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Electrical Plan Review

Objectives
By reviewing this brochure, the Electrical Inspector,
Electrical Contractor, Plan Examiner, Consulting ■ Determine let-through current values (peak & RMS)
Engineer and others will be able to . . . when current-limiting overcurrent devices are used.

■ Understand the importance of overcurrent protection. ■ Apply current-limiting data to protect downstream
electrical components that have withstand ratings
■ Understand the meaning and importance of electrical LESS than the available fault-current at any given
terms commonly used relating to overcurrent protec- point on the system.
tion.
■ Realize that whenever overcurrent protection is
■ Understand and discuss the KEY National Electrical discussed, the two most important issues are:
Code® requirements regarding overcurrent protection. — HOW MUCH CURRENT WILL FLOW?
— HOW LONG WILL THE CURRENT FLOW?
■ Calculate short-circuit currents using the simple
POINT-TO-POINT method. ■ Adopt a Form Letter and a Data Required Form that
can be used to “log-in” the necessary data relating
■ Check electrical plans to determine conformance to to available fault currents, interrupting ratings, and
National Electrical Code® sections that cover short- let-through currents.
circuit currents, interrupting ratings, interrupting
capacities, short-circuit ratings, ground faults, ■ Understand that the major sources of short-circuit
grounding electrode conductors, equipment currents are motors and generators.
grounding conductors, etc.
■ Understand that transformers are NOT a source of
■ Verify that circuit, feeder, service, grounding elec- short-circuit current.
trode conductors, equipment grounding conductors,
and bonding conductors have adequate capacity to ■ Know how to ask the right questions.
conduct safely ANY fault current likely to be
imposed on them.

Copyrighted April, 1999 by Cooper Bussmann, Inc., Printed in U.S.A.

1
Electrical Plan Review
®
Critical National Electrical Code Sections
110-3(b) Installation and Use. Listed or labeled equipment 250-96(a) General. Metal raceways, cable trays, cable
shall be installed and used in accordance with armor, cable sheath, enclosures, frames, fittings,
any instructions included in the listing or labeling. and other metal noncurrent-carrying parts that are
to serve as grounding conductors, with or without
110-9 Interrupting Rating. Equipment intended to the use of supplementary equipment grounding
interrupt current at fault levels shall have an conductors, shall be effectively bonded where
interrupting rating sufficient for the nominal necessary to ensure electrical continuity and the
circuit voltage and the current that is available capacity to conduct safely any fault current likely
at the line terminals of the equipment. to be imposed on them. Any nonconductive paint,
Equipment intended to interrupt current at other enamel, or similar coating shall be removed at
than fault levels shall have an interrupting rating threads, contact points, and contact surfaces or
at nominal circuit voltage sufficient for the current be connected by means of fittings designed so
that must be interrupted. as to make such removal unnecessary.

110-10 Circuit Impedance and Other Characteristics. Table


The overcurrent protective devices, the total 250-122 Minimum Size Equipment Grounding
impedance, the component short-circuit current Conductors for Grounding Raceway and
ratings, and other characteristics of the circuit to Equipment.
be protected shall be selected and coordinated to
permit the circuit-protective devices used to clear Rating or setting of Size
Automatic Overcurrent (AWG or kcmil)
a fault to do so without extensive damage to the
Device in Circuit Ahead
electrical components of the circuit. This fault shall of Equipment, Conduit, Aluminum or
be assumed to be either between two or more of etc., Not Exceeding Copper-Clad
the circuit conductors, or between any circuit (Amperes) Copper Aluminum
conductor and the grounding conductor or
enclosing metal raceway. Listed products 15 14 12
applied in accordance with their listing shall be 20 12 10
considered to meet the requirements of this 30 10 8
section. 40 10 8
60 10 8
240-1 Scope (FPN). Overcurrent protection for con-
100 8 6
ductors and equipment is provided to open the
200 6 4
circuit if the current reaches a value that will 300 4 2
cause an excessive or dangerous temperature 400 3 1
in conductors or conductor insulation. See also 500 2 1/0
Sections 110-9 and 110-10 for requirements for
interrupting ratings and protection against fault 600 1 2/0
currents. 800 1/0 3/0
1000 2/0 4/0
240-11 Definition of Current-Limiting Overcurrent 1200 3/0 250
Protection Device. A current-limiting overcurrent 1600 4/0 350
protective device is a device that, when interrupting
2000 250 400
currents in its current-limiting range, will reduce the
2500 350 600
current flowing in the faulted circuit to a magnitude
3000 400 600
substantially less than that obtainable in the same 4000 500 800
circuit if the device were replaced with a solid 5000 700 1200
conductor having comparable impedance. 6000 800 1200

250-2(d) Performance of Fault Current Path. The fault NOTE: Where necessary to comply with Section 250-2(d), the equipment
current path shall be permanent and electrically grounding conductor shall be sized larger than this table.
continuous, shall be capable of safely carrying
620-62 Selective Coordination. Where more than one
the maximum fault likely to be imposed on it, and
driving machine disconnecting means is supplied
shall have sufficiently low impedance to facilitate
by a single feeder, the overcurrent protective
the operation of overcurrent devices under fault
devices in each disconnecting means shall be
conditions.
selectively coordinated with any other supply side
overcurrent protective devices.
250-90 General. Bonding shall be provided where neces-
sary to ensure electrical continuity and the NOTE: Short-circuit currents may be calculated many ways. A simple method
capacity to conduct safely any fault current likely is the Point-To-Point method as presented in Bussmann’s Electrical
Protection Handbook, Bulletin SPD. That data is included in this bulletin for
to be imposed. ease of use.

2
Electrical Plan Review

The Meaning of Short-Circuit Interrupting Rating


For a better understanding of interrupting rating, consider the following series of analogies.

Normal Current Operation

FLOOD GATES
ANALOGOUS TO
OVERCURRENT RESERVOIR CAPACITY
PROTECTIVE ANALOGOUS TO
DEVICE AVAILABLE FAULT
CURRENT

OVERCURRENT
PROTECTIVE
DEVICE

AVAILABLE FAULT
LOAD CURRENT (e.g., 50,000 AMPS)
CURRENT
(100 GALLONS
PER MINUTE)

Short-Circuit Operation with


Inadequate Interrupting Rating

FLOOD GATES ARE


DESTROYED BECAUSE
OF INADEQUATE INADEQUATE INTERRUPTING
INTERRUPTING RATING RATING. THEREFORE,
OVERCURRENT PROTECTIVE
DEVICE IS DESTROYED

AVAILABLE FAULT
CURRENT (e.g., 50,000 AMPS)

SHORT CIRCUIT
CURRENT
(50,000 GALLONS
PER MINUTE)
Downstream components may
not be able to withstand the
amount of let-through current.

Short-Circuit Operation with


Adequate Interrupting Rating

ADEQUATELY RATED
OVERCURRENT PROTECTIVE
DEVICE IS UNDAMAGED

AVAILABLE FAULT
CURRENT (e.g., 50,000 AMPS)

Downstream components
capable of withstanding SHORT CIRCUIT
let-through current. CURRENT SAFELY
CLEARED

FLOOD GATES HAVE


ADEQUATE INTERRUPTING
RATING. FAULT CURRENT
SAFELY INTERRUPTED
3
Electrical Plan Review

Ratings of Overcurrent Protective Devices


Most overcurrent protective devices are labeled with two current ratings.

The Fuse

(2) INTERRUPTING RATING

(1) NORMAL
CURRENT
RATING

The Circuit Breaker

(1) NORMAL CURRENT RATING

(2) INTERRUPTING RATINGS

4
Electrical Plan Review

Data “Log In” Form Letter

Anywh
of

er
City

e
, USA SPECTIO
N
F A N Y WHERE I CA L I N
CITY O CTR
T M E N T OF ELE
DEPAR
ECTS.
DATE IN E E R S , ARCHIT
G
TORS, EN ICATION.
A L C ONTRAC A P P L CTIONS
CTR IC IT ODE , SE
®

TO: ELE R V IC E PERM IC A L C


R
CTRIC SE L ELECT 50-90,
RE: ELE T H E NATIONA -11, 250-2(d), 2
H
NCE WIT 0-1, 240
COMPLIA 10-9, 110-10, 24 2 Note.
, 1 0-12
110-3(b) a n d T ABLE 25
) ,
250-96(a
ctrical
p a r tm ent of Ele l Code.
,D e
o n a l Electrica
N a ti IRCUIT
f r ce the 1996 th e SHORT-C
The C it y o to en fo ive n to stalled.
c tio n is required en tio n will be g d e v ic e s to be in
Insp e ance, a tt en t
e compli overcurr
To ensur u ip m ent and ached
T IN G S of the e q
a n d ti m e, the att actor,
RA um effor
t ntr
trical co
th is w ith minim leted by the elec e n t P RIOR to
plish comp partm conduc-
To accom r e quire d to b e
l In spec ti o n D e
m showing
r e ic a ra
form(s ) a e Ele c tr er d ia g panels,
s u b m it ted to th d e a o n e-line ris c u r r e n ts at all
then . Inclu d fault
stallation es, distances, an e equipment.
actual in s iz ser ic
v
, conduit and main e
tor sizes te rs , nce to th
o to r c o ntrol c e n
e a n d c onforma rke d ,
m complian
c be so ma
e r e v ie wed for e d , th e data will
will b appro v
This data sections. When ference.
C o d e fo r future re
above on fi le
be kept
and will

,
Sincerely

specto r
ctrical In
Chief Ele

5
Electrical Plan Review

“Log In” Data Required Form

DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL INSPECTION


CITY OF
Date

Permit

Electrical Contractor

Street Address

City State Zip

The following information is requested to determine that the electrical equipment to be


installed at:

Name of occupant or owner

is in compliance with the National Electrical Code® as it relates to available short-circuit


currents and interrupting ratings. See Sections 110-3(b), 110-9, 110-10, 240-1, 240-11,
250-2(d), 250-90, 250-96(a), and Table 250-122 Note. This form is to be completed
and returned to the Department of Electrical Inspection for approval prior to installa-
tion. THE FOLLOWING INFORMATION IS TO BE SUPPLIED BY THE ELECTRICAL CON-
TRACTOR OR OTHER RESPONSIBLE PARTY:

TRANSFORMER KVA IMPEDANCE % SECONDARY VOLTAGE


PHASE 3 OR 4 WIRE LENGTH OF SERVICE CONDUCTORS
SIZE & NUMBER OF SERVICE CONDUCTORS PER PHASE
TYPE OF CONDUCTORS: COPPER ■ ALUMINUM ■ CONDUIT SIZE STEEL ■ NON-MAGNETIC ■
TYPE, SIZE, AND INTERRUPTING RATING OF OVERCURRENT DEVICES IN SERVICE DISCONNECT
(MAIN DISTRIBUTION PANEL)

SIZE OF GROUNDING ELECTRODE CONDUCTOR BRACING OF SERVICE EQUIPMENT

(page 1 of 2)

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Electrical Plan Review

“Log In” Data Required Form

I Overcurrent Device
Location Short-
T Apparent RMS Peak
Of Circuit
E Ampere Interrupting Let-Through Let-Through
Short-Circuit Current Current
M Rating Rating Current Current

AT TRANSFORMER
1 SECONDARY TERMINALS
(INFINITE PRIMARY)

2 ON LINE SIDE OF MAIN


SERVICE EQUIPMENT

3 AT PANEL

4 AT PANEL

5 AT PANEL

6 AT PANEL

7 AT PANEL

8 AT PANEL

9 AT PANEL

10 AT PANEL

11 AT PANEL

12 AT PANEL

Use back of form or attach separate sheet for data on additional panels.
Use back of form or attach separate sheet to show one-line diagram of service, feeders, and all related panels.
Attach let-through curves if current-limiting devices are used.
All current values in RMS line-to-line unless otherwise noted.
The undersigned accepts full responsibility for the values given herein.

SIGNED DATE

PHONE WHERE YOU CAN BE REACHED


Page 2 of 2

7
Electrical Plan Review

Point-To-Point Method Of Short-Circuit Calculation


Calculation Of Short-Circuit Currents — Example Of Short-Circuit Calculation
Point-To-Point Method. Fault #1
Adequate interrupting rating and protection of electrical components 300 KVA, 2%Z MAIN SERVICE
are two essential aspects required by the National Electrical Code in PANEL Fault #2
Sections 110-9, 110-10, 240-1, 250-2(d), 250-90, 250-96(a) and Table
250-122 Note. The first step to ensure that system protective devices
have the proper interrupting rating and provide component protection
Infinite
is to determine the available short-circuit currents. The application of Primary
the Point-To-Point method permits the determination of available short- Available
circuit currents with a reasonable degree of accuracy at various points
20', 500 MCM CU
for either 3o or 1o electrical distribution systems. This method Steel conduit
20', #2 CU
assumes unlimited primary short-circuit current (infinite bus). Steel conduit
BRANCH CIRCUIT PANEL

Basic Short-Circuit Calculation Procedure.


Procedure Formula FAULT #1
Step 1 Determine transf. KVA x 1000 KVA x 1000 300 x 1000
3o transf. IFLA = Step 1 IFLA = = = 833A
full-load amperes EL-L x 1.73
from either:
a) Name plate KVA x 1000 Step 2 100 100
1o transf. IFLA = Multiplier = = = 55.55
b) Tables 3A & 3B EL-L .9x Transf. % Z
††
c) Formula
Step 2 Find transf. — Multiplier = 100 Step 3 ** I SCA = 833 X 55.55 = 46,273
multiplier Transf. % Z At Transformer Secondary

Step 3 Determine transf. 1.73 x L x lL-L-L 1.73 x 20 x 46,273


let-through short- Step 4 f= = = .347
†I SCA = Transf.FLA x multiplier C x EL-L 22,185 x 208
circuit current
(Table 5 or 1 1
formula). Step 5 M= = 1 + .347 = .742 (See Table 4)
1+f
Step 4 Calculate 1.73 x L x lL-L-L
3o faults f=
“f” factor. C x EL-L I SCA = 46,273 x .742 = 34,343A
Step 6
1o line-to-line Fault #1
(L-L) faults on f = 2 x L x l L-L
1o, center-tapped C x EL-L FAULT #2 (Use I SCA @ Fault #1 to calculate)
transformers
1o line-to-neutral 1.73 x 20 x 34,343
Step 4 f= = .968
(L-N) faults on f = 2 x L x l L-N* 5,906 x 208
1o, center-tapped C x EL-N
transformers 1 1
Step 5 M= = 1 + .968 = .508 (See Table 4)
L = length (feet) of conduit to the fault. 1+f
C = constant from Tables 1, 2. For
parallel runs, multiply C values by Step 6 I SCA = 34,343 x .508 = 17,447A
the number of conductors per phase. Fault # 2
I = available short-circuit current in
amperes at beginning of circuit. ** For simplicity, the motor contribution and voltage variance was not included.
See Notes 1 and 4.
Step 5 Calculate “M”
M= 1
†† Transformer % Z is multiplied by .9 to establish a worst case condition.
(multiplier) or take See Note 3.
from Table 4. 1+f

Step 6 Compute the Note 3: The marked impedance values on transformers may vary ±10% from
I SCA = I SCA x M the actual values determined by ANSI / IEEE test. See U.L. Standard 1561.
available short- Therefore, multiply transformer % Z by .9.
at at
circuit current fault beginning of circuit.
(symmetrical) at Note 4. Utility voltages may vary ±10% for power, and ±5.8% for 120-volt light-
the fault. ing services. Therefore, for worst case conditions, multiply values as calculated
in Step 3 by 1.1 and/or 1.058 respectively.
† Note 1. Motor short-circuit contribution, if significant, may be added to the trans-
former secondary short-circuit current value as determined in Step 3. Proceed with Note 5: Bolted fault approximations:
this adjusted figure through Steps 4, 5, and 6. A practical estimate of motor short-cir- L-L-L 100% of Step 6.
cuit contribution is to multiply the total load current in amperes by 4. L-L 87% of Step 6.
L-G, L-N 25-125% of Step 6. (Use 50% as typical)
* Note 2. The L-N fault current is higher than the L-L fault current at the secondary ter-
minals of a single-phase center-tapped transformer. The short-circuit current available Note 6: Arcing fault approximation for sustained arcs (percentages of L-L-L
(I) for this case in Step 4 should be adjusted at the transformer terminals as follows: bolted fault values)
At L-N center tapped transformer terminals
I L-N = 1.5 x I L-L at Transformer Terminals 480 Volts 208 Volts
At some distance from the terminals, depending upon wire size, the L-N fault current is L-L-L 89% 12%
lower than the L-L fault current. The 1.5 multiplier is an approximation and will theoreti- L-L 74% 2%
cally vary from 1.33 to 1.67. These figures are based on change in turns ratio between
L-G 38% —
primary and secondary, infinite source available, zero feet from terminals of transformer,
and 1.2 x %X and 1.5 x %R for L-N vs. L-L resistance and reactance values. Begin L-L-L with one primary open 80% —
L-N calculations at transformer secondary terminals, then proceed point-to-point.

8
Electrical Plan Review

Point-To-Point Method Of Short-Circuit Calculation


Calculation Of Short-Circuit Currents Procedure For Second Transformer in System
At Second Transformer In System. Procedure Formula
Use the following procedure to calculate the Step 1 Calculate “f” 3o transformer (I P(SCA) and IP(SCA) x VP x 1.73 (%Z)
f=
level of fault current at the secondary of a sec- (IP(SCA), known). I S(SCA) are 3o fault values). 100,000 x KVATRANS.
ond, downstream transformer in a system 1o transformer (I P(SCA) and
when the level of fault current at the trans- I x VP x (%Z)
I S(SCA) are 1o fault values; f= P(SCA)
former primary is known. I S(SCA is L-L.) 100,000 x KVATRANS.

Step 2 Calculate “M” 1


KNOWN
(multiplier) or take — M=
FAULT 1+f
CURRENT from Table 4.
Step 3 Calculate short-circuit
current at secondary VP
of transformer. IS(SCA) = x M x IP(SCA)
VS
(See Note 1 under —
KNOWN “Basic Procedure”)
FAULT
CURRENT IP(SCA) = Available fault current at transformer primary. KVATRANS = KVA rating of transformer.
H.V. UTILITY
CONNECTION IS(SCA) = Available fault current at transformer secondary. %Z = Percent impedance of transformer.
VP = Primary voltage L-L. Note: To calculate fault level at the end
VS = Secondary voltage L-L. of a conductor run, follow Steps 4, 5, and 6
of Basic Procedure.

Table 1. “C” Values for Busway. Table 3A. Three-Phase Transformer—Full-Load


Ampacity Busway Current Rating (In Amperes).
Plug-In Feeder High Impedance Voltage
Copper Aluminum Copper Aluminum Copper (Line-to- Transformer KVA Rating
225 28700 23000 18700 12000 — Line) 150 167 225 300 500 750 1000 1500 2000
400 38900 34700 23900 21300 — 208 417 464 625 834 1388 2080 2776 4164 5552
600 41000 38300 36500 31300 — 220 394 439 592 788 1315 1970 2630 3940 5260
800 46100 57500 49300 44100 — 240 362 402 542 722 1203 1804 2406 3609 4812
1000 69400 89300 62900 56200 15600 440 197 219 296 394 657 985 1315 1970 2630
1200 94300 97100 76900 69900 16100 460 189 209 284 378 630 945 1260 1890 2520
1350 119000 104200 90100 84000 17500 480 181 201 271 361 601 902 1203 1804 2406
1600 129900 120500 101000 90900 19200 600 144 161 216 289 481 722 962 1444 1924
2000 142900 135100 134200 125000 20400
Table 3B. Single-Phase Transformer—Full-Load
2500 143800 156300 180500 166700 21700 Current Rating (In Amperes).
3000 144900 175400 204100 188700 23800
4000 — — 277800 256400 — Voltage Transformer KVA Rating
Note: These values are equal to one over the impedance per foot for 25 50 75 100 150 167 200 250 333 500
impedance in a survey of industry. 115/230 109 217 326 435 652 726 870 1087 1448 2174
120/240 104 208 313 416 625 696 833 1042 1388 2083
230/460 54 109 163 217 326 363 435 544 724 1087
240/480 52 104 156 208 313 348 416 521 694 1042

(Note: These values are equal to one over the impedance per foot for impedances found in IEEE Std. 241-1990,
Table 2. “C” Values for Conductors
IEEE Recommended Practice for Commercial Building Power Systems.)
Copper
AWG Three Single Conductors Three-Conductor Cable
or Conduit Conduit
kcmil Steel Nonmagnetic Steel Nonmagnetic
600V 5KV 15KV 600V 5KV 15KV 600V 5KV 15KV 600V 5KV 15KV
14 389 389 389 389 389 389 389 389 389 389 389 389
12 617 617 617 617 617 617 617 617 617 617 617 617
10 981 981 981 981 981 981 981 981 981 981 981 981
8 1557 1551 1557 1558 1555 1558 1559 1557 1559 1559 1558 1559
6 2425 2406 2389 2430 2417 2406 2431 2424 2414 2433 2428 2420
4 3806 3750 3695 3825 3789 3752 3830 3811 3778 3837 3823 3798
3 4760 4760 4760 4802 4802 4802 4760 4790 4760 4802 4802 4802
2 5906 5736 5574 6044 5926 5809 5989 5929 5827 6087 6022 5957
1 7292 7029 6758 7493 7306 7108 7454 7364 7188 7579 7507 7364
1/0 8924 8543 7973 9317 9033 8590 9209 9086 8707 9472 9372 9052
2/0 10755 10061 9389 11423 10877 10318 11244 11045 10500 11703 11528 11052
3/0 12843 11804 11021 13923 13048 12360 13656 13333 12613 14410 14118 13461
4/0 15082 13605 12542 16673 15351 14347 16391 15890 14813 17482 17019 16012
250 16483 14924 13643 18593 17120 15865 18310 17850 16465 19779 19352 18001
300 18176 16292 14768 20867 18975 17408 20617 20051 18318 22524 21938 20163
350 19703 17385 15678 22736 20526 18672 22646 21914 19821 24904 24126 21982
400 20565 18235 16365 24296 21786 19731 24253 23371 21042 26915 26044 23517
500 22185 19172 17492 26706 23277 21329 26980 25449 23125 30028 28712 25916
600 22965 20567 17962 28033 25203 22097 28752 27974 24896 32236 31258 27766
750 24136 21386 18888 28303 25430 22690 31050 30024 26932 32404 31338 28303
1000 25278 22539 19923 31490 28083 24887 33864 32688 29320 37197 35748 31959

9
Electrical Plan Review

Point-To-Point Method Of Short-Circuit Calculation


Table 4. “M” (Multiplier).* Table 5. Short-Circuit Currents Available from Various Size Transformers
f M f M Voltage KVA Full % Short
0.01 0.99 1.50 0.40 And Load Impedance†† Circuit
0.02 0.98 1.75 0.36 Phase Amps (Nameplate) Amps†
0.03 0.97 2.00 0.33 25 104 1.58 11,574
0.04 0.96 2.50 0.29 371/ 2 156 1.56 17,351
0.05 0.95 3.00 0.25 120/240 50 209 1.54 23,122
0.06 0.94 3.50 0.22 1 ph.* 75 313 1.6 32,637
0.07 0.93 4.00 0.20 100 417 1.6 42,478
0.08 0.93 5.00 0.17 167 695 1.8 60,255
0.09 0.92 6.00 0.14 25 69 1.6 4,791
0.10 0.91 7.00 0.13 50 139 1.6 9,652
0.15 0.87 8.00 0.11 75 208 1.11 20,821
0.20 0.83 9.00 0.10 100 278 1.11 27,828
0.25 0.80 10.00 0.09 150 416 1.07 43,198
0.30 0.77 15.00 0.06 120/208 225 625 1.12 62,004
0.35 0.74 20.00 0.05 3 ph.** 300 833 1.11 83,383
0.40 0.71 30.00 0.03 500 1388 1.24 124,373
0.50 0.67 40.00 0.02 750 2082 3.5 66,095
0.60 0.63 50.00 0.02 1000 2776 3.5 88,167
0.70 0.59 60.00 0.02 1500 4164 3.5 132,190
0.80 0.55 70.00 0.01 2000 5552 5.0 123,377
0.90 0.53 80.00 0.01 2500 6950 5.0 154,444
1.00 0.50 90.00 0.01 1121/ 2 135 1.0 15,000
1.20 0.45 100.00 0.01 150 181 1.2 16,759
225 271 1.2 25,082
*M= 1 300 361 1.2 33,426
1+f 277/480 500 601 1.3 51,362
3 ph.** 750 902 3.5 28,410
1000 1203 3.5 38,180
1500 1804 3.5 57,261
2000 2406 5.0 53,461
2500 3007 5.0 66,822
* Single phase values are L-N values at transformer terminals. These figures are
based on change in turns ratio between primary and secondary, 100,000 KVA
primary, zero feet from terminals of transformer, 1.2 (%X) and 1.5 (%R)
multipliers for L-N vs. L-L reactance and resistance values and transformer
X/R ratio = 3.
** Three-phase short-circuit currents based on “infinite” primary.
†† U.L. listed transformers 25 KVA or greater have a ±10% impedance toler-
ance. Short-circuit amps reflect a “worst case” condition.
† Fluctuations in system voltage will affect the available short-circuit current.
For example, a 10% increase in system voltage will result in a 10% increase
in the available short-circuit currents shown in the table.

Aluminum
AWG Three Single Conductors Three-Conductor Cable
or Conduit Conduit
kcmil Steel Nonmagnetic Steel Nonmagnetic
600V 5KV 15KV 600V 5KV 15KV 600V 5KV 15KV 600V 5KV 15KV
14 236 236 236 236 236 236 236 236 236 236 236 236
12 375 375 375 375 375 375 375 375 375 375 375 375
10 598 598 598 598 598 598 598 598 598 598 598 598
8 951 950 951 951 950 951 951 951 951 951 951 951
6 1480 1476 1472 1481 1478 1476 1481 1480 1478 1482 1481 1479
4 2345 2332 2319 2350 2341 2333 2351 2347 2339 2353 2349 2344
3 2948 2948 2948 2958 2958 2958 2948 2956 2948 2958 2958 2958
2 3713 3669 3626 3729 3701 3672 3733 3719 3693 3739 3724 3709
1 4645 4574 4497 4678 4631 4580 4686 4663 4617 4699 4681 4646
1/0 5777 5669 5493 5838 5766 5645 5852 5820 5717 5875 5851 5771
2/0 7186 6968 6733 7301 7152 6986 7327 7271 7109 7372 7328 7201
3/0 8826 8466 8163 9110 8851 8627 9077 8980 8750 9242 9164 8977
4/0 10740 10167 9700 11174 10749 10386 11184 11021 10642 11408 11277 10968
250 12122 11460 10848 12862 12343 11847 12796 12636 12115 13236 13105 12661
300 13909 13009 12192 14922 14182 13491 14916 14698 13973 15494 15299 14658
350 15484 14280 13288 16812 15857 14954 15413 16490 15540 17635 17351 16500
400 16670 15355 14188 18505 17321 16233 18461 18063 16921 19587 19243 18154
500 18755 16827 15657 21390 19503 18314 21394 20606 19314 22987 22381 20978
600 20093 18427 16484 23451 21718 19635 23633 23195 21348 25750 25243 23294
750 21766 19685 17686 25976 23701 20934 26431 25789 23750 29036 28262 25976
1000 23477 21235 19005 28778 26109 23482 29864 29049 26608 32938 31919 29135

10
Electrical Plan Review

Peak Let-Through Charts


Peak let-through charts let you determine both the peak let-through current and the apparent prospective RMS
symmetrical let-through current. (These charts are commonly referred to as Current-Limitation Curves.)

LOW-PEAK® KRP-C Fuses LOW-PEAK® LPJ Fuses


B
100000
1000000 90000
900000 80000
800000 70000
700000
B
60000 600A
600000
50000
500000 400A
40000
400000
30000
300000 6000A
5000A 200A
INSTANTANEOUS PEAK LET-THROUGH CURRENT IN AMPERES

4000A 20000
200000 3000A 100A
INSTANTANEOUS PEAK LET THRU CURRENT IN AMPERES

2500A
2000A
1600A
60A
10000
100000 1200A 9000
90000 8000
80000 7000 30A
70000 800A
6000
60000 601A 5000
50000
4000 15A
40000
3000
AMPERE
RATING

30000
AMPERE
RATING

2000
20000

1000
10000 900
9000 800
8000 700
7000 600
6000
500
5000
400
4000
300
3000
A
A 200
2000

100
1000
1000
100

200

300

400
500
600
700
800
900

2000

3000

4000
5000
6000
7000
8000
9000

100000
10000

20000

30000

40000
50000
60000
70000
80000
90000

200000

300000
1000

2000

3000

4000
5000
6000
7000
8000
9000
10000

20000

30000

40000
50000
60000
70000
80000
90000
100000

200000

300000

PROSPECTIVE SHORT-CIRCUIT CURRENT - SYMMETRICAL RMS AMPERES


PROSPECTIVE SHORT CIRCUIT CURRENT - SYMMETRICAL RMS AMPERES

11
Electrical Plan Review

Peak Let-Through Charts


FUSETRON® FRS-R Fuses FUSETRON® FRN-R Fuses
B 400000
B
400000

300000 300000

200000 200000

AMPERE
RATING
AMPERE
RATING
100000 100000
90000 90000
80000 80000
600A 70000 600A
70000
60000 60000 400A

PEAK CURRENT IN AMPERES


400A 50000
PEAK CURRENT IN AMPERES

50000
200A
40000 40000
200A
30000 30000
100A

20000 100A 20000


60A

60A
10000 10000
9000 9000 30A
30A 8000
8000
7000 7000
6000 6000
5000 5000
4000 4000

3000 3000

A A
2000 2000

1000 1000
1000

2000

3000

4000
5000
6000
7000
8000
9000
10000

20000

30000

40000
50000
60000
70000
80000
90000
100000

200000
1000

2000

3000

4000
5000
6000
7000
8000
9000
10000

20000

30000

40000
50000
60000
70000
80000
90000
100000

200000

AVAILABLE RMS CURRENT IN AMPERES AVAILABLE RMS CURRENT IN AMPERES

LOW-PEAK® LPS-RK Fuses LOW-PEAK® LPN-RK Fuses

B B
400,000 400,000
INSTANTANEOUS PEAK LET-THROUGH CURRENT IN AMPERES
INSTANTANEOUS PEAK LET-THROUGH CURRENT IN AMPERES

AMPERE
RATING
AMPERE
RATING

100,000 100,000

600 600A
400 400A

200 200A

100 100A
60 60A
10,000 10,000
30
30A

A A

1,000 1,000
1,000

100,000

200,000

300,000
100,000

300,000
10,000

10,000
1,000

RMS SYMMETRICAL CURRENTS IN AMPERES RMS SYMMETRICAL CURRENTS IN AMPERES


A-B=ASYMMETRICAL AVAILABLE PEAK (2.3 x SYMM RMS AMPS) A-B=ASYMMETRICAL AVAILABLE PEAK (2.3 x SYMM RMS AMPS)

12
Electrical Plan Review Work Sheet

Short-Circuit Calculations (Transformer)


Short-Circuit at Secondary Terminals of Transformer (Infinite Primary)

A) FROM TABLES Amperes


B) CALCULATED

STEP 1 Find Transformer Full-Load Amperes


(3 Phase)
KVA x 1000 = x 1000 = Amperes
IFLA =
EL-L x 1.73 x 1.73

(1 Phase)
KVA x 1000 = x 1000 = Amperes
IFLA =
EL-L

STEP 2 Find Multiplier:


100 100 Amperes
M= = =
TRANS %Z

STEP 3 Find Short-Circuit Current:


ISCA = Transformer F.L.A. x M

= x = Short-Circuit Amperes

Short-Circuit at Secondary Terminals of Transformer (Infinite Primary)

A) FROM TABLES Amperes


B) CALCULATED

STEP 1 Find Transformer Full-Load Amperes


(3 Phase)
KVA x 1000 = x 1000 = Amperes
IFLA =
EL-L x 1.73 x 1.73

(1 Phase)
KVA x 1000 = x 1000 = Amperes
IFLA =
EL-L

STEP 2 Find Multiplier:


100 100 Amperes
M= = =
TRANS %Z

STEP 3 Find Short-Circuit Current:


ISCA = Transformer F.L.A. x M

= x = Short-Circuit Amperes

13
Electrical Plan Review Work Sheet

Short-Circuit Calculations (Three o)


Short-Circuit Current at

1.73 x L x IL-L-L
A) f =
C x EL-L

B) f = 1.73 x x
=
x

C) Multiplier “M” = 1 = 1 =
1+f 1+

D) SCA = M x lL-L-L = x = Amperes

Short-Circuit Current at

1.73 x L x IL-L-L
A) f =
C x EL-L

B) f = 1.73 x x
=
x

C) Multiplier “M” = 1 = 1 =
1+f 1+

D) SCA = M x lL-L-L = x = Amperes

Short-Circuit Current at

1.73 x L x IL-L-L
A) f =
C x EL-L

B) f = 1.73 x x
=
x

C) Multiplier “M” = 1 = 1 =
1+f 1+

D) SCA = M x lL-L-L = x = Amperes

14
Electrical Plan Review Work Sheet

Short-Circuit Calculations (Three o)


Short-Circuit Current at

1.73 x L x IL-L-L
A) f =
C x EL-L

B) f = 1.73 x x
=
x

C) Multiplier “M” = 1 = 1 =
1+f 1+

D) SCA = M x lL-L-L = x = Amperes

Short-Circuit Current at

1.73 x L x IL-L-L
A) f =
C x EL-L

B) f = 1.73 x x
=
x

C) Multiplier “M” = 1 = 1 =
1+f 1+

D) SCA = M x lL-L-L = x = Amperes

Short-Circuit Current at

1.73 x L x IL-L-L
A) f =
C x EL-L

B) f = 1.73 x x
=
x

C) Multiplier “M” = 1 = 1 =
1+f 1+

D) SCA = M x lL-L-L = x = Amperes

15
Electrical Plan Review Work Sheet

Short-Circuit Calculations (Single o, Line-To-Line)


Short-Circuit Current at

2 x L x lL-L
A) f =
C x EL-L

B) f = 2 x x
=
x

C) Multiplier “M” = 1 = 1 =
1+f 1+

D) SCA = M x lL-L = x = Amperes

Short-Circuit Current at

2 x L x lL-L
A) f =
C x EL-L

B) f = 2 x x
=
x

C) Multiplier “M” = 1 = 1 =
1+f 1+

D) SCA = M x lL-L = x = Amperes

Short-Circuit Current at

2 x L x lL-L
A) f =
C x EL-L

B) f = 2 x x
=
x

C) Multiplier “M” = 1 = 1 =
1+f 1+

D) SCA = M x lL-L = x = Amperes

16
Electrical Plan Review Work Sheet

Short-Circuit Calculations (Single o, Line-To-Line)


Short-Circuit Current at

2 x L x lL-L
A) f =
C x EL-L

B) f = 2 x x
=
x

C) Multiplier “M” = 1 = 1 =
1+f 1+

D) SCA = M x lL-L = x = Amperes

Short-Circuit Current at

2 x L x lL-L
A) f =
C x EL-L

B) f = 2 x x
=
x

C) Multiplier “M” = 1 = 1 =
1+f 1+

D) SCA = M x lL-L = x = Amperes

Short-Circuit Current at

2 x L x lL-L
A) f =
C x EL-L

B) f = 2 x x
=
x

C) Multiplier “M” = 1 = 1 =
1+f 1+

D) SCA = M x lL-L = x = Amperes

17
Electrical Plan Review Work Sheet

Short-Circuit Calculations (Single o, Line-To-Neutral)


Short-Circuit Current at

2 x L x lL-N*
A) f =
C x EL-N

B) f = 2 x x
=
x

C) Multiplier “M” = 1 = 1 =
1+f 1+

D) SCA = M x lL-N = x = Amperes

Short-Circuit Current at

2 x L x lL-N*
A) f =
C x EL-N

B) f = 2 x x
=
x

C) Multiplier “M” = 1 = 1 =
1+f 1+

D) SCA = M x lL-N = x = Amperes

Short-Circuit Current at

2 x L x lL-N*
A) f =
C x EL-N

B) f = 2 x x
=
x

C) Multiplier “M” = 1 = 1 =
1+f 1+

D) SCA = M x lL-N = x = Amperes

*See Note 2 on Page 8


18
Electrical Plan Review Work Sheet

Short-Circuit Calculations (Single o, Line-To-Neutral)


Short-Circuit Current at

2 x L x lL-N*
A) f =
C x EL-N

B) f = 2 x x
=
x

C) Multiplier “M” = 1 = 1 =
1+f 1+

D) SCA = M x lL-N = x = Amperes

Short-Circuit Current at

2 x L x lL-N*
A) f =
C x EL-N

B) f = 2 x x
=
x

C) Multiplier “M” = 1 = 1 =
1+f 1+

D) SCA = M x lL-N = x = Amperes

Short-Circuit Current at

2 x L x lL-N*
A) f =
C x EL-N

B) f = 2 x x
=
x

C) Multiplier “M” = 1 = 1 =
1+f 1+

D) SCA = M x lL-N = x = Amperes

*See Note 2 on Page 8


19
Electrical Plan Review

Grounding & Bonding of Service Equipment

Bonding
Why? Section 250-90
What? Section 250-92
How? Section 250-94
Material: Section 250-102(a)
Size: Section 250-102(c)

MAIN DISTRIBUTION PANEL METER


BASE

NEUTRAL
Equipment
Grounding
Conductor
Material: Section 250-118
Install: Section 250-120 800/800
Grounded Neutral Service
Entrance Conductors to Pad
Mount Transformer

Neutral Grounded Conductor


Size: Sections 230-42, 220-22
When Serving As Grounding
Conductor:
What? Section 250-24(a)
Size: Section 250-24(b)
Section 250-66

IMPORTANT: Neutral Disconnecting Means


Effective Bonding and Section 230-96
Grounding Required:
Section 250-2(d)
Main Bonding Jumper: Section 250-28, 250-96
Section 250-90
Material: Section 250-28(a)
Section 250-96(a)
Size: Section 250-28(d)
Must have capacity
Connect: Section 250-28(c)
to conduct safely
any fault current
likely to be Grounding Electrode Conductor
imposed on it. Size: Section 250-66
Material: Section 250-62
Install: Section 250-64
Enclosure: Section 250-64(e)
Supplemental What: Section 250-24
Ground
(If Required) Grounding
Section 250-50(a) Electrode Connection to Electrode
System Sections 250-68, 8, 70
Section 250-50 Bonding of Metal Water Pipes
Section 250-104

20
Electrical Plan Review

Typical Component—Short Circuit Current Ratings


Component Short-circuit current rating, kA
Clock-Operated Switch 5,000
HVAC Equipment
Single-Phase-Amps
110-120V 200-208V 220-240V 254-277V
9.8 or less 5.4 or less 4.9 or less — 200
9.9-16.0 5.5-8.8 5.0-8.0 6.65 or less 1,000
16.1-34.0 8.9-18.6 8.1-17.0 — 2,000
34.1-80.0 18.7-44.0 17.1-40.0 — 3,500
Over 80.0 Over 44.0 Over 40.0 Over 6.65 5,000
3-Phase-Amps
200-208V 220-240V 440-480V 550-600V
2.12 or less 2.0 or less — — 200
2.13-3.7 2.1-3.5 1.8 or less 1.4 or less 1,000
3.8-9.5 3.6-9.0 — — 2,000
9.6-23.3 9.1-22.0 — — 3,500
Over 23.3 Over 22.0 Over 1.8 Over 1.4 5,000
Meter Socket Base 10,000
Motor Controller,
Rated in Horsepower (kW)
a. 0-50 (0-37.3) 5,000
b. 51-200 (38-149) 10,000
c. 201-400 (150-298) 18,000
d. 401-600 (299-447) 30,000
e. 601-900 (448-671) 42,000
f. 901-1600 (672-1193) 85,000
Photoelectric Switches 5,000
Receptacle (GFCI Type) 10,000
Receptacle
(Other Than GFCI Type) 2,000
Snap Switch 5,000
Terminal Block 10,000
Thermostat 5,000

Wire
Copper, 75° Thermoplastic Insulated Cable
Copper Maximum Short-Circuit Withstand Current in Amperes
Wire Size For For For For
75° Thermoplastic 1/2 Cycle 1 Cycle 2 Cycles 3 Cycles
#14 2,400 1,700 1,200 1,000
#12 3,800 2,700 1,900 1,550
#10 6,020 4,300 3,000 2,450
#8 9,600 6,800 4,800 3,900
#6 15,200 10,800 7,600 6,200
#4 24,200 17,100 12,100 9,900

21
Electrical Plan Review

Work Sheet Problem—Main Distribution Panel

PRIMARY FUSE

300 KVA Transformer by Utility


120/208 Volt
3 Phase, 4-Wire
2% Impedance
1
(2) 3" C. each with 4-500 kcmils/XHHW - 20 Feet
1 METER
4 - #8 THHN, 3/4" C. - 10 Feet 8 EMP
2 MAIN SWITCH

FIXTURE
FLUOR.
2
9

3 - #12 THHN
1/2" C. - 30'
800/800
Ground Buss

3 200/200
4 - #3/0 THHN, 2" C. - 60 Feet LPA

3
4 200/150
4 - #1/0 THHN, 1-1/2" C. - 15 Feet LPC

4
5 100/100
4 - #3 THHN, 1-1/4" C. - 20 Feet LPB

3 - #8 THHN, 3/4" C.- 4 Feet


5
6 100/90
3 - #3 THHN, 1" C. - 35 Feet AC-1

6
7 100/70
3 - #4 THHN, 1" C. - 35 Feet AC-2

7
10
8
100/

9 200/

7-1/2

Combination
Motor
Controller

22