self-talk by thinking about the things you have done well.
(From Study and Time Management, Academic Skills Centre University of Canberra 2011)

III Developing background knowledge (B1/B2/C1)

1. Prepare a talk on a) the history of the term Time Management; b) its usage in
Academic perspective.

IV Exchanging views and ideas (B1/B2/C1)

1. Group work. Organize a brainstorming session to find out the most difficult aspects for
time management in your a) work, b) study, c) other activities.

2. There is a notion biological clock, which means the internal clock mechanisms that can
be found inside all human beings. Read the following fragment and explain the two
meanings of the term. Do you feel your biological clock?

When most people hear the term “biological clock,” they immediately think of a
woman entering her 30s, who feels she needs to hurry up and have children while she is still
young enough to do so. Although this term is commonly used to refer to both women’s and
men’s instinctive internal reproductive urges, the term “biological clock” was originally
coined to indicate the instinctive cycles of sleep and wakefulness, encompassing the
evolutionary perspective surrounding them. These sleep cycles are collectively referred to as
Circadian Rhythms. Circadian Rhythms govern our sleeping patterns, but they also play a
part in cardiovascular activity, the endocrine system, blood pressure, metabolism,
temperature and oxygen absorption.
The terms can be distinguished with the help of the following explanation: “biological
clock” simply refers to our internal wake/sleep timer, “male biological clock” refers to the
male fertility factors and “female biological clock” refers to female fertility factors.
The term “Circadian” comes from the Latin words “circa” and “diem,” with a
combined meaning of “about a day.” As part of the adaptation response, this cycle was meant
to aid humans in responding to lightness and darkness. It is widely believed by evolutionary
researchers that this adaptation response is also connected to survival in the respect that it
kept people from danger by inducing sleep at night during dark hours, rather than the well-lit
day. The biological clock is not actually based on exactly 24 hours as our time-telling devices
are – they include at least 20 extra minutes beyond the regular 24 hours. Powered by “clock
genes,” which are protein-producing, genetic information regarding waking and sleeping
patterns is sent through the body.
(Adapted from Biological Clocks and Circadian Rhythms at Online Clock.net)

39
V Summarizing the topic (B1/B2/C1)

1. Convert the text Study and Time Management into information for the slides (5-7
slides) for a power point presentation on the topic Time Management, bearing in mind
the principles of an effective presentation (see Unit 5).
2. Make a power point presentation on the topic Biological Clock: a) The introduction of
the term by American biologist Curt Paul Richter; b) The Biological Clock in
Humans.
- Choose the material carefully
- Define a particular problem
- Illustrate your talk with examples
- Do not forget about references

VI Project work (B1/B2/C1)

1. Interview your group-mates, relatives and friends. Find out if they are owls or fowls
and how it influences their life (what their hours of work and sleep are, when their
work or study are more effective). Present the results of your survey in a Report.

2. Fill in the chart for yourself:

a) for a week
Weekly Planner

Day Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat Sun


Time
7:00
7:30

23:00

b) for a semester
Semester Planner

Course English Communication Translation …


Practice
Week
1
2

16
SWOT
Exams

40
B PRACTISING SKILLS

TEXT 1 (B2)
Choose the correct heading for sections 1-6 from the list of headings below.
Write the correct letter in the boxes given below. Remember, ONE heading is extra.

List of Headings
A Allow for flexibility
B Keep your health in mind
C Where to go if you need time-management help
D Write down everything
E Plan ahead
F Manage your personal time
G Schedule rewards in

Learn to Manage Your Time in College


By K.L. Lucier
Within the first few days of starting college, many students quickly learn that managing their
time is one of the most challenging aspects of being in school. With so much to do and keep
track of, strong time management skills can make all the difference.
Section 1:
Get -- and use -- a calendar. It can be a paper calendar. It can be your cell phone. It can be a
PDA. No matter what kind it is, though, make sure you have one. Write down everything in
one place. (Having multiple calendars just gives you more to do amidst an already tight
schedule.) Schedule when you plan to sleep, when you are going to do your laundry, when
you're going to call your parents. The crazier your schedule gets, the more important this
becomes. Don't forget to schedule in time to relax and breathe. Just because your calendar
goes from 7:30 a.m. to 10:00 p.m. doesn't mean you can.
Section 2:
Sure, you just might be able to pull off two papers and a presentation during midterms week.
But what happens if you catch the flu the night you're supposed to be pulling the all-nighter?
Expect the unexpected so you don't have to spend more unplanned time trying to fix your
mistakes.
Things inevitably come up that you weren't expecting. You may not have known that your
roommate's birthday is this week, and you certainly don't want to miss the celebrations! Leave
room in your calendar so that you can move things around a little when needed.
Section 3:
Do you have a large research paper due the last week of the semester? Work backward in your
calendar and figure out how much time you need to write it, how much time you'll need to
research it, and how much time you'll need to pick your topic. If you think you'll need six
weeks for the entire project, work backward from the due date and schedule the time into your
calendar before it's too late.

41
Section 4:
When people's schedules are tight, one of the first things to go is sleep. While it may be
common among college students, a lack of sleep is more detrimental than you might think. It
can throw everything out of whack: your mental health, your physical health, your stress
level, and, of course, your schedule.
Constantly working at a frenetic pace, especially when you're sleep deprived, will catch up
with you sooner or later. Take a few moments at the beginning of every week to plan out your
homework, your social time—and your sleep.
Section 5:
Your midterms week is a nightmare, but it will all be over Friday by 2:30. Schedule a fun
afternoon and a nice dinner out with some friends; your brain will need it, and you can relax
knowing that you're not supposed to be doing anything else.
Section 6:
Many campuses offer help with time management because it's such a challenge for everyone.
Try talking with your academic adviser or an on-campus tutoring center. Additionally, you
can tap into resources that your campus health center may offer (especially when it comes to
living a well-balance, healthy college life) or even a peer mentoring program. Keep in mind,
too, that looking at how other, successful students manage their time can be a great resources
as well.
TEXT 2 (C1)
Choose the best answer А, В, С or D.

No Time Like the Last Minute

As I boarded the train at Paddington Station one night, I was delighted by the unexpected
sight of three friends also boarding. ‘Hurray!’ we cried as we bagged a table for four in the
dining car and settled down to the prospect of a delicious meal and stimulating conversation.
But with about three minutes to departure, I looked through the window to see one of our
party wandering along the platform. ‘Where’s Rupert going?’ I asked his wife. ‘Oh, probably
going to get a newspaper or something,’ she shrugged. ‘He likes to give himself these little
thrills. He never actually boards a train until the whistle has actually blown.’ Three agonising
minutes after the train had started rolling down the tracks, Rupert came gasping back to the
table, having just managed to get into the last carriage and walked all the way through the
train.
Our friend Lucy’s husband, John, derives a similar thrill from not arriving at airports at the
stated latest check-in time. ‘Even when we are there,’ says Lucy, ‘he carries on shopping after
the flight is called and says, “Don’t worry. Once you have checked in, it’s OK. They always
call out your actual name.”’
Rupert and John’s penchant for ‘competing’ against time is not uncommon. The thrill of ‘just
making’ a train is addictive, and what is more depressing than hanging around a railway
station or sitting in a motionless train? With life racing by so quickly, one wants to maximise
every moment’s potential.
Yet this is not the whole story. As a child I always walked through the school gate at the exact
moment before I would be punished for being late, and experienced the thrill of triumph at
having 'made it'. Now, in adult life, I find that each day holds the potential for a whole galaxy
42
of bogus achievements of this nature. I never start packing for a holiday until an hour before
we are due to set off. I never get my clothes ready for a party until twenty minutes before I
have to leave home. I never send off my tax return until the last post on the day before it is
due, even though it requires a thirty-minute drive to the nearest 7 p.m. Collection box, when I
could have posted it in my own village at 3.15 p.m.
Looking back, I realise the habit probably set in during adolescence, when I noted that my
mother was always ready at least half an hour before she went out. If she was giving a dinner
party, she would have the table laid with cutlery the day before. Once she even said she could
not see a long-lost cousin who wanted to drop in on December 9th because she would be ‘too
busy in the run-up to Christmas’.
We like to prove we can do things better than our parents, and therefore I cut it so fine when
going to catch a train that, when I leave from home, I regularly have to finish getting dressed
in the car on the way to the station.
Old habits die hard but I’m beginning to see the advantages that might accrue from being
ready in time. Think how much money I could save on taxis if I took buses in plenty of time
instead. Think how much less panicky I would be at every party if I weren’t doing up my
buttons as I walked through the door. Think how much less anxious I would be if only I could
be ready on time. One might even live longer without the stress of constantly competing
against time.
1. When the writer saw her friends getting on the train, she
A. was worried that someone was missing.
B. looked forward to a good trip
C. wondered why they were late
D. hoped they would find a table for four

2. Why did Rupert leave the train?


A. He had forgotten something important.
B. He had changed his mind about the trip.
C. His wife had asked him to get something.
D. It was what he usually did.

3. When thinking about Rupert and John, the writer


A. appreciates why they act as they do.
B. is depressed by their behaviour.
C. is determined to make better use of her time.
D. realises the potential dangers of their behaviour.

4. The writer considers her ‘achievements’ to be


A. worthwhile
B. illusory
C. childish
D. a sign of boredom

5. The writer considers that her mother


A. set a bad example.
B. controlled her own anxiety.
C. was inhospitable to relatives.
D. provided a model to react against.

43
6. What does the writer hope for her own daughters?
A. They will have better lives than her.
B. They will not be influenced by family members.
C. They will trust to luck.
D. They will not follow her example.

C TRANSLATION / INTERPRETING SKILLS

1. Read the text aloud, paying attention to your voice, pitch, tone, hesitations, signs,
projection, enunciation and posture. After finishing, try to summarize what you have
read in a single sentence. Do this in English and then in Russian.

2. Paraphrase without translating:


a) ‘A master’s degree can provide an opportunity to achieve professional advancement,
personal achievement and even the realization of a life-long passion’.
b) ‘Time is a critical consideration when balancing work, life, and school’.
c) ‘Creating a schedule, balancing priorities and being proactive can help you stay on
top’.
d) ‘By getting things done ahead of time, you can help alleviate stress, avoid
compromising the quality of your work product with rushed work and secure time for your
personal and professional lives’.
e) ‘Scheduling goes a long way to help manage the addition of school into your life’.

3. Sight translate the text into Russian

Surviving a Master’s Degree: Mastering the School/Life/Work Balance


By Deborah Tritt, M.L.I.S., M.S.I.T.
The decision to pursue a master’s degree can be a difficult one. Whether it is your first
master’s degree or your second master’s degree, there are inherent challenges in balancing all
of life’s priorities. A master’s degree can provide an opportunity to achieve professional
advancement, personal achievement and even the realization of a life-long passion. Though
beneficial, obtaining a master’s degree while working as a library professional further
complicates our efforts for a work / life balance with the addition of a third priority – school.
As one who has survived not only one, but two master’s degrees, I can attest that with some
good time management practices and creativity, you can succeed with only a few gray hairs.
Time is a critical consideration when balancing work, life, and school. Making time for you,
your family, work, and school assignments is immensely challenging. While all elements are
essential for a work/life/school balance, creating a schedule, balancing priorities and being
proactive can help you stay on top.
Scheduling
The first step to getting a handle on your work/life/school balance is the creation of a master
schedule. Within this schedule place all personal, work and school deadlines and obligations.
A centralized dashboard of all your competing obligations will go a long way towards

44
managing them. Google Calendar is an example of a great tool for coordinating your schedule
as you can color code each time event.
Tip: create artificial deadlines for school assignments. The creation of deadlines for major
projects and papers that precede the true deadline will help you align and balance your school
priorities. Plug these fake deadlines into the master calendar and treat them as “real”
deadlines. By getting things done ahead of time, you can help alleviate stress, avoid
compromising the quality of your work product with rushed work and secure time for your
personal and professional lives.
Balancing Priorities
Once everything is written down and scheduled, you must consider how you will balance and
prioritize the scheduled activities within the reality of your daily routine. Scheduling goes a
long way to help manage the addition of school into your life, but executing these great plans
takes a daily conscious effort in order to provide balance.
So how can you add school work into your already busy life? Finding gaps in your day can be
difficult, but through a creative assessment of your time, school work periods can be
identified. Some examples of time for projects include:
• staying an extra hour at work
• working during your lunch hour
• taking a vacation day / using a holiday
• getting up an hour early
It almost goes without saying that you will be burning the midnight oil and making sacrifices
to accommodate your master’s degree program obligations into your life. With this in mind,
it is essential that you actively protect the other side of the sphere: your work and personal
life.
Personal Life
Protecting the cherished time with our family and friends is challenging. For personal time,
the biggest danger zone is the weekend. It can be tempting to push off school work during the
week with the intention of a weekend dedicated to scholastic pursuits. This however is prime
personal time. Making sure the weekends are a balance of life and school assignments is
critical for a work/life/school balance. This can be accomplished by actually scheduling time
for work as well as time for activities with friends and family during the weekends After all,
personal time can help reduce stress and provide opportunities for glorious laughter.
Work Life
For many of us, the struggle in harmonizing our school and professional lives lies in
balancing the weight of our responsibilities. Work and school are both heavily task-oriented,
deadline-oriented and time consuming. To counterweight your academic obligations, consider
carefully ways you can apply some moderation at work. This is in no way a recommendation
you cut back on your core work duties, but you can, for example, serve on fewer committees
or wait to publish that journal article. Finally, another method of balancing work and school is
to design projects or papers that blend your work interests with your academic pursuits.
Proactive
While I am a pro at scheduling tasks and excellent at finding time for the tasks, what I
struggle with is procrastination. Even the best intentioned plans somehow get side swiped by

45
a Project Runway marathon, or an essential house cleaning. Because in my mind, everything
has to be clean before writing the paper, right?
Procrastination is one of the greatest detriments to getting a handle on the work /life /school
balance. Good time management efforts can easily erode with procrastination and this can
have a negative domino effect on one’s attempt to maintain a balance. In the end,
procrastination often causes stress and defeating procrastination is critical to maintaining a
work / life / school balance. In order to avoid the procrastination trap be proactive, follow
your schedule, meet the fake deadlines, and get things done.
Making time for all the competing interests in your life while taking on a new time-
consuming adventure requires hard work, dedication and determination. With a little
creativity, time management and a conscious effort to get things done, you can find the time
to successfully complete your master’s degree with your life still intact.
(http://ala-apa.org/newsletter/2012/05/07/surviving-a-masters-degree-mastering-the-school-
life-work-balance/)

D EXPLORING A TOPIC

I Exploring ideas for writing

WHERE DO I GET IDEAS?


Once the topic is defined, you might get generating ideas. Not every method works equally
well for every project, but below are several strategies or techniques to get you started.
Freewriting
If you do not know how to approach a broad subject, try doing some freewriting. You let one
idea lead to another in free association, without concern for correctness. The important thing
is to keep writing.

Tips for freewriting


• Give yourself a time limit of 5-10 minutes.
• Write as much as you can as quickly as you can on the subject determined.
• As you write, do not worry about organization, grammar, or spelling.
• Use the first words you think of – in any language.
• At the end, read through your writing and highlight the best ideas that emerged.

Brainstorming
Another way to generate ideas is to brainstorm – make a list of ideas as you think of them.
Brainstorming is enhanced if you do it in a group. You can then scrutinize your ideas and
reorganize them.

46
Tips for brainstorming
• Gather as many good and bad ideas, suggestions, examples, sentences, false starts, etc.
as you can in a limited period of time (5-10 minutes). Jot down everything that comes
to mind, including material you are sure you will throw out.
• Do not go into detail; concentrate on making your list as long as possible.

Journalists’ questions and the Stasis theory


Talk to your audience, or pretend that you are being interviewed by someone — or by several
people, if possible (to give yourself the opportunity of considering a subject from several
different points of view).
Tips for asking journalistic questions
• Check the coverage of your story by making sure you answer 6 questions – Who?
What? Where? When? Why? How? If you are telling a story of an event, asking these
six questions might help you think more comprehensively about your topic.
Stasis theory is a four-question, pre-writing process developed in ancient Greece by Aristotle
and Hermagoras. Later, the stases were refined by Roman rhetoricians, such as Cicero,
Quintilian, and Hermogenes. Working through the four stasis questions encourages
knowledge building that is important for research, writing, and for working in teams. Stasis
theory helps writers conduct critical analyses of the issues they are investigating.
Specifically, stasis theory asks writers to investigate and try to determine:
• The facts (conjecture)
• The meaning or nature of the issue (definition)
• The seriousness of the issue (quality)
• The plan of action (policy).
Stasis theory is related to the six journalistic questions above. Lawyers also move through a
similar knowledge building process known as IRAC: (1) Issue; (2) Rules; (3) Application; (4)
Conclusion.

Mapping
Mapping is a visual way of generating and connecting ideas.
Tips for mapping
• Write your topic in a circle in the center of a page.
• Think of ideas related to the topic and write those ideas around the central circle.
• Draw lines to the related ideas.

47
(Photo comes from www.examtime.com)

A mindmap organizes your ideas as you generate them. It also allows you to see which
aspects of your topic might be fruitful to pursue and which to drop.

Analogies
See if you can find a fresh analogy that opens up a new set of ideas. Build your analogy by
using the word ‘like’. For example, if you are writing about violence on television, is that
violence like clowns fighting in a carnival act (that is, we know that no one is really getting
hurt)?

Exercise 1 (B1/B2)
Choose an activity from column A to explain it by describing it in terms of an activity
from column B (or vice versa).
playing cards writing essays
changing a tire making peace
selling growing up
walking growing old
sailing rising in the world
skiing studying
plowing meditating
launching rockets swindling
running for office teaching
hunting learning
Russian roulette failing
brushing teeth quarreling

48
Writer’s Block
Because writers have various ways of writing, a variety of things can cause a writer to
experience anxiety, and sometimes this anxiety leads to writer's block. Many times writer’s
block can be alleviated by trying some new writing strategies.
Tips for overcoming writer’s block
• Ignore any self-imposed rules that hinder your work, such as “Begin by writing an
introduction”, “Have a complete outline before you start writing”, “Write in the
preset sequence” and so on.
• Start with sections you know most about. Writing will help show you what you
know and what you need to know.
• Do not allow abundant editing prevent you from moving forward.
(Adapted from Online Writing Lab by Allen Brizee @ https://owl.english.purdue.edu/
and Keys for Writers by Ann Raimes)

II Useful Vocabulary: Reason and Result (B1/B2/C1)


Much academic study deals with establishing reasons and results of events or states of affair.
They could be described using conjunctions (because), prepositions (due to, because of),
adverbials (therefore), as well as nouns (an outcome) and verbs (to provoke).
Conjunctions
Because / since / in that / insofar as / inasmuch as
Since the government failed to fulfil a single promise, we can consider it ineffective.
The training was rather comprehensive inasmuch as it covered nearly all aspects of the topic.

Prepositions
Because of / Owing to / In view of / Owing to / Due to (the fact that)
In view of the scheme's high chances of failure, the government decided not to fund it.

Adverbials
Thus / therefore / consequently / as a result / as a consequence / accordingly/ hence
He passed his exams. Thus, he was able to go to university.
Computers can store an enormous amount of information and regularly update it - hence they are being
used more and more for research purposes.

Nouns
An outcome of / an upshot / a consequence / a result / an effect on / an impact on…
The upshot of it all was that we had to start the experiment anew.

49
Verbs (Table 1)

Cause  Result Result  Cause


to cause to be caused by
to lead to to arise out of
to result in to result from
to bring about to stem from
to give rise to to spring from
to provoke to be derived from
to generate to ensue
to trigger
to spark off
to precipitate
to determine
to facilitate
to account for
to contribute to
to stimulate
to induce

Exercise 2
a) B1/B2
Fill in the gaps with a suitable connector of reason/result from the expressions given.
AS A RESULT IN CONSEQUENCE FOR THIS REASON
THEREFORE SINCE AS BECAUSE

1 I knew I couldn’t pass the exam. ____________________, I didn’t sign up and decided to
practice more to improve my English.
2 The fastest these animals can run is about 65 kph and ____________________their hunting
methods have to be very efficient.
3 ____________________ you have no time to waste, you will have to get down to work
immediately.
4 ____________________ the rain had poured for three days in a row, the town was flooded.
5 Many roads are flooded. ____________________, there are long delays.
6 The Red Cross has not been allowed to inspect the camps, and ____________________ little
is known about them.
7 ___________________he speaks very little English, I talked to him through an interpreter.

50
b) B2/C1
Fill in the gaps with a suitable connector of reason/result.
THEREFORE ACCORDINGLY HENCE AS A CONSEQUENCE
SINCE OWING TO CONSEQUENTLY THUS

1 She complained of stiffness in her joints. ____________________, she was admitted


to hospital for further tests.
2 The Cold War has ended. ____________________, the two major world powers have
been able to reduce their arms budgets dramatically.
3 ____________________ these were the only films we'd seen of these people, we got
the impression that they did nothing else but dance to classical music.
4 Japan has a massive trade surplus with the rest of the
world. ____________________, it can afford to give more money to the Third World.
5 The computer has become smaller and cheaper and ____________________ more
available to a greater number of people.
6 I'm not a member of the Church of England myself. ____________________, it would
be rather impertinent of me to express an opinion.
7 If I am to accept certain limitations on my freedom, I must be assured that others are
accepting the same restraints. ____________________, an income policy has to be
controlled if it is to be effective.
8 It is believed that some bacteria are more resistant nowadays ____________________
the overuse of antibiotics.

c) B2/C1
Use verbs from Table 3.1 above to fill in the gaps. More than one option is possible.
1 His grandparents ____________________ his decision to become a physician.
2 Parental attitude significantly ____________________ how well a child adapts to
school.
3 The President’s speech ____________________ an angry response.
4 The explosion ____________________ by the heat.
5 The tilting of the earth on its axis ____________________ the change in the seasons.
6 Jane’s determination ____________________ her desire to improve the world.
7 The country’s victory ____________________ a new mood in society.
8 The mobile phone ____________________ the information revolution.
9 Some drugs may ____________________ drowsiness.
10 Certain benefits can be ____________________ from the current situation.
(This exercise adapted from Academic Vocabulary in Use
by Michael McCarthy and Felicity O’Dell)
51
Exercise 3
Writing: Choose one of the following subjects to write about. Use brainstorming, mind-
mapping, freewriting or outlining to discover, explore and analyze immediate and ultimate
causes and effects of your chosen subject.
B1/B2
1. Why some people choose not to carry a cell (mobile) phone.
2. Effect(s) of a parent, teacher, coach or friend on you.
3. Causes or effects of road rage.
4. Causes or effects of violence in schools.
5. Effects of social media on teenagers.
6. Causes or effects of air, water or noise pollution.
7. Reasons for the changes which occurred in your home town over the last 10 years.

B2/C1
1. Environmental effects of bottled water.
2. Reasons for the disintegration of a family.
3. Effects of long-term unemployment.
4. Reasons for or consequences of racial, gender or religious discrimination.
5. Reasons for or consequences of the changing nature of work.
6. Reasons for or consequences of a form of cheating (e.g. examinations, insurance
claims, taxes) that is socially sanctioned.
7. Effects of "the twelfth man" at soccer matches.
This exercise adapted from http://www-user.uni-bremen.de/~jsuther/cause-effect.html

Exercise 4 (B2/C1)
Writing: Causes produce various effects. For instance, hot weather affects humans by
causing rapid heartbeat and muscle pain. Rapid heartbeat and muscle pain can result in people
feeling tired and becoming ill. Listed below are causes and various effects related to problems
with hot weather. Write two paragraphs in which you explain the causes and effects of such
phenomena. Use sentence patterns and vocabulary that specify cause and effect.
Paragraph 1:
CAUSE: hot weather  EFFECTS: the body temperature rises; muscle pain develops; the
heartbeat becomes rapid
Paragraph 2:
CAUSE: high body temperature  EFFECTS: the body sweats; the body loses water
CAUSE: muscle pain  EFFECTS: people feel tired, weak
CAUSE: loss of body water; feeling tired, weak  EFFECTS: serious illness
52
UNIT 4. KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT

A EXPLORING A TOPIC

I Expressing an opinion (B1/B2/C1)


1. Summarize the notion of Knowledge Management using the following information:

What Is Knowledge Management?

Knowledge Management is one of the hottest topics today in both the industry world and
information research world. In our daily life, we deal with huge amount of data and
information. Data and information is not knowledge until we know how to dig the value out
of it. This is the reason we need knowledge management. Unfortunately, there's no universal
definition of knowledge management, just as there's no agreement as to what constitutes
knowledge in the first place. We chose the following definition for knowledge management
for its simplicity and broad context.
Simple Definition:
Knowledge Management (KM) refers to a multi-disciplined approach to achieving
organizational objectives by making the best use of knowledge. KM focuses on processes
such as acquiring, creating and sharing knowledge and the cultural and technical foundations
that support them.
Knowledge Management may be viewed in terms of:
People – how do you increase the ability of an individual in the organisation to influence
others with their knowledge
Processes – Its approach varies from organization to organization. There is no limit on the
number of processes.
Technology – It needs to be chosen only after all the requirements of a knowledge
management initiative have been established.
Culture –The biggest enabler of successful knowledge-driven organizations is the
establishment of a knowledge-focused culture.
Structure – the business processes and organisational structures that facilitate knowledge
sharing.
Technology – a crucial enabler rather than the solution.
(From Introduction to Knowledge Management)
2. What issues may be included into the notion of Knowledge Management at the University?

II Related information (B1/B2/C1)

1. Define the meaning of the following terms: lecture, tutorial, involvement, engagement.
2. Read the pieces of advice for students of University of Canberra Participating in
Tutorials. Can we call the effective communicative behaviour in academic encounters
Knowledge Management?
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3. What are the differences between lectures and tutorials?
4. Explain the rules of being prepared, engaged, and involved.
5. What is meaningful participation in discussion?

PARTICIPATING IN TUTORIALS

In most subjects at the University of Canberra, you are required to attend tutorials (tutes for
short). Tutorials are not like lectures and are therefore generally not about receiving
information and taking notes. Instead, they are for thinking and talking about the unit
content. Usually there will be about 20-30 students in your tutorial group, and everyone is
expected to participate actively in the activities or discussions in each session.
Often a percentage of your final grade depends on your tutorial participation, so it’s important
to understand what tutorials are about and what your tutors will be looking for when they
consider your participation mark.
What are tutorials for?

Tutorials give you an opportunity to:


• ask questions
• practise analytical thinking
• practise problem solving
• gain a fuller understanding of the theory
• discuss how theory applies to reality
• try out ideas by talking them through with others
• learn from other students
• gain important group work skills for your professional life
Through active discussion you learn that others understand things differently from you. You
gain fresh perspectives on issues and new strategies for handling problems. It can be really
stimulating. On the other hand, it can be really boring; this usually depends on you and the
responsibility that you take for helping the group to run well by participating effectively.

What does ‘tutorial participation’ mean?


Most tutors will not force you to talk in tutorials by asking you a direct question in front of the
class; usually they don’t want to embarrass you. This means that it’s really up to you to show
that you are able to make a contribution. Students often think that participating well in
tutorials means doing lots of talking. Actually, it’s more involved than that; in fact some
students talk far too much! When tutors consider your participation in tutorials, it’s likely they
will assess the degree to which you are:
Prepared – having completed (and thought critically about) the required readings / questions /
activities
Engaged – showing that you’re listening and paying attention
Involved – making comments and asking questions that contribute meaningfully to the tutorial
In other words, tutors consider the quality of your participation as much as (and often more
than) the quantity of your participation.
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The Importance of Being Prepared
Make sure you do the background readings so that you know about the topic. Work up a list
of useful questions and opinions/comments before you go so that you have some ideas for
things to say. If the lecturer gives you some tutorial questions, answer them before the tute.
Then, when the lecturer says ‘Does anyone have a comment on this?’ you will be ready with
something to say.
Being prepared helps you dive in right at the beginning, which is a good idea; once you have
spoken once, you won’t feel so nervous—which is very common, particularly at the beginning
of the year. Focussing on the content, rather than how nervous you feel, will help you get
more involved.

The importance of being engaged


Particularly if you are very shy, you don’t have to talk to participate. You can show that you
are engaged by looking interested in the activities and discussion. That means:
• looking at the person who is talking,
• showing by your body language that you belong to the group (e.g. moving your chair
to be part of the group, trying not to hide behind other people, leaning forward
slightly)
• showing your reactions to what people are saying in your facial expressions (e.g.
smiling and nodding in agreement, raising an eyebrow or frowning slightly if you
don’t agree).
Be aware that it's incredibly rude to be checking your mobile phone or texting during a
tutorial. Your phone should remain off or on silent and stay in your bag until the session is
over. Don’t be shy to ask people to explain what they mean, or to speak more slowly.
If English is not your first language, you might increase your confidence and your speaking
ability by attending the ASP's Speak for Successworkshops: pronunciation and speaking skills
workshops for students from a non-English speaking background.

The importance of getting involved


In order to get involved meaningfully in tutorials, you could try the following plan of action:
1. Start planning what you want to say while someone else is speaking.
2. When the speaker is beginning to wind down, start to move forward in your chair—
look as if you want to say something.
3. Start to speak immediately the other person stops, making sure that everyone can hear
you.
Whatever you say is valuable, and everyone’s opinion should be respected. If you are an
international student, your experience of other cultures and viewpoints will often be very
interesting to the group. People may agree or disagree with your idea, and that’s okay;
discussing ideas (even arguing) is often a productive way of developing new ideas. So, if
someone disagrees with you, that’s probably a good sign! It means you’ve given people
something to think about. There are many ways you can contribute meaningfully to the
discussion, including:
• giving an example to illustrate what someone else has said
• agreeing, but adding some additional comments or suggestions
• disagreeing—and giving your reasons
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• comparing what has been said to something else you know about (perhaps something
you have read)
• asking a question
• introducing a new topic

(From Participating in Tutorials. Academic Skills Centre University of Canberra)

III Developing background knowledge (B1/B2/C1)

1. Prepare a talk on Participating in Lectures:


- define different lecturers’ styles
- give some pieces of advice of preparation for a lecture
- give tips for being engaged

IV Exchanging views and ideas (B1/B2/C1)

1. Group work. Share your examination experience.


2. Group work. Discuss the pros and cons of oral and written exams.

V Summarizing the topic (B1/B2/C1)

1. Make a power point presentation (5-7 slides) on one of the topics, bearing in mind
the principles of an effective presentation (see Unit 5):
a. Elements of Knowledge Management
b. Knowledge Management at the University

VI Project work (B1/B2/C1)

1. Interview your group-mates about their experience of studying at the university:


a. What is the difference of being an undergraduate and a postgraduate student?
b. What difficulties do they meet at lectures and tutorials?
c. What are the tips of effective preparation for the examination?
Present the results of your survey in a Report.

2. Write an essay on one of the following topics:


1) My most difficult year at the university.
2) My first university exam experience.
3) The most effective ways of studying well.
4) The notion of Knowledge Management.

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B PRACTISING SKILLS

TEXT 1 (B2)
Put the word(s) in brackets in the right form.

Managing Knowledge Effectively: Culture


By Fareed Hussain, Caro Lucas, M.Asif Ali

Knowledge infrastructure can be built on these three dimensions or foundations. The first
foundation, that is culture, should be considered before 1.____________ (PRACTICE)
knowledge management. Knowledge management, at its core, has a strong human component.
An organization’s knowledge management strategy cannot be successful unless the
organization 2.____________ (DEVELOP) a trusting knowledge culture that emphasizes the
role and value of knowledge in day-to-day business decisions and enterprises. The culture
3.____________ (MUST, GEAR) towards rewarding innovation, learning, experimentation,
scrutiny and reflection.
Organizations should establish a culture conducive to 4.____________ (EFFECT) knowledge
creation, transfer, and use. Today many companies 5.____________ (ENGAGE) in high-level
and general efforts to change the organizational norms and values related to knowledge. They
are making efforts to make their personnels understand the importance of this
6.____________ (VALUE) asset. Effective knowledge management requires a good fit
between the organization’s culture and its knowledge management initiatives. Changes that
don't fit the culture probably 7. ____________ (NOT, THRIVE), so management needs to
align its approach with its 8.____________ (EXIST) culture or be prepared for a long-term
culture change effort. In general, if the cultural soil isn't fertile for knowledge management
9.____________ (INTITIATE), no amount of technology, knowledge content, or good
knowledge management practices will make the effort 10.____________ (SUCCESS).
Organizational culture should have several components with regard to knowledge:
- People should have a positive orientation to knowledge, that is, employees should be
bright, 11.____________ (INTELLECT) curious, willing and free to explore and also
executives should encourage their knowledge creation and use.
- People should not be inhibited in sharing knowledge, that is, they should feel that they
12.____________ (ALIENATE) or resentful of the company and don't fear that
sharing knowledge will cost them their jobs.
Therefore effective knowledge management requires a healthy and conducive culture as a
13.____________ (REQUISITE).

TEXT 2 (C1)
Choose ONE phrase from the list of phrases A-K below to complete each of the following
sentences 1-10. Remember, ONE phrase is extra here.

A how to make these connections in a responsible, thoughtful and productive way.


B simultaneous collaboration can happen and lead to some fascinating results.
C that could possibly help them along in their learning journey.
D that can offer insight to your students without them having to leave their own workplace.
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E when technology is used to make lessons more interesting.
F that you want them to research or understand.
G it helps reinforce the idea of global citizenship.
H the people who are contributing to creating this knowledge.
I could be placed on a level playing field and given access to the same learning opportunities.
J embellish this learning in different ways.
K the rest of the world might respond.

Beyond the classroom walls: breaking down barriers with technology


Excited by the potential of tech in class, Adam Webster explores how mobile, internet-
connected devices allow teachers and students to make lessons international and
collaborative experiences
By Adam Webster
Technology in schools has the potential to be the greatest of equalisers. Students within
individual schools and across the country, or even world,
1._______________________________________. Of course this is a little idealistic given
the current economic climate and the seemingly never-ending cost of keeping the technology
in schools up to date.
Technology should be available to every student in this country, and by technology I mean
more specifically that they should all have access to a mobile, internet-connected device.
Achieving this ideal (and the only hurdle one must overcome to do so is financial) would in
turn, lead to the fulfilment of another, far more significant educational goal: a system in which
every student has the opportunity to access more or less the entire sum of human knowledge
and 2._______________________________________.
Technology in the hands of our students means that the classroom walls become almost
theoretical; no longer would each room need to contain them and their learning, they would
have access to everything and everyone 3._______________________________________.
The internet can make every student and every school international like never before. How
this manifests itself is limited only by what students and teachers are willing to invest in terms
of time; the tools with which we can connect to the rest of the world are there, ready to be
used.
What you can do is enormously varied. You could start with a beautiful offering
like www.panoramas.dk, which offers you 3D tours of some of the world's most iconic
building's and locations ranging from the Sacre Coeur in Paris, to the surface of the moon.
Students are offered an immersive experience that helps them understand the realities of a
place 4._______________________________________.
A more overtly obvious technology to utilise would be Skype. Skype can connect your
classroom with any other. It can connect you to individuals, experts or colleagues
5._______________________________________.
You could take the opportunity to make connections with schools from around the world and
benefit from an exciting mutual relationship. You could ask American students how they're
taught about The Great Gatsby or slavery or civil rights, you could ask South African students
what it's like to live day to day, post-apartheid. These first-hand cultural experiences and
reflections could be invaluable to your students, and more importantly
6._____________________________.

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Plus, open learning initiatives are making it possible to 'attend' Harvard lectures without ever
leaving the UK.
Never before has a generation been so connected and so mobile. I think that we have a
responsibility to educate them in 7._______________________________________.
Social media connects us to people that we may never meet and yet lasting bonds and
friendships can be forged. Twitter allows us constant snapshots of millions of people, be they
celebrities, academics, experts or simply people like us. Twitter is a great tool for finding
people and resources that could never have been accessed 20 years ago.
Students no longer need to learn things second hand, they can go straight to the expert,
leaving classroom teachers more time to prepare follow-up material or
8.______________________________. Similarly, the internet also allows you a whole new
world of peer-assessment. As you or your student may look and listen to the wise words of
others, you can become those wise words in a number of different formats. YouTube for
example, lets your students voice an opinion or an idea to the rest of the world, and it's just
possible, that if they get it right, 9._______________________________________.
This kind of global feedback is utterly incredible and frankly inspiring, and the power of
something like this as a learning tool cannot be underestimated.
Technology also makes the things we already do, easier. Tools like online documents and
office suites mean that writing a collaborative essay no longer has to be awkward and messy.
True, 10._____________________________________.
This is a great tool for homework for example, where group activities tend to fall apart. But,
what if you used the same programme to allow students to write collaboratively with someone
on the other side of the world? How much bigger would the stakes seem for your students?
How much more engaging and exciting would it seem for everyone involved. How much
more likely would they be to never forget that piece of work?
Technology used well can be inspiring. Technology used well can break down boundaries.

TEXT 3 (C1)
Choose the correct heading for sections 1-6 from the list of headings below.
Write the correct letter A-G in the boxes given below. Remember, ONE heading is extra.

List of Headings
A The advantage of knowledge management
B What is knowledge management?
C An ongoing process of knowledge sharing
D Joining efforts to develop business skills
E Sustainability of knowledge management
F The importance and practical effect of knowledge dissemination
G The future of social enterprises

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Knowledge management: growing social enterprises together
By sharing information and working with each other, businesses in the sector can make good
use of what they have collectively learned
By Corinne McPartland
Section 1: other social enterprises can learn about the
CSCB business model. "Our last masterclass
Knowledge harvesting. Fishbowl
drew on the expertise of world leading
conversations. After-action reviews. No,
construction experts from Davis Langdon,
these are not phrases from some new science-
and Nathaniel Lichfield & Partners and
based religious sect. They are knowledge
provided a unique overview of the design,
management tools, which help capture best
planning and development process to a wide
business practice information to share with
range of community groups," reveals Louise
others.
King, director of communication and
"Knowledge management is the idea that by information at CSCB.
sharing information and working together
And because of the success of the
social enterprises can make good use of what
masterclasses, King adds, "we are planning a
they collectively know about running their
series of peer learning events for our client
businesses," explains information
groups to encourage them to learn from each
management consultant John Davies.
and foster a sense of mutuality."
His company, TFPL Intelligent Resources,
Section 3:
recently worked with the Social Enterprise
Coalition to develop the national knowledge And the knowledge sharing doesn't stop
management programme, funded by there. CSCB also has a consultancy team,
government agency Capacity builders. which focuses on supporting ambitious local
social enterprises and community groups to
"The programme has essentially been created
acquire or develop land in the surrounding
to improve social enterprise business support
area.
by promoting the value of sharing business
information and best practice through the "As a community-based organisation and a
sector," says Davies. founder member of the Development Trusts
Association, we believe in sharing our
Section 2:
experiences so everyone benefits," says
Social enterprises, like any businesses, need King.
the right support. But because they place a
As soon as you start to scratch the surface,
social or environmental mission at the heart
you begin to see just how many social
of their work, mainstream business support
enterprises are sharing their knowledge in
cannot always meet their specific needs. This
order to grow the sector. It perhaps defines
is why knowledge management and the
what being a social enterprise is really all
sharing of ideas and information is so
about – no matter the industry. Learning
important – especially if the sector is to
from each other, utilising resources
continue growing.
effectively, fostering innovation, and
Coin Street Community Builders (CSCB), improving customer satisfaction.
which has transformed a largely derelict 13
Turning Point, which specialises in health
acre site on London's South Bank into a
and social care, has recently produced a good
thriving mixed use neighbourhood, has taken
practice guide for social enterprises called
the idea of knowledge sharing to its heart.
Elements of Success. Assistant director
The development trust regularly hosts Gemma Bruce believes that sharing business
"shared experience masterclasses", in which information can also be beneficial to your
60
own social enterprise because the learning programme manager at the Social Enterprise
process is often two-way. Centre (SEC) in Gloucestershire, thinks
collaborating is also easier for businesses that
Section 4:
share the same values. SEC is currently
But is knowledge management sustainable running a tailored knowledge sharing
when competition is thrown into the mix? programme for existing social enterprises
Social enterprise ambassador Saeeda Ahmed across the county who wish to improve their
believes that the open source approach, business planning skills in preparation for
where a social enterprise documents its cuts to funding.
model and put it out for people to use, has "The SEC ran a similar opportunity earlier
become redundant due to the economic this year. The feedback was overwhelming
climate. with every organisation in attendance
"With tighter funding, lots of social recognising the value of business planning
enterprises are having to really go head-to- skills in the current economic climate," says
head to win contracts. I feel that many Mahdiyone.
organisations are keeping their cards a lot Section 6:
closer to their chest," stresses Ahmed, who
You get the sense that whatever the case,
also runs community regeneration
whether the complete open source approach
company Trescom.
to knowledge management or the closely
Section 5: guarded business plans of those with
It could be argued, however, that slimmer particular intellectual property issues, one
budgets are actually providing opportunities thing remains the same: by working together,
for many social enterprises to collaborate for social enterprises can make good use of what
tenders and go up against larger private they collectively know, to expand not only
companies. Clare Mahdiyone, who is the their businesses but the sector as a whole.

C TRANSLATION / INTERPRETING SKILLS


1. Read the text aloud, paying attention to your voice, pitch, tone, hesitations, signs,
projection, enunciation and posture. After finishing, try to summarize what you have
read in a single sentence. Do this in English and then in Russian.
2. Paraphrase without translating:
a. ‘A master’s degree can provide an opportunity to achieve professional advancement,
personal achievement and even the realization of a life-long passion’.
b. ‘Time is a critical consideration when balancing work, life, and school’.
c. ‘Creating a schedule, balancing priorities and being proactive can help you stay on
top’.
d. ‘By getting things done ahead of time, you can help alleviate stress, avoid
compromising the quality of your work product with rushed work and secure time for
your personal and professional lives’.
e. ‘Scheduling goes a long way to help manage the addition of school into your life’.
3. Sight translate the text into Russian

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Surviving a Master’s Degree: Mastering the School/Life/Work Balance
By Deborah Tritt, M.L.I.S., M.S.I.T.
The decision to pursue a master’s degree can be a difficult one. Whether it is your first
master’s degree or your second master’s degree, there are inherent challenges in balancing all
of life’s priorities. A master’s degree can provide an opportunity to achieve professional
advancement, personal achievement and even the realization of a life-long passion. Though
beneficial, obtaining a master’s degree while working as a library professional further
complicates our efforts for a work / life balance with the addition of a third priority – school.
As one who has survived not only one, but two master’s degrees, I can attest that with some
good time management practices and creativity, you can succeed with only a few gray hairs.
Time is a critical consideration when balancing work, life, and school. Making time for you,
your family, work, and school assignments is immensely challenging. While all elements are
essential for a work/life/school balance, creating a schedule, balancing priorities and being
proactive can help you stay on top.
Scheduling
The first step to getting a handle on your work/life/school balance is the creation of a master
schedule. Within this schedule place all personal, work and school deadlines and obligations.
A centralized dashboard of all your competing obligations will go a long way towards
managing them. Google Calendar is an example of a great tool for coordinating your schedule
as you can color code each time event.
Tip: create artificial deadlines for school assignments. The creation of deadlines for major
projects and papers that precede the true deadline will help you align and balance your school
priorities. Plug these fake deadlines into the master calendar and treat them as “real”
deadlines. By getting things done ahead of time, you can help alleviate stress, avoid
compromising the quality of your work product with rushed work and secure time for your
personal and professional lives.
Balancing Priorities
Once everything is written down and scheduled, you must consider how you will balance and
prioritize the scheduled activities within the reality of your daily routine. Scheduling goes a
long way to help manage the addition of school into your life, but executing these great plans
takes a daily conscious effort in order to provide balance.
So how can you add school work into your already busy life? Finding gaps in your day can be
difficult, but through a creative assessment of your time, school work periods can be
identified. Some examples of time for projects include:
• staying an extra hour at work
• working during your lunch hour
• taking a vacation day / using a holiday
• getting up an hour early
It almost goes without saying that you will be burning the midnight oil and making sacrifices
to accommodate your master’s degree program obligations into your life. With this in mind,
it is essential that you actively protect the other side of the sphere: your work and personal
life.

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Personal Life
Protecting the cherished time with our family and friends is challenging. For personal time,
the biggest danger zone is the weekend. It can be tempting to push off school work during the
week with the intention of a weekend dedicated to scholastic pursuits. This however is prime
personal time. Making sure the weekends are a balance of life and school assignments is
critical for a work/life/school balance. This can be accomplished by actually scheduling time
for work as well as time for activities with friends and family during the weekends After all,
personal time can help reduce stress and provide opportunities for glorious laughter.
Work Life
For many of us, the struggle in harmonizing our school and professional lives lies in
balancing the weight of our responsibilities. Work and school are both heavily task-oriented,
deadline-oriented and time consuming. To counterweight your academic obligations, consider
carefully ways you can apply some moderation at work. This is in no way a recommendation
you cut back on your core work duties, but you can, for example, serve on fewer committees
or wait to publish that journal article. Finally, another method of balancing work and school is
to design projects or papers that blend your work interests with your academic pursuits.
Proactive
While I am a pro at scheduling tasks and excellent at finding time for the tasks, what I
struggle with is procrastination. Even the best intentioned plans somehow get side swiped by
a Project Runway marathon, or an essential house cleaning. Because in my mind, everything
has to be clean before writing the paper, right?
Procrastination is one of the greatest detriments to getting a handle on the work /life /school
balance. Good time management efforts can easily erode with procrastination and this can
have a negative domino effect on one’s attempt to maintain a balance. In the end,
procrastination often causes stress and defeating procrastination is critical to maintaining a
work / life / school balance. In order to avoid the procrastination trap be proactive, follow
your schedule, meet the fake deadlines, and get things done.
Making time for all the competing interests in your life while taking on a new time-
consuming adventure requires hard work, dedication and determination. With a little
creativity, time management and a conscious effort to get things done, you can find the time
to successfully complete your master’s degree with your life still intact.
(http://ala-apa.org/newsletter/2012/05/07/surviving-a-masters-degree-mastering-the-school-
life-work-balance/)

D EFFECTIVE WRITING

I Finding a Focus in a Draft

HOW TO WRITE A THESIS?


One of the worst things that can ever happen to a writer is leaving a confused reader asking,
“So what?” In academic writing, establishing a clear thesis is especially important.

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1. Formulating a Thesis
A thesis should give an answer to one of the most important questions, “What is the main idea
of your piece of writing?” Once you have chosen or been assigned a topic and defined a
purpose of your work, and once you have generated some ideas from research, it’s time to
formulate a working thesis statement. It helps you focus your thoughts as you write.
Tips for writing a thesis
• "A thesis statement is a single sentence that formulates both your topic and your point
of view" (Handbook for Writers of Research Papers, 42). In other words, it gives your
reader an idea of your topic + your opinion.
• It must be debatable.
• It should be specific and narrow—and cover only what you will discuss in your paper.
• It usually appears at the end of the first paragraph of a paper.
What could make a good thesis?

1) a controversial statement
Bilingual education has not fulfilled its early promise.

2) a call to action
All inner-city schools should set up bilingual programs.

3) a question
What can bilingual education accomplish for a child?

4) a preview of the essay structure


Bilingual education suffers from two main problems: a shortage of trained teachers and a lack of
parental involvement.

2. A thesis in argumentative (persuasive) writing


The argumentative research paper consists of an introduction in which the writer clearly
introduces the topic and informs the audience exactly which stance, or thesis statement, they
intend to take. An important goal of the argumentative research paper is persuasion, which
means the topic chosen should be debatable or controversial.

64
Compare two introductions:

Thesis Statement Commentary

Cigarette smoking poses medical dangers Perhaps 30 years ago the harmful effect of
and may lead to cancer for both the smoking could have been debatable;
smoker and those who experience however, today, it is not the case.
secondhand smoke.

Although it has been proven that cigarette In the second sentence, the writer is not
smoking may lead to sundry health challenging the current accepted stance that
problems in the smoker, the social both firsthand and secondhand cigarette
acceptance of smoking in public places smoke is dangerous. Rather, they are positing
demonstrates that many still do not that the social acceptance of the latter over
consider secondhand smoke as dangerous the former is indicative of a cultural double-
to one's health as firsthand smoke. standard of sorts.

Exercise 1 (B2/C1)
Correct the mistakes identified and re-write a thesis statement.
Example:
1. This paper is about standards of beauty in does not inform us of the writer’s
the workplace. perspective

The way we look can affect not only the way we are treated but also the size of our salary.

2. There are many homeless people is very general and does not tell us what the
nowadays. writer thinks about the situation

________________________________________________________________________

3. Bilingual education has advantages and does not express a perspective; most policies
disadvantages. have advantages and disadvantages

________________________________________________________________________

4. Plessy v. Ferguson case that does not make a clear point


supported racial segregation at about the topic, it is a
schools, was overruled by statement of fact that is not
Brown v. Board of Education arguable

________________________________________________________________________
65
3. A thesis in analytical writing

The analytical research paper often begins with the writer asking a question (a research
question). Such a paper is often an exercise in exploration and evaluation. For example,
perhaps a writer is interested in the Old English poem Beowulf. The research question may be
as follows:

How should one interpret the poem Beowulf?

His research may lead them to the following conclusion.

Beowulf is a poem whose purpose it was to serve as an exemplum of heterodoxy for tenth- and
eleventh-century monastic communities.

Though his topic may be debatable and controversial, it is not the writer’s intent to persuade
the audience that his ideas are right while those of others are wrong. Instead, his goal is to
offer a critical interpretation of primary and secondary sources throughout the paper. The
following is an example of what his thesis statement may look like once he has completed his
research.

Though Beowulf is often read as a poem that recounts the heroism and supernatural exploits of the
protagonist Beowulf, it may also be read as a poem that served as an exemplum of heterodoxy for tenth-
and eleventh-century monastic communities found in the Danelaw.

This statement does not negate the traditional readings of Beowulf; instead, it offers a fresh
and detailed reading of the poem that will be supported by the research.
It is typically not until the researcher has begun the writing process that his thesis statement
begins to take solid form. In fact, the thesis statement in an analytical paper is often more
vague than the thesis in an argumentative paper. Such is one of the benefits of approaching
the topic without a predetermined stance.
If you are writing a text that does not fall under these categories (e.g., an explanatory piece, or
a narrative), a thesis statement somewhere in the first paragraph could still be helpful to your
reader.
(Adapted from Online Writing Lab by Jack Raymond Baker and Allen Brizee
@ https://owl.english.purdue.edu/)

Summary checklist for getting started


1. Determining purpose: Why am I writing?
2. Finding or exploring ideas: Have I used freewriting, brainstorming, mapping,
journalist’s questions and have I done field and library research to get started?
3. Narrowing the topic: Have I moved from subject to topic?
4. Expressing a thesis: Do I have a thesis statement that expresses the point I want to
make about the topic?
(Adapted from Keys for Writers by Ann Raimes)
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II Useful Vocabulary: Addition B1/B2/C1

We can use linking words to join clauses and sentences that add information and ensure unity
and cohesion. It is particularly valuable in persuasive writing. Here are some linking words
and expressions in addition to and, also, too and not only … but.

Linking words used at the beginning of clauses/sentences

What is more, / Furthermore, / Apart from that, / In addition (to this), / Moreover, /
Besides (this), / … not to mention the fact that / Equally (important…), / Likewise, /
both… and - neutral/formal

On top of all that, / What’s more / plus - informal

Linking words used at the end of clauses/sentences

… and so on / and so forth / etc. / into the bargain

Linking words followed by nouns or –ing forms

Alongside… / Along with… / Apart from… / As well as… / Besides… / Further to… /
In addition to…

Exercise 2
a) B1/B2
Fill in the gaps with suitable linking expressions above. More than one option is possible.
DISADVANTAGES OF USING A COMPUTER

The main disadvantages of using a computer is that staring at a screen for long periods can be
harmful to the eyes. _____________________ sitting on a chair for hours at a time is
certainly not healthy. ______________________ computers draw one’s attention away from
social interactions such as conversation. _____________________ people who stay at home
to use their computers can become anti-social. _____________________computers do many
jobs and people do the less. As a result, plenty of people lose their jobs.

b) B2/C1

Fill in the gaps with suitable linking expressions above. More than one option is possible.

ADVANTAGES OF NUCLEAR POWER

The advantages of nuclear power are numerous. First of all, it is cheaper, richer than fossil
fuels, and easier to transport. _____________________ nuclear reactors need little fuel, and
they only need refueling approximately once every three years. _____________________
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nuclear power is environmentally a lot friendlier than other alternative types of energy. It
produces hardly any air pollution, and it releases less radiation into the atmosphere than coal-
burning power plants. _____________________ the risks of a meltdown or a radiation leak
are extremely small. _____________________it is a lot safer than most people think. There
are many safety features which make nuclear power one of the safest electricity sources.

Exercise 3 (B2/C1)
Combine the two sentences given into one paragraph by adding suitable linking
expressions.

1 (a) It’s only reasonable that we should allow individuals in extreme and incurable pain
to end their lives.
(b) Physician assisted suicide would allow these people to end their lives as humanely
as possible.
2 (a) Ensuring that physician assisted suicide remains illegal will preserve our respect
for human life.
(b) Voluntary euthanasia is the start of a slippery slope that leads to the killing of people who
are thought undesirable.
3 (a) Smoking increases the risk of breast cancer in women.
(b) Passive smoking might cause lower mental capacity (IQ) of children.
4 (a) We have no idea how an artificially created person might suffer.
(b) Many people say it is not for human beings to decide what other human beings
should look like.
5 (a) There is a belief that some people would use cloning to create people solely for the
purpose of evil deeds, such as war or slavery.
(b) A big problem with cloning is the fact that many health problems occur with most
of the animals that were cloned.

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UNIT 5. EFFECTIVE PRESENTATIONS

A EXPLORING A TOPIC

I Expressing an opinion (B1/B2/C1)


1. Define the following terms: talk, pubic speech, lecture, performance, presentation, power
point presentation.
2. Answer the questions:
− What is a presentation?
− What types of presentations can you name?
3. Give examples of situations in academic encounters when you might need to make a
presentation.

II Related information (B1/B2/C1)


1. Define the meaning of the following terms: communicate, interact, audience, voice quality,
pitch of the voice, key words, provocative questions.

2. Read the fragment of the text Giving an Oral Presentaion prepared by Academic Skills
Center of the University of Canberra, Australia and answer the questions:
1) How can voice and manner of speaking improve your oral performance?
2) Can your body communicate?
3) What are effective means of interacting with the audience?

GIVING AN ORAL PRESENTAION

Use your voice to communicate clearly


• Speak loudly enough for everyone in the room to hear you.
This may feel uncomfortably loud at first, but if people can't hear you, they won't
listen.
• Speak slowly and clearly.
• Don’t rush! Speaking fast doesn’t make you seem smarter, it will only make it harder
for other people to understand you.
• Key words are important. Speak them out slowly and loudly.
• Vary your voice quality. If you always use the same volume and pitch (for example,
all loud, or all soft, or in a monotone) your audience will switch off.
• When you begin a new point, use a higher pitch and volume.
• Slow down for key points.
• Use pauses—don't be afraid of short periods of silence. (They give you a chance to
gather your thoughts, and your audience a chance to think.)
Use your body to communicate, too!
• Stand straight and comfortably. Do not slouch or shuffle about.
• Hold your head up. Look around and make eye-contact with people in the audience.
Do not just address the lecturer! Do not stare at a point on the carpet or the wall. If you
don't include the audience, they won't listen to you.
• When you are talking to your friends, you naturally use your hands, your facial
expression, and your body to add to your communication. Do it in your presentation as
well. It will make things far more interesting for the audience.
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• Don't turn your back on the audience!
Interact with the audience
• Be aware of how your audience is reacting. Are they interested or bored? If they look
confused, ask them why. Stop if necessary and explain a point again.
• Check if the audience is still with you. ‘Does that make sense?’
‘Is that clear?’
• Be open to questions. If someone raises a hand, or asks a question in the middle of
your talk, answer it. If you can't answer it, turn the question back out to the audience
and let someone else answer it!
• Questions are good. They show that the audience is listening with interest. They
should not be regarded as an attack on you, but as a collaborative search for deeper
understanding.
• Be ready to get the discussion going after your presentation. Just in case nobody has
anything to say, have some provocative questions or points for discussion ready to ask
the group.

III Developing background knowledge (B1/B2/C1)


1. Study some guides on making an effective presentation and defending a thesis (e.g. Giving
an oral presentation, Academic Skills, University of Canberra and Writing and Presenting
Your Thesis or Dissertation by Levine, S. Joseph). Speak about similarities and differences of
delivering a paper at a conference and a talk at a thesis defense.
2. Give a talk on the topic ‘The way you perform is the way your audience feels’.

IV Exchanging views and ideas (B1/B2/C1)


1. Have you ever made a presentation? Share your experience with the group. Use the
following questions as an outline:
1) What was the situation?
2) What was the topic?
3) What kind of audience did you have?
4) Were you a success? Why?
5) What would you do differently in the same situation?

2. Organize a brainstorming session and find out the ways of eliminating the stress while
speaking in public.

V Summarizing the topic (B1/B2/C1)


1. Prepare a power point presentation (5-7 slides) on one of the topics:
a) Language of presentation
− Introduction
− Body
− Conclusion
b) Presentation delivery
c) Use of video aids

2. Choose a topic based on your current research and make a presentation.

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VI Project work (B1/B2/C1)
1. Make a leaflet ‘Effective Presentations’.
2. Present your leaflet to your group-mates: advertise it in a well-planned 5-minute talk

B PRACTISING SKILLS

TEXT 1 (B2)
Put the word(s) in brackets in the right form.

Death by PowerPoint

By Richard M. Felder, Rebecca Brent


It’s a rare professor who 1._____________ (NOT, TEMPT) in recent years to put his or her
lecture notes on transparencies or PowerPoint. It takes some effort to create the slides, but
once they 2._____________ (DO), teaching is easy. The course material is nicely organized,
attractively formatted, and easy to present, and revising and updating the notes each year is
3._____________ (TRIVIA). You can put handouts of the slides on the Web so the students
have convenient access to them, and if the students bring copies to class and so
4._____________ (NOT, HAVE TO) take notes, you can cover the material efficiently and
effectively and maybe even get to some of that vitally important stuff that’s always omitted
because the semester runs out.
Or so the theory goes.
The reality is somewhat different.
The point of this column is not to trash transparencies and PowerPoint. We use PowerPoint all
the time - in conference presentations and 5._____________ (INVITE) seminars, short
courses, and teaching workshops. We rarely use pre-prepared visuals for teaching, however -
well, hardly ever - and strongly advise against 6._____________ (RELY) on them as your
main method of instruction.
Most classes we’ve seen that were little more than 50- or 75-minute slide shows seemed
7._____________ (EFFECT). The instructors flashed rapid and (if it was PowerPoint)
colorful sequences of 8._____________ (EQUATE) and text and tables and charts, sometimes
asked if the students had questions (they usually didn’t), and sometimes asked questions
themselves and got either no response or responses from the same two or three students. We
saw few signs of any learning taking place, but did see things similar to what George saw. If
the students 9._____________ (NOT, HAVE) copies of the slides in front of them, some
would 10._____________ (FRANTIC) take notes in a futile effort to keep up with the slides,
and the others would just sit passively and not even try. It was worse if they had copies or if
they knew that the slides would be posted on the Web, in which case most of the students who
even bothered to show up would glance 11._____________ (SPORADIC) at the screen, read
other things, or doze. We’ve heard the term “Death by PowerPoint” used to describe classes
like that. The numerous students who stay away from them reason (usually correctly) that
they have better things to do than watch someone drone through material they could just as
easily read for themselves at a more convenient time and at their own pace.

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This is not to say that PowerPoint slides, transparencies, video clips, and computer animations
and 12._____________ (SIMULATE) can’t add value to a course. They can and they do, but
they should only be used for things that can’t be done better in other ways.

TEXT 2 (B2)
Choose ONE phrase from the list of phrases A-I below to complete each of the following
sentences 1-8. Remember, ONE phrase is extra here.

A can make it difficult to distinguish their intended meanings


B so be sure to monitor your audience's understanding of your accent
C reduce confusion by using simple words
D those who speak English with native-level fluency
E so it is better to use the long form instead
F when speaking to an international audience
G who are often ready to communicate
H that are understood universally among other native speakers
I yet they can be easily misunderstood and distracting

Speaking clearly for an international audience


In the world of business and international sports, English is the primary language of
communication. Native English speakers (and
1._____________________________________) often assume that everyone else can
understand their level of English. But in the international sports world, you may interact with
professionals at all levels - executives, managers, staff, etc. - from around the world whose
understanding of English requires you to adjust the way you communicate. Here are a few
hints that will help you communicate effectively in English
2._____________________________________. Try them out - you may find that you are
able to improve your communication skills and deepen your relationships with important
colleagues and contacts.
Hint no.1: Monitor your accent
Your dialect of English may not be the same as what a non-native English speaker learned in
school. For example, American English speakers should be aware of the differences between
American and British English. Even for native English speakers it can be tough to understand
other accents so for those that aren't as adverse in English is becomes even harder. Combining
words, dropping letters and swallowing syllables can be very difficult for non-native English
speakers to understand, 3._____________________________________ and adapt to a basic
English when possible.
Hint no.2: Use simple words
In English, there are many words that mean the same thing - some more difficult to
understand than others. To avoid confusion, opt for the simplest word. A good example is the
word small. Native English speakers would easily understand comparable words such as tiny,
miniscule or microscopic. However, non-native speakers may not have learned these
advanced synonyms. You can facilitate clear understanding and
4._____________________________________.

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Hint no.3: Avoid using contractions
In many languages, native speakers have developed shortened ways of saying common words
and phrases. In English, common contractions include don't (do not), won't (will not) and isn't
(is not). Many non-native speakers do not understand these shortened forms,
5._____________________________________. Consider the word can't. Non-native English
speakers have a very difficult time hearing the difference between can and can't. Using the
word can't could easily lead your audience to misunderstand you in a way that communicates
the exact opposite of what you intended. Try using the long form of contractions whenever
possible.
Hint no.4: Avoid filler
Every language has patterns of speech and local expressions
6._____________________________________. However, for non-native speakers, these
patterns and expressions can be very confusing and distracting. Words such as um, like and
totally do not clarify statements in any way, 7._____________________________________.
These words do not add anything to your messages, so eliminating them from your speech
may lead to a lot more heads nodding at your next meeting with an international audience.
Hint no.5: Speak explicitly and clearly
You do not have to over-annunciate each syllable to help non-native speakers understand you.
Instead, speak explicitly and clearly. A classic example is the use of yes and no. Many native
English speakers say "Uh-huh" or "Nuh-uh" to mean yes and no respectively. The very subtle
variations between these two substitutions 8._____________________________________.
Instead, native English speakers should simply use the proper word - "Yes" or "No" - in
response to simple questions.
(From TSE Tools)

TEXT 3 (B2/C1)
Choose the correct heading A-H for steps 1-7 from the list of headings below.
Write the correct letter in the boxes given below. Remember, ONE heading is extra.

List of Headings

A Practice, Practice, Practice.


B Find a quiet place where you will be alone and free from distractions.
C Act calm, feel calm.
D Build a visual image of the venue and audience.
E Use different tools.
F Immerse yourself in the situation.
G Carry out as much practical preparation as time allows.
H Don't get nervous about feeling nervous.

How to trick your mind into presentation success


Been asked to give a presentation for an interview? Got to speak in front of colleagues at
work? Read our psychology expert's tips for mastering presentation nerves
By Steve Sheward
It's regularly cited as one of our greatest escaping public speaking. Unfortunately
anxieties, but for some people there's no giving presentations is a key skill required
73
for most careers and often part of the situation. To do this you need to work with
selection process for many jobs. your five senses:
Most of the time it's the uncertainty that Sight: Place yourself fully in the situation
overwhelms us; the prospect of delivering a seeing it through your eyes not just watching
presentation in addition to being the focus of yourself. This is an important part of the
attention from others ("Will my mind go process to make sure you feel as though you
blank? Will they ask me awkward questions are actually experiencing the situation. Pay
that I won't be able to answer?"). attention to what you see: what colours do
you notice as you "walk" on to do the
But there are ways to trick your brain into
presentation? Are the images hazy or clear?
thinking that the forthcoming presentation is
a familiar situation by using visualisation Sound: Try to imagine the voice of the
technique. Research in Cognitive person introducing you. Which direction are
Behavioural Therapy (CBT) indicates that the sounds coming from? Imagine the
using imagery can elicit emotion more (confident) sound of your own voice
readily than language-based thought projecting clearly and evenly to the audience.
processing. Smell: Perhaps you can smell coffee brewing
You can apply these principles by or the aroma of furniture polish.
completing the following visualisation Taste: You could imagine sipping water and
exercise: the calming effect of its coolness against
Step 1: your pallet.
This should include physically rehearsing the Touch: Imagine slowly and calmly taking
presentation, preferably in front of a critical your place in front of the audience. Pause for
friend or audience. Focus on delivery, a few seconds to ground yourself. Notice the
posture, voice projection and use of reassuring feeling of your upright but relaxed
materials. If you don't prepare adequately, no posture and how solid you feel with your feet
amount of visualisation will get you through placed firmly on the ground as you begin
the presentation. your presentation.
Step 2: Step 5:
If you can't visit before the presentation, By now you should be fully immersed in the
company websites and brochures may help presentation as if you were there. It's
with this. If that's not possible you can still important to imagine how you want to feel
use your imagination and teach your mind mentally and emotionally as well as
that the presentation is not an unfamiliar (and physically. Concentrate on your breathing
scary) situation. and make it as calm and regular as is
comfortable for you. Notice how soothing it
Step 3:
is just to feel your breath entering and
Imagine it's the day of the presentation and leaving your body.
you're going on to speak – you can do this
Step 6:
with your eyes open or shut depending on
what works best for you. If you feel some nervousness in your
stomach (often referred to as "butterflies"),
Step 4:
don't worry about it. Feeling concerned that
The important thing now is to add to your you will deliver a good presentation is
visual image by making your mental natural and will actually sharpen your
rehearsal as vivid as possible so that you feel thinking helping you to perform better. Most
as though you are actually experiencing the people find this feeling of concern slightly
uncomfortable and mistakenly believe it is a
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danger signal that something bad is The more you practice delivering the
happening. If this sounds like you, try telling presentation in your mind, the more
yourself that this feeling of concern is confident you will feel on the day – because
uncomfortable but not threatening. Your aim the experience will no longer seem
is to get your "butterflies" to fly in the right unfamiliar.
direction so that you are alert but calm during Good luck with your presentation.
the presentation.
Step 7:

C TRANSLATION / INTERPRETING SKILLS


1. Note-taking practice: As you listen to the passage, try to condense it into a few
meaningful units. Organize the information into groups. For example, if a person were
to list the schools she had attended and the subjects she studied, you could group the
schools by location and the subjects studied by topic.
Then render the information in Russian using your notes.
Presenting research results is a vital aspect of graduate work. It is an exciting time in a
student's degree program because it represents the culmination of many hours of hard work.
The communication of research findings provides a valuable opportunity to inform others of a
current investigation and it and can lead to future speaking opportunities at conferences,
grants for future research projects, school and business meetings and offer natural connections
to new job opportunities! There are several major elements in preparing academic
presentations that will help students to best represent their research while effectively meeting
audience expectations.
Presenting academic material requires careful preparation and planning to effectively
communicate to your audience. It is important to consider the diversity of expertise within a
group of educators. Audiences will usually contain people who are experts in your subject
area, others who have a general knowledge of the topic and the remainder who have basically
little or no knowledge. How do you plan to effectively reach such a wide range of knowledge
levels within one group? A popular communication strategy is to directly address the experts
while integrating relevant and interesting illustrations and ideas into the presentation that
make the results accessible to entire audience. It is a multidimensional speaking technique
that demonstrates respect for those who attend your presentation.
Essential elements for action research presentations:
• Problem description and documentation
• Setting: population
• Solution strategy
• Analysis of results (anticipated & otherwise)
• Recommendations for change & for future researchers
• Solicitation of audience feedback
The problem statements should be presented in descriptive language that the audience can
easily understand. The presentation should include several key studies from the literature
75
review to provide solid support for the rationale for pursuing your research problem. There is
a real temptation to share a host of studies but it tends to distract people who generally are
more interested in understanding why an individual has undertaken a particular study.
Setting section should reflect a basic overview of the study participants and help acquaint
people with the school or organizational setting for the research project. Due to the
international interest in research efforts, be sure to share enough factual information about the
study site and population to inform individuals from other countries. Also, it might be
necessary in some situations to include a brief overview of key terms to effectively
communicate with a diverse audience.
Presenting possible solutions to educational problems is a vital part of the research process.
Individual projects will often focus on issues within a specific realm of practice in a
classroom or throughout a school such as disciplinary referrals. It is important to present
information in a concise manner that highlights the specific changes to improve the
educational setting. Therefore, stress three or four changes that will help you keep your
presentation focused and reduce potential resistance to your ideas.
Interpretation of qualitative and quantitative data is always a very challenging task. The
author recommends reviewing your results in light of the concepts of significance,
generalizability, reliability and validity. The generalizability of an action research project
requires you to ask specific questions which examine the degree of broader applicability of
your particular study. Ask yourself the following questions:
• If you carried out a detailed study of a specific institution, group or individual, are
your findings of any relevance beyond that institution, group or individual?
• Do they have anything to say about the behavior or experience of other institutions,
groups or individuals, and if so, how do you know that this is the case?
Every study has a certain level of limitations involving generalizability. Action research
projects are designed to address real problems in a school such as the quality of student
writing or reading comprehension skills. Collaborative action research projects offer
opportunities to increase the significance of an investigation by exploring and examining
issues within a school or several schools. Individual case studies and action research projects
remain an important part of today’s academic community.
Researchers need to carefully share conflicting or even somewhat confusing results because
this represents valuable information. Often, it stresses the complexity of studying the teaching
and learning process and the need to explore the topic in greater depth in a future research
venture.
An individual study can benefit both a higher education institution and offer potential insights
for online teachers. Here is a comprehensive chart of five facilitator or e-moderator
competencies:
1. Understanding of online process - understand how to promote group work, pace
online discussions, experiment with new ideas
2. Technical skills - use software to facilitate student interaction by monitoring student
messages and create conferencing opportunities
3. Online communication skills - able to effectively interact with students by using
concise and clear messages that encourage academic dialog and personalize the online
experience

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4. Content expertise - credible subject matter knowledge and experience to share
comments/questions that stimulate lively debate
5. Personal characteristics - able to adapt to different teaching situations and
demonstrates a genuine excitement about online learning
The five facilitator skills provide an excellent overview of distance educator competencies.
The educational community can use the facilitator skills in a variety of ways: instructional
design specialists that are creating online curriculum materials help assist distance educator
administrators who are recruiting online personnel, trainers of online faculty members who
need guidelines to help them make accurate assessments and individual instructors who want
to develop a professional development plan.

(http://www.itdl.org/journal/Jan_04/article06.htm)

2. Translate the text from Russian into English in writing and discuss variants of
translation with your groupmates.

5 правил создания эффективной презентации PowerPoint


1. Составьте на бумаге план презентации
Что вы хотите, чтобы они сделали? Как вы можете заставить их думать по-другому?
Что вы хотите, чтобы они запомнили? План станет вашим основным ключом. Он будет
составлен исходя из потребностей и интересов аудитории. При этом мы не
рекомендуем составлять планы речи, так как:
 Если вы отлично умеете поддержать любой диалог, то, скорее всего, для вас
будет труднее составить сценарий своей речи в разговорном стиле на бумаге. А
разговорный язык, между прочим, работает в презентациях лучше всего.
 После написания сценария речи вам, возможно, будет трудно оторваться от него
во время презентации. Чтение по бумажке станет снотворным для вашей публики.
 Вы можете понадеяться на свою память и просто зазубрить всю речь, но речь
может показаться аудитории не естественной и высокопарной. Вы будете постоянно
концентрироваться на том, чтобы не забыть ход мысли – вместо того, чтобы
постараться донести ее суть до аудитории.
Презентация – это передача слушателям идей, а не точных слов и предложений. Вместо
того, чтобы составлять сценарии, сделайте заметки для себя. Они должны напоминать
вам, что нужно сказать. Как только вы создали структуру презентации, приступайте к
созданию слайдов.
2. Поместите в один слайд одно предложение
Суть идеи каждого слайда выразите в виде одного короткого предложения и поместите
его на слайд. Это и будет наполнение каждого слайда.
3. Добавьте соответствующие картинки к каждому слайду
Существуют четыре основных типа визуализации:
1. Изображения или фотография, символизирующая Вашу идею.
2. Диаграмма, которая помогает аудитории понять концепцию того, что вы
описываете.

77
3. График со значениями данных.
4. Блок-схема, демонстрирующая алгоритм процесса.
Ваши слайды не должны содержать стандартных картинок и шаблонов.
4. Обратите внимание на дизайн
Сосредоточьтесь на более простом дизайне. Вот основные принципы создания дизайна
слайдов:
 Используйте простой фон, т.к. декорирование шаблонов внесет в презентацию
беспорядок.
 Используйте шрифт без засечек, но обратите внимание на Arial или Helvetica.
 Используйте тот цвет текста, который будет в контрасте с фоном.
 Если вы используете фотографии, то помещайте их во весь экран и
накладывайте на них текст. Можно подложить под текст полупрозрачный
прямоугольник – рамку – чтобы текст лучше читался.
Если есть возможность, избегайте темных фонов. Темный фон был хорош, когда
использовались маломощные проекторы. С сегодняшними проекторами можно
использовать белый фон, если, конечно, вы не находитесь в очень светлой комнате с
ярким солнечным светом.

5. Танцуйте со своими слайдами


Не игнорируйте ваши слайды, пусть они будут вашей партнершей в танце. Танцуйте
вместе с ними. Слайды – это ваш партнер в презентации – сначала ведешь ты, потом
слайды, потом снова ты и так дальше.
(Перевод: Ольга Кудряшова)
(http://presportal.ru/power-point/5-pravil-sozdaniya-effektivnoj-prezentacii-powerpoint/ )

D EFFECTIVE WRITING

Developing and Organising Ideas


Tell ‘em what you’re going to tell ‘em,
then tell ‘em, and then tell ‘em what you’ve just told ‘em.
I Organizing your argument
HOW TO PUT MY IDEAS TOGETHER?
An argumentative or persuasive piece of writing must begin with a debatable thesis or claim
(see Unit 4). In other words, the thesis must be something that people could reasonably have
differing opinions on. If your thesis is something that is generally agreed upon or accepted as
fact then there is no reason to try to persuade people.

78
In order to effectively present your arguments, you can use an organizational structure that
arranges the argument in a way that will make sense to the reader. The Toulmin Method of
logic is a common and easy to use formula for organizing an argument.
The basic format for the Toulmin Method is as follows:
• Claim: The overall thesis the writer will argue for.
• Data: Evidence gathered to support the claim.
• Warrant (also referred to as a bridge): Explanation of why or how the data supports
the claim, the underlying assumption that connects your data to your claim.
• Backing (also referred to as the foundation): Additional logic or reasoning that may
be necessary to support the warrant.
• Counterclaim: A claim that negates or disagrees with the thesis/claim.
• Rebuttal: Evidence that negates or disagrees with the counterclaim.
Including a well-thought-out warrant or bridge is essential to writing a good argumentative
essay or paper. If you present data to your audience without explaining how it supports your
thesis your readers may draw different conclusions.
It is recommended not to avoid the opposing side of an argument. Instead, include the
opposing side as a counterclaim. It allows writers to find common ground with more of their
readers. It also makes the piece more credible because the writer appears to be knowledgeable
about the entirety of the debate rather than just being biased. You may want to include several
counterclaims to show that you have thoroughly researched the topic.

Example:
Claim: Hybrid cars are an effective strategy to fight pollution.
Data1: Driving a private car is a typical citizen's most air polluting activity.
Warrant 1: Because cars are the largest source of private, as opposed to industry produced, air
pollution switching to hybrid cars should have an impact on fighting pollution.
Data 2: Each vehicle produced is going to stay on the road for roughly 12 to 15 years.
Warrant 2: Cars generally have a long lifespan, meaning that a decision to switch to a hybrid car
will make a long-term impact on pollution levels.
Data 3: Hybrid cars combine a gasoline engine with a battery-powered electric motor.
Warrant 3: This combination of technologies means that less pollution is produced. According to
ineedtoknow.org "the hybrid engine of the Prius, made by Toyota, produces 90
percent fewer harmful emissions than a comparable gasoline engine."
Counterclaim: Instead of focusing on cars, which still encourages a culture of driving even if it cuts
down on pollution, the nation should focus on building and encouraging use of mass
transit systems.
Rebuttal: While mass transit is an environmentally sound idea that should be encouraged, it is
not feasible in many rural and suburban areas, or for people who must commute to
work; thus hybrid cars are a better solution for much of the nation's population.
(Adapted from Online Writing Lab @ https://owl.english.purdue.edu/)
79
Exercise 1 (B1/B2/C1)
Write an outline of an argumentative paper using the Toulmin Method. Choose one of
the statements below.
1 Gun ownership right is essential as law-abiding citizens should be able to protect their
lives.
2 A ‘Right to Die’ is also a right.
3 Human beings do not need meat to maintain good health.
4 Immigrants shall preserve their cultural background rather than assimilate.
5 Unhappy the land that is in need of heroes. (B. Brecht)

II Useful Vocabulary: Describing visuals (B1/B2/C1)


In technical and scientific pieces, information is often presented in tables, graphs, diagrams
and other visuals.
Types of visuals
Diagrams are visual ways of presenting data concisely. In academic articles they are usually labeled
‘figures’ (e.g. Fig. 1).
A flow chart is a diagram A pie chart displays the size of A bar chart is used to compare
which indicates the stages of a each part as a percentage of a different items. Bars vary in
process. whole. It is divided into height or length.
segments. A key (or legend)
shows what each segment
represents.

A line chart depicts changes A table is a grid with A diagram is a drawing


over a period of time, columns and rows. showing arrangements and
showing data and trends. situations, such as networks,
distribution, fluctuation, etc.

80
Presenting a graph

The graph presents/shows/indicates/plots data retaining to the population growth in Canada


from 1978 to 2009. It is taken from Statistics in Canada website.

The horizontal (x) axis indicates years and the vertical (y) axis shows population. There are
three graphs in the chart. The green graph shows the total growth of the population, the black
one deals with the migrated people in Canada and the blue graph shows the natural increase
of the population. In 1988/89 there was an enormous growth. In the following years the total
growth went down to about 250,000 in 1998/99. From that time on the Canadian population
has been gradually growing again although the natural increase slows down. So we can say
that the growth of the population in Canada is based on migration/ It can be concluded that
migration largely accounts for population growth in Canada.

Here are some other expressions for describing a graph.

Introduction Topic Circumstances

This graph shows ... the results of our products ... over 10 years.

The diagram outlines ... rates of economic growth ... between 1990 and 1996.

This table lists ... the top ten agencies ... in the industrial world.

This pie chart represents … the company's turnover ... for this year in our sector.

This line chart depicts ... the changes in sales ... over the past year.

This chart breaks down ... the sales of each salesman ... during the past ten weeks.

81
Describing movements & trends:

An upward trend

Verbs
Nouns
Transitive Intransitive

(to) increase (to) increase (an) increase

(to) raise (to) rise (rose, risen) (a) raise (US), a rise (UK)

(to) push/put/step up (to) go/be up (an) upswing

(to) grow (a) growth

(to) extend, (to) expand (to) extend, (to) expand (an) extension, expansion

(to) progress (a) progression

(to) boom/soar/climb (a) boom

(to) jump, (to) skyrocket (a) jump

(to) reach a peak, (to) peak (a) peak

(to) reach an all-time high

A downward trend

Verbs
Nouns
Transitive Intransitive

(to) decrease (to) decrease (a) decrease

(to) cut, (to) reduce (a) cut, (a) reduction

(to) fall (off) (a) fall

(to) plunge, to plummet (a) plunge

(to) drop (off) (a) drop

(to) go down (a) downswing

(to) decline (a) decline

(to) collapse (a) collapse (dramatic fall)

(to) slump, (to) go bust (a) slump

(to) bottom out

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No movement

Verbs
Nouns
Transitive Intransitive

(to) keep ... stable (to) remain stable

(to) hold ... constant (to) stay constant

(to) stabilize (to) stabilize stability

A change of direction

Verbs
Nouns
Transitive Intransitive

(to) level off (to) level off/out, to flatten (a) levelling-off


out

(to) stop falling/rising (a) change

(to) stand at (to) remain steady

Indicating the degree or the speed of change

Ways to describe the degree of change:


dramatically, vastly, hugely, significantly, perceptibly, considerably, substantially,
markedly, moderately, slightly
83
Ways to describe the speed of change:
rapidly, quickly, swiftly, gradually, gently, little by little, slowly, quietly
Describing the elements of a graph
Graphs are drawn by plotting points on them and then drawing a line to join adjacent points.
If there are two lines, they are likely to intersect or cross, although they can also run
parallel.

Exercise 2
Look at the graph and write the appropriate letters in front of each definition:
 : the horizontal axis ( or the x axis)  : a solid line

 : the vertical axis (or the y axis)  : a broken line

 : the scale  : a dotted line

Analysing graphs
Graphs show how numbers increase or decrease. Numbers can also be described as rising,
growing, falling, dropping, declining, etc. Other verbs used to characterize growth include
double, soar, multiply, appreciate and exceed. The opposites are: to halve, plummet, sink,
depreciate, fall below
The x axis of this graph shows the twelve
months of the past year while our sales in
millions of dollars appear on the y axis. It may
be seen clearly that sales rose steadily in the
first half of the year (from January to May) and
reached their peak in June. Then they dropped
off in July and levelled out in August. After
rising sharply during September, they suffered a
dramatic fall in October but then made a
significant recovery in November. However,
the year ended with a slight downturn.
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Exercise 3
Match each sentence below with one of the following graphs.

1  The investment level rose suddenly.


2  The sales of our products fell slightly in the final quarter.
3  The Research and Development budget has stabilized over the past few years.
4  At the end of the first year, sales stood at 50 per cent of the present level.
5  The price reached a peak before falling a little and then maintaining the same level.
6  There has been a steady increase in costs over several years.
7  The sudden collapse in share prices has surprised everyone.
8  The value of the shares has shown a steady decline.
Exercise 4

Look at the graph below and complete the sentences.

1 The ___________________ compares three products : A, B and C.


2 The ___________________ shows time over ten years while the
___________________ shows sales in number of units.
3 As you can see, product A is represented by the ___________________.
4 The performance of Product B is shown by the ___________________.
85
5 And a ___________________ has been used to show the results of Product C.
6 Clearly, ___________________is the most successful product.
7 Sales of Product B ___________________ in recent years while sales of Product C
___________________.
8 On the contrary, product A has shown a ___________________.
Exercise 5
Read the following text and draw the corresponding graph on the right.
The graph opposite covers the
years 1976 to 1995. It shows
that the number of television
viewing hours rose steadily and
steeply during that period in the
US, starting at just under 5
hours a day to reach more than
7 hours in 1995.
There was a slight increase in
1982 and sharper falls in 1986
and 1991. The next decrease, in
1994, is hardly significant.
Though we do not have the
latest figures, it is unlikely that
the trend will have reversed.
Exercise 6
Describe the graph below using and organising the following expressions:
Sales rose / went up /
increased / climbed ...
+ slowly / steadily /
rapidly / gradually ...
Sales stood at ...
Sales peaked / peaked out
Sales levelled out / flattened out
Sales bottomed out
This was due to ...
This was the result of ...
This caused ...
This led to ...

Conclude by saying whether


this graph is typical or not and
justify your answer.

(Adapted from http://www.englisch-hilfen.de/en/words/charts.htm;


www.englishonline.free.fr; http://www2.le.ac.uk/offices/ld/resources/presentation/visual-aids)

86
UNIT 6. PSYCHOLOGY AND COMMUNICATION

A EXPLORING A TOPIC
I Expressing an opinion (B1/B2/C1)

1. There are three main types of communication processes: face-to-face interpersonal


interaction, mediated interpersonal interaction and communication via mass media.
Give examples of mediated interpersonal interaction. Describe the situations when
each of these three forms of communication are most effective. Are there any similar
features of face-to-face and mediated interpersonal interaction? What is their main
difference?
Use the following words and expressions: verbal means of communication, nonverbal
means of communication, to follow specific patterns of social interaction, verbal
behaviour, nonverbal behaviour, exchange of information, oral communication, written
communication, different types of media (telephone, computer, video conferencing), time
and place of interaction.
2. Communication is interrelated with psychology. Psychology studies the mind, the brain and
human behaviour. Clinical psychology studies and treats mental illness. What do you think
cultural psychology studies? What other types of psychology do you know?

II Related information (B1/B2/C1)

1. Define the meaning of the following terms: framework, cognition, behaviour, identity.

2. Read the fragment of the article Psychology in Communication Processes by J.N.


Bailenson, N. Yee (Stanford University).

1) Single out key concepts of the theory of Alan Newell.


2) Explain the hierarchical stages of organizing human behaviours with reference to
time (from the bottom level to the evolutionary level).
3) Give examples of non-experimental subfields within psychology.

HUMAN COGNITIVE ARCHITECTURE

The framework of human cognitive architecture is helpful in discussing how different


types of thought, as well as the corresponding areas of psychology, relate to each other along
a continuum, and how this continuum, in turn, relates to communication processes. Alan
Newell (1990), in his landmark text Unified theories of cognition, established a hierarchical
structure that is based on the processing time which goes into organizing different types of
human behaviors. At the very bottom level, taking fractions of seconds, are biological events,
such as neurons firing. These biological events combine into cognitive actions, such as
retrieving a memory, which typically take between 10 milliseconds and 10 seconds. Cognitive
actions, next, are joined in rational actions, such as solving a math problem, which may take
from minutes to hours. All of these behaviors enter into social actions, such as forming an
identity, which takes months or years, and further mold historical actions such as the forming
87
of a racial stereotype within a culture, which takes decades. Finally, at the evolutionary level,
over millennia, the mind, body, and behavior of a species will change. A crucial aspect of
Newell’s framework is that “lower level” processes, such as neurological and perceptual
events, combine and emerge as “higher level” processes, such as making decisions, forming
social impressions, and communicating. There are, of course, a number of non-experimental
sub-fields within psychology that do not employ a “bottom-up” methodology. For example,
one of the earliest and perhaps most controversial theories is psychodynamics, which posits
that significant parts of our emotional or motivational forces operate at a subconscious level,
and are strongly influenced by early childhood experiences and development. These latent
traumas or motivations may remain in the mind and emerge on a conscious level as neuroses
or psychoses. The role of psychoanalytic therapists is to identify the underlying subconscious
reasons for the surface problems. The two scholars most associated with this tradition are
Sigmund Freud and Carl Jung, who utilized clinical interviews with patients as the basis for
formulating their theories.

(From Bailenson, J.N., Yee, N. Psychology in Communication Processes. P. 3932)

III Developing background knowledge (B1/B2/C1)

1. Prepare a talk on a) Sigmund Freud; b) Carl Jung

- give a brief account of some biographical facts;


- innumerate the main aspects of the theory;
- speak on a controversial point of the theory.

IV Exchanging views and ideas (B1/B2/C1)

1. Group work. Choose one of the points and organize a brainstorming session to find
out pros and cons of the ideas of a) S. Freud, b) C. Jung.
2. The authors of the article above argue that it takes decades to form a stereotype
within a culture. Explain why it takes such a long time and give examples of some stereotypes
(for further discussion see Unit 11).

V Summarizing the topic (B1/B2/C1)


1. Convert the text into information for the slides (5-7 slides) for a power point
presentation on the topic, bearing in mind the principles of an effective presentation
(see Unit 5).
2. Make a power point presentation on the topic Psychology and Communication
a. Choose one form of communication
b. Define the particular situation (setting, participants, ways and means of
communication, describe psychological aspects of it)

VI Project work (B1/B2/C1)

1. Work out a list of questions (a questionnaire) on effective means of communication


and most popular forms of interaction and interview your group-mates. Choose a

88
particular form of the research: face-to-face interaction or mediated interaction. You
may do it using the Internet as a mediator. Present the results of your survey in a
Report.
2. Write an essay on one of the following topics:
1) Pros and cons of using the Internet for communication.
2) Pluses of face-to-face interaction: psychological aspects.
3) I spend hours talking on the phone.
4) I communicate to the world: gadgets in my life.

B PRACTISING SKILLS
TEXT 1 (B2)
Put the word(s) in brackets in the right form.

Being bilingual may delay Alzheimer's and boost brain power

By Alok Jha

Learning a second language and speaking it regularly can improve your cognitive skills and
delay the onset of dementia, according to 1.____________ (RESEARCH) who compared
bilingual individuals with people who spoke only one language.
Their study suggests that bilingual speakers hold Alzheimer's disease at bay for an extra four
years on average 2.____________ (COMPARE) with monoglots. School-level language skills
that you use on holiday may even improve brain function to some extent.
In addition, bilingual children who use their second language regularly are better at
3.____________ (PRIORITY) tasks and multitasking compared with monolingual children,
said Ellen Bialystok, a psychologist at York University in Toronto.
"Being bilingual has certain cognitive benefits and boosts the 4.____________ (PERFORM)
of the brain, especially one of the most important areas known as the executive control
system," said Bialystok on Friday at the annual meeting of the American Association for the
Advancement of Science in Washington, DC.
"We know that this system deteriorates with age but we 5.____________ (FIND) that at every
stage of life it functions better in bilinguals. They perform at a higher level. It won't stop them
getting Alzheimer's disease, but they can cope with the disease for longer."
In her research, published recently in the journal Neurology, Bialystok looked at 211 people
with probable Alzheimer's disease, 102 of whom were bilingual and 109 monolingual, and
noted the age at which the patients' cognitive 6.____________ (IMPAIR) had started. Her
results showed that bilingual patients had been diagnosed 4.3 years later, on average, and
7.____________ (REPORT) onset of symptoms 5.1 years later than monolingual patients.
She said 8.____________ (SWITCH) between different languages seems to stimulate the
brain so that it builts up a cognitive reserve.
The effect was 9.____________ (GREAT) for people who had to use the language every day
and choose between two sets of words all the time. Nevertheless, learning a language at
school and continuing to practise it was also useful, she said. "It works 10.____________

89
(GOOD) for people who speak two languages every day, like immigrants moving to a new
country who speak their own language at home. But every little bit helps."
Bialystock said her team 11.____________now (RESEARCH) whether using two or more
languages resulted in any physical changes to the brain, in addition to improving
12.____________ (COGNITIVE). Early results suggest that it may change brain size.
Another study of bilingual people carried out by Judith Kroll, a psychologist at Penn State
University, supported the idea that speaking more than one language keeps the brain in shape
and bolsters mental function. She found that bilingual speakers could outperform single-
language speakers in mental tasks such as editing out 13.____________ (RELEVANT)
information and focusing on important details.
Her 14.____________ (FIND) conflict with the idea that speaking several languages confuses
the brain and might even hinder cognitive development.
TEXT 2 (B2/C1)
Choose ONE phrase from the list of phrases A-K below to complete each of the following
sentences 1-10. Remember, ONE phrase is extra here.

A how much their parents talked with them


B how well they did at school over the next six years
C with adjectives and subordinate clauses
D it had a striking effect on the children's readiness for school
E who was really persistent and toiling
F that striking differences emerged in their vocabularies
G grasp the rules and rhythms of language at an early age
H how quickly the children shifted their gaze from the wrong image to the right one
I how well they did at school over the next six years
J might even have damaging effects on the children's language development
K that displayed pictures of a baby and a dog side by side

Talking to babies boosts their brain power, studies show


Children whose parents speak to them least fare worst in language tests, lagging behind by up
to six months at age two
By Ian Sample
Reading bedtime stories to babies and talking influenced 2.
to them from birth boosts their brain power __________________________.
and sets them up for success at school, Prof Anne Fernald, a developmental
researchers say. psychologist at Stanford University, said
Studies on babies and toddlers found chatting with infants helped them
1.___________________________________ 3.________________________________
_ and language processing skills as early as and provided them with a foundation to build
18 months old. up an understanding of how the world
worked.
Children whose parents spoke to them least
came out worst in language tests, and at 24 Repetition helped children to remember
months old some lagged behind their words, while learning relationships between
contemporaries by up to six months. The words, such as "the horse pulls the cart",
handicap often stayed with the children and helped them to construct a picture of the

90
world that paid dividends when they reached When parents chatted more with infants, their
school age. children's language processing improved and
they learned new words more swiftly.
"You need to start talking to them from day
one," Fernald said at the American Though the difference in performance was
Association for the Advancement of Science marginal,
annual meeting in Chicago. "You are 7._______________________________,
building a mind, a mind that can with some children being more than two
conceptualise, that can think about the past years behind others in verbal and memory
and the future." skills by the age of five.
Fernald described a series of experiments in Fernald said children developed language
which she tested children's language best when their parents or carers involved
processing skills. In one of the tests, babies them in conversations around things the
and toddlers sat on their parents' laps in children found interesting. She said plonking
front of a computer 4. a child in front of the TV or giving them an
______________________. iPad to play with was no substitute for a
conversation that centred on the child and
The researchers used slow-motion video
their interests, and
cameras to record
8.____________________________.
5._________________________ when told
to "look at the baby" or "look at the doggy". "Parents who talk more to their kids are more
Half of the time they were already looking at likely 9.
the right image. _____________________________,"
Fernald said. "You are obligated to feed
The test measured the children's ability to
them, wash them, and clothe them. Talk to
process language information. In the
them while you are doing it. We are not
youngest children there was a pause before
saying quit your job and home school them."
they looked at the right picture. But as their
language skills developed, they shifted their Prof Erika Hoff, a developmental
gaze much faster, until they fixed on to the psychologist at Florida Atlantic University,
right image before the word baby or dog had said parents should not restrict their
been finished. conversations to simplistic baby talk. Rich
and complex language,
In one study, Fernald found that the slowest
10.__________________________________
children were 200 milliseconds slower to
, helped them to learn the complex structure
find the right picture than the fastest ones.
of language. "Children cannot learn what
The different speeds were down to
they don't hear," she said.
6_______________________________.

TEXT 3 (C1)
Choose the correct heading for sections 1-7 from the list of headings below.
Write the correct letter A-G in the boxes given below. Remember, ONE heading is extra.

List of Headings
A Success inspires!
B Reasons not to learn a foreign language
C On the way to achieve a long-cherished goal
D What helps to learn a language
E The natural instinct and its role in language acquisition
F Joint research in language acquisition
G A silver lining
91
Language learning: what motivates us?
What happens in the brain when we try to learn a language can tell us a lot about what drives
us to learn it in the first place. Lauren Razavi unpacks the science

By Lauren Razavi

Section 1: Could this interactional instinct, then, be the


key to learning additional languages?
"Where's your name from?"
Schumann argues that the situation is
I wasn't expecting to be the subject of my different in the case of foreign languages.
interview with John Schumann, but the "The motivation for second language
linguistics professor had picked up on my acquisition varies across individuals, the
Persian surname. Talking to me from talent and aptitude for it varies across
California, where he is one of the world's individuals, and the opportunity for it varies
leading academic voices across individuals," he says. "Therefore we
on language learning, he effortlessly puts my don't get uniform success across second
own Farsi to shame. language acquisition as we do – generally –
Schumann learned Farsi in Iran, where he in primary language acquisition."
was director of the country's Peace Corps Section 3:
Teaching English as a Second Language
For more than 50 years, two terms have
(TESL) programme. He then went into
categorised motivation in language learning:
academia, becoming a professor at the
integrative and instrumental. Though distinct,
University of California (UCLA), where he
these types of motivation are closely linked.
specialises in how we learn languages and its
neurobiology. "Integrative motivation is the motivation to
learn a language in order to get to know, to
Shumann's work and that of his colleagues in
be with, to interact with and perhaps become
UCLA's Neurobiology of Language Research
like the speakers of the target language,"
Group, is concerned with the processes that
Schumann says. "Children have integrative
happen within the brain when we learn a
motivation in acquiring their first language.
language. Such work holds the answer to the
Instrumental motivation alongside this
holy grail of languages: what motivates
characterises second language acquisition."
learning?
"Instrumental motivation is language
Section 2:
learning for more pragmatic or practical
In 2009, Schumann published The purposes," he explains. "Such as fulfilling a
Interactional Instinct: The Evolution and school requirement, getting a job, getting a
Acquisition of Language. The work marked a promotion in that job, or being able to deal
crucial development in the study of language with customers."
learning.
So then, for an aspiring language learner,
"We've developed a theory called 'the which kind of motivation might see them
interactional instinct'," Schumann says. "We achieve the most success? "I wouldn't argue
show that children are born with a natural for the supremacy of one over the other in
tendency to attach, bond and affiliate with second language acquisition," Schumann
caregivers. They essentially have a drive to says. "In most cases of language learning
become like members of the same species. motivation, we have a mixture of integrative
The child becomes motivated to learn their and instrumental influences."
primary language through this innate
Section 4:
interactional instinct."

92
Closer to home, significant research into languages. The key issue in motivating
language acquisition and language learning English-speaking language learners is the
motivation is taking place at the University prevalence of English as the world's lingua
of York. Its Psycholinguistics Research franca, an issue that has been explored and
Group is a collaborative effort engaged with debated by experts for more than a decade.
a variety of elements connected to language "We speak natively the language that the
acquisition. world is trying to learn. For us, it's never
Danijela Trenkic is a member of this group clear that we need to learn a second
and a senior lecturer in the Department of language, and if we decide to, it's hard for us
Education at York. She highlights the to pick which one," Schumann asserts. "It's
importance of socialisation in staying also very difficult to maintain a conversation
motivated to learn a language. "The social with a German if your German isn't good,
relevance and social aspects of learning seem because they'll quickly switch to English, and
hugely important for sustaining motivation they're often more comfortable doing so."
and so determining the outcome of learning," "One of the main reasons there are more
she says. successful learners of English than of other
Alongside Trenkic, student Liviana Ferrari languages is that there's more 'material' out
conducted a study into language learning there, and it's more socially relevant in the
motivation as part of her PhD. Her research sense that people you know are likely to
investigated what kept adult English learners share your enthusiasm for the material –
of Italian motivated during a beginners' films and music, for example," Trenkic adds.
course. Though the students joined the
Section 6:
classes for a variety of reasons and were
taught by different teachers using different Does this mean that all hope is lost for native
approaches, it quickly became apparent that English speakers learning foreign languages?
maintaining motivation was closely Not necessarily. Schumann argues that many
connected to the social elements involved. European states are successful in cultivating
bilingual societies because of active societal
"We found that those most likely to stick
support and the national-level importance
with it were the ones who developed a social
placed on it.
bond within a group," Trenkic explains. "For
them, learning Italian became part of their "In countries like Holland and Sweden, the
social identity: something they do one society has realised they have to learn a more
evening a week with a group of pleasant and international language. They start teaching
like-minded people. For both groups [in the English very early but with no magic
study], social participation was the driving method," Schumann says. "The Dutch put on
force for sustaining motivation." a lot of television in English with Dutch
subtitles. In the entertainment media, they
Section 5:
give a preference to English. Nationally, they
Native English speakers continue to be give their communities a language they can
notoriously bad at mastering foreign use in the world."
languages. This example of integrative English's role as a global lingua franca might
motivation at work could demonstrate a way make foreign language acquisition more of
that learners might see more success in their an effort, but the motivation – as Schumann
language learning efforts. But the English puts it – "to get to know, to be with, to
language is different from other languages. interact with and perhaps become like the
Both Trenkic and Schumann believe that speakers of [a] target language" remains
native English speakers are at a unique intact. For English speakers, the focus must
disadvantage in trying to learn other be on the cultural and social benefits of

93
learning languages – on the symptoms of employment prospects and good grades.
integrative motivation, which go beyond

C TRANSLATION / INTERPRETING SKILLS

1. Translate the following phrases into Russian (in writing) and explain all translation
transformations you have used:
Keep in mind that these are general rules of thumb, and not all of the tips may apply to your
particular situation. Simply utilize what works and leave the rest.
The first rule in the face of an unreasonable person is to maintain your composure.
By maintaining self-control, you harness more power to manage the situation.
Some people are simply not worth tussling with.
Another situation where you might think twice about confrontation is when, by putting up
with the difficult behavior, you derive a certain benefit.
To be sure, empathetic statements do not excuse unacceptable behavior.
When you’re soft on the person, people are more open to what you have to say. When you’re
firm on the issue, you show yourself as a strong problem solver.
If you react by being on the defensive, you simply fall into the trap of being scrutinized,
thereby giving the aggressor more power while she or he picks on you with impunity.
To know how to handle unreasonable and difficult people is to truly master the art of
communication.

2. Practise consecutive interpreting of the text:

How to deal with difficult people (8 Keys to Dealing with Problem People)

By Preston Ni, M.S.B.A. in Communication Success

Are you dealing with a challenging person at work, at home, or in another part of your life?
It’s easy to let an unreasonable individual affect us and ruin our day. What are some of the
keys to empowering yourself in such situations? Below are eight keys to dealing with difficult
people. Keep in mind that these are general rules of thumb, and not all of the tips may apply
to your particular situation. Simply utilize what works and leave the rest.
1. Keep Your Cool
The first rule in the face of an unreasonable person is to maintain your composure. The less
reactive you are, the more you can use your better judgment to handle the challenge. When
you feel angry or upset with someone, before you say something you might later regret, take a
deep breath and count slowly to ten. In most circumstances, by the time you reach ten, you
would have figured out a better way of communicating the issue, so that you can reduce,
instead of escalate the problem. If you're still upset after counting to ten, take a time out if

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possible, and revisit the issue after you calm down. By maintaining self-control, you harness
more power to manage the situation.
2. Are They Worth It?
Not all difficult individuals we face require direct confrontation about their behavior. Some
people are simply not worth tussling with. Your time is valuable, so unless there’s something
important at stake, don’t waste it by trying to change or convince a person who’s negatively
entrenched. Whether you’re dealing with a difficult colleague or an annoying relative, be
diplomatic and apply the tips from this article when you need to interact with them. The rest
of the time, keep a healthy distance.
More specifically, there are two scenarios under which you might decide not to pick a battle.
The first is when someone has temporary, situational power over you. For example, if you’re
on the phone with an unfriendly customer service representative, as soon as you hang up and
call another agent, this representative will no longer have power over you.
Another situation where you might think twice about confrontation is when, by putting up
with the difficult behavior, you derive a certain benefit. An example of this would be an
annoying co-worker, for although you dislike her, she’s really good at providing analysis for
your team, so she’s worth the patience. It’s helpful to remember that most difficult people
have positive qualities as well, especially if you know how to elicit them.
In both scenarios, you have the power to decide if a situation is serious enough to confront.
Think twice, and fight the battles that are truly worth fighting.
3. Reduce Personalization & Shift from Reactive to Proactive
When you feel offended by someone’s words or deeds, come up with multiple ways of
viewing the situation before reacting. For example, I may be tempted to think that my friend
is ignoring my calls, or I can consider the possibility that he’s been very busy. When we avoid
personalizing other people's behaviors, we can perceive their expressions more objectively.
People do what they do because of them more than because of us. Widening our perspective
on the situation can reduce the possibility of misunderstanding.
Another way to reduce personalization is to try to put ourselves in the difficult individual’s
shoes, even for just a moment. For example, consider the person you’re dealing with, and
complete the sentence: “It must not be easy…”
“My child is being so resistant. It must not be easy to deal with his school and social
pressures…”
“My manager is really demanding. It must not be easy to have such high expectations placed
on her performance by management…”
“My partner is so emotionally distant. It must not be easy to come from a family where people
don’t express affection…”
To be sure, empathetic statements do not excuse unacceptable behavior. The point is to
remind yourself that people do what they do because of their own issues. As long as we’re
being reasonable and considerate, difficult behaviors from others say a lot more about them
than they do about us. By reducing personalization, we can be less reactive and concentrate
our energy on problem-solving.
4. Separate the Person From the Issue
In every communication situation, there are two elements present: the relationship you have
with this person, and the issue you are discussing. An effective communicator knows how to
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separate the person from the issue, and be soft on the person and firm on the issue. For
example:
“I want to talk about what’s on your mind, but I can’t do it when you’re yelling. Let’s either
sit down and talk more calmly, or take a time out and come back this afternoon.”
“I appreciate you putting a lot of time into this project. At the same time, I see that three of
the ten requirements are still incomplete. Let’s talk about how to finish the job on schedule.”
“I really want you to come with me. Unfortunately, if you’re going to be late like last time,
I’ll have to leave without you.”
When you’re soft on the person, people are more open to what you have to say. When you’re
firm on the issue, you show yourself as a strong problem solver.
5. Put the Spotlight on Them & Reclaim Your Power
A common pattern with difficult people (especially the aggressive types) is that they like to
place attention on you to make you feel uncomfortable or inadequate. Typically, they’re quick
to point out there’s something not right with you or the way you do things. The focus is
consistently on “what’s wrong,” instead of “how to solve the problem.”
This type of communication is often intended to dominate and control, rather than to sincerely
take care of issues. If you react by being on the defensive, you simply fall into the trap of
being scrutinized, thereby giving the aggressor more power while she or he picks on you with
impunity. A simple and powerful way to change this dynamic is to put the spotlight back on
the difficult person, and the easiest way to do so is to ask questions. For example:
Aggressor: “Your proposal is not even close to what I need from you.”
Response: “Have you given clear thought to the implications of what you want to do?”
Aggressor: “You’re so stupid.”
Response: “If you treat me with disrespect I’m not going to talk with you anymore. Is that
what you want? Let me know and I will decide if I want to stay or go.”
Keep your questions constructive and probing. By putting the difficult person in the spotlight,
you can help neutralize her or his undue influence over you.
A second technique you can use to interrupt negative communication is to change the topic.
Simply say “By the way…” and initiate a new subject. When you do so, you’re taking charge
of the flow of communication, and setting a more constructive tone.
6. Use Appropriate Humor
Humor is a powerful communication tool. Years ago I knew a co-worker who was quite stuck
up. One day a colleague of mine said “Hello, how are you?” to him. When the egotistical co-
worker ignored her greeting completely, my colleague didn’t feel offended. Instead, she
smiled good-naturedly and quipped: “That good, huh?” This broke the ice and the two of
them started a friendly conversation. Brilliant.
When appropriately used, humor can shine light on the truth, disarm difficult behavior, and
show that you have superior composure.
7. Confront Bullies (Safely)
The most important thing to keep in mind about bullies is that they pick on those whom they
perceive as weaker, so as long as you remain passive and compliant, you make yourself a
target. Many bullies are also cowards on the inside. When their victims begin to show
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backbone and stand up for their rights, the bully will often back down. This is true in
schoolyards, as well as in domestic and office environments.
On an empathetic note, studies show that many bullies are victims of violence themselves.
This in no way excuses bullying behavior, but may help you consider the bully in a more
equanimous light.
“When people don't like themselves very much, they have to make up for it. The classic bully
was actually a victim first.” — Tom Hiddleston
“Some people try to be tall by cutting off the heads of others.” — Paramhansa Yogananda
When confronting bullies, be sure to place yourself in a position where you can safely protect
yourself, whether it’s standing tall on your own, having other people present to witness and
support, or keeping a paper trail of the bully’s inappropriate behavior. In cases of physical,
verbal, or emotional abuse, consult with counseling, legal, law enforcement, or administrative
professionals on the matter. It’s very important to stand up to bullies, and you don’t have to
do it alone.
8. Set Consequence
The ability to identify and assert consequence(s) is one of the most important skills we can
use to "stand down" a difficult person. Effectively articulated, consequence gives pause to the
challenging individual, and compels her or him to shift from obstruction to cooperation.
In conclusion, to know how to handle unreasonable and difficult people is to truly master the
art of communication. As you utilize these skills, you may experience less grief, greater
confidence, better relationships, and higher communication prowess. You are on your way to
leadership success!
(http://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/communication-success/201401/8-keys-dealing-
problem-people-0)

D EFFECTIVE WRITING

I Composing paragraphs

HOW TO ARRANGE MATERIAL?


A paragraph is a collection of related sentences dealing with a single topic. Learning to write
good paragraphs will help you as a writer stay on track during the drafting and revision stages.
But more importantly, paragraphing greatly assists your readers in following a piece of
writing thus helping you to achieve your most important goal - BEING READER-
FRIENDLY. You can have fantastic ideas, but if they are not presented in an organized
fashion, you will lose your readers.
The Basic Rule: Keep one idea to one paragraph
The basic rule of thumb with paragraphing is to keep one idea to one paragraph. If you
begin a transition into a new idea, it belongs in a new paragraph. There are some simple ways
to tell if you are on the same topic or a new one. You can have one idea and several bits of
supporting evidence within a single paragraph. You can also have several points in a single
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paragraph as long as they relate to the overall topic of the paragraph. If the single points start
to get long, then perhaps elaborating on each of them and placing them in their own
paragraphs is the route to go.
To be as effective as possible, a paragraph should contain each of the following: Unity,
Coherence, A Topic Sentence, and Adequate Development. As you will see, all of these
traits overlap.
Unity
The entire paragraph should concern itself with a single focus. If it begins with one focus or
major point of discussion, it should not end with another or wander within different ideas.
Coherence
Coherence is the trait that makes the paragraph easily understandable to a reader. Coherence
can achieved by means of logical bridges and verbal bridges.

Logical Bridges Verbal Bridges

The same idea of a topic is carried Key words can be repeated in several sentences.
over from sentence to sentence.

Successive sentences can be Synonymous words can be repeated in several


constructed in parallel form. sentences.

Pronouns can refer to nouns in previous sentences.

Transition words can be used to link ideas from


different sentences.

A topic sentence
A topic sentence is a sentence that indicates in a general way what idea or thesis the paragraph
is going to deal with. Not all paragraphs have clear-cut topic sentences. Also, topic sentences
can occur anywhere in the paragraph.
An easy way to make sure your reader understands the topic of the paragraph is to put your
topic sentence near the beginning. (This is a good general rule for less experienced writers,
although it is not the only way to do it). Regardless of whether you include an explicit topic
sentence or not, you should be able to easily summarize what the paragraph is about.

Exercise 1 (B1/B2/C1)
Read the following paragraphs and underline the topic sentence.
A.
The ocean's delicate coral reefs are affected by changes caused by humans. To
illustrate, dumping waste products and garbage in the sea results in changes in the natural
environment. Due to these changes the ocean becomes polluted, and as a consequence, coral
reefs are damaged. When the ocean becomes extensively polluted, coral reefs die.
B.
Good health is affected by a balanced diet. On the other hand, if we do not eat well, this could
cause problems and we could become very sick. For instance, if our diet lacks Vitamin
A, blindness may result. Many problems affecting the skin and the teeth are due to a lack of
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Vitamin C. When our diet contains recommended amounts of Vitamin A and C, however, our
ability to fight diseases like cancer is greatly affected. So it makes sense to eat well because
this results in a longer and healthier life.
How do I know when to start a new paragraph?
You should start a new paragraph when:
• When you begin a new idea or point. New ideas should always start in new
paragraphs. If you have an extended idea that spans multiple paragraphs, each new
point within that idea should have its own paragraph.
• To contrast information or ideas. Separate paragraphs can serve to contrast sides in
a debate, different points in an argument, or any other difference.
• When your readers need a pause. Breaks between paragraphs function as a short
"break" for your readers—adding these in will help your writing more readable. You
would create a break if the paragraph becomes too long or the material is complex.
• When you are ending your introduction or starting your conclusion. Your
introductory and concluding material should always be in a new paragraph. Many
introductions and conclusions have multiple paragraphs depending on their content,
length, and the writer's purpose.

SUMMARY CHECKLIST
• Put only one main idea per paragraph.
• Aim for three to five or more sentences per paragraph.
• Include on each page about two handwritten or three typed paragraphs.
• Make your paragraphs proportional to your paper (short paragraphs for short
papers and longer paragraphs for longer papers).

(Adapted from Dana Lynn Driscoll, Allen Brizee (2013) @ https://owl.english.purdue.edu/)

II Useful Vocabulary: Contrast (B1/B2/C1)

Like addition (See Unit 4), expressions of contrast are essential in implementing reader-
centered approach in writing.

We use the following words and phrases to make contrasting points or to express balance:
Yet, / however, / (but) nevertheless, / but / at the same time / even so, / still, / nonetheless
It is a known fact that smoking causes cancer. Nonetheless, millions of people around the world
continue to smoke.
Although / Even though / Regardless of the fact that / In spite of the fact that / Despite
the fact that / While / Whereas… / Much as
While it is a known fact that smoking causes cancer, millions of people around the world continue to
smoke.
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Verb endings in Russian can show present, past of future tenses, whereas in English they can only show
present or past.
Much as I would like to stay, I still think I should go home.

In spite of / despite + a noun


Despite being late, we were allowed into the laboratory.

On the one hand / on the other hand / unlike…, / conversely, / rather than + noun / Quite
the opposite, / on the contrary, / The reverse is true.
In the north of India, rains are plentiful. In the south the reverse is true and drought is common.

Exercise 2 (B1/B2)
Insert linking words/phrases of contrast in the sentences. More than one option is
possible.
ALTHOUGH EVEN THOUGH NEVERTHELESS WHEREAS
DESPITE THE FACT THAT REGARDLESS OF THE FACT THAT DESPITE

1 _________________ big crowds, it is still possible to feel very lonely in a city.


2 Kelly loves her husband _________________ he has some bad habits.
3 _________________ he's 24 now, he still behaves like a little child.
4 Wagner was a Nazi supporter. _________________, he is still an important figure in
the history of music.
5 _________________there was almost no hope of finding the missing boy, the search
party still went on the search.
6 She went to Spain _________________ her doctor had told her to rest at home.
7 He refused to help me, _________________ I had always helped him whenever
needed.

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Exercise 3 (B2/C1)
Correct mistakes in the following sentences.
1 Nevertheless I see your point, I still think you might be wrong.
2 While reorganization is a good idea, but it would cause friction among
employees.
3 There were ten minutes left to the deadline, even though we refused to panic.
4 Our project is meeting with considerable success, much as we might like it.
5 I spent hours on the Internet even so I knew I was wasting my time.
6 Despite of his youth, he had significant achievements in biology.
7 Fines are a good way of punishing, however they are of no use if they cannot
be paid.

Exercise 4 (B2/C1)
Make up sentences of your own using the linking words from the exercise above:
NEVERTHELESS WHILE (WHILST) EVEN THOUGH MUCH AS EVEN SO
DESPITE HOWEVER

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UNIT 7. WORK-LIFE BALANCE

A EXPLORING A TOPIC

I Expressing an opinion (B1/B2/C1)

1. Look at the definition of the notion work-life balance below. Is this a problem for you
now? Is it an effort for you to find the appropriate balance between work and study
and private life?
Work-life balance is a concept that supports the efforts of employees to split their time and
energy between work and the other important aspects of their lives. Work-life balance is a
daily effort to make time for family, friends, community participation, spirituality, personal
growth, self care, and other personal activities, in addition to the demands of the workplace
(from Work-Life Balance by Susan M. Heathfield).
2. Study some other interpretations of the term. Using the definitions suggested define
the concept in a way related to your personal experience.
a) Work–life balance is a concept including proper prioritizing between "work" (career
and ambition) and "lifestyle" (health, pleasure, leisure, family and spiritual
development/meditation). Related, though broader, terms include "lifestyle calm
balance" and "lifestyle choices" (from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia).
b) Work-life balance is the ability to experience a sense of control and to stay productive
and competitive at work while maintaining a happy, healthy home life with sufficient
leisure. It’s attaining focus and awareness, despite seemingly endless tasks and
activities competing for your time and attention (from What is Work-life Balance? by
Jeff Davidson)

II Related information (B1/B2/C1)


1. Define the meaning of the following terms: downshifting, voluntary simplicity,
unorganization, a win-win issue, burn-out, workload, flexitime.
2. Read the beginning of the report on the results of the survey of work and balance
Work and Life Balance, INTERNATIONAL SURVEY BY ARBORA-Global Career
Partners, Pharma Consult Services, May 23rd 2001.
1) Explain the reasons of doing such a research.
2) What groups of managers were interviewed for the survey? Why?
3) What flexible work arrangements help to provide the balance of work and life?

REPORT
1. INTRODUCTION
Do you work to live or live to work?
In a recent survey of 1361 managers, carried out by the University of Manchester Institute of
Science and Technology, it was found that more than 80% of managers work more than 40
hours a week, almost 40% work more than 50 hours a week, and 66% report feeling under
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pressure constantly. More and more frequently many managers start to think about the quality
of their professional life, with an increased level of stress and pressure. Work-related
activities prevail over their lives and leave neither time nor energy for other things.
Associations promoting a new life style are proliferating: “work less, earn less but live
better”. Concepts such as "downshifting", "voluntary simplicity" or “unorganization", have
become popular in recent publications and in the net. On the other hand, companies are more
and more confronted with the difficulties arising from the situation of employees having to
combine their own professional lives with those of their spouses (in USA 80% of couples both
work) and this is a concern of human resources managers. In the past, the conflicting demand
for work versus personal life was seen as a social welfare question that only benefited the
employee. A new generation of HR managers is starting to view this issue in a different way.
They are looking at the dilemma as a win-win issue. The best employee is perhaps no longer
the one that is inclined to give up everything for the company, including his/her private life,
but the one that is able to keep a good balance between personal and professional life.

2. OBJECTIVE
The objective of this survey was to evaluate the perception both of managers as employees
and of HR managers as employers with regard to the manager’s balance between personal and
professional life. More specifically, we were interested in analysing the following related
issues:
− From the Managers’ point of view as employees
We explored up to what point they are stressed and overloaded at work, how this is affecting
their lives, and what kind of solutions they are being offered or would like to be offered by
their companies.
Concepts such as workload, burn-out, long working hours, flexitime, permanent availability
and job satisfaction were explored together with general time distribution between work and
other personal activities.
In addition, we briefly profiled the professional and personal situation of those interviewed,
while preserving anonymity.
− From the Human Resources Managers point of view as employers
We were interested in diagnosing the prevailing attitude of HR managers with regard to the
work/life balance dilemma.
Among other things, we tried to answer the following questions: Do HR managers view the
issue as a win-win possibility or as a social benefit to employees? Is it possible to keep the
same level of efficiency with more flexible work arrangements? Is it compatible to avoid
working around the clock with being a good top manager? Is the work/life balance question a
problem of women exclusively?
Additionally, a brief profile of the companies surveyed was also recorded as well as the
flexible work arrangements they provided:
- Part-time work
- Flexitime
- Sabbatical periods or longer maternity/paternity leave
- Teleworking
- Job sharing
- Job swapping
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- Flexible holidays

III Developing background knowledge (B1/B2/C1)

Jeff Davidson MBA, CMC is one of the authors who develops the idea of workplace
productivity. He has written a number of articles on Work and Life Balance. Study some of
them and give a talk about one of the issues under discussion (e.g. Email Communication
Strategies for Greater Harmony, Being Constantly Interrupted: Who Needs It?).

IV Exchanging views and ideas (B1/B2/C1)

1. Group work. The Work-Life Balance Expert, Jeff Davidson suggests The Six
Components of Work-Life Balance: self management, time management, stress management,
change management technology management, and leisure management Organize a
brainstorming session to find out the meaning of each element. Compare your ideas to those
of J. Davidson at Work-Life Balance http://work-lifebalance.com.
2. What is the connection between Work and Life Balance and Time Management Skills?
See Unit 3 for more information.

V Summarizing the topic (B1/B2/C1)

1. Choose a notion which is, in your opinion, most important for understanding the idea of
Work and Life Balance. Speak on the issue.

2. Make a power point presentation on the topic Work and Life Balance

− Choose a particular aspect (e.g. self management in Work-Life Balance, etc.)


− Illustrate your ideas with real-life examples

VI Project work (B1/B2/C1)

1. Work out a list of questions (a questionnaire) on effective means of balancing your


work/study and other aspects of life and interview your group-mates. Choose a
particular form of the research: face-to-face interaction or mediated interaction. You
may do it using the Internet as a mediator. Present the results of your survey in a
Report.
2. Write an essay on one of the following topics:
1) Why I need work and life balance.
2) To work to live or to live to work, that is the question.
3) Ten tips to achieve work-life balance.
4) Work and life balance: issues to discuss.

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B PRACTISING SKILLS
TEXT 1 (B2)
Put the word(s) in brackets in the right form.

Work-Life Balance. Background

Finding a suitable balance between work and daily living is a challenge that all workers face.
Families 1.__________________ (PARTICULARLY, AFFECT). Some couples would like
to have (more) children, but do not see how they could afford to stop working. Other parents
are happy with the number of children in their family, but would like to work more. This is a
challenge to governments because if parents cannot achieve their desired work/life balance,
not only is their welfare lowered but so is 2._______________ (DEVELOP) in the country.
People spend one-tenth to one-fifth of their time on unpaid work.
The 3._______________ (DISTRIBUTE) of tasks within the family 4._______________
(STIL, INFLUENCE) by gender roles: men are more likely to spend more hours in paid work,
while women spend longer hours in unpaid domestic work. While on average men in OECD
countries spend 141 minutes per day 5._____________ (DO) unpaid work, women spend 273
minutes per day 6.____________ (COOK), 7._______________ (CLEAN) or
8._______________ (CARE). This average difference, approximately 2.3 hours per day,
conceals many disparities among countries. For instance Turkish and Mexican women spend
approximately 4.3 hours more than men 9.______________ (WORK) on domestic chores,
while the difference is only a little over one hour in the Nordic countries.
Employees Working Long Hours
An important aspect of work-life balance is the amount of time a person 10.___________
(SPEND) at work. Evidence suggests that long work hours may impair personal health,
11.___________ (JEOPARDY) safety and increase stress. The share of employees working
more than 50 hours per week is not very large in OECD countries. Turkey is by far the
country with 12.___________ (HIGH) proportion of people working very long hours, with
more than 43%, followed by Mexico with nearly 29% and Israel with nearly a fifth of
employees. Overall, men spend more hours in paid work and the 13.___________
(PERCENT) of male employees working very long hours across OECD countries is 12%,
compared with 14.___________ (LITTLE) than 5% for women.
Time devoted to Leisure and Personal Care
Furthermore, 15.___________ (MUCH) people work, 16.___________ (LITTLE) time they
have to spend on other activities, such as personal care or leisure. The amount and quality of
leisure time is important for people’s overall well-being, and can bring 17.___________
(ADD) physical and mental health benefits. A full-time worker in the OECD works
1 765 hours a year and devotes 62% of the day on average, or close to 15 hours, to personal
care (eating, sleeping, etc.) and leisure (socialising with friends and family, hobbies, games,
computer and television use, etc.). 18.___________ (FEW) hours in paid work for women do
not necessarily result in 19.___________ (GREAT) leisure time, as time devoted to leisure is

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20.___________ (ROUGH) the same for men and women across the 20 OECD countries
studied.
(From OECD Better Life Index)
TEXT 2 (B2/C1)
Choose ONE phrase from the list of phrases A-J below to complete each of the following
sentences 1-9. Remember, ONE phrase is extra here.

A following a passion and looking for opportunities that blur the lines between work and play
B surrounding yourself with talented people
C that you can never be prepared for everything
D which is not always possible
E that you are always available
F you're incapable of managing your time effectively
G to maintain an impossible level of perfection both at work and at home
H while the latter might be a bit trickier to find
I learn from them and move on quickly to the next challenge
J has customers have become more demanding and able to reach support 24/7

Ten minutes to a better work/life balance


By Lottie O'Conor

After a long Christmas break eating mince pies as anticipated." Don't dwell on your failings,
and watching Downton Abbey, hitting the office 3._____________________________.
in January can be a bit of a culture shock. Many
Choose the right workplace and the
of us start the year with a raft of good intentions
but in reality, the elusive work/life balance can be right career
really tough to get right. Here are a few tips and It's easy to put pressure on ourselves
suggestions to guide you towards a more 4.______________________________:
harmonious new year. effortlessly rising up the ranks, going home to
Let go of other's expectations cook a three course meal – stopping on the way
home for a spot of pilates, of course. In reality,
It's easy to assume that staying later and sending making the move to a company where the
emails at midnight makes you look like a more work/life balance is celebrated rather than
valuable employee, when actually it could just scorned can make a huge difference. Sarah
make it look like Hennessy, deputy managing director at MEC UK
1._______________________________. The believes that "joining a company that gives you
key here is to let go of worrying about what the flexibility to shape your career around your
others think. "Be confident - don't justify yourself life is vital."
to anyone" says Samantha Sida, chief strategy
officer at Limited Space Media Group. "Just get It's important to remember that the phrase
the job done and don't second guess." work/life balance means different things to
different people. For some, it's about learning
While planning ahead can make both work and when to turn your phone off and walk away from
home life run more smoothly, it's important to the office. But for others, it's about
remember 5._______________________________. "I don't
2._______________________________. For necessarily see work and life as two very
Sida, maintaining a sense of humour and different things" says Moira Ross, head of
perspective is crucial. "Accept that sometimes entertainment at Wall to Wall and executive
life will just get in the way and no matter how producer on primetime show The Voice UK. "I
much prep you have done, things won't pan out have a really fun, creative job. Obviously the
show is on a Saturday, so I work right into the
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weekend, but I work with people I love so I feel yourself a bit of breathing space. Hennessy
like the social aspect is integrated. I don't feel enforces a 9pm cut-off time for checking her
like I'm missing out. The hours are long, but it's smartphone – "it helps alleviate the stress of
not traditional work so it comes with a lot of worrying overnight about something that will
bonuses." have to be done in the morning."
Don't set unrealistic expectations Know when to delegate
You might initially impress by answering an 8.__________________________________
email over the weekend or dealing with an issue makes it easier to share the workload and not try
after hours but doing so means that people will to take on every single task yourself. Molly
assume 6.____________________________. Aldridge, global CEO at M&C Saatchi PR
"Technology has done much to break down the acknowledges that while a multi-tasking attitude
walls between work and home," explains Lara is essential, it's important not to overlook "critical
Leventhal, managing director at Eulogy PR. "The support factors" such as "an incredible executive
flipside of this, for the service industries assistant, trusted senior management and a
particularly, is that office hours" have become flexible and fabulous husband".
extinct 7._____________________________. 9.______________________________, building
Once these service expectations are shifted, the a trustworthy team around you at work makes it a
genie cannot go back into the bottle." Where lot easier to take the occasional step back.
possible, set your boundaries early on and give

TEXT 3 (B2/C1)
Choose the correct heading for sections 1-7 from the list of headings below.
Write the correct A-H letter in the boxes given below. Remember, ONE heading is extra.
List of Headings
A Technology
B Globalisation
C Lack of trust
D Promotion paranoia
E A set of reasons for not working from home
F The law
G Not all jobs can be done from home
H Office working isn't all bad

Why aren't we all working from home today?


Section 1: Of course, as a commuter, you don't need to be
told that – especially if you work in London. Of
Watching Londoners struggling in to work during the 3 million people who commute daily on the
a tube strike is just the thing to get us wondering London Underground, it is estimated as many as
about working from home. 75% had to battle into the office today, despite
Squashed, squeezed and stressed: if you've the strike action that has ground most of the
struggled into work today and are reading this in public transport network to a halt.
a crowded office, surrounded by distracting Why are so many of us continuing to trudge into
noises, machines, smells and colleagues, and are work? Research by Stanford University has
dreading your commute home, then you are found that remote workers are 13% more
certainly, literally, not alone. Despite the many productive, take fewer sick days and enjoy a
advances in remote working technology, latest quieter working environment than their
figures from the Office of National Statistics commuting colleagues.
show that 87% of us still work primarily at the
office. No wonder a survey of business owners by
Virgin Media Business recently predicted that
60% of office-based employees will regularly
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work from home by 2022. A separate survey by according to Wrike.com, and just under a third
Office Angels found a third of employees think would accept a reduction in paid holiday time.
commuting will be unheard of by 2036. But most people do not want to work from home
exclusively, says Cooper. "People want social
Yet anyone left bruised and battered by their
contact. When you work remotely, there's a risk
journey to work today could be forgiven for
you'll feel isolated socially. People also worry
wondering whether the supposed remote working
that the infrastructure they need to work at home
revolution is just a load of hype. What is stopping
– their internet connection or their computer –
the majority of employees from working from
will let them down, or that their family will
home?
interrupt them."
Section 2:
"It doesn't suit everyone," Flaxton agrees. "Some
The main reason most employers aren't in favour would miss the camaraderie of their colleagues,
of home-working is because they don't trust their or don't have the means to work from home. But
workforce, according to Cary Cooper, professor it amazes me to see people still battling into work
of organisational psychology and health at when there's a transport strike."
Lancaster University Management School. Section 5:
"They'll never say that, but that's what it's about.
Managers want people in the office because they Imagine if you turned up at a hospital or a police
want to see their little empires there in front of station and found everyone had chosen to work
them," he says. "It's totally about trust, and the from home. Clearly, some jobs require your
incompetence of managers who don't know how physical presence – whether it's working on an
to manage people remotely." assembly line, driving a vehicle, guarding a
prison, fixing a toilet or saving someone's life.
Phil Flaxton, chief executive of Work Wise UK,
agrees: "The fear factor for many managers is: 'If Even in office roles, some employers believe
I can't see you how do I know you are working?' there are things best done face-to-face. "I find
Managers need training on how to assess a home- that getting my teams of project managers,
worker on their output, not their input." designers and web developers into the office is
always worthwhile," says Jim McCall, MD of
Smaller companies tend to be worse at trusting
digital agency The Unit. "Teams need to be in
their employees to work from home than bigger
daily contact and nothing beats physically sitting
companies, he says, despite senior managers at
and reviewing work together to gauge people's
SMEs potentially having a more friendly and
initial reactions and true thoughts. Teams will
intimate relationship with their workforce. "The
also have 'stand-ups' every day, using agile
MD might say: 'I'm committed to my business
boards [white boards with columns and tasks]
and I will get here, so you must get here.' It's
that workers need to physically interact with."
autocratic and there's usually a bit of ego in it
too." Section 6:
Section 3: Of course, the technology to have face-to-face
meetings over the internet (or even use an agile
This lack of trust has a knock-on effect on
board, albeit a virtual one) has been around for
employees, with more than a quarter believing
years, and has become more familiar to us. Skype
their performance is primarily measured by the
and Facetime are widely used, as are tools that
time they spend in the office rather than what
allow employees to access shared documents and
they deliver, according to a survey by O2.
drives over the internet.
"Office workers worry that if they're not in the
political arena, it might affect their ability to get a
However, despite the technology being available,
promotion," says Cooper. "They feel they need tonot all employers are willing to pay to take
be visible and that their employer may question advantage of it. Video conferencing involving
their commitment if they work from home." people in three or more locations is a service that,
for example, most employers will need to
Section 4:
subscribe to. An initial outlay on equipment
One in four of us would accept a reduction in could be made back, says Peter Birkett,
salary if it meant we could work from home, spokesman for IT consultancy adept4. "Costs like
real estate and office overheads are significantly
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reduced when flexible working is introduced. But be still refused on 'business grounds' but reasons
the greatest benefit of all is the improved morale will have to be given and could be challenged by
and productivity that comes with an investment an employee.
in mobile technology."
The remote working revolution may take off yet.
Section 7: Something to think about when you're stuck on a
crowded platform this evening …
At the moment, only parents have the legal right (From Work Blog, The Guardian)
to request flexible working. But from June, every
employer will have to consider requests from all
employees after 26 weeks' service. Requests can

C TRANSLATION / INTERPRETING SKILLS

1. Read the text aloud by paragraphs and condense them to 1-2 sentences (i.e., say the
same thing in fewer words) as you go along, retaining the same meaning.
Work in pairs and take turns interpreting your partner’s condensed text.

Graduate student work-life balance


Current graduate students offer tips for taking care of yourself in graduate school, having a
life outside of your research, and doing well at the human aspects of being a scientist, too.
One size does not fit all. There will be times in graduate school where you’ll feel like you
should emulate that brain on a stick. But everything that makes you a complex, complete
human being also makes you a better scientist. Being human isn’t a “distraction,” it’s one of
your key assets.
Here are some tips and resources for taking care of yourself in graduate school, for having a
life outside of your research, and for doing well at the human aspects of being a scientist, too.
1) Find - or create - support networks. Not only can support come in many shapes and sizes it
can be found in unexpected places. Your fellow grad students are a great place to start (they
actually do understand what you’re going through!). There will be plenty of times when you
will need someone else to remind you which end is up.
2) Find mentors in addition to your research advisor. There are a lot of aspects to being a
professional scientist, and a lot of different good ways to go about it. Get up the nerve to talk
with faculty about things besides research. Job hunt? Public outreach? Being a scientist with
kids? Navigating big conferences? Starting up a lab? Being a mentor yourself? The list is
endless ... Having multiple mentors is a great safety net.
3) Expect to have some struggles in grad school -- you’re in good company. Some days it
will seem like graduate school is designed to be rough on you, and your choice to attend
school is a crazy one. You are asking questions and doing things that nobody’s ever thought
possible. It won’t always be easy. It’s normal to feel that you don’t belong here sometimes,
but the things that make you different also help you do science in a way that hasn’t been done
before (and that’s the whole point, right?). Remember that you’re not alone; fellow graduate
students and professors have had these feelings, too. In addition to your fellow graduate
students, there are some good web resources for insights on graduate school and science.

109
4) Get out and do something different. Take a look at some of your role models and other
scientists in your departments. Most of them maintain hobbies and interests outside of
research that renew and recharge them and allow them to be great scientists. Athletic pursuits
and the arts are common pastimes, but the sky’s the limit! Especially good are things that give
you mental downtime and/or a change of scenery. For example, if your work is primarily in
the lab, getting out into nature can give you a whole new perspective.
5) Schedule Sleep!!!! How much sleep do you need to feel good? Some individuals work
well with four hours while others need nine. Naturally in graduate school there will be times
when you will be short on sleep because of a project or experiment. Get the sleep you need
when you can. Not only will you feel refreshed and ready to do research but your body can
fight off illnesses easier. You can get more work done in forty well-rested hours than sixty
bleary-eyed ones.
6) Communicate clearly, early, and often. Talk to your advisor about how you plan to make
graduate school life and your personal life work together. Graduate work is not like
undergraduate work. You will be expected to be more proactive and independent. This
transition is difficult for some students and advisors worry about the adjustment. Ease their
fears by being up front about issues like work hours and time off. Be well, do amazing work,
and remember to have fun!
(https://www.cbs.umn.edu/learn/graduate-students/health-well-being/graduate-student-work-
life-balance)

2. Do sight translation of the following text (preparation time: 1 minute).

Achieving Life/Work Balance While Attending Graduate School


By Kate McKenzie
I have this little note tacked up above my desk – a place where I invariably find myself
spending more time than I’d like: “Be aware of wonder. Live a balanced life – learn some
and think some and draw and paint and sing and dance and play and work every day some.” -
Robert Fulgham
It reminds me that we have this one, short, wonderful life to live. And as I embark on a
professional journey, I need reminders that it isn’t all about work, it’s about play too. This is
my first year in a doctoral program. Finding a healthy balance between my professional
pursuits and personal wellbeing has been a challenge I’ve faced for years in school, but is
especially important in the rigorous, high-stress environment in which I find myself now.
The underlying message I hear with some regularity is essentially: “the harder you work, the
more successful you’ll be in this field.” I see some students take that to heart – they work 16
hours a day, never go to happy hour, don’t sleep enough, never take breaks, and lead very
productive but unhappy lives. I can’t be that person. I can work hard, but working too much
means that what I create is strained – it’s lower quality, less interesting, and ultimately bad
work. When I treat myself well (physically, mentally, and emotionally), I feel better and work
better. I am more than just my work, and I remind myself of that by engaging in my hobbies,
spending time with people I love, and exploring new things.
Below are some things that have helped me maintain balance in my life – learned by
experience, and from my mom, dear friends, professional mentors, books, articles, songs, and
lots more. Not every trick works for everyone, of course, and finding a formula that is
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successful for YOU is key – one person’s solution to a balanced life may be doing yoga,
while another person’s is attending rock concerts. Ultimately, you decide what’s best for you,
but this is my approach.
Closing my computer. Whenever I’m at home, if my computer is on, I feel obligated to be on
it and working. So when I don’t need to work, I put it to sleep. It’s amazing how much calmer
I feel when I can’t see that glow emanating from my desk.
Reading for pleasure. I read for school almost all day, but reading something that hasn’t been
assigned is always a joy.
Arts and crafts. Whether I’m crocheting, scrap-booking, card-making, taking photographs, or
sewing, I find all creative pursuits both soothing and relaxing.
Exercise. It’s well known that keeping your body active is an essential part to overall health.
Even getting a short bit of exercise in every day works as a great de-stressor.
Staying organized. It’s important as a graduate student that I stay on top of my homework,
meetings, teaching responsibilities, appointments, assignments, essays, research agenda… the
list goes on. Trying to keep everything I need to get done in my head is impossible – I keep a
planner with dates and to-do lists with me at all times so I have everything I need in one
place.
Taking breaks. Whether I’m at school working or at home studying, I take breaks, even for
five minutes. Taking a deep breath, turning away from my work, and focusing my attention
on something else is always helpful.
Maintaining boundaries. I don’t do reading for school in bed; I don’t multitask while I eat
meals; I don’t return school-related emails after a certain time every evening. Maintaining a
separation from work and home with some boundaries is essential for me.
Spending time with friends and family. This is the key to it all – remaining connected to the
people I care about reminds me that I am part of a larger community, and that there’s more to
life than just my schoolwork.
(http://balanceinme.com/worklife-balance/achieving-lifework-balance-while-attending-
graduate-school/)

D EFFECTIVE WRITING

I Using transitions

HOW TO BE READER-FRIENDLY?
Two very important elements of paragraphing are signposts and transitions. Signposts are
internal aids to assist readers; they usually consist of several sentences or a paragraph
outlining what the article has covered and where the article will be going.
Transitions are usually one or several sentences that "transition" from one idea to the next.
Transitions can be used at the end of most paragraphs to help the paragraphs flow one into the
next.

111
Writing Transitions
Good transitions can connect paragraphs and turn disconnected writing into a unified whole.
Instead of treating paragraphs as separate ideas, transitions can help readers understand how
paragraphs work together. The key to producing good transitions is highlighting connections
between corresponding paragraphs.
It is a good idea to continue one paragraph where another leaves off. (Instances where this is
especially challenging may suggest that the paragraphs don't belong together at all.) Picking
up key phrases from the previous paragraph and highlighting them in the next can create an
obvious progression for readers. Many times, it only takes a few words to draw these
connections.
Instead of writing transitions that could connect any paragraph to any other paragraph, write a
transition that could only connect one specific paragraph to another specific paragraph.

Exercise 1 (B1/B2/C1)
Re-write the following sentences using a suitable transition.
1 Example:
Overall, Management Systems Int. has logged increased sales in every sector, leading
to a significant rise in third-quarter profits.
Another important thing to note is that the corporation had expanded its international
influence.
Revision:
Overall, Management Systems Int. has logged increased sales in every sector, leading
to a significant rise in third-quarter profits.
These impressive profits are largely due to the corporation's expanded international
influence.

2 Fearing for the loss of Danish lands, Christian IV signed the Treaty of Lubeck,
effectively ending the Danish phase of the 30 Years War.
But then something else significant happened. The Swedish intervention began.
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________

112
3 Amy Tan became a famous author after her novel, The Joy Luck Club, skyrocketed up
the bestseller list.
There are other things to note about Tan as well. Amy Tan also participates in the
satirical garage band the Rock Bottom Remainders with Stephen King and Dave
Barry.
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________

There are several types of transitional devices, and each category leads readers to make
certain connections or assumptions. Some lead readers forward and imply the building of an
idea or thought, while others make readers compare ideas or draw conclusions from the
preceding thoughts.
To sum up, the topic (which is introduced by the topic sentence) should be discussed fully and
adequately. Again, this varies from paragraph to paragraph, depending on the author's
purpose, but writers should be wary of paragraphs that only have two or three sentences. It's a
pretty good bet that the paragraph is not fully developed if it is that short.
(Adapted from Writing Transitions by Ryan Weber, Karl Stolley (2013)
@ https://owl.english.purdue.edu/)

II Useful Vocabulary: Transitions (B1/B2/C1)

There are several types of transitional devices, and each category leads readers to make
certain connections or assumptions. Some lead readers forward and imply the building of an
idea or thought, while others make readers compare ideas or draw conclusions from the
preceding thoughts.

Here is a list of some common transitional devices that can be used to cue readers in a given
way.

Working through a list

first, second, third, and so forth. A, B, C, and so forth. next, then, following this, at this time,
now, at this point, after, afterward, subsequently, finally, consequently, previously, before
this, simultaneously, concurrently, thus, therefore, hence, next, and then, soon

Firstly, let us study the history of the problem.


Finally, let us consider surgery as a possible solution.

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Changing topics

We now turn to…, Let us turn to…, at this point it is essential to…

At this point it is essential to look at the statistics.

Referring forward

Below, in the next section, the following

The following data comes from 2011 census.

Referring back

Above, in the preceding section, earlier, as has been noted

As has been noted in the first section of the report…

Giving examples

for example, for instance, in this case, in another case, on this occasion, in this situation, take
the case of, to demonstrate, to illustrate, as an illustration, to illustrate, see; consider; take, for
example; as can be seen in…

Take, for example, Keller, who was the first to discover the phenomenon.

Exercise 2 (B2/C1)

The following expressions may come in handy when introducing a new point or
specifying your idea. Make up sentences of your own to illustrate the use of these
expressions. Use a dictionary when necessary.

Example With respect to / in respect of – This statement is true with respect to


English but not French.

By means of which – Keller took quite a narrow approach, by means of


which he managed to conduct an in-depth study.

As far as … is concerned

___________________________________________________________________________

As regards

___________________________________________________________________________

As for

___________________________________________________________________________

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In terms of

___________________________________________________________________________

With the exception of

___________________________________________________________________________

From the point of view of

___________________________________________________________________________

In the sense that

___________________________________________________________________________

Be that as it may

___________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Exercise 3 (B2/C1)

Read the text below and insert suitable transitions.

Sources for College Writing

Students can draw on a variety of sources to help them with writing assignments.
_____________________, they can draw on personal experiences. __________________, for
an assignment about communication skills, a writer might think about the way he or she
communicates through conversations with others while at work or at home.

_________________, a writer might look at ways he or she communicates with others


electronically via email or texting or Facebook. Students might _________________ find
examples of written communication skills by looking at skills they’ve learned for previous
writing assignments. _________________________, student writers can look for ideas from
other people’s experiences. _______________________, writers can interview other students
or even family members. ______________________, a writer may have heard others talk
about this topic, maybe in class.

115
Another source would be television shows on the topic of communication.
__________________, college writers may find that they need to do some research to
complete an assignment. __________________, lots of experts have written articles or books
on the topic of communication skills.

______________________, a search of “communication skills” on the Internet might provide


useful information; _______, reference librarians can help students find research materials in
special collections or databases. ______________, college writers need to be able to draw on
a combination of personal experience, observations of others, and research materials to
develop their written assignments.
(Adapted from Exploring Writing: Sentences and Paragraphs by John Langan)

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UNIT 8. LEADERSHIP

A EXPLORING A TOPIC

I Expressing an opinion (B1/B2/C1)


1. Have you ever been a leader? What was the situation? Does one need the qualities of a
leader to be successful in life?
2. Compare the definitions of the notions leadership, keading, leader and give your own
definition of the term leadership:
a) Leadership, a critical management skill, is the ability to motivate a group of people
toward a common goal (from Management and Leadership at about.com).
b) Leading is about setting direction and ensuring that that direction is followed. Leading
can apply to leading oneself, other individuals, groups, organizations and societies. The
nature of how leading is done depends on the context of the situation, one one's
perspective, and on the nature and needs of those involved (from Carter McNamara,
MBA, PhD, Authenticity Consulting, LLC. All About Leadership).
c) Leader is the person who leads or commands a group, organization, or country: the
leader of a protest group, a natural leader (Oxford Dictionaries. Language matters).
d) Leadership is the action of leading a group of people or an organization, or the ability
to do this: different styles of leadership (Oxford Dictionaries. Language matters).
e) Leadership
1. The individuals who are the leaders in an organization, regarded collectively.
2. The activity of leading a group of people or an organization or the ability to do this.
Leadership involves
1. establishing a clear vision,
2. sharing that vision with others so that they will follow willingly,
3. providing the information,knowledge and methods to realize that vision, and
4. coordinating and balancing the conflicting interests of all members and stakeholders.
A leader steps up in times of crisis, and is able to think and act creatively in difficult
situations. Unlike management, leadership cannot be taught, although it may be learned
and enhanced through coaching or mentoring. Someone with great leadership skills today
is Bill Gates who, despite early failures, with continued passion and innovation has
driven Microsoft and the software industry to success.
3. The act of inspiring subordinants to perform and engage in achieving a goal
(BusinessDictionary.com).

II Related information (B1/B2/C1)

1. Define the meaning of the following terms: vision, motivate, encourage, reward, drive,
commitment, goal.

117
2. Read the article What is a leader by F. John Reh and dwell on the following:
1) What is peculiar about a leader’s vision?
2) What are specific traits of a leader?
3) What are specific skills of a leader?

WHAT IS A LEADER

At the most basic level, a leader is someone who leads other. But what makes someone a
leader? What is it about being a leader that some people understand and use to their
advantage? What can you do to be a leader? Here's what you need to know and do.
A leader is a person who has a vision, a drive and a commitment to achieve that vision, and
the skills to make it happen. Let's look at each of those in detail.
The Leader's Vision
A leader has a vision. Leaders see a problem that needs to be fixed or a goal that needs to be
achieved. It may be something that no one else sees or simply something that no one else
wants to tackle. Whatever it is, it is the focus of the leader's attention and they attack it with a
single-minded determination.
Whether the goal is to double the company's annual sales, develop a product that will solve a
certain problem, or start a company that can achieve the leader's dream, the leader always has
a clear target in mind. This is a big picture sort of thing, not the process improvement that
reduces errors by 2% but the new manufacturing process that completely eliminates the step
that caused the errors. It is the new product that makes people say "why didn't I think of that",
not just a toaster that lets you select the degree of darkness of the toast. Edison did not set out
to build a better candle, he wanted to find a whole new way to illuminate the darkness. That's
the kind of vision a leader has.
The Drive To See It Through
It is not enough to just have a vision. Lots of people see things that should be done, things that
should be fixed, great step forward that could be taken. What makes leaders different is that
they act. They take the steps to achieve their vision.
Is it a passion for the idea, an inner sense of drive, or some sense of commitment? Whatever it
is, it is the strength that lets leaders move their vision forward despite all the obstacles, despite
all the people saying it can't be done, it's too costly, we tried that before, or a dozen other
excuses. The true leader perseveres and moves forward.
Trait and Skills a Leader Must Have
There are things that set leaders apart from other people. Some people are born with these
characteristics. Others develop them as they improve as leaders. These are not magic bullets.
They are things you can do and be if you want to be a leader.
Traits of a Leader
There are as many traits of a leader as there ae lists of what makes a leader. Here are the
fundamental traits of a leader from my perspective:
• Has integrity. People have to believe that you are pursuing your dream because it's the
right thing to do, not just because you are ego driven.

118
• Is a people person. Understands the differences that make people unique and is able to
use those individual skills to achieve the goal.
• Is positive. A leader encourages and rewards people and makes you want to do it and
do it right. A leader is not a negative person and doesn't waste time and effort tellng everyone
what they're doing wrong.
Leadership Skills
Beyond the personal traits of a leader, there are specific skills someone must master if they
want to be a leader.
• Effective communication - it's more than just being able to speak and write. A leader's
communication must move people to work toward the goal the leader has chosen.
• Motivation - a leader has to be able to motivate everyone to contribute. Each of us has
different "buttons". A leader knows how to push the right buttons on everyone to make them
really want to do their best to achieve the leader's goal.
• Planning - the leader has a plan to achieve the goal. He/she doesn't get too bogged
down in the details, that's what managers are for, but rather uses a high level plan to keep
everyone moving together toward the goal.
Bottom Line
Leaders dream dreams. They refuse to let anyone or anything get in the way of achieving
those dreams. They are realistic, but unrelenting. They are polite, but insistent. The constantly
and consistently drive forward toward their goal. You can be a leader. You will be - when it
matters enough to you.

III Developing background knowledge (B1/B2/C1)

1. F. John Reh argues that ‘people don’t work for companies. They work for
their supervisor. They aren’t loyal to a company. They are loyal to their boss. If you
want to be a successful manager, or a successful leader, ask yourself “Why should
anyone let you lead them?”’ (from the article by F. John Reh Why Should Anyone
Work For You?). Give a talk supporting or opposing this idea.
2. Leadership is often explained by using these terms:
− A philosophy, as a broad, general belief or set of beliefs. For example, many describe
"servant leadership" as a philosophy or practice.
− A theory, as a suggestion or speculation about why something is occurring and it might
be based on a variety of philosophies, i.e., "when this happens, then the following
happens" or "in this situation, the following is best to have or to do." For example, the
traits theory suggests that certain features are needed in someone to be a great leader.
− A model, as a description of how something happens or should happen, often a depiction
of a certain theory. For example, the Situational Leadership Model (Blanchard and
Hershey) depicts a situational theory of leadership, and depicts when to tell, sell,
participate or delegate.
− A style, as a nature of how someone acts when enacting a certain theory or model, e.g.,
to be autocratic, participative or laissez-fair (hands off) in leadership style (from All
About Leadership by Carter McNamara).

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Find the names and brief descriptions of some philosophies, theories, models and styles
describing different aspects of leadership.
3. Give a talk on:
a) psychological aspects of leadership
b) communicative aspects of leadership

IV Exchanging views and ideas (B1/B2/C1)

1. Group work. Organize a brainstorming session and find out if there is any difference
between the notions leader and boss.
2. Comment on the following:
‘The difference between being a manager and being a leader is simple. Management is a
career. Leadership is a calling. You don't have to be tall, well-spoken and good looking to
be a successful leader. You don't have to have that "special something" to fulfill the
leadership role.
What you have to have is clearly defined convictions - and, more importantly, the courage
of your convictions to see them manifest into reality. Only when you understand your role
as guide and steward based on your own most deeply held truths can you move from
manager to leader’. (from the article by Leslie L. Kossoff From Manager to Leader)
3. Give an example of a good leader (from any source: mass media, experience, fiction).

V Summarizing the topic (B1/B2/C1)

1. Prepare a power point presentation about Bill Gates, pointing out his qualities of a leader
(See Unit 5).
2. Give a talk on a political leader of some English-speaking country.

VI Project work (B1/B2/C1)

1. Work out a list of questions (a questionnaire) on qualities of a leader and conduct a


research among your group-mates. Choose a particular quality of a leader and study its
presence in your group-mates. Choose a particular form of the research: face-to-face
interaction or mediated interaction. Report the results of your research bearing in mind
the research ethics: use codes instead of names and generalize.
2. Write an essay on one of the following topics:
1) Leadership means responsibility.
2) You should not be a leader to be successful in this job/position.
3) The qualities I would like to develop.
4) Leadership is a calling.

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B PRACTISING SKILLS
TEXT 1 (B2)
Put the word(s) in brackets in the right form.

Should we encourage girls to study tech over the arts?


It could help address the gender 1.___________ (BALANCE) in the digital sector – but are
arts subjects valuable too?
It's no secret that the technology sector 2.___________ (STILL, DOMINATE) by men. On
the last count in the UK in 2010, only 17% of jobs in the industry 3.___________ (HOLD) by
women. According to ESkills, just 15% of places on computing degree courses
4.___________ (ACCEPT) by females, and the proportion of females taking a computing A-
level is also low at 9%.
So how should we address this? Belinda Parmar of Little Miss Geek says she "wasted" four
years studying a languages degree, and wants to show her daughter that science and
technology will 5.___________ (BROAD) her horizons far more. Although she
6.___________ (ENJOY) every minute of her arts course, Parmar says practical skills such as
coding are more valuable in the modern job market.
Of course, some 7.___________ (ARGUE) that arts-based skills are equally vital - such as
former round-the-world sailor Ellen MacArthur who says she 8.___________ (CAN NOT,
COMPLETE) at the level she did without 9.___________ (BE, FLUENT) in French. So
should schools and parents do more to influence girls' career choices toward science and tech,
or let them make their own 10.___________ (DECIDE)?
(From Women in Leadership, The Guardian)

TEXT 2 (B2/C1)
Choose ONE phrase from the list of phrases A-K below to complete each of the following
sentences 1-10. Remember, ONE phrase is extra here.

A when circumstances require it


B that anyone can practice and adopt to become more effective
C that you yourself would want to be treated
D In spite of being competitive
E No matter what type of organization or industry you're in
F To achieve this level of connection
G that inspires your people to do whatever it takes to get there
H without being punished for doing so
I that they and their team can accomplish anything they set their minds to
J who lift us up into the clouds instead of dragging us down into the mud
K Despite all this research

7 Traits of Highly Effective Leaders


By Peter Economy
If you want to up your leadership game, adopt A remarkable amount of time, effort, and money
these 7 qualities. has been devoted to the study of leadership.

121
1.____________________________, there is environment, and it will facilitate their progress
little agreement about exactly what leadership is. toward attaining your organization’s goals.
Still, people know effective leadership when they ... have confidence.
see it. And while great leaders may sometimes be
Highly effective leaders know deep down inside
born that way, there are certain traits that great
7.____________________________. Failure is
leaders share in common
not an option. Tentative leaders make for
2.____________________________.
tentative employees. If you’re confident, your
What qualities are those? Well, to be a highly people will be too.
effective leader, you must ...
... communicate.
... inspire action.
In any organization, knowledge is power, and
Try to paint a vision of the future great leaders ensure that every employee, from
3.____________________________. The best the very top to the very bottom of the org chart, is
leaders also clear away the organizational provided with complete and up-to-date
roadblocks that constrain employees’ natural information about the organization’s goals,
creativity and initiative, unleashing a tremendous performance, successes and failures.
amount of energy in the process. 8.____________________________, you should
also provide ample channels for two-way
... be optimistic.
communication between employees and
We all want to work with and for people managers, actively soliciting their ideas for
4.____________________________. Make sure improvement and rewarding employees for
to seek out the positives in your people, helping submitting them.
them overcome their own feelings of self-doubt
... be decisive.
and spreading optimism throughout your
organization. One of the most basic duties of any leader is to
make decisions. Highly effective leaders aren’t
... have integrity.
afraid to be decisive and to make tough calls
Research shows that the top thing that employees quickly 9.____________________________.
want from their leaders is integrity. Be honest, Once you have all the information you need to
fair, candid and forthright, and treat everyone in make an informed decision, then don’t hesitate--
the same way make it. And once you make a decision, then
5.____________________________. stick with it unless there is a particularly
... support and facilitate your team. compelling reason for you to change it.

For people to do their very best work, they need 10.____________________________, it's
an organizational environment that supports them possible to become a more effective leader,
by making it safe to take risks, to tell the truth, inspiring your people to give their very best
and to speak up ... every day of the week. Make a point of practicing
6.____________________________. Support these 7 leadership traits, and you will be a highly
your employees by creating this kind of effective leader too.

TEXT 3 (B2/C1)
Choose the correct heading for sections 1-8 from the list of headings below.
Write the correct letter A-I in the boxes given below. Remember, ONE heading is extra.
List of Headings
A Contextualize
B Kindness and respect
C Collaboration
D Sense of humour
E Let Go
F Honesty
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G Emotional intelligence
H Continuous learning
I Partner with your people
Leadership Is About Emotion
By Meghan M. Biro
Make a list of the 5 leaders you most admire.
Section 3:
They can be from business, social media, politics,
technology, the sciences, or any other field. Now Great leaders respond to each challenge with a
ask yourself why you admire them. The chances fresh eye. They know that what worked in one
are high that your admiration is based on more situation may be useless in another. Before you
than their accomplishments, impressive as act, make sure you understand the specifics of the
those may be. I’ll bet that everyone on your list situation and tailor your actions accordingly.
reaches you on an emotional level.
This ability to reach people in a way that Section 4:
transcends the intellectual and rational is the Too many people think leadership is about
mark of a great leader. They all have it. They control. In fact, great leaders inspire and then get
inspire us. It’s a simple as that. And when we’re out of the way. They know that talented people
inspired we tap into our best selves and deliver don’t need or want hovering managers.
amazing work. Leadership is about influence, guidance, and
So, can this ability to touch and inspire people be support, not control. Look for ways to do your
learned? No and yes. The truth is that not job and then get out of the way so that people can
everyone can lead, and there is no substitute for do theirs.
natural talent. Honestly, I’m more convinced of
this now – I’m in reality about the world of work Section 5:
and employee engagement. But for those who fall
Not a week goes by that we don’t hear about a
somewhat short of being a natural born star
so-called leader losing credibility because he or
(which is pretty much MANY of us), leadership
she was dishonest. Often this is because of
skills can be acquired, honed and perfected.
pressure to try and “measure up” and it’s not
Let’s Take A Look At Tools That Allow For coming from a place of being real – often this
Talent To Shine: relates to fear of not being accepted for your true
self. We live in age of extraordinary
Section 1: transparency, which is reason enough to always
be true to your core – your mission will be
Great leaders understand empathy, and have the revealed, your motivations will show by your
ability to read people’s (sometimes unconscious, behaviors. But it goes way beyond this. It’s an
often unstated) needs and desires. This allows issue that sets an example and elevates an
them to speak to these needs and, when at all organization. If you have a reputation for
possible, to fulfill them. When people feel they honesty, it will be a lot easier to deliver bad news
are understood and empathized something, they and face tough challenges. Are you inspiring
respond PERIOD and a bond is formed. people from your heart?
Section 2: Section 6:
Show me a know-it-all and I’ll show you Nice leaders (people) don’t finish last. They
someone who doesn’t have a clue about being finish first again and again. Ignorance and
human. Curiosity and an insatiable desire to arrogance are leadership killers. They’re also a
always do better is the mark of a great leader. mark of insecurity. Treating everyone with a
They are rarely satisfied with the status quo, and basic level respect is an absolute must trait of
welcome new knowledge and fresh (even if leadership. And kindness is the gift that keeps on
challenging) input. It’s all about investing in giving back. Of course, there will be people who
yourself. prove they don’t deserve respect and they must
be dealt with. But that job will be made much
123
easier, and will have far less impact on your As I said above, people’s careers are a big part of
organization, if you have a reputation for their lives. That seems like a no-brainer, but
kindness, honesty and respect. leaders should have it front and center at all
times. Find out what your employees’ career
Section 7: goals are and then do everything you can to help
them reach them. Even if it means they will
People’s jobs and careers are integral to their eventually leave your organization. You will gain
lives. The more your organization can make them happy, productive employees who will work with
a partner, the more they will deliver amazing passion and commitment, and tout your company
results. This means, to the greatest extent far and wide. This is an opportunity to brand your
possible, communicating your organization’s greatness.
strategies, goals and challenges. This builds buy-
in, and again is a mark of respect. People won’t Leadership is both an art and a science. These
be blindsided (which is a workplace culture tools are guidelines, not rigid rules. Everyone has
killer) by setbacks if they’re in the loop. to develop his or her own individual leadership
style. Make these tools a part of your arsenal and
Section 8: use them well as you strive to reach people on an
emotional level. Be Human. It Matters.

C TRANSLATION / INTERPRETING SKILLS

1. Read the text and make a glossary on Leadership Styles:

Leadership style is the manner and approach of providing direction, implementing plans, and
motivating people. As seen by the employees, it includes the total pattern of explicit and
implicit action of their leaders (Newstrom, Davis, 1993).
In 1939 Kurt Lewin led a group of researchers to identify different styles of leadership
(Lewin, LIippit, White, 1939). This early study has been very influential and established three
major leadership styles: (U.S. Army, 1973):
- authoritarian or autocratic
- participative or democratic
- delegative or laissez-fair.
Although good leaders use all three styles, with one of them normally dominant, bad leaders
tend to stick with the one style of autocratic.
Authoritarian or Autocratic
This style is used when leaders tell their employees what they want done and how they want it
accomplished, without getting the advice of their followers. Some of the appropriate
conditions to use it is when you have all the information to solve the problem, you are short
on time, and your employees are well motivated.
Some people tend to think of this style as a vehicle for yelling, using demeaning language,
and leading by threats. This is not the authoritarian style, rather it is an abusive,
unprofessional style called “bossing people around.” It has absolutely no place in a leader's
repertoire.
The authoritarian style should normally only be used on rare occasions. If you have the time
and want to gain more commitment and motivation from your employees, then you should use
the participative style.

124
Participative or Democratic
This style involves the leader including one or more employees in the decision making
process (determining what to do and how to do it). However, the leader maintains the final
decision making authority. Using this style is not a sign of weakness, rather it is a sign of
strength that your employees will respect.
This is normally used when you have part of the information, and your employees have other
parts. A leader is not expected to know everything—this is why you employ knowledgeable
and skilled people. Using this style is of mutual benefit as it allows them to become part of the
team and allows you to make better decisions.
Delegative or Laissez-faire
In this style, the leader allows the employees to make the decisions. However, the leader is
still responsible for the decisions that are made. This is used when employees are able to
analyze the situation and determine what needs to be done and how to do it. You cannot do
everything! You must set priorities and delegate certain tasks.
This is not a style to use so that you can blame others when things go wrong, rather this is a
style to be used when you fully trust and have confidence in the people below you. Do not be
afraid to use it, however, use it wisely!
A good leader uses all three styles, depending on what forces are involved between the
followers, the leader, and the situation. Some examples include:
Using an authoritarian style on a new employee who is just learning the job. The leader is
competent and a good coach. The employee is motivated to learn a new skill. The situation is
a new environment for the employee.
Using a participative style with a team of workers who know their job. The leader knows the
problem, but does not have all the information. The employees know their jobs and want to
become part of the team.
Using a delegative style with a worker who knows more about the job than you. You cannot
do everything and the employee needs to take ownership of his job! In addition, this allows
you to be more productive.
Using all three: Telling your employees that a procedure is not working correctly and a new
one must be established (authoritarian). Asking for their ideas and input on creating a new
procedure (participative). Delegating tasks in order to implement the new procedure
(delegative).
Forces that influence the style to be used include:
- Amount of time available.
- Are relationships based on respect and trust or on disrespect?
- Who has the information—you, the employees, or both?
- How well your employees are trained and how well you know the task.
- Internal conflicts.
- Stress levels.
- Type of task, such as structured, unstructured, complicated, or simple?
(http://www.nwlink.com/~donclark/leader/leadstl.html)

2. Do sight translation from Russian into English:

125
Стили лидерства
Олег Акван
Рассмотрим, какие существуют стили лидерства, какие из них являются наиболее
эффективными, как и когда следует использовать тот или иной стиль управления ради
улучшения эффективности работы вашей команды.
Стиль лидерства является способом или подходом к реализации планов и мотивации
людей. В середине девятнадцатого века Курт Левин возглавил группу исследователей
для выявления различных стилей лидерства. Так, этим ранним исследованием было
выявлено три основных стиля. Хорошие лидеры стараются использовать все три стиля,
нередко, один из стилей доминирует, плохие же лидеры, придерживаются только
одного стиля. Рассмотрим эти стили подробнее.
Авторитарный (автократический) стиль лидерства.
Этот стиль лидерства используется в случаях, когда лидеры говорят своим
подчинённым что должно быть сделано и как это должно быть сделано. Они не
интересуются советами своих последователей. Данный стиль лидерства уместен, когда
вы имеете всю необходимую информацию, ограничены во времени, а ваши работники
хорошо мотивированы.
Некоторым людям свойственно думать, что данный стиль лидерства включает в себя
крики на подчинённых, использование унизительного языка, угроз и злоупотребление
властью. Но это не авторитарный стиль, а оскорбительный и не профессиональный.
Ему нет места в репертуаре лидера.
Авторитарный стиль, как правило, используется в редких случаях. Если же у вас есть
время и вы желаете, чтобы ваши сотрудники были более привержены и мотивированы,
вы должны использовать демократический стиль.
Соучастный, демократический стиль.
Это стиль совместного принятия решения, когда лидер и сотрудники работают вместе.
Но, не смотря на соучастие в процессе работы, лидер определяет окончательное
решение. Использование этого стиля нельзя назвать признаком слабости, это, скорее,
признак силы, здесь лидер заслуживает уважения сотрудников.
Обычно, этот стиль лидерства используется в том случае, когда лидер обладает лишь
частью информации, а его сотрудники другими её частями. Следует отметить, что
лидер не обязательно должен знать все тонкости дела, и именно поэтому он включается
в совместную работу со знающими и умелыми работниками. Это взаимовыгодный
стиль управления – лидер и сотрудники объединяются в одну команду, что позволяет
принимать более обоснованные решения.
Делегативный стиль лидерства, предоставление полной свободы.
Это тот стиль лидерства, где лидер позволяет своим сотрудникам принимать
самостоятельные решения. Но, не смотря на то, что сотрудники получают свободу
действий, лидер по-прежнему отвечает за принимаемые решения. Используется этот
стиль в тех случаях, когда сотрудники самостоятельно могут проанализировать
ситуацию и определить, что должно быть сделано, и как это должно быть сделано. Вы
ведь не можете делать всё! Вам необходимо как минимум установить приоритеты и
делегировать определённые задачи.

126
Хороший руководитель использует все три стиля лидерства, но выбор должен быть
осуществлён с оглядкой на силы участвующие в управлении. Приведём несколько
примеров:
Используйте авторитарный стиль лидерства, если вам приходится иметь дело с новым
сотрудником, который проходит обучение. Как хороший и компетентный тренер, вы
мотивируете сотрудника на получение новых навыков.
Используйте соучастный стиль лидерства, когда работаете с командой работников,
знающих своё дело. Здесь руководитель знает суть проблемы, но не обладает всей
необходимой информацией. Сотрудники же, знают свою работу, и желают стать частью
команды.
Используйте делегативный стиль лидерства при работе с сотрудниками, которые знают
дело лучше вас. Сотрудники в этом стиле управления берут ответственность за работу
на себя. Кроме всего прочего, этот стиль позволит вам освободить время на другие
дела.
Факторы, которые могут оказывать влияние на выбор стиля:
• Количество доступного времени.
• Уровень уважение и доверия сотрудников к вам.
• Наличие необходимой информации у вас и ваших сотрудников.
• Наличие необходимой информации у вас и ваших сотрудников.
• Внутренние конфликты.
• Уровень стресса.
• Тип и сложность задач.
(http://newtomorrow.ru/lider/stili_liderstva.php)
3. Watch the video on types of leadership styles and prepare it for class translation from
English into Russian: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=t_clro5RXqM (2.24 min).

D EFFECTIVE WRITING

I Improving conciseness

HOW TO STAY ON MESSAGE


The goal of concise writing is to use the most effective words. Concise writing does not
always have the fewest words, but it always uses the strongest ones. Writers often fill
sentences with weak or unnecessary words that can be deleted or replaced. Words and phrases
should be deliberately chosen for the work they are doing. Like bad employees, words that
don't accomplish enough should be fired. When only the most effective words remain, writing
will be far more concise and readable.

Tips for conciseness


1. Replace vague words with more powerful and specific ones.
Often, writers use several small and ambiguous words to express a concept, wasting energy
expressing ideas better relayed through fewer specific words. Brainstorming or searching a
thesaurus can lead to the word best suited for a specific instance.
127
Exercise 1 (B1/B2/C1)
Replace vague expressions (underlined) with more specific words in the sentences.
1 The politician talked about several of the merits of(1) after-school programs in his
speech. (14 words)
Example: The politician touted after-school programs in his speech. (8 words)
2 Suzie believed but could not confirm (1) that Billy had feelings of affection for (2) her.
(14 words)
___________________________________________________________________________
3 Our Web site has made available (1) many of the things you can use (2) for making a
decision on (3) the best dentist. (20 words)
___________________________________________________________________________
4 Working as a pupil under someone who develops photos (1) was an experience that
really helped me learn a lot(2). (20 words)
___________________________________________________________________________

2. Interrogate every word in a sentence


Check every word to make sure that it is providing something important and unique to a
sentence.

Exercise 2 (B1/B2/C1)
Remove all excessive words to make the sentences more concise.
1 The teacher demonstrated some of the various ways and methods for cutting words
from my essay that I had written for class. (22 words)
Example: The teacher demonstrated methods for cutting words from my essay. (10
words)
1 Eric Clapton and Steve Winwood formed a new band of musicians together in 1969,
giving it the ironic name of Blind Faith because early speculation that was spreading
everywhere about the band suggested that the new musical group would be good
enough to rival the earlier bands that both men had been in, Cream and Traffic, which
people had really liked and had been very popular. (66 words)
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________

128
2 Many have made the wise observation that when a stone is in motion rolling down a
hill or incline that that moving stone is not as likely to be covered all over with the
kind of thick green moss that grows on stationary unmoving things and becomes a
nuisance and suggests that those things haven’t moved in a long time and probably
won’t move any time soon. (67 words)
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________

3. Combine Sentences.
Some information does not require a full sentence, and can easily be inserted into another
sentence without losing any of its value.
Exercise 3 (B1/B2/C1)
Combine the two sentences in each pair to form one.
1 Ludwig's castles are an astounding marriage of beauty and madness. By his death, he
had commissioned three castles. (18 words)
____________________________________________________________________ (11
words)
2 The supposed crash of a UFO in Roswell, New Mexico aroused interest in
extraterrestrial life. This crash is rumored to have occurred in 1947. (24 words)
____________________________________________________________________ (16
words)
(Adapted from Ryan Weber, Nick Hurm (2013) @ https://owl.english.purdue.edu/)

4. Paramedic Method

The Paramedic Method (originally developed by Richard Lanham in Revising Prose) can be
used to edit any kind of professional writing. It helps the writer make their prose easier to
read. Easy-to-read sentences are more persuasive and user-centered.

Professional writers understand the need for clear, concise prose. The Paramedic Method also
helps you activate your sentences by eliminating passive voice and redundancies.

Procedure for the Paramedic Method

1. Circle the prepositions (of, in, about, for, onto, into)


2. Draw a box around the "is" verb forms
3. Ask, "Where's the action?"
4. Change the "action" into a simple verb
5. Move the doer into the subject
6. Eliminate any unnecessary slow wind-ups
7. Eliminate any redundancies.
129
Example:

Exercise 4 (B1/B2/C1)

Use the Paramedic Method in the sentences below to practice making your sentences
more concise.

1 The point I wish to make is that the employees working at this company are in need of
a much better manager of their money. (26 words)
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________

2 It is widely known that the engineers at Sandia Labs have become active participants
in the Search and Rescue operations in most years. (24 words)
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________

3 After reviewing the results of your previous research, and in light of the relevant
information found within the context of the study, there is ample evidence for making
important, significant changes to our operating procedures. (36 words)
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
(Adapted from Revising Prose by Richard Johnson-Sheehan @
https://owl.english.purdue.edu/)

5. Reverse Paramedic Method

The original Paramedic Method helps people recognize wordy sentences written in the
passive voice. This adaptation reverses one purpose of the activity and assists in recognizing
and implementing passive voice, which is often used in scientific writing. This reverse
method should still help writers make sentence less wordy and more concise. It is worth
keeping in mind, though, that in persuasive writing, for example, passive sentences shall not
account for more than 10% of your essay.

130
Procedure for the Reverse Paramedic Method

1. Circle the prepositions. Eliminate any unnecessary prepositions.


2. Identify any references to the researchers (the doer).
3. Replace references to the researchers with a passive construction that emphasizes the
experiment (what was done).
4. Eliminate any unnecessary slow wind-ups.
5. Eliminate any redundancies.

Exercise 5 (B1/B2/C1)

Use the Reverse Paramedic Method to make the sentences more concise.

1 In the following experiment, we used the feline cell line, W9, to evaluate cell growth
in the presence of the growth factor.
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
____
2 During the procedure, we cultured the cells for 48 hours in media that we modified
with 78, 80, 90, and 110 ng/mL BMP.
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
3 At 48 hours, we harvested cells from the cell culture dish and counted. We used a
hemocytometer.
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
(Adapted from Allen Brizee (2013) @ https://owl.english.purdue.edu/)

131
UNIT 9. TEAM BUILDING

A EXPLORING A TOPIC

I Expressing an opinion (B1/B2/C1)


1. Have you ever experienced teamwork in academic or professional encounters?
2. Do you prefer to work on a task individually or with a partner (partners)?
3. What are pluses and minuses of group work?
4. Comment on the following sayings:
a) “The well-run group is not a battlefield of egos.” Lao Tzu, Chinese Taoist philosopher
b) “Success is not final, failure is not fatal: it is the courage to continue that counts.”
Winston Churchill, British WWII Prime Minister (from Group Dynamics - Working in
Self-Managed teams).

II Related information (B1/B2/C1)


1. Define the meaning of the following terms: teamwork, coaching, to resolve a conflict,
constructive, destructive, personality traits, collaboration, ego.
2. Read the article on conflict in team building by Carter McNamara. Speak on the following:
1) Explain the difference between destructive and constructive conflicts.
2) What is more effective - to have likeminded people in a team or people with different
opinions who can freely express them? Why?
3) Describe conflict as a tool of unity among team members. How to control it?

HOW CONSTRUCTIVE CONFLICT CAN SUPERCHARGE TEAMS

We often talk about good teamwork as everyone getting along and coming together with the
same vision. It may sound counter intuitive to say the best way to promote teamwork is
through conflict.
Teamwork coaching rhetoric often tells us conflict is something to be avoided, but the truth is
that a healthy amount of discord will help your team perform at its best. Conflict can feed
your team’s creativity. Using it effectively allows you to mold your team dynamic into
something that is collaborative and intensely productive.
Constructive v. Destructive Conflict
Many leadership training manuals focus on how to resolve conflict, but in truth, this approach
fails to recognize the need for constructive conflict. There is such a thing as positive
confrontation, and though destructive conflict hurts the team, constructive conflict drives it
forward.
When two team members have a personality conflict or when one refuses to respect another,
this is destructive conflict. The things fueling this are generally not related to the project at
hand but competition and individual egos. Destructive conflict involves personal attacks and
insinuations that people are not doing their jobs based on personality traits.

132
On the other hand, constructive conflict allows people to move forward together, attacking
weaknesses in processes and designs without attacking each other. They have the same goal;
they just disagree on the best way to get there. When kept under control, this can be very
synergistic.
Spurs New Ideas
Studies show that better policies emerge from groups where dissent is welcomed than when
there are a lot of people in a room who think exactly the same way. When people know they
can safely express their own opinions, new ideas are forthcoming.
To jump start this kind of culture, a team leader may ask members to formulate their opinions
on a matter and write it down before a meeting of minds. This allows them to organize their
thoughts and gives them confidence to defend their own position while critiquing others’
ideas intelligently.
Acts as a Vehicle for Collaboration
Constructive conflict allows people to take a good idea, bang it around, and reshape it into a
great idea. The result is that teams can benefit from each others’ strengths and different points
of view.
As a team leader, you may need to referee to make sure confrontation stays constructive.
Sometimes it means staying out of the way and letting arguments run their course. Other
times it means wading in and restoring focus to the discussion. This type of leadership
encourages teams to talk and to share ideas freely, but it allows them to feel safe doing so
because they know you will not let things get out of hand.
Conflict Keeps Energy High
We’ve all been there. When you’re eight weeks into a project it can feel like all the teamwork
coaching in the world could not keep your people motivated. The issue is that we are all prone
to lose energy and motivation as projects draw out or become repetitive. We all get tired, and
there is nothing wrong with that.
However, when people have something to spur them forward they can stay much more
energized for extended periods of time. Team members challenging each other to constantly
look for new and better ways of doing things, talking through road blocks, etc. helps feed the
creativity and the synergy of the team. In this way teams can be their own sources of energy
during the long hauls.
Gives Everyone a Voice
The strength of constructive conflict is that everyone has a chance to give their two cents.
Instead of one or two people blazing forward through trial and error, a focused team can often
whittle away at dead ends until all that’s left is the right way. A diversity of voices and
solutions is necessary for growth in a competitive environment.
Keep in mind that it’s common in charged discussions for a couple of dominant egos to take
over the room. It’s the manager’s job make sure everyone gets a chance to speak. Call on
people, or find another way for them to make sure their words are heard and you are
benefiting from their expertise.
As a team leader, the better you can set the ground rules for conflict in your team, the sooner
individuals will learn to live within them. This will make conflict a tool of productivity and
unity among team members, not just a problem to be avoided.

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III Developing background knowledge (B1/B2/C1)

1. Prepare a talk on Different Types of Communication Focused Team Building Tasks.


2. Team briefings or briefs are communicative events providing opportunities for both
developing leadership and team building.
Look at the following guidelines and role-play a company’s team brief. Choose a topic
and hold a well-organized team meeting. You will need a draft of agenda and a particular
time limit. Distribute the parts beforehand.
− Be aware of and follow any guidelines for team briefs that your organization has.
But ensure that deliver the brief in your own style so that it comes across as real
desire to communicate with your team members and reflects the type of team you
are responsible for.
− Set your team’s expectations of the team brief by explaining your objective of this
meeting and the type of behavior and communication you expect, for example
− Hold questions till the end of each agenda item.
− This is the opportunity for the team to have open and honest exchange of
information and ideas.
− Attendance is expected for all.
− The actual location you are able to hold such a briefing in may dictate the extent to
which you are able to have an open exchange, but if possible it needs to be away
from the team’s desks to ensure you have their full attention (from Team Briefing
Checklist).

IV Exchanging views and ideas (B1/B2/C1)

1. Group work. Organize a brainstorming session and find out some situations when conflicts
can lead to better understanding.
2. Share your experience. Tell about a situation when you had to take the initiative.

V Summarizing the topic (B1/B2/C1)

1. Make a power point presentation (5-7 slides), bearing in mind the principles of an effective
presentation (see Unit 5), on one of the following topics:
a) The History of Team Building
b) Types of Teams
c) Motivating Techniques
2. Work in a group of three. Collect material and give a talk on Communicative Activities in
Team Building. Use one or two activities to illustrate your talk involving the other members
of the group: e.g. Being there - an icebreaker, illustration or a longer exercise to demonstrate
how people can run on set lines/routines, without noticing things and people around; My
Dream Trip - an introductory activity, which encourages participants to find out a bit more
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about their work colleagues, Frost Bite - a scenario-based challenge which requires teams to
work together to overcome a range of physical constraints and achieve their goal, etc. (from
'Free Communication Focused Team Building' activities, The Team Building Directory).

VI Project work (B1/B2/C1)

1. Work out a questionnaire on means of team-building and interview your group-mates.


Find out the most popular and least popular ways of team-building. Choose a
particular form of the research: face-to-face interaction or mediated interaction. You
may do it using the Internet as a mediator. Present the results of your survey in a
Report.
2. Write an essay on one of the following topics:
1) I would like to have only individual tasks.
2) Pros and cons of working in a team.
3) Effective work depends on a good manager.
4) Personality in team building.

B PRACTISING SKILLLS

TEXT 1.
Fill in the gaps with the correct article (a, -, the).

Hey, Listen Up!


By Stew Bolno
I am quite certain that 1.______ coworkers rarely utter the following words: "I don't like that
person, she listens too much."
One of 2.______ most common complaints that 3.______ people have about others is that
they are ineffective listeners. How do you feel when others:
 read their e-mail while you are speaking with them?
 continually interrupt while you are talking?
 jump ahead without hearing the full information?
 demonstrate lack of concern through 4.______ body language such, as looking away
or rolling their eyes?
The most effective communicators recognize that 5.______ good part of their success is
earned as 6.______ result of how well they listen. They have discovered 7.______ more they
listen 8.______ more engaged others become in conversations and problem solving sessions.
This, in turn, creates an environment in which communication flows and trust is developed.
However, 9.______ trust from another person must be earned. Therefore, high levels of trust
are determined not only by what you say, but also how well you listen to what 10.______
others say. And listening is much more than hearing. While being hearing impaired is
11.______ physical condition, being listening impaired is self-imposed. Effective listening is
12.______ choice that requires attention, interpretation, and response to the other individual.
All of these behaviors require effort. It is not surprising 13.______ Chinese symbol for
listening is made up of three symbols: head, ear and heart.
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Tips for Learning to Listen:
 Recognize your role as 14.______ listener - If you are too busy to listen attentively,
choose another time for the conversation.
 Select an environment conducive to listening - Find 15.______ place with minimal
distractions to increase listening effectiveness.
 Probe for understanding - Ask questions to ensure comprehension and convey
16.______ interest.
 Paraphrase 17.______ key statements and 18.______ overall themes - This tactic
builds alignment in thinking and ensures understanding.
 Demonstrate 19.______ comprehensive approach in your listening style - Learn to
focus on big-picture themes, tune into specific facts and instructions, and empathize with
the feelings of others.
Now hear this! Effective listening is 20.______ skill. Any individual that is truly committed
to becoming 21.______ effective listener can develop listening skills. If you demonstrate
strong listening skills, you might hear the people around you saying, "I really like that person.
They're truly 22.______ great listener."
(From Team Builders Plus)

TEXT 2 (B2/C1)
Choose ONE phrase from the list of phrases A-J below to complete each of the following
sentences 1-9. Remember, ONE phrase is extra here.

A describe the positive impact of their actions


B were the two top incentives as reported by employees
C I have found that people rarely provide feedback to their peers and managers
D and most importantly
E giving presents is a great pleasure
F but they were just doing their job
G filled with bags of food for animals that have not yet found a home
H it must be tailored to the recipient’s preferences
I share it with them
J in response to the question

Feedback is the Perfect Gift


By Merrick Rosenberg
Whether you celebrate Christmas, Hannukah, most people let these moments pass with little or
Kwanzaa, something else, or nothing at all, you no recognition. A study by Dr. Gerald Graham at
can’t deny that at this time of year, the feeling of Wichita State University found that a verbal and
giving is in the air. We see it under a Christmas written thank you from one’s manager
tree, in a barrel filled with toys for those who 2.____________________________. In a follow-
can’t afford them, or in a box up study, he found that 58% of employees
1.____________________________. seldom if ever received verbal thanks from their
manager and 76% of employees seldom if ever
As we look for gifts for our coworkers, there is
received a written thank you.
one gift that is free, but perhaps the most
valuable of all...the gift of feedback. I have several people on my staff and I must
admit, I fall victim to the all-too-often recited
The people around us are constantly doing things
excuse, “I just don’t think about it.” Or another
that are perfect opportunities for feedback. Yet
classic, “Sure, they did a great job,
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3.____________________________. Does that What do you like to receive feedback
really warrant feedback?” about? (e.g. Results, quality, innovation, the way
you worked with people, successes)
Feedback should not only flow downward, but
also upward and laterally. When a peer does What is the greatest recognition that you
something well, we should point it out. And yes, have ever received?
when a manager does something positive, we
7.________________________, when you
should tell them as well. Unfortunately,
reward this individual with feedback, be sincere.
4.____________________________.
Your words must come from your heart or they
Go Beyond, “Good Job.” will not enter theirs.
In this season of giving, take a moment to give Do it now
thanks to the people around you. But when you
8.__________________________, “Looking
do, make it meaningful. “Good job,” is not
back, if you could have changed one thing in
enough. Point out specifically what they have
your life, what would it be,” the Duke of
done and 5.__________________________.
Wellington replied, “I would have given more
Personalize the feedback so they know that you
praise.”
truly appreciate them.
Here’s your chance. Select a coworker and
According to a Gallup poll of 10,000 workgroups
identify what they do well. Then take the final
in 30 industries, individualization is the key to
step and 9.__________________________.
effective recognition. In order for recognition to
Consider what Mark Twain said, “I can live for
be meaningful,
two months on a good compliment.”
6.__________________________, not the
giver’s preferences.
To determine preferences, ask questions such as: (Adapted from Team Builders Plus)
 What types of recognition do you like
best? Public or private? Written, verbal or other?

TEXT 3 (B2/C1)
Choose the best answer А, В, С or D.

The Spiral Meeting


By Merrick Rosenberg
Have you ever been to a meeting that has spiraled out of control? You had an agenda. You
defined a meeting leader and a scribe to take the minutes. You even had donuts (always a
powerful draw to get people there). And yet, the meeting did not accomplish its intended
objective.
One of the biggest complaints by managers is that they attend too many meetings. As
Ashleigh Brilliant stated, “Our meetings are held to discuss many problems which would
never arise if we held fewer meetings.”
Perhaps there would not be a need for so many meetings if the meetings that were held were
conducted more efficiently. Many meeting leaders create agendas in which they define the
topics that will be addressed. If they are wise, they define the amount of time to which each
topic will be limited. However, they miss the next step, the most valuable step of all…they
fail to define the nature of the topic in question.
Keeping the meeting on track
Every topic on the agenda should be designated in the following manner:

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Level 1: Information – Provide updates, progress report, issues, etc.
Level 2: Discussion – Provide input and opinions on the topic
Level 3: Decision – Determine next steps and actions
Simply put, the most important function of the meeting leader is to keep people within the
time limit for each topic and ensure the meeting does not spiral into a higher-level discussion.
For example, meeting topics coded as Information are not topics for Discussion. Topics coded
for Discussion do not need to achieve resolution by reaching a consensus Decision.
This is the key reason that meetings spiral out of control. Meeting leaders need to vigilantly
enforce the level of interaction that takes place for each topic. It’s very easy to start discussing
a topic that was purely informational. In fact, it happens quite innocently. One person
interjects a one-liner. Another person replies with their opinion and before you know it, the
Informational topic is a full-blown Discussion. The three-minute update has just consumed
twenty minutes of the meeting.
It’s also just as easy for a topic coded as Discussion to expand into a lengthy conversation and
even then, never reach a conclusion. The meeting attendees leave the meeting feeling like
they did not accomplish anything, and yet, all the meeting leader wanted to do was take the
pulse of the group on a specific topic. Pre-coding items allows people to feel like they have
accomplished what they have set out to do at the beginning of the meeting.
Flexibility with conscious intent
When I share this strategy with teams whose meetings regularly spiral out of control, someone
inevitable counters that sometimes, the nature of the information warrants a discussion. Or the
group realizes that a decision is imperative, even though the topic was meant only for
discussion.
Flexibility is the key. Meetings do not need to be so rigid that the meeting leader cannot adapt
as needed. However, if a topic needs a higher level of interaction, make the decision
consciously and adapt the rest of the agenda items accordingly. Perhaps, the group should
stick with the agenda and either place the topic on the next meeting’s agenda or a special
meeting may be in order to deal with that one issue.
1. The main problem is that:
A. we should hold more meetings.
B. we hold few meetings.
C. there are too many meetings.
D. meetings are a must.
2. The writer believes that meetings are not efficient because:
A. managers forget to limit the time for the topic in question.
B. meeting leaders lack the skill of formulating the type of the meeting.
C. managers lack the skill to develop a good agenda.
D. meeting leaders are too creative.
3. The writer supposes that:
A. informational meetings should include discussion.
B. discussions should always lead to decisions.
C. discussions should not always lead to decisions.
D. informational meetings should lead to decision-making.

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4. The writer thinks that:
A. a humorous remark can spark a lively discussion.
B. a debate can be prompted by an interesting idea.
C. new information can cause argument.
D. a person’s opinion can mark the end of a discussion.
5. It is said in the article that:
A. the leader should always stick to the topic.
B. the leader should not follow the agenda.
C. there is a possibility to change the agenda.
D. the group must discuss the agenda.

C TRANSLATION / INTERPRETING SKILLS

1. Look through the text for 2 minutes. Then do sight translation of the text.
Steps to Building an Effective Team
The first rule of team building is an obvious one: to lead a team effectively, you must first
establish your leadership with each team member. Remember that the most effective team
leaders build their relationships of trust and loyalty, rather than fear or the power of their
positions.
• Consider each person's ideas as valuable. Remember that there is no such thing as a
stupid idea.
• Be aware of people' unspoken feelings. Set an example to team members by being
open with people and sensitive to their moods and feelings.
• Act as a harmonizing influence. Look for chances to mediate and resolve minor
disputes; point continually toward the team's higher goals.
• Encourage trust and cooperation among members of your team. Remember that
the relationships team members establish among themselves are every bit as important
as those you establish with them. As the team begins to take shape, pay close attention
to the ways in which team members work together and take steps to improve
communication, cooperation, trust, and respect in those relationships.
• Encourage team members to share information. Emphasize the importance of each
team member's contribution and demonstrate how all of their jobs operate together to
move the entire team closer to its goal.
• Delegate problem-solving tasks to the team. Let the team work on creative solutions
together.
• Facilitate communication. Remember that communication is the single most
important factor in successful teamwork. Facilitating communication does not mean
holding meetings all the time. Instead it means setting an example by remaining open
to suggestions and concerns, by asking questions and offering help, and by doing
everything you can to avoid confusion in your own communication.
• Establish team values and goals; evaluate team performance. Be sure to talk with
members about the progress they are making toward established goals so that people
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get a sense both of their success and of the challenges that lie ahead. Address
teamwork in performance standards.
• Make sure that you have a clear idea of what you need to accomplish; that you
know what your standards for success are going to be; that you have established clear
time frames; and that team members understand their responsibilities.
• Use consensus. Set objectives, solve problems, and plan for action. While it takes
much longer to establish consensus, this method ultimately provides better decisions
and greater productivity because it secures every employee's commitment to all phases
of the work.
• Set ground rules for the team. These are the norms that you and the team establish to
ensure efficiency and success. They can be simple directives (Team members are to be
punctual for meetings) or general guidelines (Every team member has the right to offer
ideas and suggestions), but you should make sure that the team creates these ground
rules by consensus and commits to them, both as a group and as individuals.
(http://ucsfhr.ucsf.edu/index.php/pubs/hrguidearticle/chapter-14-team-building/)

2. Role-play the interview in groups of three, one of the students acting as a two-way
interpreter:
Job Interview. Questions Related to Teamwork
Being able to work effectively in a team is a critical job skill. There are very few jobs where
you never have to interact with co-workers to achieve results.
Your interviewer knows that while you may be exceptional at producing individual results, if
you aren't a team player it will often limit the value you can bring to their organization.
1. Вы работаете более продуктивно с данными или в сотрудничестве с коллегами?
I am equally comfortable working as a member of a team and independently. At my previous
position there were some assignments that required a great deal of independent work and
research and others where the team effort was most effective. As I said, I'm comfortable with
both.
In high school, I enjoyed playing soccer and performing with the marching band. Each
required a different kind of team play, but the overall goal of learning to be a member of a
group was invaluable. I continued to grow as team member while on my sorority's debate
team and through my advanced marketing class where we had numerous team assignments.
I'm very comfortably working on a team, but I can also work independently, as well.
2. Расскажите, пожалуйста, об успешном групповом проекте, в котором Вы
участвовали.
In my last position, I was part of a software implementation team. We all worked together to
plan and manage the implementation schedule, to provide customer training, and ensure a
smooth transition for our customers. Our team always completed our projects ahead of
schedule with very positive reviews from our clients.
3. Вы когда-нибудь испытывали трудности в работе с Вашим начальником?
I had a rocky start with a manager once, because we had different expectations for the flow of
the workday. Once we talked about it, we realized that our goals were very compatible, and
we were able to work very successfully together for several years.
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4. Нравится ли Вам работать в команде?
I enjoy working in a team environment, and I get along well with people. In my past work
experience, I implemented a system to help organize the communication between my
coworkers to enhance our productivity as a team.
I believe that different team members contribute different perspectives, and the synergy
between team members can produce creative and productive results.
5. Каков может быть Ваш вклад в работу группы?
I believe that I have a lot to contribute to a team environment, and am comfortable in both
leadership and player roles. I'm outgoing, friendly, and have strong communication skills
(http://jobsearch.about.com/od/topinterviewanswers/qt/teamwork-interview-questions.htm)

D EFFECTIVE WRITING

I Improving sentence clarity

HOW TO BE EASILY UNDERSTOOD?


There are numerous strategies for improving the clarity of sentences in different types of
academic writing.
1. Going from old to new information
It is usually recommended to introduce your readers to the "big picture" first by giving them
information they already know. Then they can link what's familiar to the new information you
give them. As that new information becomes familiar, it too becomes old information that can
link to newer information. In linguistics, this rule is generally referred to as a ‘topic-comment
relation’ which applies to sentences as well as texts.
The following sentence is clear and understandable because it uses old information to lead to
new information:
Every semester after final exams are over, I'm faced with the problem of what to do with books of
lecture notes (new information). They (old) might be useful some day, but they just keep piling up on
my bookcase (new). Someday, it (old) will collapse under the weight of information I might never need.
Here is a sentence that is not as clear. It moves from new information to old information:
Lately, most movies I've seen have been merely second-rate entertainment, but occasionally there are
some with worthwhile themes. The rapid disappearance of the Indian culture (new) is the topic of a
recent movie (old) I saw.
A clearer version that moves from old information to new information might look like this:
Lately, most movies I've seen have been merely second-rate entertainment, but occasionally there are
some with worthwhile themes. One recent movie (old) I saw was about the rapid disappearance of the
Indian culture. (new)
2. Transitional words
There are many words in English that cue readers to relationships between sentences, joining
sentences together. See Units 4,6 and 7 for linking words and expressions.
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3. Placement of subordinate clauses
Avoid interrupting the main clause with a subordinate clause if the interruption will cause
confusion:
Clear (subordinate clause at the end):
Industrial spying is increasing rapidly because of the growing use of computers to store and process
corporate information.
Clear (subordinate clause at the beginning):
Because of the growing use of computers to store and process corporate information, industrial spying
is increasing rapidly.
Not as clear (subordinate clause embedded in the middle):
Industrial spying, because of the growing use of computers to store and process corporate information,
is increasing rapidly.
5. Parallel constructions
When you have a series of words, phrases, or clauses, it might be advisable to put them in
parallel form (similar grammatical construction) so that the reader can identify the linking
relationship more easily and clearly.
Clear (parallel):
In Florida, where the threat of hurricanes is an annual event, we learned that it is important (1) to
become aware of the warning signs, (2) to know what precautions to take, and (3) to decide when to
seek shelter.
Not as clear (not parallel):
In Florida, where the threat of hurricanes is an annual event, we learned that it is important (1) to
become aware of the warning signs. (2) There are precautions to take, and (3) deciding when to take
shelter is important.
In the second sentence, the string of "things to be aware of in Florida" does not create a
parallel structure. Also, it is more difficult for a reader to follow the meaning of the second
sentence compared to the first one.
6. Avoiding noun strings and noun forms of verbs
Even in formal academic writing, it is recommended to avoid strings of nouns as they are
difficult to understand. One way to revise a string of nouns is to change one noun to a verb.
A string of nouns:
This report explains our investment growth stimulation projects.
Revision:
This report explains our projects aimed to stimulate growth in investments.
It is typical of English, unlike Russian, academic writing to use verbs when possible rather
than noun forms known.
Use of nominalization:
The implementation of the plan was successful.
Revision:
The plan was implemented successfully.

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7. Choosing action verbs over verbs of state
When possible, it is better to avoid using forms of be as the main verbs in sentences. This
problem tends to accompany nominalization (see above). Instead of using state verbs, focus
on the actions you wish to express, and choose the appropriate verbs.
In the following example, two ideas are expressed: (1) that there is a difference between
television and newspaper news reporting, and (2) the nature of that difference. The revised
version expresses these two main ideas in the two main verbs.
Overuse of state verbs:
One difference between television news reporting and the coverage provided by newspapers is the time
factor between the actual happening of an event and the time it takes to be reported. The problem is that
instantaneous coverage is physically impossible for newspapers.
Revision:
Television news reporting differs from that of newspapers in that television, unlike newspapers, can
provide instantaneous coverage of events as they happen.
(Adapted from Chris Berry and Allen Brizee (2013) @ https://owl.english.purdue.edu/)

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UNIT 10. TEACHING SKILLS

A EXPRESSING A TOPIC

I Expressing an opinion (B1/B2/C1)

1. Did you have a favourite teacher at school or university? Why was she/he different
from other teachers? Did other students like her/him?
2. Have you had a teaching experience? If yes, describe it.
3. What qualities a good teacher should have?
4. Would you choose teaching as your career? Why?

II Related information (B1/B2/C1)

1. Define the meaning of the following terms: phase, application, professional development
framework, observe, gain, reflect on.
2. Read the article about phases of professional development. Why does the author choose the
term phases not stages? Describe each stage. Do they overlap?

FIVE PHASES OF PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT

Too often, teachers say that the professional development they receive provides limited
application to their everyday world of teaching and learning. Here The North Central
Regional Educational Laboratory shares a five-phase framework that can help create
comprehensive, ongoing, and — most importantly — meaningful professional development.
The North Central Regional Educational Laboratory has developed a research-based
professional development framework that promotes ongoing professional development and
encourages individual reflection and group inquiry into teachers’ practice. In practice, the five
phases overlap, repeat, and often occur simultaneously:
 Building a Knowledge Base. The purpose of this phase is to acquire new knowledge
and information and to build a conceptual understanding of it. Activities in this phase
might include goal setting, assessing needs, participating in interactive workshops, and
forming a study group.
 Observing Models and Examples. The purpose of this phase is to study instructional
examples in order to develop a practical understanding of the research. In this phase,
one might participate in activities such as school and classroom visitations, peer
observation, using instructional artifacts, co-planning, and listening to or watching
audio and video examples.
 Reflecting on Your Practice.The purpose of this phase is to analyze your instructional
practice on the basis of new knowledge. Activities in this phase might include the use
of journals or teacher-authored cases for collegial discussion and reflection.
 Changing Your Practice.The purpose of this phase is to translate your new knowledge
into individual and collaborative plans and actions for curricular and instructional

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change. Activities might include action research, peer-coaching, support groups, and
curriculum development.
 Gaining and Sharing Expertise.The purpose of this phase is to continue to refine your
instructional practice, learning with and from colleagues while also sharing your
practical wisdom with your peers. Activities in this phase might include team
planning, mentoring or partnering with a colleague, and participating in a network.

(From Five Phases of Professional Development, Teaching Skills)

III Developing background knowledge (B1/B2/C1)

1. Choose the meanings of the verb to teach which are related to academic
encounters:
1. Impart knowledge to or instruct (someone) as to how to do something
1.1 Give information about or instruction in (a subject or skill)
1.2 Work as a teacher
2. Cause (someone) to learn or understand something by example or experience
2.1 Encourage someone to accept (something) as a fact or principle
2.2 Make (someone) less inclined to do something (from Oxford Dictionaries).
2. Explain the meaning of the term educator, using the following information:
Definition: A person who provides instruction or education; a teacher.
Synonyms:
teacher, tutor, instructor, pedagogue, schoolteacher, schoolmaster, schoolmistress, master,
mistress; educationalist, educationist; supply teacher; coach, trainer; lecturer, professor, don,
fellow, reader, academic; guide, mentor, guru, counsellor; Scottish dominie; Indian pandit
North American INFORMAL schoolmarm
British INFORMAL beak
Australian/New Zealand INFORMAL chalkie, schoolie
ARCHAIC doctor, schoolman, usher (from Oxford Dictionaries).

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3. Read the fragment of the article ‘The Desired Cooperator: Preservice Preferences
and Role Confusion During the Teaching Practicum’ by Doug Hamman and Jacqueline E.
Romano, College of Education, Texas Tech University. What is a problem under discussion?
What are expectations of a cooperating teacher / a student teacher? Can you explain the
reasons of role confusion?
Context of Teaching Practicum Contributes to Confusion

Despite the dominant role played by cooperating teachers, or perhaps because of it, the
process of learning to teach is not without problems. Nearly 35 years ago, Lortie (1975)
described the teaching practicum as a setting that provides student teachers with little
opportunity to explore their own instructional and management approaches thereby thwarting
experimentation and helping to entrench current instructional practices. Researchers have
tended to attribute negative aspects of the teaching practicum to institutional constraints
inherent in a real-world setting (i.e., cooperating teacher’s responsibility to current students),
and often to characteristics of cooperating teachers who are unable or unwilling to support the
needs of an adult learner in the context of learning to teach (e.g., Borko & Mayfield, 1995;
Guyton & McIntyre, 1990). Ganser (1996), however, suggested that one possible reason for
the limiting nature of the teaching practicum might be attributable to role confusion among
university, cooperating and student teachers.
Role confusion during the teaching practicum is created and perpetuated by a lack of clear
definitions and expectations related to support, supervision and exploration. Conclusions
drawn from a recent review of the literature by Clift and Brady (2005) seems to support this
assertion about role confusion contributing to practicum situations that are less than optimal.
For example, the authors found evidence suggesting that student teachers are themselves often
struggling with contradictory ideas about students, teaching and learning, often do not accept
ideas and concepts from university-level teaching courses, begin to show an increasing
interest in classroom management and a decreasing interest in student learning, and are often
at a loss for coping with the contradictions and inconsistencies they encounter.
Koerner, O’Connell-Rust and Baumgartner (2002) also reported similar findings concerning
role confusion. They found that student teachers often expressed a desire for cooperating
teachers to serve as mentors, but then also wanted to be given autonomy when it is time to
assume greater responsibility as the practicum progresses. In their findings, the authors were
surprised to find that student teachers, while desiring guidance, did not express a strong desire
to work with cooperating teachers who possessed greater degrees of professional and
pedagogical knowledge. The situation described by these researchers seems ripe for confusion
on the part of cooperating teachers who have to determine when to offer suggestions or to
intervene more directly, and on the part of student teachers that are eager for autonomy but
may still desire direction.

IV Exchanging views and ideas (B1/B2/C1)


1. Group work. Organize a brainstorming session. Compare the meanings of the verbs to
teach, to instruct and to educate.
2. Discussion. Do teachers have to teach, educate or instruct?

V Summarizing the topic (B1/B2/C1)


146
1. Give a talk on issues of modern education.
2. Make a power point presentation on the topic Types of Teachers (the principles of an
effective presentation see in Unit 5).

VI Project work (B1/B2/C1)


1. Work out a questionnaire on skills an effective teacher should have. Interview your
group-mates. You may do it using the Internet as a mediator. Present the results of
your survey in a Report.
2. Write an essay on one of the following topics:
1) My dream is to become a teacher.
2) A teacher vs. an educator.
3) Challenges of modern teaching.
4) My teaching experience.

B PRACTISING SKILLS

TEXT 1 (B2/C2)
Put the word(s) in brackets in the right form.

Teachers say student progress should be considered in salaries


By Michael Allen
More than half of teachers support pay being based on students' progress and results,
according to a new survey.
52% of teachers said that "considering the progress and results of pupils they teach" should be
one of 1.__________ (CRITERION) used to decide whether they should progress along the
pay scale.
The survey, 2.__________ (CONDUCT) by the National Foundation for Educational
Research (NFER) for the Sutton Trust, asked 1,163 primary and secondary school teachers
about performance-related pay (PRP) criteria.
3.__________ (RESPOND) to the survey were allowed to choose more than one assessment
preference. The most popular options were assessment by more senior staff (60%) or by the
headteacher (54%).
Ofsted inspectors grading lessons was 4.__________ (LITTLE) popular option (9%), closely
followed by evaluation by students (10%).
The teaching unions 5.__________ (CALL) into question the methodology of the survey,
saying it is "misleading" and an example of "spin".
National Union of Teachers (NUT) general secretary, Christine Blower, claimed the survey
actually proved the opposite of NFER's findings.

147
"Despite the spin, this research proves again that teachers oppose the government's new PRP
measures," she said.
"Historically, movement up the pay scale was linked to 6.__________ (SENIOR) and
increasing professional skills and competence. It is hardly surprising, therefore, that teachers
continue to favour the previous system, which is transparently 7.__________ (FAIR) and less
open to biased 8.__________ (JUDGE)."
Mary Bousted, general secretary of the Association of Teachers and Lecturers (ATL), said:
"[It] seems almost as if the [Sutton] Trust began with 9.__________ (CONCLUDE), then
looked for evidence to support it. Moreover, the research is based on a small proportion of
teachers and even then, more than one answer could be given to each of the criteria, so it is
disingenuous, at best, to talk of the results in terms of percentages."
"Teachers were not asked whether pupil results should be the sole criterion for
10.__________ (DETERMINE) pay progression. We suspect that if teachers had been asked
this question, the figure given in the headline 11.__________ (SHRINK) dramatically."
Sutton Trust's director of research Conor Ryan said in response to the unions' claims:
"Our polling is drawn from the highly respected NFER teachers' omnibus and is a
12.__________ (REPRESENT) sample of nearly 1,200 teachers. They were offered a range
of options, and a majority chose the progress and results of their pupils as an appropriate
method for 13.__________ (DECIDE) their pay."
Sue Birchall, business manager at Willesborough Primary and Infants in Kent, has overseen
the 14.__________ (IMPLEMENT) of PRP in her school since last September. She said it has
been a "fairly positive process" and is not surprised with the survey's results.
15.__________ (REGARD) "Pupil voice is important, but 16.__________ (SPECIAL) as you
reach secondary school you're probably opening yourself up to an element of victimisation
from certain pupils."
PRP was introduced for 17.__________ (EXPERIENCE) teachers in 2000. The coalition is
extending this for pay increases during the first five years of teaching, replacing length of
service. Schools are required to revise their pay and 18.__________ (PRAISE) policies to link
pay 19.__________ (PROGRESS) to a teacher's 20.__________ (PERFORM) from
September 2014.

TEXT 2 (B2)
Choose the correct heading for sections 1-4 from the list of headings below.
Write the correct letter A-E in the boxes given below. Remember, ONE heading is extra.

List of Headings
A Patience
B Zeal for Teaching
C Genuine Interest
D Classroom Management Skills
E Creativity

148
Talents & Skills Needed to Be a Teacher or Educator
By Tina Cisneros
Teaching can be a very rewarding career choice. You will have the opportunity to be in an
educational environment, inspiring and motivating students to learn. But like every career,
teaching can be difficult. Having specific skills and talents will help you succeed in the
classroom. But don't fret if you feel you lack these skills; they can always be learned. If you
are passionate and care about making a difference, chances are that you can be a great teacher.
Section 1:
Everyone has probably had one teacher who just didn't care. He spent the day explaining
terms in a monotone voice, threw out whatever handout was available and screamed for
students to behave. This sort of lackluster and lazy behavior shows a lack of passion for his
profession. The most important quality of a good teacher is a passion for learning. As a
teacher, you need to get students excited about learning and help them learn through your own
enthusiasm. If you love what you are doing, it shines through. But remember that passion also
needs to be matched by competency in the area in which you are teaching.
Section 2:
Teachers and educators are multitaskers. There is never enough time in the day to complete
what needs to be completed. If you are highly organized, you already have an important skill.
A day at school can easily be wasted if time is not managed properly. A good teacher enforces
strict routines and procedures so that students know exactly what is expected of them and
what they need to be doing. An efficient classroom is an organized classroom.
Section 3:
Working with children can be difficult and frustrating. They all come from different
backgrounds, and all have different skills and different personalities. Nevertheless, you are
expected to reach all of them academically. This is a huge responsibility. You need to be
tolerant in handling tough situations and misbehavior. Students need to know that you care
about them as individuals.
Section 4:
The nation is moving towards stricter standards and benchmarks, and testing has become a
huge issue. Many schools are enforcing district-wide texts and curricula, and sometimes that
makes a teacher's job difficult. But a good teacher will learn the curriculum through and
through, and tailor it to the needs of students. It's all about resourcefulness and presenting that
information in a way that all students will understand. Lesson plans need to inspire students;
not every student has the same learning style, and good teachers offer variety in their lesson
plans.

TEXT 3 (B2/C1)
Choose ONE phrase from the list of phrases A-I below to complete each of the following
sentences 1-8. Remember, ONE phrase is extra here.

A whatever you need


B simply adapting them for different age and ability groups
C be they practical or theoretically based
D something which benefits both you and your students
149
E you will end up with an array of exercises that are productive and worthwhile
F even when the topic isn't the most exciting
G in no time at all
H with some additional time allocated to talking with students about any concepts they didn't
quite grasp
I what approach they take with their classes

How To Develop Great Teaching Skills


Teaching a class of students is much harder than most people imagine. Not only do you need
the knowledge of different subjects in order to pass it on, but a wide range of other skills is
also necessary to keep control over a large group, and engage them –
1.______________________. This can provide you with a real challenge, but as we are about
to find out, it becomes far easier when you begin to develop new teaching skills and
techniques.
Improving your skills as a teacher takes effort, but once you begin to gain a better
understanding of the 'tricks of the trade', you can implement countless simple measures to
increase the effectiveness of your lessons - 2.______________________.
One of the areas where most people slip up when it comes to being a success in the teaching
industry is time management. Organizing yourself in the right way actually saves time in the
long run, though at that moment, it can seem too strenuous to bother with. Create yourself an
easy-to-follow, realistic schedule; by putting aside time slots during the week where you will
dedicate yourself to specific jobs, you can ensure you complete all of your tasks in advance -
3.______________________.
For instance, it may be a good idea to save a couple of hours per week to prepare for any
practical activities you plan to carry out with your class in the coming days,
4.______________________. Remember: your teaching skills will often be measured by the
success of your pupils; are they meeting their targets? If not, why?
Another simple measure you can take to enhance your skill collection is through analyzing all
of the work you do. Look at all the activities you have done with a class,
5.______________________. Note what went well, and what could have been better. If you
refer to this next time you do something similar, you can incorporate the bits which seemed to
have a positive effect, and try something else in replacement of the things that needed to be
improved. This way, 6.______________________.
Being resourceful is instrumental should you want to ascend to the ultimate layer of teaching.
Don't be afraid to ask others with experience 7.______________________, about activities
that they think were very successful, or for details on any courses or books they read that
helped them understand the classroom environment more than before hand.
By combining these easy suggestions with your own personal knowledge and experience, you
could well start to bank more and more teaching skills straight away. Hopefully, you can
implement these in your classroom, 8.______________________. Students enjoying
themselves - but still achieving their anticipated targets - is one of the most accurate signs in
telling you that your teaching is going well.
(From teAchnology)

150
C TRANSLATION / INTERPRETING SKILLS
1. Consecutive interpreting (speeches)
Watch the video presentation and prepare to interpret in consecutively using the
subtitles (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-wDdScTrY8Q). However, you should
not look at them while interpreting.

2. Do sight translation of the text.


Do you possess Modern Teaching Skills? As with most professions today, there are rapid
developments in teaching that are being driven by social and technological changes. Keeping
up to date with these developments within education will pay dividends with improved
teaching skills. The skills needed to be a great teacher have now changed; modern teachers
need to be competent in many new skill sets that were unknown to their predecessors.
Traditional Teaching Skills
These first 6 teaching skills (in red in the image) are not new, but their importance has
increased significantly for the modern teacher.
# 1 Commitment: It is essential that teachers are committed to their work and to the
education of young people. The responsibility that lies in the hands of a teacher is huge, so a
modern teacher must always be aware of this and be truly engaged in their profession.
# 2 Preparation: There used be a time when the right temperament enabled you to become a
teacher. Nowadays it’s nigh on impossible to find a teacher without formal academic
training. This requirement is increasing as education levels improve in society. The better
prepared you are as a teacher, the more effective you’ll be, so you should pursue you studies
with this ethos in mind.
# 3 Organization: Good organization and the planning of a course in advance are key factors
for success. It is very important that a teacher organizes the lesson properly and allocates the
time to cover it in its entirety. Students can tell a poorly planned class from a mile away and
once they realise the teacher isn’t putting in the effort neither will they!
# 4 Tolerance: In an increasingly diverse and multicultural society, it is necessary for
teachers to manage any prejudices they may have and to treat all their students equally
without showing favouritism. It’s a very important teaching skill not to impose your world
view on your students, instead you should openly discuss topics and let students decide for
themselves.
#5 Story Telling: One of the best ways to teach and transfer ideas is through stories. The
best teachers have used this method in their classes for centuries. Teaching a lesson by
incorporating story-telling techniques is a fantastic teaching skill to develop at anytime.
Utilizing it leaves your class wanting to find out what happens next. An engaged class is the
best way to increase participation and collaboration.
#6 Open to Questions: Having discussions and collaborating in class are essential for
encouraging students and implementing new teaching techniques. Teachers must be open to
answering their students’ questions. Modern teachers truly listen to their students questions
and answer them honestly, not just with a cursory or textbook response. It may sometimes
occur that you don’t know the answer to a question or you don’t have the time! If this
happens, don’t waffle or brush the question off, just explain that you will look in to it and get
back to the student with a proper answer later.
151
New Teaching Skills
These new teaching skills complement the more traditional ones. These skills are associated
with new technologies. Incorporating these into your teaching repertoire will ensure you
become a modern teacher.
# 7 Innovative: The modern teacher must be willing to innovate and try new things, teaching
skills and educational apps, ICT tools and electronic devices. The modern teacher must be an
“early adopter”.
# 8 Tech Enthusiast: The modern teacher must not only be innovative but also be willing to
explore new technologies. Whether it is iPads, apps or personal learning environments,
modern teachers should be in constant search of new ICT solutions to implement in their
classrooms.
# 9 Social: One of the traditional teaching skills was to be open to questions. The modern
teacher should lead the conversation to social networks to explore possibilities outside of
the class itself. We recommend our “Twitter in the Classroom: Ideas for teachers” to explore
this idea in more depth.
# 10 Geek: We mean this in the best sense of the word. The internet is the greatest source of
knowledge that humanity has ever known, so to be a modern teacher you must be a curious
person and incorporate this resource at every available option. Trust me, your students are
going to do it if you don’t! You need to be someone who is always researching and looking
for new information to challenge your students and engage them in a dialogue both in class
and online.
(https://www.examtime.com/blog/author/patrick/)

1. Consecutive interpreting (speeches)


Watch the video presentation and prepare to interpret in consecutively using the
subtitles (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-wDdScTrY8Q). However, you should
not look at them while interpreting.

2. Do sight translation of the text.


Do you possess Modern Teaching Skills? As with most professions today, there are rapid
developments in teaching that are being driven by social and technological changes. Keeping
up to date with these developments within education will pay dividends with improved
teaching skills. The skills needed to be a great teacher have now changed; modern teachers
need to be competent in many new skill sets that were unknown to their predecessors.
Traditional Teaching Skills
These first 6 teaching skills (in red in the image) are not new, but their importance has
increased significantly for the modern teacher.
# 1 Commitment: It is essential that teachers are committed to their work and to the
education of young people. The responsibility that lies in the hands of a teacher is huge, so a
modern teacher must always be aware of this and be truly engaged in their profession.
# 2 Preparation: There used be a time when the right temperament enabled you to become a
teacher. Nowadays it’s nigh on impossible to find a teacher without formal academic
training. This requirement is increasing as education levels improve in society. The better

152
prepared you are as a teacher, the more effective you’ll be, so you should pursue you studies
with this ethos in mind.
# 3 Organization: Good organization and the planning of a course in advance are key factors
for success. It is very important that a teacher organizes the lesson properly and allocates the
time to cover it in its entirety. Students can tell a poorly planned class from a mile away and
once they realise the teacher isn’t putting in the effort neither will they!
# 4 Tolerance: In an increasingly diverse and multicultural society, it is necessary for
teachers to manage any prejudices they may have and to treat all their students equally
without showing favouritism. It’s a very important teaching skill not to impose your world
view on your students, instead you should openly discuss topics and let students decide for
themselves.
#5 Story Telling: One of the best ways to teach and transfer ideas is through stories. The
best teachers have used this method in their classes for centuries. Teaching a lesson by
incorporating story-telling techniques is a fantastic teaching skill to develop at anytime.
Utilizing it leaves your class wanting to find out what happens next. An engaged class is the
best way to increase participation and collaboration.
#6 Open to Questions: Having discussions and collaborating in class are essential for
encouraging students and implementing new teaching techniques. Teachers must be open to
answering their students’ questions. Modern teachers truly listen to their students questions
and answer them honestly, not just with a cursory or textbook response. It may sometimes
occur that you don’t know the answer to a question or you don’t have the time! If this
happens, don’t waffle or brush the question off, just explain that you will look in to it and get
back to the student with a proper answer later.
New Teaching Skills
These new teaching skills complement the more traditional ones. These skills are associated
with new technologies. Incorporating these into your teaching repertoire will ensure you
become a modern teacher.
# 7 Innovative: The modern teacher must be willing to innovate and try new things, teaching
skills and educational apps, ICT tools and electronic devices. The modern teacher must be an
“early adopter”.
# 8 Tech Enthusiast: The modern teacher must not only be innovative but also be willing to
explore new technologies. Whether it is iPads, apps or personal learning environments,
modern teachers should be in constant search of new ICT solutions to implement in their
classrooms.
# 9 Social: One of the traditional teaching skills was to be open to questions. The modern
teacher should lead the conversation to social networks to explore possibilities outside of
the class itself. We recommend our “Twitter in the Classroom: Ideas for teachers” to explore
this idea in more depth.
# 10 Geek: We mean this in the best sense of the word. The internet is the greatest source of
knowledge that humanity has ever known, so to be a modern teacher you must be a curious
person and incorporate this resource at every available option. Trust me, your students are
going to do it if you don’t! You need to be someone who is always researching and looking
for new information to challenge your students and engage them in a dialogue both in class
and online.
(https://www.examtime.com/blog/author/patrick/)
153
3. Consecutive interpreting (speeches)
Watch the video presentation and prepare to interpret in consecutively using the
subtitles (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-wDdScTrY8Q). However, you should
not look at them while interpreting.

4. Do sight translation of the text.


Do you possess Modern Teaching Skills? As with most professions today, there are rapid
developments in teaching that are being driven by social and technological changes. Keeping
up to date with these developments within education will pay dividends with improved
teaching skills. The skills needed to be a great teacher have now changed; modern teachers
need to be competent in many new skill sets that were unknown to their predecessors.
Traditional Teaching Skills
These first 6 teaching skills (in red in the image) are not new, but their importance has
increased significantly for the modern teacher.
# 1 Commitment: It is essential that teachers are committed to their work and to the
education of young people. The responsibility that lies in the hands of a teacher is huge, so a
modern teacher must always be aware of this and be truly engaged in their profession.
# 2 Preparation: There used be a time when the right temperament enabled you to become a
teacher. Nowadays it’s nigh on impossible to find a teacher without formal academic
training. This requirement is increasing as education levels improve in society. The better
prepared you are as a teacher, the more effective you’ll be, so you should pursue you studies
with this ethos in mind.
# 3 Organization: Good organization and the planning of a course in advance are key factors
for success. It is very important that a teacher organizes the lesson properly and allocates the
time to cover it in its entirety. Students can tell a poorly planned class from a mile away and
once they realise the teacher isn’t putting in the effort neither will they!
# 4 Tolerance: In an increasingly diverse and multicultural society, it is necessary for
teachers to manage any prejudices they may have and to treat all their students equally
without showing favouritism. It’s a very important teaching skill not to impose your world
view on your students, instead you should openly discuss topics and let students decide for
themselves.
#5 Story Telling: One of the best ways to teach and transfer ideas is through stories. The
best teachers have used this method in their classes for centuries. Teaching a lesson by
incorporating story-telling techniques is a fantastic teaching skill to develop at anytime.
Utilizing it leaves your class wanting to find out what happens next. An engaged class is the
best way to increase participation and collaboration.
#6 Open to Questions: Having discussions and collaborating in class are essential for
encouraging students and implementing new teaching techniques. Teachers must be open to
answering their students’ questions. Modern teachers truly listen to their students questions
and answer them honestly, not just with a cursory or textbook response. It may sometimes
occur that you don’t know the answer to a question or you don’t have the time! If this
happens, don’t waffle or brush the question off, just explain that you will look in to it and get
back to the student with a proper answer later.

154
New Teaching Skills
These new teaching skills complement the more traditional ones. These skills are associated
with new technologies. Incorporating these into your teaching repertoire will ensure you
become a modern teacher.
# 7 Innovative: The modern teacher must be willing to innovate and try new things, teaching
skills and educational apps, ICT tools and electronic devices. The modern teacher must be an
“early adopter”.
# 8 Tech Enthusiast: The modern teacher must not only be innovative but also be willing to
explore new technologies. Whether it is iPads, apps or personal learning environments,
modern teachers should be in constant search of new ICT solutions to implement in their
classrooms.
# 9 Social: One of the traditional teaching skills was to be open to questions. The modern
teacher should lead the conversation to social networks to explore possibilities outside of
the class itself. We recommend our “Twitter in the Classroom: Ideas for teachers” to explore
this idea in more depth.
# 10 Geek: We mean this in the best sense of the word. The internet is the greatest source of
knowledge that humanity has ever known, so to be a modern teacher you must be a curious
person and incorporate this resource at every available option. Trust me, your students are
going to do it if you don’t! You need to be someone who is always researching and looking
for new information to challenge your students and engage them in a dialogue both in class
and online.
(https://www.examtime.com/blog/author/patrick/)

3. Consecutive interpreting (speeches)


Watch the video presentation and prepare to interpret in consecutively using the
subtitles (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-wDdScTrY8Q). However, you should
not look at them while interpreting.

4. Do sight translation of the text.


Do you possess Modern Teaching Skills? As with most professions today, there are rapid
developments in teaching that are being driven by social and technological changes. Keeping
up to date with these developments within education will pay dividends with improved
teaching skills. The skills needed to be a great teacher have now changed; modern teachers
need to be competent in many new skill sets that were unknown to their predecessors.
Traditional Teaching Skills
These first 6 teaching skills (in red in the image) are not new, but their importance has
increased significantly for the modern teacher.
# 1 Commitment: It is essential that teachers are committed to their work and to the
education of young people. The responsibility that lies in the hands of a teacher is huge, so a
modern teacher must always be aware of this and be truly engaged in their profession.
# 2 Preparation: There used be a time when the right temperament enabled you to become a
teacher. Nowadays it’s nigh on impossible to find a teacher without formal academic
training. This requirement is increasing as education levels improve in society. The better

155
prepared you are as a teacher, the more effective you’ll be, so you should pursue you studies
with this ethos in mind.
# 3 Organization: Good organization and the planning of a course in advance are key factors
for success. It is very important that a teacher organizes the lesson properly and allocates the
time to cover it in its entirety. Students can tell a poorly planned class from a mile away and
once they realise the teacher isn’t putting in the effort neither will they!
# 4 Tolerance: In an increasingly diverse and multicultural society, it is necessary for
teachers to manage any prejudices they may have and to treat all their students equally
without showing favouritism. It’s a very important teaching skill not to impose your world
view on your students, instead you should openly discuss topics and let students decide for
themselves.
#5 Story Telling: One of the best ways to teach and transfer ideas is through stories. The
best teachers have used this method in their classes for centuries. Teaching a lesson by
incorporating story-telling techniques is a fantastic teaching skill to develop at anytime.
Utilizing it leaves your class wanting to find out what happens next. An engaged class is the
best way to increase participation and collaboration.
#6 Open to Questions: Having discussions and collaborating in class are essential for
encouraging students and implementing new teaching techniques. Teachers must be open to
answering their students’ questions. Modern teachers truly listen to their students questions
and answer them honestly, not just with a cursory or textbook response. It may sometimes
occur that you don’t know the answer to a question or you don’t have the time! If this
happens, don’t waffle or brush the question off, just explain that you will look in to it and get
back to the student with a proper answer later.
New Teaching Skills
These new teaching skills complement the more traditional ones. These skills are associated
with new technologies. Incorporating these into your teaching repertoire will ensure you
become a modern teacher.
# 7 Innovative: The modern teacher must be willing to innovate and try new things, teaching
skills and educational apps, ICT tools and electronic devices. The modern teacher must be an
“early adopter”.
# 8 Tech Enthusiast: The modern teacher must not only be innovative but also be willing to
explore new technologies. Whether it is iPads, apps or personal learning environments,
modern teachers should be in constant search of new ICT solutions to implement in their
classrooms.
# 9 Social: One of the traditional teaching skills was to be open to questions. The modern
teacher should lead the conversation to social networks to explore possibilities outside of
the class itself. We recommend our “Twitter in the Classroom: Ideas for teachers” to explore
this idea in more depth.
# 10 Geek: We mean this in the best sense of the word. The internet is the greatest source of
knowledge that humanity has ever known, so to be a modern teacher you must be a curious
person and incorporate this resource at every available option. Trust me, your students are
going to do it if you don’t! You need to be someone who is always researching and looking
for new information to challenge your students and engage them in a dialogue both in class
and online.
(https://www.examtime.com/blog/author/patrick/)
156
D EFFECTIVE WRITING

I Writing introductions and conclusions


HOW TO REPEAT
The preacher's maxim is one of the most effective formulas to follow for papers, as well as
oral presentations:
1. Tell what you're going to tell them (introduction).
2. Tell them (body).
3. Tell them what you have just told them (conclusion).

1. Introduction
The introduction is the broad beginning of the paper that should answer three important
questions:
1. What is this?
2. Why am I reading it?
3. What do you want me to do?
The introduction typically performs the following functions:
1. Set the context – provide general information about the main idea, explaining the
situation so the reader can make sense of the topic and the claims you make and
support
2. State why the main idea is important – tell the reader why they should keep reading.
3. State your thesis – compose a sentence or two stating the position you will support
with logos (sound reasoning: induction, deduction), pathos (balanced emotional
appeal), and ethos (author credibility).

For exploratory essays, the primary research question would replace a thesis statement so
that the audience understands why the writer began their inquiry. An overview of the types of
sources you explored might follow the research question.
When writing a research paper, you may need to use a more formal, less personal tone. Your
forecast might read like this:
This paper begins by providing key terms for the argument before providing background of the
situation. Next, important positions are outlined and supported. To provide a more thorough explanation
of these important positions, opposing positions are discussed. The paper concludes with some ideas for
taking action and possible directions for future research.

If your argument paper is long, you may want to forecast how you will support the thesis by
outlining the structure of your paper, the sources, and the opposition to your position.
One easy way to write the introduction for an argument or opinion essay is to write THREE
sentences:
 two about the topic
 one thesis sentence

157
For example, write two sentences to describe the two sides of the present situation. The
third sentence – the Thesis sentence – will describe what you are going do in your essay.
 Sentence 1: One side of the present situation/one opinion
 Sentence 2: The other side of the present situation/ the opposite opinion
 Sentence 3: Thesis: What you are going to do in your essay

Example: Does Aid to Poor Countries Work?

For the last fifty years, poor countries have been receiving huge
Sentence 1 sums of money from rich donor countries.

Some of this money has improved lives, while much of it has


Sentence 2 disappeared or made no difference.

Sentence 3 In this essay, I will discuss some arguments for and against foreign
(Thesis) aid./ This essay will look at some arguments…

These are very general examples, but by adding some details on your specific topic, an
introduction will effectively outline the structure of the paper so readers can more easily
follow your ideas.

II Useful Vocabulary: Introduction (B1/B2/C1)


Openings

I would like to use this statistics as a lead-in to the report.


The report will address the problem of misuse of antibiotics.
The report is concerned with individual reactions to antibiotics.
The aim of this paper is to explore constant administration of antibiotics.
The purpose of this article is to investigate the use of focus groups.
The thesis consists of three parts, with each one devoted to a different aspect of social aspects of health
studies.
The thesis is divided into three sections, with a focus on various social aspects of health studies.

Exercise 1 (B1/B2/C1)
Write introductions to persuasive articles using the questions given.
1 Some companies give their employees bonuses or cash awards for excellent work, in addition
to salary. Do you think this is a good idea? Are cash incentives a good way to motivate
employees?

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2 Does space exploration benefit mankind?
3 Do Athletes Deserve Their High Salaries?

2. Conslusion
Conclusions wrap up what the writer has been discussing in the paper. After moving from
general to specific information in the introduction and body paragraphs, your conclusion
should begin pulling back into more general information that restates the main points of your
argument. Conclusions may also call for action or overview future possible research. The
following outline may be useful when writing a conclusion:
In a general way,
• Restate your topic and why it is important,
• Restate your thesis/claim,
• Address opposing viewpoints and explain why readers should align with your position,
• Call for action or overview future research possibilities.
• No new material should be introduced in the conclusion.
Remember that once you accomplish these tasks, unless otherwise directed by the instructor,
you are finished. Simplicity is best for a clear, convincing message.

Useful Vocabulary: Summary and conclusion (B1/B2/C1)

Conclusion paragraph starters


As we have seen / As can be seen, the data are consistent across all the tests.
To conclude / In conclusion, it seems that women’s greater risk of depression is a consequence of
gender differences in social roles.
To recapitulate / To recap the findings of the experiments: there were a number of reasons the
experiment failed.
From these materials we may draw the following conclusions: as was expected, …
To sum up / To summarise / In summary, it is impossible to blame the failure on our team alone.
To bring the report to a close, it may be said that there are no dangerous side-effects.
In this research, we have attempted to demonstrate the interdependence between the two phenomena.

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CHECKLIST FOR INTRODUCTIONS & CONCLUSIONS
These are suggested questions to ask as you write your paper, and during the review and
editing process.
Introduction

Have I shown that I understand the task that has been set?
If appropriate, have I started off broad then narrowed down to the focus of my essay?
Have I given an outline of the way I plan to respond to the title?
Is my introduction a true indication of what the reader is about to read?
Do I think that the reader will be confident, after he or she has read my introduction,
that I have interpreted the title sensibly?

Conclusion

Have I referred back to the title of the essay?


Is my conclusion genuinely well-supported by the evidence and argument that I have
presented?
Is my conclusion directly relevant to the essay title?
Have I identified the most important conclusion, not just an interesting side issue?
Have I made sure that I have not introduced a new argument at this stage?

Conclusions in scientific writing

EXAMPLE 1. Yeast metabolism (a biology lab conclusion)


This experiment confirmed our hypothesis that yeast is alive. When something is alive,
it can grow, use energy, reproduce, maintain homeostasis, and respond to its
environment. Yeast does not appear to be alive because it does not visibly respond to
its environment. In this experiment, we observed whether or not yeast undergoes
metabolism by introducing yeast into two different environments: one without a
readily available source of energy, and one with readily available energy (in the form
of table sugar, or sucrose).
When the yeast was in a low-energy (no sugar) environment, no metabolism took
place. When the yeast was placed in a sugar-water solution, it underwent anaerobic
fermentation, turning the sucrose into ethanol and CO2 gas, which we were able to
observe by collecting it in a balloon above the test tube.
Thus, we have seen two pieces of evidence that yeast is alive: first, it uses energy by
metabolizing sugar; second, it responds differently in different environments, doing
nothing when it is in plain water and fermenting when it is in a sugar and water
solution.

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EXAMPLE 2.Mapping magnetic fields (an isolated conclusion from a report)
Initial hypothesis: Magnetic field strength will be proportional to the strength of the current
running through a straight wire and inversely proportional to the distance from the wire.
The data collected correlated strongly to the hypotheses, albeit with percent errors reaching as
high as 20%.
The trends in the data support the hypotheses that the strength of a magnetic field was
proportional to the current running through a straight wire and inversely proportional to the
distance from the wire. However, the significant percent error may indicate mechanical error,
which must be accounted for in future experiments.
The accuracy of the results could be improved with better equipment. Instruments capable of
measuring the strength of the magnetic field to a more precise number would likely result in a
more accurate slope and therefore a smaller percent error. Similarly, although the probe was
zeroed between all measurements, there is a chance that magnetic fields generated by
electronics in the room might have affected the measurements taken. In the future, the
experiment would need to be more isolated to generate better results.
The use of voltage and current in this experiment compels the experimenter to question
whether a resistor would behave in the same manner a straight wire does in this setting, or
whether the presence of a resistor further up in the circuit might change the magnetic field in
any way. Experimentation with a resistor in the circuit would be necessary to determine this.
Conclusions in persuasive writing
Following are examples of some techniques you can use to write effective
conclusions. These strategies could be used in combination. Some of them could be
applied to scientific writing as well (e.g. summary).

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Summary
Contrary to what many adults think, most adolescents are not only aware of the important issues of the
times but also deeply concerned about them. They are sensitive to the plight of the homeless, the
destruction of the environment, and the pitfalls of rampant materialism. Indeed, today’s young people
are not less mature and sensible than their parents were. If anything, they are more so.

Prediction
The growing tendency on the part of the judicial system to hold parents responsible for the actions of
their delinquent children can have a disturbing impact on all of us. Parents will feel bitter toward their
own children and cynical about a system that holds them accountable for the actions of minors.
Children, continuing to escape the consequences of their actions, will become even more lawless and
destructive. Society cannot afford two such possibilities.

Quotation
The comic W. C. Fields is reputed to have said, “Anyone who hates children and dogs can’t be all bad.”
Most people do not share Fields’s cynicism. Viewing childhood as a time of purity, they are alarmed at
the way television exposes children to the seamy side of life, stripping youngsters of their innocence
and giving them a glib sophistication that is a poor substitute for wisdom.

Recommendation or Call for Action


It is a mistake to leave parenting to instinct. Instead, we should make parenting skills a required course
in schools. In addition, a nationwide hotline should be established to help parents deal with crises. Such
training and continuing support would help adults deal more effectively with many of the problems they
face as parents.

(Adapted from http://wps.pearsoncustom.com/wps/media/objects/2426/2484620/240012_ch06.pdf)

Exercise 2( B1/B2)
Write conclusions to persuasive articles using the questions given.
1 Who are the better parents – men or women?
2 Who learns quicker – adults or children?
3 Should dangerous sports be banned?

Exercise 3 (B2/C1)
Write a conclusion to a research article you have recently composed/are working on.

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UNIT 11. CULTURE SKILLS

A EXPLORING A TOPIC

I Expressing an opinion (B1/B2/C1)

1. What language skills do you know?


2. What is culture?
3. What is cultural competence?
4. Comment on the following quotation:
‘Culture hides much more than it reveals, and strangely enough what it hides, it hides
most effectively from its own participants…’ Edward Hall, American anthropologist.

II Related information (B1/B2/C1)

1. Define the meaning of the following terms: values, traditions, community, skill, knowledge,
behaviour, curriculum, mindset, intercultural skills, sensitivity, awareness.
2. Read the article by Barry Tomalin on culture as the fifth language skill (alongside with four
traditionally distinguished skills - reading, writing, speaking, and listening).
1) What is ‘Big C’?
2) What cultural values are mentioned in the article?
3) What is little ‘c’?
4) What are cultural skills?
5) Why has English become a life skill?
6) Explain why learning a language does not mean learning a culture.
6) What does culture skill imply?

CULTURE - THE FIFTH LANGUAGE SKILL


What do we mean by 'culture'?
Many teachers quote the Dutch psychologist Geert Hofstede’s maxim ‘Software of the Mind’,
the subtitle of his 2005 book ‘Cultures and Organisations’. What culture covers is the
commonly held traditions, values and ways of behaving of a particular community. It includes
what we used to call ‘British and American life and institutions’, ‘daily life’ and also cultural
artefacts, such as the arts or sports. This is all interesting and sometimes useful knowledge
and it is often included in textbooks.
However, there is also another level of understanding, of culture. This is how you develop
cultural sensitivity and cultural skill. This covers how you build cultural awareness, what
qualities you need to deal successfully with other cultures, and how to operate successfully
with people from other cultures. This is often considered to be a business skill for adults, such
as international sales managers or explorers. But if you think about it there is a set of skills
also needed by refugee kids, ‘third culture kids’ following their parents as they are posted
around the world, and students going abroad on gap years before university or overseas study

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grants. Therefore we could argue that the teaching of culture in ELT should include these
things:
• Cultural knowledge
The knowledge of the culture’s institutions, the Big C, as it’s described by Tomalin
and Stempleski in their 1995 book ‘Cultural Awareness’.
• Cultural values
The ‘psyche’ of the country, what people think is important, it includes things like
family, hospitality, patriotism, fairness etc.
• Cultural behaviour
The knowledge of daily routines and behaviour, the little c, as Tomalin and Stempleski
describe it.
• Cultural skills
The development of intercultural sensitivity and awareness, using the English
language as the medium of interaction.
Culture – the fifth language skill
Why should we consider the teaching of a cultural skills set as part of language teaching and
why should we consider it a fifth language skill, in addition to listening, speaking, reading and
writing? I think there are two reasons. One is the international role of the English language
and the other is globalisation.
Many now argue that the role of the English language in the curriculum is a life skill and
should be taught as a core curriculum subject like maths, and the mother tongue. The reason
for this is globalisation and the fact that to operate internationally people will need to be able
to use a lingua franca. For the next twenty to thirty years at least, that language is likely to be
English. That means that English will be a core communicative skill and will need to be
taught early in the school curriculum. Many countries now introduce English at eight years
old and many parents introduce their children to English at an even younger age, using ‘early
advantage’ programmes.
The second argument is globalisation itself. You could say, ‘We are all internationalists now’.
We are or will be dealing with foreigners in our community, going abroad more, dealing at a
distance with foreigners through outsourcing or email, phone and video-conferencing. And
this isn’t just for adults. Kids are interchanging experience and information through travel,
keypal schemes and networks like Facebook. This is the time to develop the intercultural
skills that will serve them in adult life.
Up until recently, I assumed that if you learned the language, you learned the culture but
actually it isn’t true. You can learn a lot of cultural features but it doesn’t teach you sensitivity
and awareness or even how to behave in certain situations. What the fifth language skill
teaches you is the mindset and techniques to adapt your use of English to learn about,
understand and appreciate the values, ways of doing things and unique qualities of other
cultures. It involves understanding how to use language to accept difference, to be flexible
and tolerant of ways of doing things which might be different to yours. It is an attitudinal
change that is expressed through the use of language.

3. Communication depends on communicative styles. Read an extract from the article by Erin
Meyer about coconut and peach cultures and speak about your experience.

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ONE REASON CROSS-CULTURAL SMALL TALK IS SO TRICKY
It was my first dinner party in France and I was chatting with a Parisian couple. All was well
until I asked what I thought was a perfectly innocent question: “How did the two of you
meet?” My husband Eric (who is French) shot me a look of horror. When we got home he
explained: “We don’t ask that type of question to strangers in France. It’s like asking them the
color of their underpants.”
It’s a classic mistake. One of the first things you notice when arriving in a new culture is that
the rules about what information is and is not appropriate to ask and share with strangers are
different. Understanding those rules, however, is a prerequisite for succeeding in that new
culture; simply applying your own rules gets you into hot water pretty quickly.
A good way to prepare is to ask yourself whether the new culture is a “peach” or a “coconut”.
This is a distinction drawn by culture experts Fons Trompenaars and Charles Hampden-
Turner. In peach cultures like the USA or Brazil people tend to be friendly (“soft”) with new
acquaintances. They smile frequently at strangers, move quickly to first-name usage, share
information about themselves, and ask personal questions of those they hardly know. But after
a little friendly interaction with a peach, you may suddenly get to the hard shell of the pit
where the peach protects his real self and the relationship suddenly stops.
In coconut cultures such Russia and Germany, people are initially more closed off from those
they don’t have friendships with. They rarely smile at strangers, ask casual acquaintances
personal questions, or offer personal information to those they don’t know intimately. But
over time, as coconuts get to know you, they become gradually warmer and friendlier. And
while relationships are built up slowly, they also tend to last longer.

III Developing background knowledge (B1/B2/C1)


1. Give a talk on a) Edward S. Hall; b) Geert Hofstede
- give a brief account of some biographical facts;
- innumerate the main aspects of the theory;
- speak on the criticism of the theory
2. Speak about American cultural values.
3. Speak about English cultural values.

IV Exchanging views and ideas (B1 -B2/C1)


1. Group work. Organize a brainstorming session and define the notion:
a) tolerance; b) cultural awareness; c) cultural sensitivity.
2. Discussion. What is the difference between stereotype and generalization? Give
examples of stereotypes. Do we need stereotypes to learn another culture?
3. Discussion. What is Englishness? What is Americanness? Study the following
fragments and discuss the notions:
a) For a long time ‘Englishness’ was a way of life, a lifestyle for centuries many people
of the world had tried to follow. ‘Englishness’ meant honourable, trustworthy, gallant,
stiff upper lip, one who could be relied upon. The men knew how to treat a lady but
never known as the best lovers in the world and the ladies not mentioning such things.
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We would patiently wait in queues, give our seat to a lady, generally be well mannered
and polite, and certainly know the little etiquettes that help give a meaning to
‘Englishness’… Now we have evolved into a selfish nation were it is unlikely man
will give up his seat, open the door for a lady, walk on the street side of the pavement
when walking with a lady, stand back and let a lady go first, and many more niceties
that was part of ‘Englishness’ now man cannot be bothered explaining “why should I,
now women have equal rights”
(From ‘Englishness’ has it gone? An Englishman’s thoughts on 'Englishness' by
Reginald Stanley Birch)

b) There's nothing like traveling abroad to learn what it means to be American and what
being American means to everyone else who is not. I lived in Europe for a year when I
was 14, and two unpleasant instances brought the complicated nature of our national
identity into sharp relief. The first happened at a party. After finding out I was
American, a young Italian hipster suddenly started attacking me for my country's
voracious, imperialist appetite. She cited chapter and verse: interventions in Chile, the
Dominican Republic, Guatemala. But the accusation that shook me most was when
she questioned U.S. rights to the Hawaiian Islands. She left me speechless. Having
assumed the weight of the sins of the American Empire, I was then unprepared for an
encounter a few months later with a middle-aged German woman who had firm ideas
about who was and who wasn't American. Unable to disentangle my ethnic and
national identities, she insisted that I wasn't a real American. "You might live in Los
Angeles," she said rather tartly. "But you're not American. You're Mexican." No, I
replied. I'm Mexican-American, a U.S. citizen with Mexican roots. In the end, she
walked away unconvinced of my citizenship. I, however, left that conversation more
convinced than ever
(From 'I assert my Americanness proudly ... even defiantly' by Gregory Rodriguez)

V Summarizing the topic (B1/B2/C1)


1. Make a power point presentation on the topic:
1) Polychronic Cultures;
2) Monochronic Cultures.
2. In the article for an intercultural forum Making culture happen in the English
language classroom the author, Barry Tomalin, suggests teachers a number of
questions for discussion. Answer these questions on cultural methodology.
How should we teach cultural awareness? Should we be teaching it as a special slot, such
as a culture corner or culture spot in the lesson, or should each lesson seek to contain a
cultural awareness skill that students develop through working through the textbook and
associated materials? Should we be teaching the skills of identifying culturally significant
information, how to research cultural information and how to develop cultural skills?
Should we have lectures and presentations where we tell our students what they need to
know? Should we be using task-based learning and discovery techniques to help our
students learn for themselves? Are some methods more appropriate than others for
teachers who are not native-speakers (and may be less familiar with the culture) or have
large classes of sixty or more students?
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In other words, when do you include culture in your lessons and how do you teach it?
What methodology works for you?

VI Project work (B1/B2/C1)


1. There are different stereotypes: racial, ethnic, geographical, gender, social, political,
professional. Think over a few examples of each type. Interview your group-mates and
find out if they have any stereotypes. Present the results of your survey in a Report.
2. Write an essay on one of the following topics:
1) What is tolerance?
2) Five ways of building cultural awareness.
3) Pros and cons of stereotypes.
4) Internet as a means of intercultural communication.

B PRACTISING SKILLS

TEXT 1 (B2)
Put the word(s) in brackets in the right form.

Cross-Culture Communication
Collaborative Efforts a Must!
"We didn't all come over on the same ship, but we're all in the same boat."– Bernard Baruch,
American financier and 1.___________ (STATE).
It's no secret that today's workplace 2.___________ (RAPIDLY, BECOME) vast, as the
business environment expands to include various 3.___________ (GEOGRAPHY) locations
and span numerous cultures. What can be difficult, however, is understanding how to
communicate effectively with individuals who speak another language, or who rely on
different means to reach a common goal.
Cross-Cultural Communication – The New Norm
The Internet and modern technology 4.___________ (OPEN UP) new marketplaces that
allow us to promote our businesses to new geographic locations and cultures. And
5.___________ (GIVE) that it can now be as easy to work with people remotely as it is to
work face-to-face, cross-cultural communication is increasingly the new norm.
After all, if communication is electronic, it's as easy to work with someone in another country
as it is to work with someone in the next town.
And why limit yourself to working with people within convenient driving distance when, just
as conveniently, you can work with the most 6.___________ (KNOWLEDGE) people in the
entire world?

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For those of us who are native English-speakers, it is 7.___________ (FORTUNE) that
English seems to be the language that people use if they want to reach the widest possible
audience. However, even for native English speakers, cross-cultural communication can be an
issue: Just witness the mutual 8.___________ (COMPREHEND) that can sometimes arise
between people from different English-speaking countries.
In this new world, good cross-cultural communication is a must.
(From Mind Tools)
TEXT 2 (B2/C1)
Choose ONE phrase from the list of phrases A-I below to complete each of the following
sentences 1-8. Remember, ONE phrase is extra here.

A have an advantage during the hiring process


B that an increasingly globalized market demands more than hard skills
C despite that high demand for intercultural fluency
D is very important to their organization
E who can work well with peers from other cultures
F is useless in modern world
G workers who lack intercultural skills expose companies to greater to risks
H with 24 percent of businesses failing to look for such skills in the recruitment process
I most importantly as the workforce becomes increasingly mobile

Culture & Language Skills Set Job Applicants Apart


By Chad Brooks
Culturally savvy employees are in high demand by businesses around the world, new research
shows.
In a study by Ipsos Public Affairs, on behalf of the British Council and Booz Allen Hamilton,
nearly two-thirds of employers around the world said the ability to work effectively with
individuals and organizations from different cultural backgrounds
1.____________________________.
Specifically, employers want workers who can understand different cultural contexts and
viewpoints, demonstrate respect for others and comprehend foreign languages.
The study shows that employers see numerous benefits from employees
2.____________________________. Specifically, 40 percent of the companies surveyed said
employees with intercultural skills help keep teams running effectively, while 35 percent
believe such skills improve trust and relationships with customers and clients.
3.____________________________, such as miscommunication among teams and damage to
the organization's reputation or brand, the research shows.
Clifford Young, managing director of Ipsos Public Affairs' Public Sector Research and
Political Polling in the United States, said 4.____________________________.
"The three Rs — reading, writing and arithmetic — are just the necessary condition to enter
into the workforce," Young said. "Now employees need to know how to work in teams,
communicate and, 5.____________________________, they need to have the skills to
negotiate different social and cultural environments."

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6.____________________________, the research revealed that only one-third of employers
think that education providers in their countries sufficiently develop students' intercultural
skills. Employers also admitted to inadequate screening processes for intercultural
competence in job candidates, 7.____________________________.
The study authors conclude that job applicants who demonstrate intercultural skills as well as
formal qualifications 8.____________________________.
The research was based on surveys of more than 350 employers working in public, private
and non-profit organizations in the United States, Brazil, the United Kingdom, South Africa,
the United Arab Emirates, Jordan, India, China and Indonesia.

TEXT 3 (B2/C1)
Choose the correct heading for sections 1-5 from the list of headings below.
Write the correct letter A-F in the boxes given below. Remember, ONE heading is extra.

List of Headings
A Playing the Game
B Different world, different people, different lifestyle
C Culture – a Basic Definition
D Take a Plunge
E It’s a Small World
F Getting to the Core of Culture

Cultural Awareness
Remember a time when you went abroad country. You did, however, notice that
and made some faux pas that caused “normal” interaction and “common sense”
amusement or dismay among local failed you. Perhaps you even ended up
listeners? Knowing what exactly went upsetting other people.
wrong in this situation could help you
understand cultural awareness.
InterNations tells you more about cultural Now go a step further in your quest for
awareness and why it is so important for cultural awareness: Start reading a brief
expatriates. “how to” guide or “dos and don’ts” list for
tourists, expats, or immigrants coming to
your country. You may be surprised or
While living abroad, quite a few people entertained by the descriptions of your own
inadvertently miss some social cues among culture and its basic etiquette.
their new colleagues, neighbors, or friends.
If you talk to foreign visitors and
They behave in what they think is a normal
expatriates whom you know already well,
manner – and oops! Suddenly, other people
they may share their thoughts on living in
seem amused, irritated, or simply
your country: the stereotypes they had
confused.
before coming here; their first impressions;
You may not be able to explain what went which differences confuse them; what they
wrong or, to ask an even more difficult find great; what they don’t like at all, etc.
question, why a certain type of behavior Again, the answers might astound you and
would be considered wrong in your host

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won’t fail to increase your sense of cultural awareness is all about. It’s very common to
awareness. classify this core according to several
dimensions, e.g. the prevailing social
Of course, clichés, personal impressions,
attitudes towards hierarchy and authority
and random bits of advice will only get
(called “power distance”).
you so far. Now’s the point when you
might want to dive a little deeper into the Cultural differences – which begin at the
theoretical background of cultural core of the onion and spread upwards and
awareness, intercultural competence, outwards through the various layers –
and intercultural communication. These mean that the hidden rules of everyday
two articles explain these theories in behavior might change as soon as you set
greater depth, so you might want to read foot on a distant country’s soil. In seminars
them first before continuing here. on cultural awareness, coaches like
illustrating the emotional effect of such a
drastic change with the so-called Barnga
First of all, in the context of cultural simulation.
awareness, we have to understand what
culture refers to. For this purpose, let’s
simply define culture as all the (often The Barnga simulation is often used in
unspoken) standards and (mostly intercultural competence training. The
unwritten) rules that guide a certain participants sit down at several tables in
group’s behavior. Such a group can be a several small groups and start playing a
sub-set of the general population (a sub- simple card game with a certain set of
culture) or an entire nation – the culture of rules. Once they have learned the rules at
Hong Kong or Italian culture. their table, they mustn’t speak anymore.
As soon as they know their rules and have
Culture, in this specific sense, is often
played a few rounds, two people from each
compared to an onion with several layers.
table move over to a different one.
The outermost layer of the “onion”, i.e. of
a foreign culture, is what you can see, hear, What they don’t know, though, is the fact
and touch: its artifacts, products, and that the rules at every table are slightly
rituals. The next layer of a culture consists different. So when they start playing
of its systems and institutions. Systems and elsewhere, it will soon cause confusion and
institutions, in turn, are based on certain irritation, even frustration and helplessness
beliefs, norms, and attitudes. These beliefs among the players. This is what immersing
then stem from the core of the “onion”, the oneself in a different culture may feel like
most basic values of any culture. – the disorientation of culture shock. Being
exposed to these feelings in such a context
may help participants to appreciate the
It’s that core of different attitudes and importance of cultural awareness and
values that is both the hardest to get at and competence.
the most influential element of all. And yet (From InterNations)
it’s to understand this core that cultural

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C TRANSLATION / INTERPRETING SKILLS

1. Do sight translation of the article after 1-minute preparation.


Cross-Culture Communication: Collaborative Efforts a Must!
Understanding Cultural Diversity
Given different cultural contexts, this brings new communication challenges to the workplace.
Even when employees located in different locations or offices speak the same language (for
instance, correspondences between English-speakers in the U.S. and English-speakers in the
UK), there are some cultural differences that should be considered in an effort to optimize
communications between the two parties.
In such cases, an effective communication strategy begins with the understanding that the
sender of the message and the receiver of the message are from different cultures and
backgrounds. Of course, this introduces a certain amount of uncertainty, making
communications even more complex.
Without getting into cultures and sub-cultures, it is perhaps most important for people to
realize that a basic understanding of cultural diversity is the key to effective cross-cultural
communications. Without necessarily studying individual cultures and languages in detail, we
must all learn how to better communicate with individuals and groups whose first language,
or language of choice, does not match our own.
Developing Awareness of Individual Cultures
However, some learning the basics about culture and at least something about the language of
communication in different countries is important. This is necessary even for the basic level
of understanding required to engage in appropriate greetings and physical contact, which can
be a tricky area inter-culturally. For instance, kissing a business associate is not considered an
appropriate business practice in the U.S., but in Paris, one peck on each cheek is an acceptable
greeting. And, the firm handshake that is widely accepted in the U.S. is not recognized in all
other cultures.
While many companies now offer training in the different cultures where the company
conducts business, it is important that employees communicating across cultures practice
patience and work to increase their knowledge and understanding of these cultures. This
requires the ability to see that a person's own behaviors and reactions are oftentimes culturally
driven and that while they may not match our own, they are culturally appropriate.
If a leader or manager of a team that is working across cultures or incorporates individuals
who speak different languages, practice different religions, or are members of a society that
requires a new understanding, he or she needs to work to convey this.
Consider any special needs the individuals on your team may have. For instance, they may
observe different holidays, or even have different hours of operation. Be mindful of time zone
differences and work to keep everyone involved aware and respectful of such differences.
Generally speaking, patience, courtesy and a bit of curiosity go a long way. And, if you are
unsure of any differences that may exist, simply ask team members. Again, this may best be
done in a one-on-one setting so that no one feels "put on the spot" or self-conscious, perhaps
even embarrassed, about discussing their own needs or differences or needs.

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Demand Tolerance
Next, cultivate and demand understanding and tolerance. In doing this, a little education will
usually do the trick. Explain to team members that the part of the team that works out of the
Australia office, for example, will be working in a different time zone, so electronic
communications and/or return phone calls will experience a delay. And, members of the India
office will also observe different holidays (such as Mahatma Gandhi's Birthday, observed on
October 2).
Most people will appreciate the information and will work hard to understand different needs
and different means used to reach common goals. However, when this is not the case, lead by
example and make it clear that you expect to be followed down a path of open-mindedness,
acceptance and tolerance.
Tip:
Tolerance is essential. However, you need to maintain standards of acceptable behavior. The
following "rules of thumb" seem universal:
Team members should contribute to and not hinder the team's mission or harm the delivery to
the team's customer.
Team members should not damage the cohesion of the team or prevent it from becoming
more effective.
Team members should not unnecessarily harm the interests of other team members.
Keep it Simple
When you communicate, keep in mind that even though English is considered the
international language of business, it is a mistake to assume that every businessperson speaks
good English. In fact, only about half of the 800 million people who speak English learned it
as a first language. And, those who speak it as a second language are often more limited than
native speakers.
When you communicate cross-culturally, make particular efforts to keeping your
communication clear, simple and unambiguous.
And (sadly) avoid humor until you know that the person you're communicating with "gets it"
and isn't offended by it. Humor is notoriously culture-specific: Many things that pass for
humor in one culture can be seen as grossly offensive in another.
And Get Help if You Need It
Finally, if language barriers present themselves, it may be in every one's best interest to
employ a reliable, experienced translator.
Because English is not the first language of many international businesspeople, their use of
the language may be peppered with culture-specific or non-standard English phrases, which
can hamper the communication process. Again, having a translator on hand (even if just
during the initial phases of work) may be the best solution here. The translator can help
everyone involved to recognize cultural and communication differences and ensure that all
parties, regardless of geographic location and background, come together and stay together
through successful project completion.
(http://www.mindtools.com/CommSkll/Cross-Cultural-communication.htm)

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2. Read the text and provide a summary of each part in the Russian language.
Making culture happen in the English language classroom
By Barry Tomalin
This article looks at teaching the cultural agenda and explores possible avenues of thinking in
the following areas:
• Where does culture fit? What discipline does it belong to?
• Is there such a thing as a cultural curriculum or a cultural syllabus? When should we
introduce the teaching of culture in ELT? Whose culture should we be teaching and
what should we teach at what level?
• How do materials address the issue of culture and is it adequate?
• What are the best audio, text and visual aids for the teaching of culture?
• What kind of methodology is best suited to the teaching of cultures at different levels?
• What kinds of activities lend themselves to learning about and appreciating other
cultures?
Where does culture fit? What discipline does culture belong to?
Culture has many mothers – academic disciplines that have influenced its development. One
is linguistics, which has provided the concepts of language analysis that are the basis of inter-
cultural communication. Another is psychology, that has provided many of the concepts we
use in understanding people’s motivation and behaviour. Two other disciplines, sociology and
anthropology, have both influenced our study of behaviour and also the influences that form
social values in different communities.
So we can say that cultural awareness is an interdisciplinary subject that draws on the
resources of a variety of humanistic disciplines to profile the aptitudes and skills required to
understand and work successfully in another culture. To my mind, the skills of cultural
awareness are part of the newly developed subject of emotional intelligence. However, you
may well identify other ‘mothers’ and other antecedents and other homes for the study of
cultural awareness or cultural competence.
Culture in the curriculum
Once you have discussed the roots of culture then you can search for its appearance in the
curriculum. The Council of Europe Common European Framework for Reference (CEFR) has
no section for culture but several cultural references spread through its examples. Pretty much
all textbooks at secondary level and upwards now have a cultural syllabus and many primary
ELT books make room for a ‘culture spot’ or ‘cultural corner’. My concern in such resources
is that the syllabus is really ‘tacked on’ to the topic area of the textbook unit and has no real
consistency of development as a skills set on its own.
One writer, Simon Greenall, who has an informed interest in this subject, has tried to tackle
the cultural agenda in his Macmillan textbook ‘People like Us’. Simon chooses other cultures
as his subject. But should we be teaching a specific culture? For example, British or US
culture. If so, why exclude Australian, Canadian, New Zealand, Singapore or Indian culture,
all of whom have English medium instruction, as do some other countries.
When should we introduce culture in English language teaching? Do students need to
understand basic English before they begin looking at culture and if so what level are we

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talking about? Is it A1, A2, or B1 or even B2 according to the CEFR (Council of Europe
Framework of Reference)?
Cultural materials
Culture tends to be relegated to a specific section in textbooks or to be the subject of readers.
Yet you could argue that every photo, drawing, reading package and dialogue is the subject
not just of linguistic exploitation but of cultural discussion and debate.
Nowadays our textbooks contain print, audio, CDROM and DVD components and even
dedicated websites. Are these better avenues for teaching cultural awareness and if so what
should we be putting in them? Teachers of Professional English often complain about the lack
of ‘critical incident methodology’ video material which highlights key areas of
misunderstanding between cultures and presents them for discussion. We should exchange
our recommendations on materials. I’ll gladly share mine if you’ll share yours.
An important question is how can we best incorporate cultural material in our teaching
materials? Should we provide more cultural input in our ELT textbooks or should we
‘deculturalise’ our textbooks to give them the widest application?
Cultural methodology
How should we teach cultural awareness? Should we be teaching it as a special slot, such as a
culture corner or culture spot in the lesson, or should each lesson seek to contain a cultural
awareness skill that students develop through working through the textbook and associated
materials? Should we be teaching the skills of identifying culturally significant information,
how to research cultural information and how to develop cultural skills?
Should we have lectures and presentations where we tell our students what they need to
know? Should we be using task-based learning and discovery techniques to help our students
learn for themselves? Are some methods more appropriate than others for teachers who are
not native-speakers or have large classes of sixty or more students?
In other words, when do you include culture in your lessons and how do you teach it? What
methodology works for you?

Conclusion
When we discuss the teaching of cultural awareness as a skill as opposed to teaching cultural
information, we have to consider a number of issues, such as the curriculum, the materials and
the methodology. The challenge is to initiate a debate on what and how to teach to help
develop our children as international citizens of the world, using English and other languages
as their lingua franca.
(http://www.teachingenglish.org.uk/article/making-culture-happen-english-language-
classroom)

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D EFFECTIVE WRITING

I Revising and editing

HOW TO PERFECT YOUR PAPER?


Steps for Revising Your Paper
When you have time to revise, use the time to work on your paper and to take breaks from
writing. If you can forget about your draft for a day or two, you may return to it with a fresh
outlook. During the revising process, put your writing aside at least twice—once during the
first part of the process, when you are reorganizing your work, and once during the second
part, when you are polishing and paying attention to details.
Use the following questions to evaluate your drafts. You can use your responses to revise
your papers by reorganizing them to make your best points stand out, by adding needed
information, by eliminating irrelevant information, and by clarifying sections or sentences.
1. Find your main point.
What are you trying to say in the paper? In other words, try to summarize your thesis, or main
point, and the evidence you are using to support that point. Try to imagine that this paper
belongs to someone else. Does the paper have a clear thesis? Do you know what the paper is
going to be about?
2. Identify your readers and your purpose.
What are you trying to do in the paper? In other words, are you trying to argue with the
reading, to analyze the reading, to evaluate the reading, to apply the reading to another
situation, or to accomplish another goal?
3. Evaluate your evidence.
Does the body of your paper support your thesis? Do you offer enough evidence to support
your claim? If you are using quotations from the text as evidence, did you cite them properly?
4. Save only the good pieces.
Do all of the ideas relate back to the thesis? Is there anything that doesn't seem to fit? If so,
you either need to change your thesis to reflect the idea or cut the idea.
5. Tighten and clean up your language.
Do all of the ideas in the paper make sense? Are there unclear or confusing ideas or
sentences? Read your paper out loud and listen for awkward pauses and unclear ideas. Cut out
extra words, vagueness, and misused words.
6. Eliminate mistakes in grammar and usage.
Do you see any problems with grammar, punctuation, or spelling? If you think something is
wrong, you should make a note of it, even if you don't know how to fix it. You can always
talk to a Writing Lab tutor about how to correct errors.
7. Switch from writer-centered to reader-centered.
Try to detach yourself from what you've written; pretend that you are reviewing someone
else's work. What would you say is the most successful part of your paper? Why? How could
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this part be made even better? What would you say is the least successful part of your paper?
Why? How could this part be improved?
Do your sentences "hang together"?
1. Readers must feel that they move easily from one sentence to the next (coherence).
2. Readers must feel that sentences in a paragraph are connected with each other (unity).
Does the sentence begin with information familiar to the reader?
Does the sentence end with interesting information the reader would not anticipate?
Will your reader be able to identify quickly the "topic" of each paragraph?
(Adapted from Jaclyn M. Wells, Morgan Sousa, and Mia Martini, Allen Brizee @
https://owl.english.purdue.edu/)
CHECKLIST FOR EDITING

Aims Techniques

1 Editing for • check that you have explicitly written down what you
academic intended to do, and what you did do in your research
rigour • ensure you have a clear, logical thread running
• back up all claims and interpretations with evidence

2 Reducing Identify and remove unnecessary duplication, explanation, and


redundancy interesting but irrelevant material.

3 Editing for Check consistent use of tenses, voice, style.


consistency

4 Signposting Let the reader know what to expect, and summarise what has
and linking just been read. Keep the structure clear.

5 Proof reading Check details of spelling, grammar, numbering.

Exercise 1 (B1/B2)
Revise and make necessary corrections to the text below using the marks made by the
student.

Presentation

The recent history of the Central American region has been affected by the sharp increase in
violence in towns and cities of all countries in the area. The lack of opportunities and the
difficulty of improving the living conditions of its inhabitants, have contributed to the illegal
activities have become a solution for many who find them not only their livelihood but their
personal identification, especially in the case of so-called gangs or ‘maras’. These
organizations, getting stronger, which could scare off investors become generators of

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development, which makes the options more scarce, creating a difficult circle difficult to
break.

Given that reality, for years, several governments wanted to use strategies to attack and
extermination (super tough and tough) against these groups generate violence, but the results
have been far from the goals originally set. Rather, the chaos and the consolidation of criminal
organizations have expanded and much more violent actions.

Exercise 2 (B2/C1)
Here is the first draft of an essay. It was written in one sitting. Consider what elements need
revising and editing. Write the final draft of the article.

Challenges for Today’s Parents

by Harriet Davids

Thesis: Being a parent today is much more difficult than it was a generation ago.

Raising children used to be much simpler in the ’50s and ’60s. I remember TV images from
that era showing that parenting involved simply teaching kids to clean their rooms, do their
homework, and ____. But being a parent today is much more difficult because nowadays
parents have to shield/protect kids from lots of things, like distractions from schoolwork, and
from dangerous situations.

Parents have to control all the new distractions/temptations that turn kids away from
schoolwork. These days many kids have stereos, computers, and televisions in their rooms.
My girls can’t resist the urge to watch MTV and go online, especially if it’s time to do
homework. Unfortunately, though, kids aren’t assigned much homework and what is assigned
too often is busywork. And there are even more distractions outside the home. Teens no
longer hang out/congregate on the corner where Dad and Mom can yell to them to come home
and do homework. They hang out at the mall, in video arcades, and at fast-food restaurants.
Obviously, parents and school can’t compete with all this.

Parents have to help kids develop responsible sexual values. Kids see magazines and cheap
paperbacks in the corner store where they used to get candy and comic books. And instead of
the artsy nude shots of the past, kids see ronchey, explicit shots in Playboy and Penthouse.

And movies have this stuff in them today. Teachers seduce students and people treat sexual
relations casually/as a sport. Not exactly traditional values. TV is no better. Kids see soap-
opera characters in bed. Even worse is what’s on the Internet. The situation has gotten so out
of hand that maybe the government should establish guidelines on what’s permissible.

Worst of all are the life-threatening dangers that parents must help children fend off over the
years. With older kids, drugs fall into place as a main concern. Peer pressure to try drugs is

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bigger to kids than their parents’ warnings. Other kinds of warnings are common when
children are small. Then parents fear violence since news shows constantly report stories of
little children being abused. And when kids aren’t much older, they have to resist the pressure
to drink. Alcohol has always attracted kids, but nowadays they are drinking more and this can
be deadly, especially when drinking is combined with driving.

Most adults love their children and want to be good parents. But it’s difficult because the
world seems stacked against young people. Even Holden Caufield had trouble dealing with
society’s confusing pressures. Parents must give their children some freedom but not so much
that the kids lose sight of what’s important.
(Adapted from The Longman Writer: Rhetoric, Reader Handbook
by Judith Nadell, Linda McMeniman, and John Langan (2003)
@http://wps.pearsoncustom.com/wps/media/objects/2426/2484620/240012_ch06.pdf)

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UNIT 12. MAKING A CHANGE

A EXPLORING A TOPIC

I Expressing an opinion (B1/B2/C1)


1. What is a change for you? Does it mean it breaks the stability of your life balance or does it
improve your life to make it more balanced?
2. Comment on the following:
Life balance is easier when we understand its causes. In the fortunate Western world these
factors are broadly within our control if we focus on them and approach them positively. As
we go through our lives, new challenges and experiences change the relative importance and
mixture of these factors. The better we understand the changing needs of our life balance, the
better able we are to achieve and maintain them. Think about whether your life could be
happier and better balanced. Think about what sort of person you are. Think about the factors
which are truly important to you. And then ask yourself if and how you might want to change
them. We cannot simply become happier by wishing it. We must first understand what makes
us happy, and then plan how to change these things (From Life balance, happiness and life
change. Ideas for happiness and life change - tips and tools for work-life balance.).
.
II Related information (B1/B2/C1)
1. Define the meaning of the following terms: environment, determination, influence, change,
habits, manage, approach to life.
2. Read the following fragments of the article Life Balance, Happiness and Life Change from
Businessballs.com.
1) What habits can we change to improve our life?
2) What is challenging about changing a job? How is it connected to work-life balance and
life balance in general?

Manage your environment


The ways we use mobile phones and emails significantly influence our living and
working environment - and specifically external pressures and demands on us. These
potentially very positive communications technologies have become for many people habits
and systems which enslave and constrain, rather than liberate and enable. Left unmanaged and
uncontrolled, mobile phones, emails, and increasingly laptops and blackberry-type gadgets,
make us constantly available, and constantly attentive. This is fine if it makes you happy, but
what if it makes you unhappy?
Manage your environment - don’t let your environment - external factors like mobile
phones and emails - manage you. Changing these habits takes determination:
Understand and accept the need to change.
Commit to and plan the change.
Make the change - ensuring you explain your new ways of working to those who need
to know.

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A simple change to make with emails is open them and deal with them at set times
during the day, not whenever one pops into your inbox. A simple change to make for a mobile
phone is to get rid of it. Or hit it with a great big bloody hammer. That’ll sort it. Failing that
try switching it off when you want some time for yourself. Communications technologies are
meant to make your life easier, not more stressed and difficult.
Control these things. Manage your environment. Don’t allow external factors -
especially your habits and expectations and assumptions of others - to manage you. Manage
other people’s expectations and demands on you. We all get into habits which form the
expectations and views that other people hold about us. Other people’s demands on our
emotional and time resources are a significant aspect of life balance. If you do not manage
these demands they will leave you with no resource for yourself, your loved ones, your other
passions in life, and the changes you want to make in order to pursue them.
Construct your own approach to life - challenge what is imposed on you. Life changes
fast. Conventions and beliefs of the past are not right for the future. You can be certain of one
life on this earth. If you are not happy then take time to think and plan how to change things
for the better.

Changing work/life patterns and choices

The traditional pattern of work/life is becoming obsolete, and it needs to, because for
many people it’s extremely unbalanced. No wonder the life insurance and pensions industries
are (were) so profitable.. Until recent times hardly anyone lived long enough to collect what
they’d paid in, let alone what their policies were worth. Millions lurched from miserable work
to pointless retirement. This is the work/life mindset of the mid-1900s. Some people are still
living and working according to these old ideas. Do you? Does your company still base its
policies and ideas on this old mindset?
You have a choice to create your own mindset, and to reject the ideas of past
generations and old-style employers and the government of the day (who even with the best
intentions will always tend to be a generation behind modern ideas). A 2006 study by the
Work Foundation (‘The good worker: A survey of attitudes towards work in the UK’) found
that among UK workers 51% of people regarded their work as ‘a means to an end’, and 24%
of people considered their work not to be a source of personal fulfillment.
If you are among the many (and seemingly increasing numbers of) people who are
happy with work, that’s great. If not, and you want to construct your own approach to
work/life balance, you can.
For example, if you hate your job and would prefer to work at something you love,
what’s stopping you do this? Maybe not immediately, because big changes take time, but
what’s stopping you take the time to plan and make this change? If you loved your job, and
felt confident that you could always work at something you enjoy, does retirement become
less significant? Maybe even irrelevant?
I suggest to you that if you resolve now to change work/life to be more balanced and
enjoyable you could achieve the change in five years, maximum. Maybe less. So, consider
this, how will you feel in ten years time if you still hate your work, and you look back at this
moment?
For many people the most challenging part of improving work-life balance is finding
enjoyable work which will pay the considerable bills that the unhappy work has been able to
afford. The change cannot be made overnight for most people, especially with young families,
big mortgages and expensive lifestyles, so for many the opportunity is reluctantly dismissed.
If this is your challenge, here’s a way to approach it:

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1. Discover and decide what you love and you could make a living doing. Be
imaginative. Every possible passion or hobby can be turned into a business or a job or a new
career in one way or another.
2. Build your new business or specialism in your spare time. If you are serious about it
then a new opportunity will surface before long, for you to leave what you were doing before,
and earn what you need by doing what really makes you happy.
If the time and effort is too much to contemplate or commit to, maybe see what
happens if you give it a try for six months. What’s six months? And you’ll be amazed at how
much better life looks once you open up a new direction for yourself. Things start to happen,
even if you think they won’t. Very few people make a fortune doing something they hate.
Certainly no-one is happy doing work they hate. Conversely there are many happy people -
some wealthy, some not (it’s a matter of choice) - doing something they love.

III Developing background knowledge (B1/B2/C1)

1. Prepare a talk on a) Sigmund Freud; b) Erik Homburger Erikson


- give a brief account of some biographical facts;
- innumerate the main aspects of the theory;
- speak on the biologically, psychologically and socially bound changes people
undergo in their life.

IV Exchanging views and ideas (B1/B2/C1)

1. Group work. Organize a brainstorming session to find out what aspects of life a) make you
happy; b) you would like to change.

2. Compare your ideas to the entries of this chart. Say, which aspects of your life are
subjected to change, how and at what stage of your life:
adventure family/kids learning safety/law
animals finance love self-image
boss fitness machines sleep
challenge friends music/dance sport
colleagues giving/helping nature stress
creativity growth numbers systems
diet health outdoors thrills
direction hobby relaxation travel
discovery home reputation words
faith laughter routine work
(Adapted from Life balance, happiness and life change. What makes your own life balanced
and happy?)

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V Summarizing the topic (B1/B2/C1)

1. Explain the change in the attitude to work that might occur using the following
information:
Traditional work/life pattern

− Work for an employer - live for the weekends and holidays - worry a lot and be
generally unable to control your own destiny.
− Start your own business still doing something you don’t enjoy and continue to worry
and work slavishly.
− Retire on a reasonable pension at 60 or 65, or 55 if you are lucky - continue to worry,
and now add feelings of regret and maybe even bitterness.
− Rapidly decline due to lack of stimulus and die quite soon.
− What was the point of it all?
New work/life pattern

− Work for yourself or for decent employer(s), doing various things you love - (tip - you
might need to re-discover what you really love).
− Progressively ease off working to spend more time learning and enjoying new things -
some of which will become new work.
− Don’t worry about retirement because it can actually kill you (the worry and the
retirement), and the pension system is shot to pieces anyway - try to save, but most
importantly stay happy and productive.
− Keep learning and developing and doing new things - eat well, keep fit, and be good to
people.
− Live long and happy - still working a little and always learning and enjoying new things.
( Adapted from Life balance, happiness and life change)

B2/C1

2. Compare the following tables summarizing the ideas of S. Freud and E. Erickson. In
what way has E. Erickson developed the ideas of S. Freud?

Table 1. The overview of the ideas of S. Freud

Freudian psychosexual stages age guide


1. Oral Stage - Feeding, crying, teething, biting, thumb-sucking, weaning - the 0-1½ yrs,
mouth and the breast are the centre of all experience. The infant’s actual baby, birth
experiences and attachments to mum (or maternal equivalent) through this stage to walking
have a fundamental effect on the unconscious mind.
2. Anal Stage - Bodily expulsions are the centre of the world, and the pivot 1-3 yrs,
around which early character is formed. Again the young child’s actual toddler,
experiences through this stage have a deep effect on the unconscious and toilet
behaviours and preferences in later life. training
3. Phallic Stage - Phallic is not restricted to boys. This stage is focused on 3-6 yrs,
resolving reproductive issues. Where do babies come from? Can I have a baby? pre-school,
Experiences in this stage have a profound effect on feelings and behaviour and nursery
libido in later life.

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4. Latency Stage - Sexual dormancy or repression. The focus is on learning, 5-12 yrs,
skills, schoolwork. This is actually not a psychosexual. Experiences, fears and early
conditioning from the previous stages have already shaped many of the child’s school
feelings and attitudes and these will re-surface in the next stage.
5. Genital stage - Puberty. Glandular, hormonal, and physical changes in the 11-18 yrs,
adolescent child’s body cause a resurgence of sexual thoughts, feelings and puberty,
behaviours. teens
earlier for
girls
(Adapted from Erikson’s psychosocial development theory. Freud’s psychosexual stages -
overview)
Table 2. The overview of the ideas of E. Erickson
Psychosocial Crisis Stage Life Stage age range, other descriptions

1. Trust v Mistrust Infancy 0-1½ yrs, baby, birth to walking

2. Autonomy v Shame and Doubt Early Childhood 1-3 yrs, toddler, toilet training

3. Initiative v Guilt Play Age 3-6 yrs, pre-school, nursery

4. Industry v Inferiority School Age 5-12 yrs, early school

5. Identity v Role Confusion Adolescence 9-18 yrs, puberty, teens

6. Intimacy v Isolation Young Adult 18-40, courting, early parenthood

7. Generativity v Stagnation Adulthood 30-65, middle age, parenting

8. Integrity v Despair Mature Age 50+, old age, grandparents

(From Erikson’s psychosocial development theory. Erikson’s eight psychosocial stages)


3. Make a power point presentation on the topic The Nature of Change (for principles of
an effective presentation see Unit 5).
- Use the ideas of E. Erickson
- Express your point of view
VI Project work (B1/B2/C1)
1. Interview your group-mates about their attitude to change. Present the results of your
survey in a Report.
2. Write an essay on one of the following topics:
1) Change and Stability in Life.
2) I have changed a lot since childhood.
3) I am ready for a change.
4) Life balance is happiness.
5) To be in harmony with life.

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B PRACTISING SKILLS

TEXT 1 (B2)
Choose the correct heading for sections 1-4 from the list of headings below.
Write the correct letter in the boxes given below. Remember, ONE heading is extra.

List of Headings
A Improve your relationships
B Get in shape
C Change your routine
D Get out of your comfort zone
E Examine your life's path

How to Change Your Life

No matter how old you are, it's never too late answer, you can start by asking yourself what
to change your life for the better. Read this kind of legacy you want to leave behind. This
article to learn how to make changes on both question applies not only to your career, but
the inside and outside to feel more fulfilled, to your relationships as well. How would you
happy, and at peace. like to be described and remembered by other
people?
Method 1: Changing Your Circumstances
Determine whether or not your lifestyle is
Section 1:
aligned with your personal values. Chances
Remember that your reality is a result of the are, to some extent, your life and your values
things you do on a daily basis, from what you conflict. What could you be doing differently
eat for breakfast to where you go to work or to help you reach your goals? You may want
school. If you're going to change your life's to consider changing your career path,
circumstances, you will have to change the changing your major, changing where you
things you do every single day. live, and changing the way you manage your
Making even the smallest changes can help time and money.
you feel less bored with life. For example, Section 3:
take a different route to work, eat something
No matter how much money you make or
new for breakfast, exercise before school
how great your accomplishments are, you
rather than afterward, or stop at a different
will not be able to enjoy your success if you
coffee shop. Small changes like these may
don't have loved ones to share it with.
seem insignificant, but they will make your
life more interesting in the long run by Be sure to spend quality time with loved
adding variety. ones, and treat them with compassion and
understanding. If you have been neglecting
Section 2:
or arguing with a loved one, then devote
Whether you are in school, working, job some time to reconciling the relationship.
hunting, volunteering, or travelling, take a You must be willing to make compromises
look at your life and decide if it aligns with and even admit that you were wrong.
your values.
If you are feeling lonely, then you will have
What are your passions, interests, and goals? to stop waiting around for others to approach
While these questions may take years to you. Take matters into your own hands, and
184
get proactive. Put yourself in social Try to do something you've never done
situations, strike up conversations, and before. Go to a show you've never been to,
remember to always have a smile on your talk to a new person, eat something new, and
face. This is the best way to attract other so on. You never know when you'll discover
people. something or somebody who will end up
making a life-changing impact on you.
Section 4:
Pick up a new hobby or travel to a new place.
Some people are more prone than others to
If you play an instrument or a sport of any
get stuck in the comfort of routine and
kind, push yourself above and beyond what
familiarity. Regardless of your inhibitions or
you would normally do. Run that extra mile,
fears of change, humans need variety to be
take a different trail when hiking, and
happy. You should practice this on a small
explore new artistic styles.
scale on a daily basis as well as on a larger
scale.
TEXT 2 (B2)
Choose ONE phrase from the list of phrases A-H below to complete each of the following
sentences 1-7. Remember, ONE phrase is extra here.

A to forget the past completely


B this is a universal fact
C you will feel appreciative and lucky
D neglecting the present moment
E to look your best on a daily basis
F that may even be worse than your own
G they are happier
H talking about it with a loved one

Method 2: Changing Your Attitude

Live in the present moment. The best way you feel happier about your life is to stop
dwelling on the past and stop worrying about the future. If you suffer from anxiety or
depression, it is probably because you are doing one or both of these things constantly and
1.___________________________________. If you find yourself constantly dwelling on
negative memories, try the following exercise:
First, acknowledge the memory and how it makes you feel. If it was a recent incident
and you feel the need to cry or scream, then do it. Consider writing about the event in a
journal or 2.__________________________________. Once you have properly grieved the
memory, then admit to yourself that it is over, and nothing can be done to undo it. Instead of
being upset that it happened, be thankful that it is over, and remember that
things always could have been worse. The next time the thought returns to your head,
acknowledge it, be thankful that it is over, and let it go.
While it is impossible 3.______________________________, many people tend to
focus on negative or traumatic memories rather than on the positive ones. Take some time to
remember all the good things that have happened to you in the past. If it helps, make a list.
Be positive. No matter what you have, where you are, or who you're with, your
perception of your circumstances is more important than the circumstances themselves. To
put this into perspective, consider this fact: at any given moment, there are other people in the
world who have less money, less resources, and less loved ones than you do, and yet

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4._____________________________. Similarly, there are people who are richer than you, in
better shape, and with more resources, who feel less fulfilled than you do.
Get in the habit of noticing the positive aspects of whatever situation you find yourself
in. If you find yourself complaining about what's going on around you, then counter each
complaint you make with one or two positive observations.
Stop criticizing yourself and those around you. Again, everybody has both positive
and negative qualities; 5.______________________________. If you constantly focus on the
negative qualities in your spouse, for example, then those are what you will notice, and you
will constantly feel frustrated and annoyed. Contrastingly, if you constantly remind yourself
of the positive qualities in your spouse, then those are what you will notice, and
6.________________ ____________________.
Don't compare your own life with other peoples' lives. Part of what makes people
feel unhappy with their own lives is the comparison they make with the lives of those around
them. The tendency is to compare the low points of your own life with the positive points of
other peoples' lives.
Let go of jealousy. Nobody's life is perfect, no matter how it may seem on the outside.
If you find yourself being jealous of others for their money, their talents, or their
relationships, remember that each and every one of these people has struggled with hardships
and insecurities 7.______________________________.

TEXT 3 (C1)
Choose the best answer А, В, С or D.

Reclaiming My Life

It's 10.30 and I'm just settling down to my mid-morning coffee break. I open the paper
and two articles leap out at me. The first – Overworked Britons feel ill and too tired for love –
reports the findings of a survey which found that over half the working population are so tired
by the time they get home that their sex lives are suffering. The other article – Unpaid
overtime tops £23 bn mark – reports that research conducted by a trade union reveals that
businesses increasingly rely on staff putting in extra hours without extra pay, and that the
average person would have each earned £4,650 for their efforts if they had received a wage.
I love reading the newspaper, because it is always full of articles like these, which just
confirm to me that I have made the right choice: I am a stay-at-home mum.
I was not the most obvious candidate for being a stay-at-home mum. My own mother always
worked – she was a teacher – and when I became pregnant, my intention was always to
continue my successful career in marketing after my first child, Naomi, was born. In fact, I
did go back to work after my six months of maternity leave. I left Naomi at a childminder's at
eight o'clock in the morning and collected her at six o'clock in the evening. This worked for a
while, but as she grew and started to walk and talk, she got increasingly upset when I left her
in the mornings. I had incredible pangs of guilt. I still enjoyed my job, but whereas before it
had been everything to me, now it seemed somehow more trivial. What was more important –
promoting toiletries or raising a happy child? However, the pressures of work hadn't changed
– there were still sales targets to meet, new products to be pushed – and I was frequently
home late. There were some days when my husband Alan picked Naomi up when I wouldn't
see Naomi awake all day and, yes, I was too knackered to speak to my husband, let alone
make love.

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The crunch came one day when I was on my way home from work. The rush hour was just
beginning and the underground train was particularly packed. I just about squeezed on and
found myself pressed up against the sweaty armpit of a guy holding up Computer Weekly to
his face to read. I got off at Victoria to catch my train out of the city, only to find the place
was in chaos. The train station had been evacuated because of a security alert. Nobody knew
when it would reopen. There were hundreds of people getting increasingly agitated.
I rang my childminder to warn her I'd be late. We had a rather terse conversation – it wasn't
the first time, but as it turned out, it was the last. I told her I'd see if I could get Alan to pick
up Naomi. I rang him, but as soon as he picked up the phone, I knew I shouldn't have. I could
hear the stress and anxiety in his voice. He'd told me he had to work late – a tight deadline to
meet. 'How the hell am I going to get it done with you phoning me all the time?' he snapped.
When I pointed out that phoning him once is hardly 'all the time', he just slammed down the
phone on me.
I understood his situation, but it didn't stop me from feeling angry and resentful, until I really
thought about who or rather what was to blame – work. There and then I took out my laptop
and typed my letter of resignation.
That was seven years ago now and I've hardly looked back. Of course, when people ask me
'what do you do?', there are some who look on me as some kind of lesser being when I say I'm
a homemaker, but that's their problem, not mine. I see it as working with children and that can
be as rewarding, fulfilling and challenging as any other job.
From a personal point of view, I think it's probably saved our marriage. Of course, the lack of
money places a bit of a strain on things every once in a while, but sacrificing a new car or a
second holiday for a better home life seems the sensible option. And of course, I no longer
feel too ill or too tired, which is perhaps why I'm expecting my third child.

1. The author loves reading the newspaper, because

A. it entertains her.
B. it reassures her.
C. it comforts her.
D. captivates her.

2. After the birth of her first child

A. she was thinking of giving up her career.


B. she began working part-time.
C. she was determined to go on with her career.
D. she ran into financial difficulties.

3. Her attitude to her job changed, because

A. she started to feel guilty about neglecting her child.


B. her husband started to take her for granted.
C. she started to work long hours.
D. she was treated unfairly by her superiors.

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4. Now she's been a homemaker for seven years

A. she feels angry and resentful.


B. she feels the strain on her marriage.
C. she feels quite content with her lot.
D. she feels a bit embarrassed.

C TRANSLATION / INTERPRETING SKILLS

1. Translate the article into Russian.


Three Important Lessons for Making Critical Life Changes
How to engage five stages of change for success
By Bill Knaus, Ed.D. in Science and Sensibility
You want to change. Indeed you may need to make a critical life change. Still, you get in your
own way and stumble. Maybe you know what you want to do. Maybe you know why you want
to do it. Maybe you don’t know how. If you want to know how, read Dr. John Norcross’
article on a scientifically-tested way to make critical life changes:
You decide to take that big step and make the personal change that you’ve so long put off.
What do you do? Do you listen to Oprah’s guests who pontificate on change, walk on hot
coals during a work retreat to prepare yourself to live life fully, read vague and outrageous
self-help books by new age gurus, surf the unregulated web, or ask for advice from the
unsuccessful? If you take these unproven paths and fail to launch the change that you want to
make, or are inspired for a week and don’t maintain the change, you may feel defeated,
demoralized, and confused about why you can’t just do what you want to do. You may feel
anxious about trying again. Can you do better? Definitely yes!
You may have the best of intentions to change, but have adopted an unsystematic, unscientific
approach to the change. That’s not your fault. We are rarely trained in the science of change.
Unfortunately, we are frequently blamed by ourselves and others for not succeeding in what
we may know so little about. That said, I want to yell it from the rooftops: There is an actual
science out there that can help you make the change that you want to make! That is lesson
number one. Now, let’s get to lesson two.
The journey of change is amazingly similar for diverse problems. People progress through
identical stages for each of the fifty-plus problems now researched. For example, my
colleagues and I originally studied patterns of change in overcoming addictive disorders:
tobacco smoking and alcohol abuse. Early on, I was convinced that modifying an addiction
was fundamentally different from treating other problems. I was wrong. The step-by-step
journey to the goal is virtually the same for meeting challenges, such as overcoming substance
abuse, anxiety, depression.
Here’s how people change, across virtually all behavioral problems. The journey begins with
precontemplation or, as most people call it, denial. Precontemplation is the stage at which
there is no intention to change the problem or obtain the goal in the foreseeable future. Most
individuals in this stage are in a fog about their problems. Families, friends, neighbors, or
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employers, however, are often well aware that the pre-contemplators have problems. The
person who fears rejection retreats into a sheltered world of computer games. The problem
drinker says, I can handle my liquor.
When precontemplators decide to change, they often do so because of pressure from others. A
friend tells the computer game junky that hiding from others is a crappy way to live life. An
irritated employer tells the substance abuser to stop denying reality, sober up, or hit the road.
Contemplation is the stage in which people are aware that a problem exists. They are
seriously thinking about overcoming it, but they have not yet made a commitment to take
action. The change catalysts here are to acknowledge the problem, get ready for change, and
psych yourself up. This is where you specify realistic goals and define the new you. You start
counting and measuring the changes in the behavior you will modify. You think about the
consequences of your problem and imagine a new life without it. At this stage, you start to
harness the awareness and emotions that will propel you into action.
Preparation combines intention and baby steps toward your goal, which may be to start to
develop your people and assertiveness skills, or get and stay sober. This stage is all about
prepping. Build your commitment and then make your goal public—tell people about it. Pick
your start day and identify people who will comprise your support team. Take a few small
initial steps…and prepare for liftoff.
At some point you jump from preparing to perspiring—the work of modifying the behavior.
Action is the stage in which we modify our behavior, experiences, and/or environment in
order to reach the goal. Action involves the most overt changes and requires considerable
commitment of time and energy. In this stage it’s essential to develop healthy alternatives to
problem behaviors and build new ones. Reward yourself for a job well done. Cultivate your
environment and support team to keep moving forward.
Achieving your hard-fought-for goal is wonderful, but holding onto and advancing your
accomplishment entails persevering through slips and persisting for years. Maintenance is the
stage in which you work to prevent relapse and consolidate the gains attained during action.
All of us are vulnerable to lapses, so you can expect to fumble on occasion. The trick is to
manage slips and prevent them from snowballing into a reversion to old habits. Learn to say
“No” and develop a plan for recovering after a slip. Avoid high-risk triggers, resist the urge to
diverge back to the harmful path you once followed, and keep a positive outlook. Slips need
not become falls. You don’t have to mimic the message in the commercial, “I’ve fallen and
can’t get up.”
At this point, most people will ask something along the lines of “Well, it’s helpful that you
have outlined the cycle of change and discovered the structure. But how will that help me
exactly?” The answer to this question leads to lesson three.
By knowing your stage of change you can guide yourself through the often frustrating maze to
success. For starters, your stage of change predicts the probability of your reaching your
personal change goal. Our recent analysis of 39 published studies, involving 8,238 people
with problems, demonstrated that the further along you are in the stages, the more likely you
are to succeed. Moving from contemplation to action doubles your chances. Thus, how far
you advance in the stages will foretell your successes or failures.
Once you can identify it, you can complete the tasks and exercises appropriate to that stage of
change. This is called stage matching. For instance, if you’re already moving toward action,
you won’t need the work of the contemplation and preparations stages—you’ll have already
done that work. In fact, using those change catalysts can actually send you reeling backwards.
189
What works for someone getting psyched to change will not work for someone trying to
persist.
Changeology tells you what is most useful for that particular stage; what works for a person
thinking about change certainly differs from someone trying to remain changed. The secret is
doing the right thing at the right time. So many folks are earnestly trying but failing because
they mismatch their change efforts with the stage.
Instead of blindly walking the path, let the science of change guide your efforts and let the
stages give meaning and structure to your goals. Trial and error is lengthy and costly; learning
from the tens of thousands of research participants and people struggling with befuddling
problems, who participated in our studies, is far more efficient and effective.
(http://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/science-and-sensibility/201311/three-important-
lessons-making-critical-life-changes)
2. Do sight translation of the Internet article from Russian into English.
Выход из зоны комфорта
Я хочу поделиться с вами одним небольшим секретом, который позволяет мне
стремительно двигаться к своим целям и достигать отличных результатов.
Этот секрет — постоянный выход из зоны комфорта.
Что такое наша зона комфорта и зачем из нее выходить?
Зона комфорта - это привычный мир, в котором мы живем, и это привычные нам
действия, которые мы делаем ежедневно.
И если вдруг предстоит что-то сделать, что вы раньше никогда не делали, то как
вы думаете, какая будет ваша первая реакция? «Не буду, не хочу, страшно, а вдруг не
получится и т.д.» Ваш организм всеми правдами и неправдами и отговорками,
постарается оставить вас в зоне комфорта.
Очень четко это прослеживается, когда человеку, например, предстоит
публичное выступление, а он этого никогда раньше не делал. Или например, если вы
попробуете приобрести новую привычку, например, делать зарядку по утрам. И вашему
организму это будет очень не комфортно, так как он привык нежиться по утрам в
теплой постельке. Примеров можно привести массу. И у каждого они свои.
Ок. А зачем вообще из своей зоны комфорта выходить?
Каждый раз, когда мы выходим из зоны комфорта, мы растем над собой. Да,
публичные выступления — это не комфортно, но если выступать, несмотря на все свои
страхи и отговорки, то скоро это станет вам комфортно. И вы даже начнете получать
удовольствие, покоряя публику:)
То есть со временем зона комфорта расширяется и те действия, которые раньше
вам были не комфортны, становятся вполне привычны.
Итак, как же научиться выходить из зоны комфорта?
Каждый раз, когда в ответ на что-то новое, вам хочется сказать нет, не буду,
не хочу. Остановитесь на минутку и задайте себе два вопроса.
1. Ради чего вы все это делаете?
2. И что произойдет, если вы этого не сделаете?
И если вам это действительно нужно, а не сделав это вы действительно что-то
потеряете или упустите свою возможность. То вам будет намного легче сделать это шаг
вперед и выйти из зоны комфорта.
Кстати, если вы, например, развиваете свой бизнес, то вам чаще других
приходиться выходить из зоны комфорта. Применяйте этот принцип двух вопросов, и

190
если вы будете четко понимать ради чего вы из нее выходите, то вам будет намного
легче двигаться вперед.
(Елена Грезина)
(http://freedomway.ru/samorazvitie/ostrozhno-vyxod-iz-zony-komforta)

D EFFECTIVE WRITING

I Writing report abstracts


Types of abstracts

There are two types of abstracts: informational and descriptive.

Informational abstracts Descriptive abstracts

Communicate contents of reports Tell what the report contains

Include purpose, methods, scope, results, Include purpose, methods, scope, but NOT
conclusions, and recommendations results, conclusions, and recommendations

Highlight essential points Are always very short— usually under 100
words

Are short—from a paragraph to a page or two, Introduce subject to readers, who must then
depending upon the length of the report (10% or read the report to learn study results
less of the report)

Allow readers to decide whether they want to


read the report

Tips for writing abstracts

An effective abstract

• Uses one or more well-developed paragraphs, which are unified, coherent, concise, and able to
stand alone
• Uses an introduction-body-conclusion structure in which the parts of the report are discussed
in order: purpose, findings, conclusions, recommendations
• Follows strictly the chronology of the report
• Provides logical connections between material included
• Adds no new information but simply summarizes the report
• Is intelligible to a wide audience
191
Steps for writing effective report abstracts

To write an effective report abstract, follow these four steps.

1. Reread your report with the purpose of abstracting in mind. Look specifically for these
main parts: purpose, methods, scope, results, conclusions, and recommendations.
2. After you have finished rereading your report, write a rough draft without looking
back at your report. Consider the main parts of the abstract listed in step No. 1. Do not
merely copy key sentences from your report. You will put in too much or too little
information. Do not summarize information in a new way.
3. Revise your rough draft to
• Correct weaknesses in organization and coherence,
• Drop superfluous information,
• Add important information originally left out,
• Eliminate wordiness, and
• Correct errors in grammar and mechanics.
4. Carefully proofread your final copy.

Aim for about 1/2 a page in length and avoid detail or discussion; just outline the main points.
Remember that the summary is the first thing that is read. It should provide the reader with a
clear, helpful overview of the content of the report.
Following are three examples of report abstracts representing different areas of
research. Notice also that both across and within disciplines, abstracts differ in the
amount of emphasis they give to objectives, methods, results, and
conclusions. Depending on your particular project and your discipline, you will need to
decide which of these aspects you will emphasize the most. For more examples, go to
http://writing.wisc.edu/Handbook/presentations_abstracts_examples.html.

Example 1 (Humanities)

"The Commemoration and Memorialization of the American Revolution”

by Benjamin Herman and Jean Lee, History

This project involves discovering how the American Revolution was remembered
during the nineteenth century. The goal is to show that the American Revolution was
memorialized by the actions of the United States government during the 1800s. This
has been done by examining events such as the Supreme Court cases of John Marshall
and the Nullification Crisis. Upon examination of these events, it becomes clear that
John Marshall and John Calhoun (creator of the Doctrine of Nullification) attempted to
use the American Revolution to bolster their claims by citing speeches from Founding
Fathers. Through showing that the American Revolution lives on in memory, this
research highlights the importance of the revolution in shaping the actions of the
United States government.

192
Example 2 (Social Science)

“Subtype of Autism: Developmental Verbal Dyspraxia”

by Amanda Babin and Morton Gernbascher, Psychology

The purpose of this research is to identify a subtype of autism called Developmental


Verbal Dyspraxia (DVD). DVD is a motor-speech problem, disabling oral-motor
movements needed for speaking. The first phase of the project involves a screening
interview where we identify DVD and Non-DVD kids. We also use home videos to
validate answers on the screening interview. The final phase involves home visits
where we use several assessments to confirm the child’s diagnosis and examine the
connection between manual and oral motor challenges. By identifying DVD as a
subtype of Autism, we will eliminate the assumption that all Autistics have the same
characteristics. This will allow for more individual consideration of Autistic people
and may direct future research on the genetic factors in autism.

Example 3 (Hard Science)

“The Genetics of Bone Strength in Mice”


by Jonathan Vu and Robert Blank, Endocrinology

The purpose of this study is to identify relationships between the physical and genetic
characteristics of bones in mice. The physical characteristics include size, density, and
the force required to break the bone, while the genetic ones are the genes of the marker
loci associated with the genes that affect these qualities. This study uses strains of
mice with reduced genetic variation. The two strains of mice that are the most
phenotypically extreme, meaning those with the strongest and weakest bones, are
crossed. The F2 generation from that cross is then analyzed. The results of this
analysis can be used to find which genotypes correlate with specific bone properties
like size, density, and failure load. The anticipated outcome of this lab is the
identification of the genotypes that affect bone strength in mice. The findings may be
useful in treating medical conditions that are related to bone strength.

Exercise 1 (B2/C1)
Study the abstracts above and highlight any vocabulary you might find useful for your
research paper. Then write an abstract of an article you have recently published.

193
REFERENCES AND FURTHER READING

UNIT 1
1. How to Write a PhD Thesis. The University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia.
http://www.phys.unsw.edu.au/~jw/thesis.html#clear
2. How To Write a Thesis Statement. Indiana University, Bloomington.
http://www.indiana.edu/~wts/pamphlets/thesis_statement.shtml
3. Levine, S. Joseph. Writing and Presenting Your Thesis or Dissertation.
http://www.learnerassociates.net/dissthes/
4. Qm:insight. Queen Mary's Guide to Higher Education.
http://www.qmul.ac.uk/qminsight/askjames/articles/18716.html
5. The Daily Telegraph, May, 2014,
6. http://www.telegraph.co.uk/education/educationopinion/10862929/No-books-no-
lectures-no-education.html
7. The Globe and Mail, October 25, 2011.
http://www.theglobeandmail.com/news/national/education/will-an-undergrad-degree-
really-help-you-get-a-better-job/article601007/?page=all
8. Lingforum.com.
http://www.lingforum.com/forum/viewtopic.php?t=4513&view=previous&sid=5c08e
542d118d5405eaff4bd84f01222

UNIT 2
1. Academic Skills: Learning Skills: Critical Thinking. University of Canberra.
http://www.canberra.edu.au/studyskills/learning/critical
2. Buchanan, Elizabeth A., Zimmer, Michael, "Internet Research Ethics", The Stanford
Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Fall 2013 Edition), Edward N. Zalta (ed.),
http://plato.stanford.edu/archives/fall2013/entries/ethics-internet-research/
3. Resnik, David B. What is Ethics in Research & Why is it Important?
http://www.niehs.nih.gov/research/resources/bioethics/whatis/
4. What is Research? Wikivercity,
http://en.wikiversity.org/wiki/Sport_research/What_is_research#Approaching_researc
h
5. Jobs.ac.uk, August 2008, http://www.jobs.ac.uk/careers-advice/working-in-higher-
education/1203/5-skills-you-need-to-become-a-researcher
6. The Chronicle of Higher Education, May, 2014.
http://chronicle.com/article/Academic-IntegrityStud/32323/
7. Step up to Masters. School of Earth and Environment. The University of Leeds.
http://www.see.leeds.ac.uk/stepup/skillsarea1.html

UNIT 3
1. Biological Clocks and Circadian Rhythms. Online Clock.net.
http://blog.onlineclock.net/biological-clocks-circadian-rhythms/
2. Hall's cultural factors. Changing Minds.org.
3. http://changingminds.org/explanations/culture/hall_culture.htm
4. Study and Time Management. Academic Skills Centre University of Canberra 2011.
5. http://learnonline.canberra.edu.au/course/view.php?id=2101
6. Time Management Advisor. Management Skills Resource Center.
http://www.managementskillsadvisor.com/definition-of-time-management.html

194
7. Ward, Susan. Time Management. Small Business: Canada.
http://sbinfocanada.about.com/od/timemanagement/g/timemanagement.htm
8. USNews, October 5, 2011. http://www.usnews.com/education/blogs/the-college-
experience/2011/10/05/learn-to-manage-your-time-in-college
9. Sunday Telegraph, September 29, 1996.

10. Library Worklife, May 2012. http://ala-apa.org/newsletter/2012/05/07/surviving-a-


masters-degree-mastering-the-school-life-work-balance/

UNIT 4
1. Knowledge management,
http://www.unc.edu/~sunnyliu/inls258/Introduction_to_Knowledge_Management.htm
l
2. Participating in Tutorials. Academic Skills Centre. University of Canberra 2011.
http://learnonline.canberra.edu.au/mod/book/view.php?id=180718&chapterid=347
3. Journal of Knowledge Management Practice, May 2004,
http://www.tlainc.com/articl66.htm
4. The Guardian, September 10, 2012. http://www.theguardian.com/teacher-
network/2012/sep/10/technology-schools-breaking-down-barriers
5. The Guardian, February 7, 2011. http://www.theguardian.com/social-enterprise-
network/2011/feb/07/knowledge-growing-social-enterprise
6. Co-Lingua, http://praxiweb.fr/content/what-knowledge-management-knowledge-
management-explained

UNIT 5
1. Giving an oral presentation. University of Canberra, Australia.
http://www.canberra.edu.au/studyskills/learning/oral
2. Levine, S. Joseph. Writing and Presenting Your Thesis or Dissertation.
http://www.learnerassociates.net/dissthes/
3. Chemical Engineering Education, 39(1), 28-29 (Winter 2005).
http://www4.ncsu.edu/unity/lockers/users/f/felder/public/Columns/PowerPoint.pdf
4. TSE Tools. http://www.tseconsulting.com/tsetools/view_tools.php?id=345
5. The Guardian, February 18, 2011. http://careers.theguardian.com/careers-blog/how-to-
trick-your-mind-into-presentation-success
6. International Journal of Instructional Technology and Distance Learning, Vol.1 No.1,
http://www.itdl.org/journal/Jan_04/article06.htm
7. Портал КАК СДЕЛАТЬ ПРЕЗЕНТАЦИЮ. http://presportal.ru/power-point/5-pravil-
sozdaniya-effektivnoj-prezentacii-powerpoint/

UNIT 6
1. Bailenson, J.N., Yee, N. Psychology in Communication Processes // The International
Encyclopedia of Communication. - Vol. IX. - ed. By Donsbach W. - Precision
Journalism - Rhetoric in Western Europe: Britain. - P. 3931-3937,
http://www.stanford.edu/~bailenso/papers/icae-psychology.pdf
2. The Guardian, February 18, 2011.
http://www.theguardian.com/science/2011/feb/18/bilingual-alzheimers-brain-power-
multitasking
3. The Guardian, February 14, 2014.
http://www.theguardian.com/science/2014/feb/14/talking-to-babies-brain-power-
language
195
4. The Guardian, March 19, 2014.
http://www.theguardian.com/education/2014/mar/19/language-learning-motivation-
brain-teaching
5. Psychology Today, January 19, 2014.
http://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/communication-success/201401/8-keys-
dealing-problem-people-0

UNIT 7
1. Davidson, Jeff Being Constantly Interrupted: Who Needs It?
http://www.humanresourcesiq.com/business-strategies/articles/being-constantly-
interrupted-who-needs-it/
2. Davidson, Jeff Email Communication Strategies for Greater Harmony.
http://www.humanresourcesiq.com/business-strategies/articles/email-communication-
strategies-for-greater-harmony/
3. Davidson, Jeff What is Work-life Balance? http://work-lifebalance.com/what-is-work-
life-balance/
4. Heathfield, Susan M. Work-Life Balance.
http://humanresources.about.com/od/glossaryw/g/balance.htm
5. Work and Life Balance. INTERNATIONAL SURVEY BY ARBORA-Global Career
Partners. Pharma Consult Services, May 23, 2001. http://www.work-and-life-
balance.com/
6. Work–life balance. Wikipedia,
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Work%E2%80%93life_balance
7. OECD Better Life Index, http://www.oecdbetterlifeindex.org/topics/work-life-balance/
8. The Guardian, January 10, 2014. http://www.theguardian.com/women-in-
leadership/2014/jan/10/ten-minutes-to-work-life-balance
9. The Guardian, April, 30, 2014. http://www.theguardian.com/money/work-
blog/2014/apr/30/what-happened-to-remote-working
10. College of Biological Sciences. University of Minnesota.
https://www.cbs.umn.edu/learn/graduate-students/health-well-being/graduate-student-
work-life-balance
11. Balance in me. http://balanceinme.com/worklife-balance/achieving-lifework-balance-
while-attending-graduate-school/

UNIT 8
1. BusinessDictionary.com.
http://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/leadership.html
2. Kossoff, Leslie L. From Manager to Leader,
http://management.about.com/od/leadership/a/FromMgr2Ldr05.htm
3. Leadership. Management and Leadership.
http://management.about.com/od/leadership/
4. McNamara, Carter. All About Leadership. Free Management Library.
http://managementhelp.org/leadership/
5. Oxford Dictionaries. Language Matters.
http://www.oxforddictionaries.com/definition/english/
6. Reh, F. John. What is a leader.
http://management.about.com/od/leadership/a/whatisaleader.htm
7. Reh, F. John. Why Should Anyone Work For You?
http://management.about.com/od/leadership/a/Why-Should-Anyone-Work-For-
You.htm
196
8. Women in Leadership, The Guardian, September 5, 2013.
http://www.theguardian.com/women-in-leadership/poll/2013/sep/05/poll-encouraging-
girls-study-technology
9. Inc., http://www.inc.com/peter-economy/7-traits-highly-effective-leaders.html
10. Forbes, December 15, 2013.
http://www.forbes.com/sites/meghanbiro/2013/12/15/leadership-is-about-emotion/
11. Big Dog and Little Dog’s Performance Juxtaposition,
http://www.nwlink.com/~donclark/leader/leadstl.html
12. Newtomorrow.ru. http://newtomorrow.ru/lider/stili_liderstva.php
13. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=t_clro5RXqM

UNIT 9
1. All About Team Building. Free Management Library.
http://managementhelp.org/groups/team-building.htm
2. Group Dynamics - Working in Self-Managed Teams.
http://managementhelp.org/blogs/team-performance/2011/07/15/group-dynamics-
%E2%80%93-working-in-self-managed-teams/
3. Free Communication Focused Team Building Activities. The Team Building
Directory.
4. http://www.innovativeteambuilding.co.uk/free-communication-team-games.htm
5. McNamara, Carter. How Constructive Conflict Can Supercharge Teams.
http://managementhelp.org/blogs/team-performance/2013/04/30/how-constructive-
conflict-can-supercharge-teams/
6. Team Briefing Checklist. http://www.free-management-ebooks.com/dldchk/dlchld-
brief.htm
7. Team Builders Plus. http://teambuildersplus.com/articles/hey-listen-up
8. Team Builders Plus. http://teambuildersplus.com/articles/feedback-is-the-perfect-gift
9. Team Builders Plus. http://teambuildersplus.com/articles/the-spiral-meeting
10. UCSF. University of California. San Francisco.
http://ucsfhr.ucsf.edu/index.php/pubs/hrguidearticle/chapter-14-team-building/
11. About.com. Job Searching.
http://jobsearch.about.com/od/topinterviewanswers/qt/teamwork-interview-
questions.htm

UNIT 10
1. Five Phases of Professional Development. http://www.teachingskills.org/en/five-
phases-professional-development/
2. Hamman, D. & Romano, J. E. The Desired Cooperator: Preservice Preferences and
Role Confusion During the Teaching Practicum Current Issues in Education, 11(4),
May, 2009. http://cie.ed.asu.edu/volume11/number4/
3. Oxford Dictionaries. Language Matters.
http://www.oxforddictionaries.com/definition/english/teach?q=teach
4. The Guardian, June 6, 2014, http://www.theguardian.com/teacher-network/teacher-
blog/2014/jun/06/teachers-student-progress-salaries
5. EHow. http://www.ehow.com/info_8554417_talents-skills-needed-teacher-
educator.html
6. TeAchnology. http://www.teach-nology.com/tutorials/teaching/teachingskills.html

197
7. Effective NLP Teaching Skills For the Classroom-Video-v2.avi, by Rachael Mah.
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-wDdScTrY8Q
8. How to Study Biology: 5 Study Techniques to Master Biology, by Patrick, January 17,
2014. https://www.examtime.com/blog/author/patrick/

UNIT 11
1. Birch, R.G. ‘Englishness’ has it gone? An Englishman’s thoughts on 'Englishness'.
http://www.authorsden.com/visit/viewArticle.asp?id=18716
2. Meyer, E. One Reason Cross-Cultural Small Talk Is So Tricky.
http://blogs.hbr.org/2014/05/one-reason-cross-cultural-small-talk-is-so-tricky/
3. Tomalin, B. Culture - the fifth language skill. Teaching English. BBC Council.
http://www.teachingenglish.org.uk/article/culture-fifth-language-skill
4. Tomalin, B. Making culture happen in the English language classroom.
http://www.teachingenglish.org.uk/article/making-culture-happen-english-language-
classroom
5. Rodriguez, G. 'I assert my Americanness proudly ... even defiantly'. Special to CNN.
http://edition.cnn.com/2010/OPINION/04/28/rodriguez.who.am.i/index.html
6. Mind Tools. http://www.mindtools.com/CommSkll/Cross-Cultural-
communication.htm
7. InterNations. http://www.internations.org/magazine/cultural-awareness-15426
8. Business News Daily, March 6, 2013. http://www.businessnewsdaily.com/4066-
cultural-skills-set-job-applicants-apart.html
9. BBC World Service, September 29, 2008.
http://www.teachingenglish.org.uk/article/culture-fifth-language-skill
10. BBC World Service, October 8, 2008.
http://www.teachingenglish.org.uk/article/making-culture-happen-english-language-
classroom

UNIT 12
1. Erikson's psychosocial development theory.
http://www.businessballs.com/erik_erikson_psychosocial_theory.htm
2. Life balance, happiness and life change. Ideas for happiness and life change - tips and
tools for work-life balance. http://www.businessballs.com/life_balance.htm
3. WikiHow to do anything. http://www.wikihow.com/Change-Your-Life
4. Dellar H., Walkley A. Innovations. Advanced Course in Natural English, Thomson
ELT, 2007.
5. Psychology Today, November 22, 2013.
http://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/science-and-sensibility/201311/three-
important-lessons-making-critical-life-changes
6. Путь к финансовой свободе. http://freedomway.ru/samorazvitie/ostrozhno-vyxod-iz-
zony-komforta

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ANSWER KEY
UNIT 1
PRACTISING SKILLS

Text 1 (B2) Text 2 (C1)

1. B 1. to live
2. E 2. springs
3. A 3. skimming
4. C
4. are plugged
5. F
6. D 5. has revealed
7. I 6. turning up
8. G 7. is being missed
9. J 8. being thrown in
9. to ask
10. is studying
11. studying
12. enjoying
13. is missing

EFFECTIVE WRITING

Exercise 1
1 scientific
2 expository
3 persuasive

Exercise 2
1 I am going to night school in order to improve my English.
2 Mark changed jobs so as to be nearer to home.
3 I phoned the Student Service to get information on the tuition cost.
4 The teacher gave me some books so that I could better prepare to the exam.
5 You should write an outline of the article in order to show it to your scientific
supervisor would see it.

Exercise 3. Suggested answers


1 In order to watch a meteor storm, the team stayed up all night.
2 A new advertising campaign kicked off to that launch a new smart phone.
3 I am doing a PR course so that I could go into advertising.
4 I have drawn a chart for you to see the difference.
5 They are willing to sell the technology with a view to making a quick profit while the
going’s good.
6 We have done research in order to see which processed foods were most popular.
7 I always lock my drawer for fear somebody looks in it overnight.

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UNIT 2
PRACTISING SKILLS

Text 1 (B2) Text 2 (C1)

1. C 1. pressure
2. F 2. embodied
3. B 3. precedence
4. A
4. disregarded
5. D
E is extra. 5. admittance
6. alternative
7. expectations
8. embedded
9. paradoxical
10. insistence
11. application
12. requirements
13. imperfectly
14. likelihood
EFFECTIVE WRITING
Exercise 1. Suggested answers

Research question Aim of study


Do children learn gender stereotypes from To investigate the relationship between
watching television? television viewing time and gender
stereotyped attitudes in children.
Is drug therapy the best way of treating To compare the success rates of drug therapy
anxiety disorders? with behavioural, cognitive and
psychodynamic therapies in the treatment of
OCD.

To investigate the range of different teaching


How are students in this school/college and learning strategies used in classes in this
taught? school/college.

Are there better ways of teaching the students To investigate the effect of switching from
in this school or college? passive to active teaching and learning
strategies on student achievement.

How is ‘the garbage can’ model affecting risk To establish the extent to which the 'garbage
management decisions? can' model might influence risk management
decisions in the public sector

What are the advantages of plate fixation in To compare plate fixation to external fixation
post-operative treatment of fractures? in patients who have undergone surgical
treatment of fractures

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Exercise 3
1. a) Puts the problem into a wider context.
2. b) Adds substance to a literary, provocative, or imaginative title.
3. b) Qualifies the geographic scope of the research.
4. a) Qualifies the temporal scope of the research.
5. a) Specifies the problem.

UNIT 3
PRACTISING SKILLS

Text 1 (B2) Text 2 (C1)


1. D 1. B
2. A 2. D
3. E 3. A
4. B 4. B
5. G 5. D
6. C 6. D
F is extra.

EFFECTIVE WRITING
Exercise 2
a) B1/B2. Suggested answers
1 I knew I couldn’t pass the exam. Therefore, I didn’t sign up and decided to practice
more to improve my English.
2 The fastest these animals can run is about 65 kph and in consequence their hunting
methods have to be very efficient.
3 As you have no time to waste, you will have to get down to work immediately.
4 Because the rain had poured for three days in a row, the town was flooded.
5 Many roads are flooded. As a result, there are long delays.
6 The Red Cross has not been allowed to inspect the camps, and for this reason little is
known about them.
7 Since he speaks very little English, I talked to him through an interpreter.
b) B2/C1
1 She complained of stiffness in her joints. Accordingly she was admitted to hospital for
further tests.
2 The Cold War has ended. Consequently, the two major world powers have been able
to reduce their arms budgets dramatically.
3 Because these were the only films we'd seen of these people, we got the impression
that they did nothing else but dance to classical music.
4 Japan has a massive trade surplus with the rest of the world. As a consequence, it can
afford to give more money to the Third World.
5 The computer has become smaller and cheaper and hence more available to a greater
number of people.
6 I'm not a member of the Church of England myself. Thus, it would be rather
impertinent of me to express an opinion.
7 If I am to accept certain limitations on my freedom, I must be assured that others are
accepting the same restraints. Therefore, an income policy has to be controlled if it is
to be effective.
8 It is believed that some bacteria are more resistant nowadays owing to the overuse of
antibiotics.
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UNIT 4
PRACTISING SKILLS

Text 1 (B2) 13. prerequisite


Text 2 (C1)
1. racticing Text 3 (C1)
2. has developed 1. I
3. must be geared 2. H 1. B
4. more effective 3. C 2. F
5. are engaged 4. F 3. C
6. valuable 5. D 4. E
7. won't thrive 6. G 5. D
8. existing 7. A 6. A
9. initiatives 8. J G is extra.
10. successful 9. K
11. intellectually 10. B
12. are not alienated E is extra.

UNIT 5
PRACTISING SKILLS

Text 1 (B2) 12. simulations

1. hasn’t been Text 3 (B2/C1)


tempted Text 2 (B2/C1)
2. are done 1. G
3. trivial 1. H 2. D
4. don’t have to 2. F 3. B
5. invited 3. B 4. F
6. relying 4. C 5. C
7. ineffective 5. E 6. H
8. equations 6. H 7. A
9. didn’t have 7. I E is extra.
10. frantically 8. A
11. sporadically G is extra.

EFFECTIVE WRITING
Exercise 2
B : the horizontal axis ( or the x axis) C : a solid line
A : the vertical axis (or the y axis) D : a broken line
F : the scale E : a dotted line
Exercise 3
1 H The investment level rose suddenly.
2 B The sales of our products fell slightly in the final quarter.
3 D The Research and Development budget has stabilized over the past few years.
4 F At the end of the first year, sales stood at 50 per cent of the present level.
5 A The price reached a peak before falling a little and then maintaining the same level.
6 E There has been a steady increase in costs over several years.
202
7 G The sudden collapse in share prices has surprised everyone.
8 C The value of the shares has shown a steady decline.

Exercise 4. Suggested answers

1. The line graph compares three products: A, B and C.


2. The x axis shows time over ten years while the y axis shows sales in number of units.
3. As you can see, product A is represented by the solid line.
4. The performance of product B is shown by the broken line.
5. And a dotted line has been used to show the results of Product C.
6. Clearly, A is the most successful product.
7. Sales of Product B have remained quite stable in recent years while sales of Product C
have slightly/moderately declined.
8. On the contrary, product A has shown a steady increase/upswing.

UNIT 6
PRACTISING SKILLS

Text 1 (B2) 12. cognition 8. D


13. irrelevant 9. J
1. researchers 14. findings 10. C
2. compared E is extra.
3. prioritising
4. performance Text 2 Text 3 (C1)
5. have found
6. impairment 1. F 1. C
7. had reported 2. I 2. E
8. switching 3. B 3. D
9. greatest 4. G 4. F
10. best 5. K 5. B
11. was now 6. H 6. G
researching 7. A A is extra.

EFFECTIVE WRITING
Exercise 2 (B1/B2). Suggested answers
1 Despite big crowds, it is still possible to feel very lonely in a city.
2 Kelly loves her husband although he has some bad habits.
3 Even though he's 24 now, he still behaves like a little child.
4 Wagner was a Nazi supporter. Nevertheless, he is still an important figure in the
history of music.
5 Despite the fact that there was almost no hope of finding the missing boy, the search
party still went on the search.
6 She went to Spain regardless of the fact that her doctor had told her to rest at home.
7 He refused to help me, whereas I had always helped him whenever needed.

Exercise 3 (B2/C1). Suggested answers


1 Though I see your point, I still think you might be wrong.
2 While reorganization is a good idea, it would cause friction among employees.
203
3 Even though there were ten minutes left to the deadline, we refused to panic.
4 Much as we might like our project to meet with considerable success, it is still a long
way off.
5 I spent hours on the Internet even though I knew I was wasting my time.
6 Despite his youth, he had significant achievements in biology.
7 Fines are a good way of punishing, whereas they are of no use if they cannot be paid.

UNIT 7
PRACTISING SKILLS

Text 1 (B2) 15. the more 9. H


16. the less D is extra.
1. are particularly 17. additional
affected 18. Fewer
2. development 19. greater
3. distribution 20. roughly Text 3 (B2/C1)
4. is still influenced
5. doing Text 2 (B2/C1) 1. E
6. cooking 2. C
7. cleaning 1. F 3. D
8. caring 2. C 4. H
9. working 3. I 5. G
10. spends 4. G 6. A
11. jeopardize 5. A 7. F
12. the highest 6. E B is extra.
13. percentage 7. J
14. less 8. B

EFFECTIVE WRITING
Exercise 1. Suggested answers
1 Revision: Fearing for the loss of more Danish lands, Christian IV signed the Treaty of
Lubeck, effectively ending the Danish phase of the 30 Years War.
Shortly after Danish forces withdrew, the Swedish intervention began.
2 Revision: Amy Tan became a famous author after her novel, The Joy Luck Club,
skyrocketed up the bestseller list.
Though her fiction is well known, her work with the satirical garage band the Rock Bottom
Remainders receives far less publicity.

204
UNIT 8
PRACTISING SKILLS

Text 1 (B2) Text 2 (B2/C2) Text 3 (B2/C1)

1. imbalance 1. K 1. G
2. is still dominated 2. B 2. H
3. were held 3. G 3. A
4. are accepted 4. J 4. E
5. broaden 5. C 5. F
6. enjoyed 6. H 6. B
7. would argue 7. I 7. C
8. could not have 8. F 8. I
competed 9. A D is extra.
9. being fluent 10. E
10. decisions D is extra.

EFFECTIVE WRITING
Exercise 1
2 Suzie assumed that Billy adored her. (6 words)
3 Our website presents criteria for determining the best dentist. (9 words)
4 Working as a photo technician's apprentice was an educational experience. (10 words)

Exercise 2
1 Eric Clapton and Steve Winwood formed a new band in 1969, ironically naming it
Blind Faith because speculation suggested that the group would rival the musicians’
previous popular bands, Cream and Traffic. (32 words)
2 A rolling stone gathers no moss. (6 words)

Exercise 3
1 Ludwig's three castles are an astounding marriage of beauty and madness. (11 words)
2 The supposed 1947 crash of a UFO in Roswell, New Mexico aroused interest in
extraterrestrial life. (16 words)

Exercise 4
1. Employees at this company need a better money manager. (Original word count: 26.
New word count: 10).
2. In recent years, engineers at Sandia Labs have participated in the Search and Rescue
operations. (Original word count: 24. New word count: 16).
3. After reviewing the results of your research, and within the context of the study, we
find evidence supporting significant changes in our operating procedures. (Original
word count: 36. New word count: 25).

Exercise 5
1 The feline cell line W9 was used to evaluate cell growth in the presence of growth
factor.
2 Cells were cultured for 48 hours in media modified with 78, 80, 90, and 110 ng/mL
BMP.

205
3 At 48 hours, cells were harvested from the culture dish and counted using
hemocytometer.

UNIT 9
PRACTISING SKILLS

Text 1.

1. – Text 2 (B2/C1)
2. the
3. – 1. G
4. – 2. B
5. a 3. F
6. a 4. C
7. the 5. A
8. the 6. H
9. – 7. D
10. – 8. J
11. a 9. I
12. a E is extra.
13. the
14. a
15. a
16. – Text 3 (B2/C1)
17. –
1. C
18. –
2. B
19. a
3. C
20. a
4. A
21. an
5. C
22. a
23.

206
UNIT 10
PRACTISING SKILLS

Text 1 (B2) 15. Regarding Text 3 (B2/C1)


16. especially
1. the criteria 17. experienced 1. F
2. conducted 18. appraisal 2. G
3. Respondents 19. progression 3. D
4. the least 20. performance 4. H
5. have called 5. C
6. seniority 6. E
7. fairer Text 2 (B2/C1) 7. I
8. judgements 8. B
9. a conclusion 1. B A is extra.
10. determining 2. D
11. would have shrunk 3. A
12. representative 4. E
13. deciding 5. C
14. implementation

UNIT 11
PRACTISING SKILLS

Text 1 (B2) Text 2 (B2/C1)

1. statesman 1. D Text 3 (B2/C1)


2. is rapidly 2. E
becoming 3. G
3. geographic 4. B
4. have opened up 5. I 1. B
5. given 6. C 2. D
6. knowledgeable 7. H 3. C
7. fortunate 8. A 4. F
8. incomprehension F is extra. 5. A
E is extra.
EFFECTIVE WRITING
Exercise 2

Here is the first draft of an essay. It was written in one sitting. Consider what elements need
revising.

207
Challenges for Today’s Parents
By Harriet Davids
Thesis: Being a parent today is much more difficult than it was a generation ago.
Raising children used to be much simpler in the ’50s and ’60s. I remember TV images
from that era showing that parenting involved simply teaching kids to clean their
rooms, do their homework, and ____. But being a parent today is much more difficult
because nowadays parents have to shield/protect kids from lots of things, like
distractions from schoolwork, and from dangerous situations.
Parents have to control all the new distractions/temptations that turn kids away from
schoolwork. These days many kids have stereos, computers, and televisions in their
rooms. Certainly, my girls can’t resist the urge to watch MTV and go online, especially
if it’s time to do homework. Unfortunately, though, kids aren’t assigned much
homework and what is assigned too often is busywork. And there are even more
distractions outside the home. Teens no longer hang out/congregate on the corner
where Dad and Mom can yell to them to come home and do homework. Instead they
hang out at the mall, in video arcades, and at fast-food restaurants. Obviously, parents
and school can’t compete with all this.
Also (weak transition), parents have to help kids develop responsible sexual values.
Kids see magazines and cheap paperbacks in the corner store where they used to get
candy and comic books. And instead of the artsy nude shots of the past, kids see ronchey
(spelling?), explicit shots in Playboy and Penthouse.
And movies have this stuff in them today. Teachers seduce students and people treat
sexual relations casually/as a sport. Not exactly traditional values. TV is no better. Kids
see soap-opera characters in bed (FIX). Even worse is what’s on the Internet. Too easy
for kids to access chat rooms and websites dealing with adult material. The situation
has gotten so out of hand that maybe the government should establish guidelines on
what’s permissible.
Worst of all are the life-threatening dangers that parents must help children fend off
over the years. With older kids, drugs fall into place as a main concern (Awkward).
Peer pressure to try drugs is bigger (wrong word) to kids than their parents’ warnings.
Other kinds of warnings are common when children are small. Then parents fear
violence since news shows constantly report stories of little children being abused (add
specifics). And when kids aren’t much older, they have to resist the pressure to drink.
(Alcohol has always attracted kids, but nowadays they are drinking more and this can
be deadly, especially when drinking is combined with driving. - redo)
Most adults love their children and want to be good parents. But it’s difficult because
the world seems stacked against young people. Even Holden Caufield (spelling?) had
trouble dealing with society’s confusing pressures. Parents must give their children
some freedom but not so much that the kids lose sight of what’s important.

Comment:
As you can see, Harriet’s draft is rough. Because she knew she would revise later on, she
“zapped out” the draft in an informal, colloquial style. For example, she occasionally
expressed her thoughts in fragments (“Not exactly traditional values”), relied heavily on
“and” as a transition (no other transitions are found), and used slangy expressions such as
“kids,” “cheap paperbacks,” and “lots of things.”
Similarly, Harriet made marginal or parenthetical notes to herself: “redo” or “fix” to signal
awkward sentences; “add specifics” to mark overly general statements; “wrong word” after an
imprecise word; “sp” to remind herself to check spelling in the dictionary; “weak transition”
to indicate where a stronger signaling device was needed. Note, too, that she used slashes
between alternative word choices and left a blank space when wording just wouldn’t come.

208
UNIT 12
Text 1 (B2) Text 2 (B2)
1. C 7. D Text 3 (C1)
2. E 8. H 1. B
3. A 9. A 2. C
10. G 3. A
4. D
11. B - C
B is extra.
12. C
13. F
E is extra.

209