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А. В. Мишин Н. В. Воложанина В. В.

Жиганов

ЕДИНЫЙ ГОСУДАРСТВЕННЫЙ ЭКЗАМЕН


ДВУ щ |
Иди

А. В. Мишин Н. В. Воложанина В. В. Жиганов

Английский язык
ЕДИНЫЙ ГОСУДАРСТВЕННЫЙ ЭКЗАМЕН

тык готовых э с с
Учебное пособие
для общеобразовательных организаций
и школ с углублённым изучением
английского языка

2-е издание

Москва
«Просвещение»
2020
УДК 373:811.111+811.111(075.3) 12+
ББК 81.432.1я72.6
М71

Серия «Готовимся к экзамену» основана в 2013 году.

Мишин А. В.
М71 Английский язык. Единый государственный экзамен. Сбор­
ник готовых эссе : учеб. пособие для общеобразоват. органи­
заций и шк. с углубл. изучением англ. яз. / А. В. Мишин,
Н. В. Воложанина, В. В. Жиганов. — 2-е изд. — М. : Просве­
щение, 2020. — (Готовимся к экзамену). — 87 с. : ил. — ISBN
978-5-09-072900-0.
Сборник готовых эссе для учащихся 10— 11 классов предназначен для эф­
фективной подготовки к Единому государственному экзамену. Пособие содер­
жит рекомендации по подготовке и написанию сочинения, пошаговый разбор
первого сочинения, образцы сочинений-рассуждений, варианты работ выпуск­
ников разных лет. В сборнике также представлены дополнительные схемы
оценивания задания 40. Раздел «Приложение» содержит основные фразы и
клише в дополнение к критериям оценивания. Пособие может быть использо­
вано как для работы в классе, так и для самостоятельной подготовки дома.
УДК 373:811.111+811.111(075.3)
ББК 81.432.1я72.6

ISBN 978-5-09-072900-0 © Издательство «Просвещение», 2019


© Художественное оформление.
Издательство «Просвещение», 2019
Все права защищены
СОД ^АНИ^
Введение ............. 4
Глава 1. Раздел 4. Письмо ............... 6
Глава 2. Учимся писать сочинение
(задание 40) 13
Глава 3. Темы эссе для тренировки
написания задания 40 ............. 35
Глава 4. Примеры готовых эссе . . . . . . . 56
Глава 5. Список тем по разделам
кодификатора ЕГЭ для тренировки .... 76
Глава 6. Список тем для
самостоятельной работы ............ 80
Глава 7. Советы и рекомендации . . . . . . 82
Схема оценивания задания 40
«Письменное высказывание с элементами
рассуждения» ( «Моё мнение») . . . . . . . . 83
Критерии оценивания задания 40 . . . . . . 84
Приложение .................... 86
Заключение . ......................... 87
ВВЕДЕНИЕ

ЕГЭ по английскому языку с 2016 года включает 2 части: пись­


менную (разделы «Аудирование», «Чтение», «Грамматика и лексика»
и «Письмо») и устную (раздел «Говорение»).
Для дифференциации испытуемых по уровням владения англий­
ским языком в пределах, сформулированных в Федеральном компо­
ненте государственного образовательного стандарта по иностранным
языкам, во все разделы экзаменационной работы наряду с заданиями
базового уровня включаются задания повышенного и высокого уров­
ней сложности.
Уровень сложности заданий определяется характером языкового
материала и уровнем проверяемых умений, а также типом задания.
В работу по английскому языку включаются задания с выбором
ответа из 3 или 4 предложенных (21 задание), 17 заданий открытого
типа с кратким ответом, в том числе задания на установление соответ­
ствия, 2 задания открытого типа с развёрнутым ответом (письменная
часть). С 2015 года появились 4 новых задания со свободно констру­
ируемым ответом в разделе «Говорение».
Базовый, повышенный и высокий уровни сложности заданий ЕГЭ
соотносятся с уровнями владения иностранными языками, определён­
ными в документах Совета Европы следующим образом:
• Базовый уровень — А2+
• Повышенный уровень — В1
• Высокий уровень — В2

Обычно задания в контрольных измерительных материалах (КИМ)


располагаются по возрастающей степени трудности внутри каждого
раздела экзаменационной работы.
В данной книге мы предлагаем вместе с авторами попробовать шаг
за шагом написать несколько сочинений, сформировать свои навыки
и умения перефразировать тему сочинения, выстроить ясную аргумен­
тацию и контраргументацию, научиться грамотно писать вступление
и заключение.
Успешное выполнение задания 40 (написание сочинения объёмом
200-250 слов по заданной теме и предложенному плану) является
ярким показателем подготовленности выпускника, который может
набрать баллы на ЕГЭ в диапазоне 85-100. Такие Выпускники хоро­
шо понимают звучащие и письменные тексты, содержащие достаточ­
но сложную аргументацию и выражающие авторскую позицию. Они
умеют писать тексты с элементами эссе, у них достаточно широкий
словарный запас и уверенное владение основными грамматическими
конструкциями.
Подготовка к выполнению задания 40 — это серьёзный и долго­
срочный проект, который может занимать год, а то и два еженедель­
ной и кропотливой работы.

4
Целью данного пособия является оказание помощи учащимся и
учителям при работе над сложным разделом ЕГЭ по английскому язы­
ку — выполнением задания 40 (сочинение с элементами рассуждения
«Моё мнение»). В пособии представлены все основные рекомендации
по подготовке и написанию сочинения, пошагово разбирается первое
сочинение, далее предлагаются темы и образцы сочинений-рассужде­
ний. Образцы сочинений не являются эталонами, это варианты работ
выпускников разных лет, выполненные под руководством авторов дан­
ного пособия. В приложении можно найти репертуар основных фраз и
клише, а также критерии оценивания данного задания в максималь­
ные 14 баллов.

Успехов вам на экзамене! May success attend you!

С уважением,
Мишин Андрей Валентинович,
заслуженный учитель России, председатель предметной
региональной комиссии ЕГЭ по английскому языку

Воложанина Наталья Васильевна,


учитель английского языка высшей категории
МБОУ «Гимназия № 63 г. Челябинска»,
почётный работник общего образования Российской Федерации,
эксперт ОГЭ и ЕГЭ по английскому языку

Жиганов Валерий Владимирович,


учитель высшей категории
МОУ многопрофильной гимназии № 12 г. Твери,
старший эксперт ОГЭ и ЕГЭ по английскому языку
ГЛАВА 1 В

Раздел 4. Письмо
Данный раздел на экзамене представлен двумя письменными продук­
тивными заданиями:
• написание личного письма другу по переписке в неформальном
(informal) стиле объёмом 100-140 слов. Максимальный балл за успеш­
ное выполнение данного задания - 6, рекомендуемое время -
15-20 минут;
• написание сочинения в нейтральном стиле (развёрнутое письменное
высказывание «Моё мнение») по предложенной теме и плану, который
состоит из пяти основных пунктов. Максимальный балл за успешное
выполнение задания 40 - 14, рекомендуемое время - 50-80 минут.

Для успешного написания эссе (сочинения) предполагается, что вы­


пускник умеет:
• создавать собственное развёрнутое высказывание в соответствии с
коммуникативной задачей и в заданном объёме (200-250 слов);
• сообщать точную, полную и развёрнутую информацию в разрезе
именно предложенной темы письменного высказывания;
• выражать собственное мнение и чётко его аргументировать;
• делать выводы, подтверждая свою точку зрения;
• последовательно и логически правильно строить сочинение-рас­
суждение;
• использовать соответствующие средства логической связи;
• лексически, грамматически и орфографически правильно оформ­
лять собственный текст;
• стилистически правильно оформлять текст (в данном случае в со­
ответствии с поставленной коммуникативной задачей выбирается
нейтральный стиль).

В качестве примера давайте рассмотрим успешное выполнение зада­


ния 40 одним из выпускников прошлых лет.
Для начала внимательно ознакомимся с предложенным заданием.

Задание 40
Comment on one of the following statements.
40.1. The school uniform is useless.
40.2. It is right to read about historic places before sightseeing.
What is your opinion? Do you agree with this statement?
Write 200—250 words.
Use the following plan:
• make an introduction (state the problem paraphrasing the given
statement);
• express your personal opinion and give 2 -3 reasons for your opinion;
• express an opposing opinion and give 1-2 reasons for this opposing
opinion;
• explain why you do not agree with the opposing opinion;
• make a conclusion restating your position.
Уточним, что вам предстоит сделать:
• с 2019 года вам предстоит осуществить выбор одной из двух тем
сочинения в задании 40. Важно прочитать обе темы, постараться
определиться за несколько минут, какая из тем вам ближе, понят­
нее; по какой из двух тем у вас набирается больше аргументов и
контраргументов (можно поработать с черновиком, но ВАЖНО не
затягивать процесс выбора - помните, что у вас в среднем есть 60
минут на выполнение этого сложного задания уровня В2);
• составить письменное высказывание «Моё мнение» в соответствии
с коммуникативной задачей, поставленной в задании, объёмом
200-250 слов. В данном случае у выпускника (мы остановили свой
выбор на 40.1) запрашивают его мнение о том, бесполезна (нужна)
ли школьная форма;
• высказать своё мнение и мнение оппонента полно, точно, развёрну­
то и привести аргументы и контраргументы, доказательства, при­
меры;
• сделать вывод в конце сочинения;
• последовательно и логически правильно строить своё высказывание
«Моё мнение»;
• использовать соответствующие средства логической связи;
• употребить языковые средства оформления ниеьменного высказы­
вания точно и правильно.

В данном задании эксперта*


Эксперт проверяет работу, если
не менее 1Ш одов. В ш р '
пример* t?9
Если объём превышает 275 слов, то эксперт
250 слов. ’
ВАЖНО: всегда, закончи®
чество слов в йаписанном

В приложении к критериям чётко определён порядок


подсчёта слов в заданий 40 «Моё мнение»
При определении соответствия объёма представленной работы счи­
таются все слова, с первого по последнее, включая вспомогательные
глаголы, предлоги, артикли, частицы. При этрм:
— стяжённые (краткие) формы can’t, didn’ t, isn’t, I’ m и т. п. счита­
ются как одно слово;
— числительные, выраженные цифрами, т. е. 1, 25, 2009, 126 204
и т. п., считаются как одно слово;
— числительные, выраженные цифрами, вместе с условным обозна­
чением процентов, т. е. 2 5 % , 100% и т. п., считаются кщс одно
слово;
— числительные, выраженные отдельными словами, считаются по ко­
личеству слов— one, nineteen, twenty three;
— сложные слова, такие как good-looking, well-bred, English-speaking,
twenty-five, считаются как одно слово;
— сокращения, например USA, e-mail, TV, CD-ROM, считаются как
одно слово.
Рассмотрим один из возможных ответов учащегося
на задание 40:
1. Вы внимательно прочитали задание и предложенный план. Это мо­
жет занять 1 -2 минуты, но это важно сделать, так как правильное
понимание задания - это залог его успешного выполнения.
2. Вам предстоит работа в течение 15-20 минут с черновиком. Важно
при работе на данном этапе не пытаться писать весь текст сочине­
ния в черновике. В черновик запишите ключевые фразы - наброски
ваших идей по данной теме. В нашем случае появляется такая
таблица:

Контраргумент(ы)
для 4 -гоабзад а
сочинения
• explain why you do
Ш Ш Ш в not agree with the
opposing opinion

• It limits students’ • It disciplines stu- • There is a great


self-expression. dents. choice of school
• It can save par­ uniforms. So, you
ents’ money. can always find
• Parents do not something to suit
need to worry your pocket and
about what their taste.
child will wear to­
morrow.

Наброски в таблице показывают, что аргументов в пользу школьной


формы больше, это и может послужить основой для нашего мнения
с аргументацией (... , потому что ... ; Например, ...) во втором абзаце.
Тогда основой третьего абзаца, в котором вы должны чётко и ясно вы­
сказать и обосновать другую (противоположную) точку зрения, будет
являться первая колонка таблицы.
Последняя, третья колонка таблицы поможет вам чётко сформулиро­
вать своё несогласие с третьим абзацем сочинения (мнением других
людей) в предложенном плане к заданию 40.
В черновике рекомендуется также потренироваться в перефразиро­
вании темы данного сочинения, в подборе синонимов и антонимов к
основным словам по предложенной теме.
В данном случае вы должны уйти от полного или частичного повто­
ра темы в первом абзаце (обратите внимание: с 2019 года в плане
к заданию 40 появилось уточнение - state the problem paraphrasing
the given statement). Подумайте, как вы можете сформулировать про-
блемность и дискуссионность темы о бесполезности школьной формы,
не забывая про перифраз.

The school uniform is useless.


Useless - синонимы: ineffective, unnecessary, to no avail, to no
purpose, etc.
Useless - антонимы: useful, beneficial.
Ещё раз хотим отметить, что на стадии подготовки к написанию со­
чинения (работа с черновиком) важно чётко определиться, поддержи­
ваете ли вы или отвергаете предложенное утверждение.
Внимательно просмотрите таблицу, сверьтесь с предложенным пла­
ном. Второй абзац задания 40 предполагает, что вы приведёте не один,
а два-три аргумента в защиту своей точки зрения. Можно сделать
предварительный вывод, что большое количество доводов в таблице в
пользу вашей точки зрения. Если вы не можете с этим согласиться,
то важно продумать ещё аргументы в защиту вашей точки зрения,
так как строго по критериям проверки данного задания вы получаете
максимальный балл за решение коммуникативной задачи, если:
• в первом абзаце чётко сформулированы две противоположные точ­
ки зрения и осуществлён перифраз предложенной темы сочинения
(state the problem paraphrasing the given statement);
• во втором абзаце изложена ваша точка зрения с убедительными и
ясными двумя-тремя аргументами;
• в третьем абзаце есть противоположное вашему мнению суждение
других людей с чёткими и ясными доказательствами этого мнения
(1 -2 аргумента);
• в четвёртом абзаце присутствует несогласие с высказанной в тре­
тьем абзаце точкой зрения оппонента и есть её опровержение. Ваш
тезис обязательно должен содержать открытое вежливое несогла­
сие;
• в заключении вы ясно подтверждаете свою точку зрения, т. е. ещё
раз обобщённо высказываете своё мнение в защиту или против
предложенного в задании 40 утверждения;
• вы помните про стиль при написании сочинения - нейтральный
стиль, объём 200-250 слов.

3. Наша работа с черновиком заняла 15-20 важных минут. 40-60 ми­


нут отведите на пошаговое (в соответствии с предложенным планом)

ЬУполнёнйе з IL.LLiuJlu начните, работать с


чистовиком. Помните, что проверяется именно бланк ответов № 2,
никакие записи в черновике экспертами не рассматриваются и не оце­
ниваются. ВАЖНО: если вы делаете ошибку при работе в чистовике,
то просто аккуратно зачёркиваете и пишете правильный ответ (вари­
ант) сверху.
Давайте в соответствии с планом и предложенной темой
попытаемся сконструировать полный письменный ответ.
Важно помнить про объём, слова-связки, которые придадут целост­
ность тексту, следить за своей письменной рёчью (обращаем внимание
на разнообразие структур, грамотность изложения» избегание повто­
ров, правильное написание слов, расстановку знаков препинания).

• make an introduction (state the problem paraphrasing the giv­


en statement)

These days the school uniform seems to be a thing of the past. How­
ever, at some schools it is still part and parcel. Some people believe that
school uniform should be compulsory for students to wear while others
think it is absolutely ineffective and should be done away with. Person­
ally, I share the former point of view.

• express your personal opinion and give 2 —3 reasons for your


opinion

In my view, the school uniform has a number of advantages. First


of all, it disciplines students, they realise that school is not a fashion
show and they should concentrate on their studies, not on their clothes.
Secondly, wearing a school uniform can save parents’ money because it
is cheaper than popular designer clothes. Finally, parents do not need
to worry about what their child will wear tomorrow.

• express an opposing opinion and give 1—2 reasons for this op­
posing opinion
On the other hand, there is a large number of people who believe
that the school uniform is not completely useful. They also claim that
it limits students’ self-expression. Children are not able to be creative
with what they wear every day. That’ s why a lot of students hate the
school uniform.

• explain why you do not agree with the opposing opinion

Nevertheless, I cannot agree with this opinion. In our modern world,


there is a great choice of school uniforms. So, you can always find some­
thing to suit your pocket and taste. As a result, even the fussiest cus­
tomers will be pleased with it.

• make a conclusion restating your position

All in all, I do believe that the school uniform can prove to be really
beneficial. Of course, it has some drawbacks but the pros outweigh the
cons. Eventually, nothing can hide your personality.

4. Закончив выполнение работы в чистовике, в бланке ответов № 2,


ещё раз обращаем внимание на связность и убедительность высказы­
ваний, лексическую сочетаемость, грамматическую и орфографиче­
скую грамотность.
5. Обязательно перечитываем работы и пересчитываем количество
слов.

Теперь давайте оценим работу в соответствии с предложенными кри­


териями.

The school uniform is useless.


What is your opinion? Do you agree with this statement?
These days the school uniform seems to be a thing o f the past.
However, at some schools it is still part and parcel. Some people
believe that school uniform should be compulsory for students to
wear while others think it absolutely ineffective and should be done
away with. Personally, I share the former point of view.
In my view, the school uniform has a number of advantages.
First of all, it disciplines students, they realise that school is not a
fashion show and they should concentrate on their studies, not on
their clothes. Secondly, wearing a school uniform can save parents’
money because it is cheaper than popular designer clothes. Finally,
parents do not need to worry about what their child will wear
tomorrow.
On the other hand, there is a large number of people who believe
that the school uniform is not completely useful. They also claim
that it limits students’ self-expression. Children are not able to be
creative with what they wear every day. That’s why a lot of students
hate the school uniform.
Nevertheless, I cannot agree with this opinion. In our modern
world, there is a great choice of school uniforms. So, you can
always find something to suit your pocket and taste. As a result,
even the fussiest customers will be pleased with it.
All in all, I do believe that the school uniform can prove to be
really beneficial. Of course, it has some drawbacks but the pros
outweigh the cons. Eventually, nothing can hide your personality.

1. Количество слов в данной работе — 250. Данную работу эксперт


проверит полностью.
2. Важнейшим из всех аспектов является РЕШЕНИЕ КОММУНИКА­
ТИВНОЙ ЗАДАЧИ.
Критерии выделяют 6 аспектов:
• Аспект 1. Вступление - постановка проблемы» перифраз темы (в
данной работе автор не повторяет задание в первом абзаце. Он изла­
гает две точки зрения: за и против школьной формы).
• Аспект 2. Мнение автора с 2 -3 аргументами (в работе во втором аб­
заце приводятся два развёрнутых аргумента. Автор вначале приводит
topic sentence (e.g. ... the school uniform has a number of advantages
...), а затем justifications (e.g. ... it disciplines students ... wearing a
school uniform, can save parents9 money because ...).
• Аспект 3. Противоположная точка зрения с 1-2 аргументами. Ав­
тор в работе приводит полный и точный аргумент - мнение других
людей в третьем абзаце.
• Аспект 4. Объяснения, почему автор не согласен с противополож­
ной точкой зрения (контраргументы). В данной работе в четвёртом
абзаце есть чёткий ответ на вопрос, почему автор не согласен с про­
тивоположной точкой зрения, которая была изложена выше в третьем
абзаце. ВАЖНО: в четвёртом абзаце вы должны привести аргументы
именно вашего несогласия с точкой зрения, изложенной в третьем
абзаце.
• Аспект 5. Заключение с подтверждением позиции автора. Ав­
тор чётко излагает в последнем абзаце именно свою точку зрения,
которую он развёрнуто представил во втором и четвёртом абзацах.
ВАЖНО: в заключение помните, что необходимо чётко и ясно пред­
ставить ещё раз (другими словами) свою точку зрения, следуя пред­
ложенному плану в конце задания 40.
• Аспект 6. Стилевое оформление выбрано правильно: соблюдается
нейтральный стиль.
ВЫВОД: за решение КОММУНИКАТИВНОЙ ЗАДАЧИ данная работа
получает 3 балла из 3 возможных.

При проверке данной работы важно также обратить внимание на ещё


четыре серьёзных КРИТЕРИЯ: ОРГАНИЗАЦИЯ ТЕКСТА, ЛЕКСИ­
КА, ГРАММАТИКА, ОРФОГРАФИЯ и ПУНКТУАЦИЯ.
Чтобы получить максимальные баллы по данным критериям, вы
должны учесть следующие аспекты и требования:
ОРГАНИЗАЦИЯ ТЕКСТА — возможно получение максимально 3 бал­
лов, если в работе соблюдаются следующие аспекты:
1. Логичность (автор в данной работе чётко и последовательно в соот­
ветствии с предложенным в задании планом излагает свои аргументы
и контраргументы, делает грамотное вступление-проблему, в третьем
абзаце чётко показывает противоположную точку зрения, делает вы­
вод restating his/her opinion).
2. Деление на абзацы (в работе 5 абзацев).
3. Грамотное использование средств логической связи (в работе много
средств логической связи - как в начале, так и внутри каждого абза­
ца; они употребляются в речи грамотно).
За данную работу по критерию ОРГАНИЗАЦИЯ ТЕКСТА можно по­
ставить максимально 3 балла, так как в ней присутствуют все три
необходимых аспекта: логичность, деление на абзацы и грамотное ис­
пользование средств логической связи.
ЛЕКСИКА, ГРАММАТИКА, ОРФОГРАФИЯ и ПУНКТУАЦИЯ оце­
ниваются по отдельности (по 3 балла за лексику и грамматику и 2
балла за орфографию и пунктуацию)*

ОБРАТИТЕ ВНИМАНИЕ па:


• правильное употребление распространённых лексико-грамматиче­
ских сочетаний (e.g. high hopes, to work long hours), фразовых глаго­
лов, предлогов со знаменательными частями речи, идиоматических
выражений;
• правильное употребление определённого и неопределённого арти­
клей;
• правильное употребление видо-временных форм глагола;
• порядок слов при построении сложных предложений, предложений
с эмфазой и инверсией;
• орфографические и пунктуационные ошибки.

ВЫВОД: данная работа может максимально быть оценена экспертами


в 14 из 14 возможных баллов (3 балла — решение коммуникативной
задачи, 3 балла — организация текста, по 3 балла — лексика и грам­
матика, 2 балла - орфография и пунктуация).

ш
ГЛА В А 2

\Учимея писать сочинение (задаиие 40>


Тему сочинения, как известно, не выбирают. Она предлагается на эк­
замене независимо от нашего желания, вкусов и интересов. Поэтому
вы должны быть готовы к любой теме, нравится она вам или нет.
Чтобы вы смогли успешно справиться с этим нелёгким заданием,
мы предлагаем вам систему упражнений для обучения и тренировки.
Начнём с постановки проблемы.

Постановка проблемы
• 1-й абзац сочинения — постановка проблемы. Внимательно прочи­
тайте формулировку предложенной темы.
Например, “Boys should learn to cook” . Определим основное на­
правление темы. Это, во-первых, COOKING и, во-вторых, FORMING
THE BOYS’ CHARACTER. Значит, в постановке проблемы вам следует
подчеркнуть важность данных аспектов и наметить две противобор­
ствующие точки зрения, которые должны столкнуться в 1-м абзаце.
В противном случае писать сочинение не имеет никакого смысла.
Итак, проблема в том, стоит или не стоит учиться готовить — should
learn or should not learn.
Неплохо начать эссе с вводной фразы, отражающей тематику эссе.

Cooking is an essential part of our life.


It is common knowledge that we eat to live and some of us should
do the cooking.
Lots of factors can form the character of a boy and the ability of
cooking food is one of them.
We cannot imagine our life without having; meals and cooking food.

• Следующий шаг - перифраз формулировки темы. Подберём лекси­


ку, которая сможет заменить заданную.

boys young men, future men

should/should not must, have to, must/do not have to try


learn get some knowledge about, gain some experience
in, have an idea of
to cook to do the cooking

• Показать противоположность точек зрения можно следующим об


разом:

Some people believe that ... while the others ...


There is an idea that ... but there are those who argue
We can find lots of people who but their opponents totally disa­
are absolutely sure that ... gree
• Закончить 1-й абзац можно фразой, призывающей к дискуссии, ко­
торая явится логическим переходом ко 2-му абзацу, выражающему
точку зрения автора сочинения.

So, let us start by considering the facts.


I would like to express my point of view on the issue.
I am ready to express my personal opinion on the problem mentioned
above.

Итак, соединим составленные нами предложения воедино. Получаем:

Cooking is an essential part of our life. Some people believe that


young men must get some knowledge about cooking food while the
others say that this occupation is only for women. So, let us start
by considering the facts.

А теперь предлагаем вам написать свой 1-й абзац сочинения с опорой


на таблицы.

Попробуйте закрепить полученные знания, написав 1-й абзац сочине­


ния по следующей теме: “ Household chores make families quarrel” .
Вам даны небольшие подсказки.

1. Основные направления темы:

Обязанности По дому

2. Вводная фраза, отражающая тематику сочинения:

It is common knowledge that ...

3. Перифраз формулировки темы, подбор лексических единиц:

household chores housework, work about the house


make cause
families family members
quarrel argue, fall out
4. Фраза, призывающая к дискуссии:

1 would like to ...

В итоге получаем:

It is common knowledge that ...

А теперь попробуйте справиться с заданием самостоятельно. Удачи!

Тема сочинения: “ Shopping is the best relaxation” .


1. Основные направления темы:

2. Вводная фраза, отражающая тематику сочинения:

3. Перифраз формулировки темы, подбор лексических единиц:

4. Фраза, призывающая к дискуссии:


В итоге получаем:

Итак, первый шаг сделан. Убедились, что в постановке проблемы


сочинения нет ничего сложного? Необходимо логически мыслить и
иметь достаточный запас лексики и грамматических структур для вы­
ражения собственных мыслей.

Выражение своей собственной точки зрения


• 2-й абзац сочинения — выражение вашей собственной точки зре­
ния на данную проблему {express your personal opinion and
give 2 —3 reasons for your opinion).
Вернёмся к теме “Boys should learn to cook" и продолжим нашу
работу. Чтобы приступить к работе над основной частью сочинения,
необходимо определиться с точкой зрения его автора, т. е. с ВАШЕЙ
точкой зрения. Если этого не сделать, можно столкнуться с труд­
ностями во время аргументации (доказательства вашего мнения по
предложенной проблеме). Но гораздо хуже то, что по истечении по­
ловины времени, отведённого на работу, вы поймёте, что надо было
доказывать противоположную точку зрения. А время, к сожалению,
уже упущено.
• Мы снова строим таблицу, на этот раз это таблица подбора
аргументации по двум противоположным точкам зрения. Каждая
мьщль должна быть аргументирована, поэтому целесообразно пи­
сать не одно, а два предложения, либо одно распространённое слож­
ное предложение.

' ” ~..... ТГ-’ТГТГГ..'Щ..г.. ТТ'ГГГ*'ТФ&*---


Boys should iefeGta «Й #г • -Boys should not learn to cook
Every young man should know It is a waste of time and a chance
how to cook breakfast for him­ to spoil the dish. Boys do not
self without asking his mother or know how to do it properly. Girls
grandmother for help. It makes can do it much better.
him independent and mature.
If a boy is interested in cooking, Cooking as a boy’s hobby sounds
he will get his friends’ respect. ridiculous. His classmates will
He could set a good example to laugh at him.
his peers.
If the boy does his best in cook­ When he marries, his wife will do
ing, he can choose the idea of the cooking for him. Boys must
becoming a cook or a chef in his earn money and support the fam­
future career. This job has be­ ily.
come really prestigious, for men
in particular.

• Итак, допустим, что ваш выбор - 1-й вариант {Boys should learn
to cook)y так как, на ваш взгляд, эта точка зрения более аргумен-
тирована. Теперь подберём логические связки к каждому аргументу
и выстроим 2-й абзац нашего сочинения. •
• 2-й абзац следует начать с предложения, которое определяет выбор
вашей точки зрения (если вы не выразили её в 1-м абзаце вместе
с постановкой проблемы). Помните, не стоит делить абзац, в про­
тивном случае вы получите больше абзацев, чем заявлено в плане
письменного ответа.

Personally, I believe that cooking food is a must for all boys. Firstly,
every young man should know how to cook breakfast for himself
without asking his mother or grandmother for help. It makes him
independent and mature. Secondly, if a boy is interested in cooking,
he will get his friends’ respect. He could set a good example to his
peers. Thirdly, if the boy does his best in cooking, he can choose the
idea of becoming a cook or a chef in his future career. This job has
become really prestigious, for men in particular.

• Рассмотрим 2-й вариант выбора.

If you ask me, I would definitely agree with the latter point of view.
To start with, it is a waste of time and a chance to spoil the dish.
Boys do not know how to do it properly. Girls can do it much better.
Besides, cooking as a boy’s hobby sounds ridiculous. His classmates
will laugh at him. Last but not least, when he marries, his wife will do
the cooking for him. Boys must earn money and support the family.

• Рассмотрим ещё одну тему: “ Household chores make families


q u a rrel”.
• Заполняем таблицу:
---
Household make fam ilies
quarrel
When parents make their chil­ When members of the family
dren clean their rooms, do the share household duties, it unites
washing-up or shopping, they o f­ them as they all try to achieve
ten hear rude answers back. Or the same aim - to make their flat
they do not keep their promise to clean, comfortable and cosy.
do it later which causes an argu­
ment.
• Пробуем написать 2-й абзац 1-го и 2-го вариантов выбора.
1-й вариант:

The idea of quarrelling while doing housework seems much more


real to me. When parents make their children clean their rooms, do
the washing-up or shopping, they often hear rude answers back.
Or they do not keep their promise to do it later which causes an
argument. Moreover, ...

Furthermore, ....

• Рассмотрим 2-й вариант выбора:

It seems to me, it is silly to quarrel doing the work about the


house. When members of the family share household duties, it unites
them as they all try to achieve the same aim - to make their flat
clean, comfortable and cosy. One more thing is that ...

Lastly, ...

Теперь попробуйте самостоятельно.


Тема “ Shopping is the best relaxation” .
• Составьте таблицу точек зрения:
.
Shopping is the most tiring
activity

• Напишите 1-й вариант:


• Напишите 2-й вариант:

Мы завершили 2-й шаг. Вы выразили СВОЮ ТОЧКУ ЗРЕНИЯ.

Выражение противоположной точки зрения


• 3-й абзац сочинения — выражение противоположной точки зрения
на данную проблему (express the opposing opinion and give 1—2
reasons for this opposing opinion).
• Вернёмся к предыдущему разделу, где вы выбирали точки зрения.
Противоположная точка зрения - это та, которую вы не выбрали в
качестве основной. Глядя на созданную вами таблицу с двумя точ­
ками зрения, в 3-м абзаце описывайте то, что, по вашему мнению,
думают другие люди по этой проблеме. Не забывайте о вводной
фразе, которая покажет логический переход к противоположной
точке зрения. В этом абзаце вам следует привести 1 -2 аргумента
в пользу противоположной точки зрения.
• Вот так будет выглядеть 1-й вариант сочинения по теме “Boys
should learn to cook” :

Personally, I believe that cooking food is a must for all boys. First­
ly, every young man should know how to cook breakfast for himself
without asking his mother or grandmother for help. It makes him in­
dependent and mature. Secondly, if a boy is interested in cooking, he
will get his friends’ respect. He could set a good example to his peers.
Thirdly, if the boy does his best in cooking, he can choose the idea of
becoming a cook or a chef in his future career. This job has become
really prestigious, for men in particular.
On the other hand, we can find an opposing opinion on this issue.
To start with, it is a waste of time and a chance to spoil the dish.
Boys do not know how to do it properly. Girls can do it much better.
Besides, cooking as a boy’ s hobby sounds ridiculous. His classmates
will laugh at him.

• А вот 2-й вариант:

If you ask me, I would definitely agree with the latter point of view.
To start with, it is a waste of time and a chance to spoil the dish.
Boys do not know how to do it properly. Girls can do it much better.
Besides, cooking as a boy’ s hobby sounds ridiculous. His classmates
will laugh at him. Last but not least, when he marries, his wife will
do the cooking for him. Boys must earn money and support the family.

Nevertheless, there are people who oppose. Firstly, every young


man should know how to cook breakfast for himself without asking
his mother or grandmother for help. It makes him independent and
mature. Secondly, if the boy does his best in cooking, he can choose
the idea of becoming a cook or a chef in his future career. This job
has become really prestigious, for nmn in particular.

19
Работаем над следующей темой: “Household chores make families
quarrel” . Продолжите начатые абзацы.
• 1-й вариант:

То my mind, families often fall out when it is time to do house­


work. When parents make their children clean their rooms, do the
washing-up br shopping, they often hear rude answers back. Or they
do not keep their promise to do it later which causes an argument.
Besides, ...

Moreover, ...

On the other hand, some people think that household chores make
families even friendlier. When members of the family share household
duties, it unites them as they all try to achieve the same aim — to
make their flat clean, comfortable and cosy. Also, ...

• 2-й вариант:

I am absolutely sure that the work about the house is not the reason
for a quarrel. Firstly, when members of the family share household
duties, it unites them as they all try to achieve the same aim - to
make their flat clean, comfortable and cosy. Secondly, ...

Thirdly, ...

There are still people who support another idea. When parents make
their children clean their rooms, do the washing-up or shopping, they
often hear rude answers back. Or they do not keep their promise to
do it later which causes an argument. Besides, ...

А теперь попробуйте выполнить работу самостоятельно по третьей


предложенной теме: “ Shopping is the best
• 1-й вариант:

• 2-й вариант:

3-й шаг завершён. Переходим к 4-му абзацу.

Несогласие с противоположной точкой зрения


• По плану написания сочинения в 4-м абзаце вы должны выразить
несогласие с противоположной точкой зрения {explain why you
do not agree with the opposing opinion).
• При работе с 4-м абзацем обратите внимание на 3-й абзац (выраже­
ние противоположной точки зрения), именно с этими аргументами,
которые приведены в 3-м абзаце, вы не соглашаетесь. В противном
случае нарушается логика изложения.
• Для работы ттяд 4-м абзацем вам снова нужно вернуться к таблице
подбора точек зрения по предложенной проблеме и написать аргу­
менты, почему НЕЛЬЗЯ, на ваш взгляд, с ними согласиться.
Итак, знакомая таблица по теме “ shoul d learn to cook” :

[ cook Boys should not learn to cook


Every young man should know how It is a waste of time and a
to cook breakfast for himself without chance to spoil the dish. Boys
asking his mother or grandmother do not know how to do it
for help. It makes him independent properly. Girls can do it much
and mature. better.
If a boy is interested in cooking, he Cooking as a boy’s hobby
will get his friends’ respect. He could sounds ridiculous. His class­
set a good example to his peers. mates will laugh at him.
If the boy does his best in cooking, When he marries, his wife will
he can choose the idea of becoming a do the cooking for him. Boys
cook or a chef in his future career. must earn money and support
This job has become really presti­ the family.
gious, for men in particular.

• Если вы выбрали 1-ю точку зрения, то вам необходимо опровер­


гнуть 2-ю. Контраргументы можно записать в скобках, либо в сле­
дующей графе таблицы. Рассмотрим 1-й вариант:

Контраргументы,
точка зрения выражающие
несогласие |
е противоположной
ШШШШШШИЯШИНШ тонкой зрения ;
Boys should learn to Boys should not
cook learn to cook
Every young man should It is a waste of Boys must be per­
know how to cook break­ time and a chance sistent to learn to
fast for himself without to spoil the dish. cook. Simple recipes
asking his mother or Boys do not know from cookery books
grandmother for help. how to do it prop* or the Internet and
It makes him indepen­ erly. Girls can do good mother’ s ad­
dent and mature. it much better. vice can help.
If a boy is interested Cooking as a boy’ s The classmates will
in cooking, he will get hobby sounds ri­ envy the boy who
his friends’ respect. He diculous. His class­ can cook. He will
could set a good exam­ mates will laugh at encourage them to
ple to his peers. him. start cooking.
If the boy does his When he marries, Boys as future hus­
best in cooking, he can his wife will do the bands must share
choose the idea of be­ cooking for him. cooking with their
coming a cook or a chef Boys must earn wives who are very
in his future career. money and support busy with children.
This job has become re­ the family. Besides, children al­
ally prestigious, for men ways appreciate what
in particular. fathers do.
• И 2-й вариант:

Ваша Противоположна^ Контраргументы,


точка зрения точка зрения
- ; '• .
: v H^ -
И В И р М М ' с противоположной )
п . . ^ ...
г^лг..г^ 1Г _ .... ........
Boys should not B o y s should learn to
learn to cook cook
It is a waste of Every young man should Mothers are always
time and a chance know how to cook break­ pleased to cook for
to spoil the dish. fast for himself without their sons to show
Boys do not know asking his mother or their love and care.
how to do it prop­ grandmother for help. It And the sons should
erly. Girls can do it makes him independent leave the cooking
much better. and mature. for them.
Cooking as a boy’ s If a boy is interested in Boys seldom share
hobby sounds r i-' cooking, he will get his cooking interests.
diculous. His class­ friends’ respect. He could They think that coo­
mates will laugh at set a good example to his king is boring.
him. peers.
When he gets mar­ If the boy does his best Boys should choose
ried, his wife will in cooking, he can choose the job that will
do the cooking for the idea of becoming a bring them mor­
him. Boys must earn cook or a chef in his fu ­ al satisfaction and
money and support ture career. This job has good money. You
the family. become really prestigious, cannot become the
for men in particular. second Jamie Oliver.

• Попробуем совместить все 3 абзаца основной части сочинения. Не


забываем о вводной фразе 4-го абзаца, где вы должны подчеркнуть,
что НЕ СОГЛАСНЫ с ПРОТИВОПОЛОЖНОЙ ТОЧКОЙ ЗРЕНИЯ.
• 1-й вариант:

Personally, I believe that cooking food is a must for all boys. First­
ly, every young man should know how to cook breakfast for himself
without asking his mother or grandmother for help. It makes him
independent and mature. Secondly, if a boy is interested in cooking,
he will get his friends’ respect. He could set a good example to his
peers. Thirdly, if the boy does his best in cooking, he can choose the
idea of becoming a cook or a chef in his future career. This job has
become really prestigious, for men in particular.

On the other hand, we can find an opposing opinion on this issue.


To start with, it is a waste of time and a chance to spoil the dish.
Boys do not know how to do it properly. Girls can do it much better.
Besides, cooking as a boy’ s hobby sounds ridiculous. His classmates
will laugh at him.
With all my respect for the opposing view, I cannot really agree
with it. Boys must be persistent to learn to cook. Simple recipes from
cookery books or the Internet and good mother’ s advice can help. Also,
the classmates will envy the boy who can cook. He will encourage them
to start cooking.
• 2-й вариант:

If you ask me, I would definitely agree with the latter point of
view. To start with, it is a waste of time and a chance to spoil the
dish. Boys do not know how to do it properly. Girls can do it much
better. Besides, cooking as a boy’s hobby sounds ridiculous. His class­
mates will laugh at him. Last but not least, when he gets married, his
wife will do the cooking for him. Boys must earn money and support
the family.

Nevertheless, there are people who oppose. Firstly, every young


man should know how to cook breakfast for himself without asking
his mother or grandmother for help. It makes him independent and
mature. Secondly, if the boy does his best in cooking, he can choose
the idea of becoming a cook or a chef in his future career. This job
has become really prestigious, for men in particular.

I disagree here. Mothers are always pleased to cook for their sons to
show their love and care. And sons should leave the cooking for them.
Moreover, boys should choose the job that will bring them moral satis­
faction and good money. You cannot become the second Jamie Oliver.

• Давайте потренируемся выражать несогласие с противополож­


ной точкой зрения по теме “Household chores make families
q u a r r e l ”.
• Итак, снова таблица:

chores do not make


Ф|аш1

When parents make their children When members of the family


clean their rooms, do the washing- share household duties, it unites
up or shopping, they often hear them as they all try to achieve
rude answers back. Or they do not the same aim - to make their
keep their promise to do it later flat clean, comfortable and cosy.
which causes an argument.

• Подберём контраргументы к 1-му варианту:

Ваша точка spsmm'rS Контраргументы,


точка зрения выражающие
шшшшшшшшшшшшшявшвш несогласие j
^ I I с противоположной
^ ш
точкой зрения
-■■-■1...............................
|Household chores та- Household chores
| ke families quarrel do not make fam­
ilies quarrel

|When parents make When members of Children usually ar­


their children clean their the family share gue who will clean
rooms, do the washing- household duties, it the room and it
up or shopping, they unites them as they sometimes causes
often hear rude an- all try to achieve fighting and calling
|swers back. Or they do the same aim - to names.
1 not keep their promise make their flat
Продолжение

Ваша точка зрения 1 Противоположная Контраргументы, J


\ точка зрения v выражающие
несогласие
ш т т ш н н й н ц р м н e щютиводоложной j
точкой зрения
to do it later which clean, comfortable
causes an argument. and cosy. ■ - \,

• И ко 2-му варианту:
■ ---
Ваша точка зрения
зрения выражающие |
^ :
1 !1111йilil *'v> не^окгласйе
ncvui ifiavxic ? ?
|gШg§§:я
If,ш
Ящ
Щ
Щ яЩ
lip■Я
IiiШ
|| ili;Ш
:g.М т
g:ш
.. | gg;т
|I";т
IIт
I:Iшт

Ш т
Ш:Ш Ш §ШШ Ш Ж
1:iiiiSffillIII.
:liiit|iiifi1111Ш'llili:i ill11iiii;ilsil1liiiiftш®5»в«5

ti-M
i'Tr, ■ ' '
Household chores Household chores ma­
do not make fami­ ke families quarrel
lies quarrel

When members of When parents make It is not difficult


the family share their children clean their for the parents to
household duties, it rooms, do the washing- explain their kids
unites them as they up or shopping, they that they belong to
all try to achieve the often hear rude answers the family and their
same aim - to make back. Or they do not help can be very
their flat clean, com­ keep their promise to do important for every­
fortable and cosy. it later which causes an body.
argument.

Подведём итог. Вам необходимо продолжить развитие сюжета со­


чинения.
• 1-й вариант:

То my mind, families often fall out when it is time to do house­


work. When parents make their children clean their rooms, do the
washing-up or shopping, they often hear rude answers back. Or they
do not keep their promise to do it later which causes an argument.
Besides, ...

Moreover, ...

On the other hand, some people think that household chores make
families even friendlier. When members of the family share household
duties, it unites them as they all try to achieve the same aim - to
make their flat clean, comfortable and cosy. Also, ...

I disagree with this point of view. Children usually argue who will
clean the room and it sometimes causes fighting and calling names.
Besides, ...

• 2-й вариант:

I am absolutely sure that the work about the house is not the reason
for a quarrel. Firstly, when members of the family share household
duties, it unites them as they all try to achieve the same aim - to
make their flat clean, comfortable and cosy. Secondly, ...

Thirdly,

There are still people who support another idea. When parents make
their children clean their rooms, do the washing-up or shopping, they
often hear rude answers back. Or they do not keep their promise to
do it later which causes an argument. Besides, ...

I do not believe they are right. It is not difficult for the parents
to explain their kids that they belong to the family and their help can
be very important for everybody. Also, ...
• И наконец, самостоятельная работа по теме “ Shopping is the best
relaxation” . Заполните таблицу по образцу.
• Рассмотрим 1-й вариант:

Яя
Н ап
ш тя
а ТАИКЯ
JLUHJtvd QTlAWMOr Противоположная Контраргументы, j
точка зрения , выражающие
^ . несогласие’
e противоположной |
ой .зрения ~ 1
Shopping is the Shopping is the
best relaxation most tiring activ­
ity

• И 2-й вариант:

Ваша точка зрения | Противоположная Контраргументы,


| тонка зрения выражающие ;
i -
несогласие
1 с противоположной
тоикой зрения |
Shopping is the Shopping is the
most tiring activity best relaxation
• Объедините полученные абзацы.
• 1-й вариант:

• 2-й вариант:

Завершён 4-й шаг. Переходим к заключительной части сочинения.

Заключительная часть. Вывод


• Переходим к завершающей части нашего сочинения. В заключении
сочинения требуется сделать вывод и ещё раз подтвердить свою по­
зицию (m ake a conclusion resta tin g you r p o sitio n ).
• He следует забывать, что в выводе должна содержаться только
ОДНА точка зрения - ВАША. Если вы пишете, что и та и другая
точки зрения верны (даёте так называемый double conclusion), бал­
лы будут снижены.
• Поэтому, прежде чем писать вывод, внимательно взгляните на 2-й
абзац и аргументы в таблице. Возможно, один из аргументов при­
годится вам для того, чтобы подтвердить свою точку зрения.

28
Тема “Boys should learn to cook” .
• Начинаем с завершающей фразы. Она подведёт сочинение к логи­
ческому завершению. Вот примеры таких фраз:
— То sum up, ...
— In conclusion, ...
— To conclude, ...
— To put it in a nutshell, ...
— All things considered, ...
— All in all, ...
• Вывод по 1"му варианту может звучать следующим образом:

Ваша точка зрения Вывод

Boys should learn to cook

Personally, I believe that cook­ To sum it all up, I still hold the
ing food is a must for all boys. view that boys should do their
Firstly, every young man should best in cooking. Life is long and
know how to cook breakfast for this ability can be useful.
himself without asking his moth­
er or grandmother for help. It
makes him independent and ma­
ture. Secondly, if a boy is in­
terested in cooking, he will get
his friends’ respect. He could
set a good example to his peers.
Thirdly, if the boy does his best
in cooking, he can choose the idea
of becoming a cook or a chef in
his future career. This job has be­
come really prestigious, for men
in particular.

• 2-й вариант:

Ваша точка зрения Вывод

Boys should not learn to cook

If you ask me, I would definite­ In conclusion, I guess it is not a


ly agree with the latter point of must for boys to spend a lot of
view. To start with, it is a waste their precious time in the kitch­
of time and a chance to spoil the en if it is not their cup of tea.
dish. Boys do not know how to Either somebody or fast food can
do it properly. Girls can do it help them not to die of hunger.
much better. Besides, cooking as
a boy’ s hobby sounds ridiculous.
His classmates will laugh at him.
Last but not least, when he gets
married, his wife will do the
cooking for him. Boys must earn
money and support the family.

• Попробуем сделать вывод к следующей теме: “Household chores


make families quarrel” .
• 1-й вариант:

Ваша точка зрения Вывод

Household chores make fami­


lies quarrel

When parents make their chil­ То put it in a nutshell, house­


dren clean their rooms, do the work will always cause arguments
washing-up or shopping, they o f­ in my view. ...
ten hear rude answers back. Or
they do not keep their promise to
do it later which causes an argu­
ment. ...

• 2-й вариант:

Ваша точка зрения к , Вывод |


Household chores do not make
families quarrel
When members of the family All things considered, I strong­
share household duties, it unites ly believe that the work about
them as they all try to achieve the house, if done together, will
the same aim - to make their flat make families understand the im­
clean, comfortable and cosy. ... portance and excitement of help­
ing each other. ...

• А теперь заключительная часть. по теме “ Shopping is the best


relaxation” .
• 1-й вариант:

I * WoVlio „lull -jv,4 111itriVl'il M


i *Z* "

Shopping is the best relaxation

• 2-й вариант:

; Ваша точка “.:•// Вывод


Shopping is the most tiring activity

30 \
А теперь посмотрим на итоги нашей работы — ГОТОВЫЕ
СОЧИНЕНИЯ:

Тема “Boys should learn to cook” .


• 1-й вариант:

Cooking is an essential part of our life. Some people believe that


young men must get some knowledge about cooking food while the
others say that this occupation is only, for women. So, let us start by
considering the facts.
Personally, I believe that cooking food is a must for all boys. First­
ly, every young man should know how to cook breakfast for himself
without asking his mother or grandmother for help. It makes him in­
dependent and mature. Secondly, if a boy is interested in cooking, he
will get his friends’ respect. He could set a good example to his peers.
Thirdly, if the boy does his best in cooking, he can choose the idea of
becoming a cook or a chef in his future career. This job has become
really prestigious, for men in particular.
On the other hand, we can find an opposing opinion on this issue.
To start with, it is a waste of time and a chance to spoil the dish.
Boys do not know how to do it properly. Girls can do it much better.
Besides, cooking as a boy’s hobby sounds ridiculous. His classmates
will laugh at him.
With all my respect for the opposing view, I cannot really agree
with it. Boys must be persistent to learn to cook. Simple recipes from
cookery books or the Internet and good mother’s advice can help. Also,
the classmates will envy the boy who can cook. He will encourage them
to start cooking.
To sum it all up, I still hold the view that boys should do their best
in cooking. Life is long and this ability can be useful.

• 2-й вариант:

Cooking is an essential part of our life. Some people believe that


young men must get some knowledge about cooking food while the
others say that this occupation is only for women. So* let us start by
considering the facts.
If you ask me, I would definitely agree with the latter point of
view. To start with, it is a waste of time and a chance to spoil the
dish. Boys do not know how to do it properly. Girls can do it much
better. Besides, cooking as a boy’s hobby sounds ridiculous. His class­
mates will laugh at him. Last but not least, when he gets married, his
wife will do the cooking for him. Boys must earn money and support
the family.
Nevertheless, there, are people who oppose. Firstly, every young
man should know how to cook breakfast for himself without asking
his mother or grandmother for help. It makes him independent and
mature. Secondly, if the boy does his best in cooking, he can choose
the idea of becoming a cook or a chef in his future career. This job
has become really prestigious, for men in particular.
Продолжение

I disagree here. Mothers are always pleased to cook for their sons to
show their love and care. And sons should leave the cooking for them.
Moreover, boys should choose the job that will bring them moral satis­
faction and good money. You cannot become the second Jamie Oliver.
In conclusion, I guess it is not a must for boys to spend a lot of
their precious time in the kitchen if it is not their cup of tea. Either
somebody or fast food can help them not to die of hunger.

Тема “Household chores make families quarrel” .


• 1-й вариант:

It is common knowledge that housework ...

I would rather say that quarrels often occur while doing housework.
When parents make their children clean their rooms, do the washing-
up or shopping, they often hear rude answers back. Or they do not
keep their promise to do it later which causes an argument. ...

We can also find an opposing opinion. When members of the family


share household duties, it unites them as they all try to achieve the
same aim - to make their flat clean, comfortable and cosy. ...

I would never agree here. ...

To sum it all up, ...

• 2-й вариант:

It is common knowledge that cooking is ...

I am absolutely certain that doing household chores does not cause


any problems or troubles. When members of the family share house­
hold duties, it unites them as they all try to achieve the same aim - to
make their flat clean, comfortable and cosy. ...

Some people do not share this opinion. ...

I strongly disagree with them. ...

All in all, ...

32
Тема “ Shopping is the best relaxation” .
• 1-й вариант:

• 2-й вариант:
Работа над сочинением завершена. Теперь необходимо проверить
количество слов, которое должно войти в диапазон 200-250. Воз­
можны отклонения + / - 10%. Если слов меньше 180, такая работа
не подлежит проверке и будет оценена в 0 баллов. В данном случае
ситуацию можно исправить, дав дополнительную аргументацию в
каких-нибудь абзацах. Для этого после каждого абзаца во время
работы над сочинением целесообразно оставлять пробел, чтобы в
случае необходимости им воспользоваться. Это поможет решить
проблему не переписывая текст.
Если вы написали более 275 слов, необходимо уменьшить объём ва­
шего сочинения путём зачёркивания лишних слов. Целесообразно
в первую очередь удалить предложения, которые не представляют
большой ценности в аргументации точек зрения. Возможно удале­
ние отдельных слов й словосочетаний. Но чтобы такого не произо­
шло, нужно следить за объёмом в процессе выполнения работы:
подсчитывать слова в каждом абзаце.
Важна регулярная тренировка в написании сочинений. Это можно
делать на уроке под руководством учителя или дома.
Важно следить за временем. На сочинение отводится 60 минут плюс
сэкономленные минуты от заданий по чтению, лексике и грамма-
ГЛ А В А 3

Темы эссе для тренировки написания


\ задания 40

СОВЕТЫ и РЕКОМЕНДАЦИИ:
• Внимательно прочитайте обе темы сочинения, остановите свой
выбор на одной из двух тем.
• Ещё раз просмотрите предложенный план к заданию 40.
• Начните работу с черновиком (в данном пособии авторы после
каждой темы предложили свой вариант черновика).
• Попытайтесь полностью или частично перестроить (перифра­
зировать) предложенную тему задания 40.
• Продумайте противоположное суждение для первого абзаца
общего плана (while/whereas other people do not agree ...), что­
бы показать проблемность и дискуссионность заявленной темы
сочинения.
• В таблицу черновика занесите ваши идеи по данной теме: под­
берите аргументы за и против. Необязательно в черновике в
данную таблицу записывать целые предложения, задача - на­
бросать ключевые идеи вашего сочинения.
• ПОМНИТЕ про четвёртый пуню* плана - вы должны напи­
сать, почему вы не разделяете противоположную точку зрения,
и аргументировать её.
• Продумайте заключение вашего сочинения, которое чётко и
ясно ещё раз подтвердит ваше мнение (restating your point of
view).
• Написав в бланке ответов № 2 первый абзац, внимательно
перечитайте его. Таким образом поступайте с каждой после­
дующей частью сочинения.
• Обязательно по завершении работы на чистовике (в бланке
ответов № 2) перечитайте всё сочинение полностью и внима­
тельно просчитайте количество слов.
• Всегда помните, что вам рекомендовано 60 минут на выполне­
ние данного задания.

You have 60 minutes to do this task.


Comment on one of the following statements.
40.1 __________________________________________________________________
40.2 _____________________________________________________ ____________

Write 200—250 words.


Use the following plan:
• make an introduction (state the problem paraphrasing the given
statement);
• express your personal opinion and give 2 -3 reasons for your opinion;
• express an opposing opinion and give 1 -2 reasons for this opposing
opinion;
• explain why you do not agree with the opposing opinion;
• make a conclusion restating your position.

35
1. Young people prefer Internet communication to personal contacts.
What is your opinion? Do you agree with this statement?

Частичный или полный перифраз предложенной темы:

Аргументы за Аргументы против Контраргументы)


для 4-го абзаца •
сочинения
• explain why you do !
not agree with the
^ IMl opposing opinion

Вывод с обязательным подтверждением собственного мнения:

2. Technological advances make societies less human.


What is your opinion? Do you agree with this statement?

Частичный или полный перифраз предложенной темы:

Вывод с обязательным подтверждением собственного мнения:

3. When 16 years old, teenagers should not ask their parents for pocket
money.
What is your opinion? Do you agree with this statement?

Частичный или полный перифраз предложенной темы:

Вывод с обязательным подтверждением собственного мнения:

4. It is a waste of time to read the same book more than once.


What is your opinion? Do you agree with this statement?

Частичный или полный перифраз предложенной темы:

Вывод с обязательным подтверждением собственного мнения:

5. Everybody would like to work from home.


What is your opinion? Do you agree with this statement?
Частичный или полный перифраз предложенной темы:

Г""" - ' 4— — г:
против Контрартумент(ы) |
* Т?-' - * , '»* для 4-го абзаца ‘ |
ш ш ш вящ яяш ш сочинения
• explain why yon do
not agree with the \
11—
.. . ............... ^.. .............. opposing opinion

Вывод с обязательным подтверждением собственного мнения:

6. There is no weather you cannot enjoy.


What is your opinion? Do you agree with this statement?

Частичный или полный перифраз предложенной темы:

Вывод с обязательным подтверждением собственного мнения:

7. It is not healthy to eat meat.


What is your opinion? Do you agree with this statement?

Частичный или полный перифраз предложенной темы:


Аргументы против Контраргумент(ы)
для 4-го абзаца
сочинения
• explain why you do
not agree with the j
ш в ш я

Вывод с обязательным подтверждением собственного мнения:

8. Teenagers should be allowed to read whatever books they like.


What is your opinion? Do you agree with this statement?

Частичный или полный перифраз предложенной темы:

Аргументы за

Вывод с обязательным подтверждением собственного мнения:

9. Getting marks does not motivate students to study.


What is your opinion? Do you agree with this statement?

Частичный или полный перифраз предложенной темы:


Аргументы за Аргументы против Контраргумент(ы)
для 4-го абзаца
сочинения
• explain why you do
not agree with the
opposing opinion

Вывод с обязательным подтверждением собственного мнения:

10. Some people think that it is better to study 6 days a week at school.
What is your opinion? Do you agree with this statement?

Частичный или полный перифраз предложенной темы:

Вывод с обязательным подтверждением собственного мнения:

11. Fast food outlets should be closed.


What is your opinion? Do you agree with this statement?

Частичный или полный перифраз предложенной темы:


Аргументы за Аргументы против

^ ■ Щ сочинения

not agree With the

Вывод с обязательным подтверждением собственного мнения:

12. In any occupation discipline is more important than talent.


What is your opinion? Do you agree with this statement?

Частичный или полный перифраз предложенной темы:

Вывод с обязательным подтверждением собственного мнения:

13. Many years ago young people were more responsible and mature.
What is your opinion? Do you agree with this statement?

Частичный или полный перифраз предложенной темы:


Аргументы за Контраргументы) ■
Аргументы против
д а т ■4 й > 'абзаца •
вш ш ш яш ш ш щ щ ш ш ^ ш
сочинения J
1 М И ^ 1 М М И 1 М 1 1 ш ш ш ш а т |— j • explain why you do j
^ ш not agree with the ;
opposing opinion

Вывод с обязательным подтверждением собственного мнения:

14. Some people think that a supermarket is a better place for shopping
than small local stores.
What is your opinion? Do you agree with this statement?

Частичный или полный перифраз предложенной темы:

против Контраргументы)
\ " д ат 4-го абзаца I
шштяшшшжтштштшжтттшмя I ■■■
iS llilllillllllilll ЯЯЯ^^т яеш яж -

м • explain why you do J


__ not agree with the 1
шшшшшяшшшш opposing opinion I

Вывод с обязательным подтверждением собственного мнения:

15. It is important for high school students to study compulsory


subjects, even if they do not see any need for them in the near future.
What is your opinion? Do you agree with this statement?

Частичный или полный перифраз предложенной темы:


Аргументы за Аргументы против
. \ •I -* . \V.~ дяя 4-го абзаца
сочинения
«jffiHfrlain why you do
■'«et agree with the
* “ ¥4-^ V * opposing opinion

Вывод с обязательным подтверждением собственного мнения:

16. Childhood is the safest period of human life.


What is your opinion? Do you agree with this statement?

Частичный или полный перифраз предложенной темы:

Аргументы за Аргументы против Контраргументы)

Вывод с обязательным подтверждением собственного мнения:

17. Young people like travelling more than senior citizens.


What is your opinion? Do you agree with this statement?

Частичный или полный перифраз предложенной темы:


Аргументы за Аргументы против Контраргумент(ы)
■ ■ ■ ШШ0ЯШШШ для 4-го абзаца
сочинения
& '-г 1 Т * • explain why you do
1^1'/ not agree with the
i^"- i' ' •--.’ ■"
' "' • ■
- .г'* opposing opinion
,/>гС,> ; ч' :; .' *’'

Вывод с обязательным подтверждением собственного мнения:

18. If you are fluent in English, you will not have communication
problems in any country of the world.
What is your opinion? Do you agree with this statement?

Частичный или полный перифраз предложенной темы:

Г A pr*™ »™ м . - 1 р Ш ^ И ^ е н т (ы )
: ;3 ?1 для 4-го абзаца
1 1
!
• explain why you do
p i® : • i not agree with the
! opposing opinion
•‘ 5?

Вывод с обязательным подтверждением собственного мнения:

19. Big cities all over the world have lost their national identity and
now look the same.
What is your opinion? Do you agree with this statement?

Частичный или полный перифраз предложенной темы:


Аргументы за Аргументы против Контраргументы)

сочинения
шшшшт
111'ft | || Щ

Вывод с обязательным подтверждением собственного мнения:

20. You cannot become popular at school if you have low grades.
What is your opinion? Do you agree with this statement?

Частичный или полный перифраз предложенной темы:

| Аргументы за

— — Щ Н И

Вывод с обязательным подтверждением собственного мнения:

21. Travelling abroad helps to understand your own country.


What is your opinion? Do you agree with this statement?

Частичный или полный перифраз предложенной темы:


Аргументы за Аргументы против Контраргумент(ы)
для 4-го абзаца
сочинения
IM SIIIg ШШ 18 • explain why you do ]
н Н | not agree with the
вивииии И^Щ|Ш1ЙЙ11Й opposing opinion

Вывод с обязательным подтверждением собственного мнения:

22. A popular actor’s life is always fun.


What is your opinion? Do you agree with this statement?

Частичный или полный перифраз предложенной темы:


' .. ?*£.... «А.. I

Контраргумент(ы)
t! .... .у 1
j$iaar4-r© абзаца
•- _/г/-«ечш«нення
* explain why you do
j‘ not agree with the
>
'

opposing opinion

Вывод с обязательным подтверждением собственного мнения:

23. Too much parents’ love can spoil a child.


What is your opinion? Do you agree with this statement?

Частичный или полный перифраз предложенной темы:


Вывод с обязательным подтверждением собственного мнения:

24. Sewing and knitting clothes at home is a waste of time and money.
What is your opinion? Do you agree with this statement?

Частичный или полный перифраз предложенной темы:

г >' : т; !
Аргумеиты: за к> Аргументы против

./ъЧДЩа
....... *......... *..........'____

Вывод с обязательным подтверждением собственного мнения:

25. It is not right to be strict with little children.


What is your opinion? Do you agree with this statement?

Частичный или полный перифраз предложенной темы:


Аргументы за Аргументы против Контраргумент(ы)
для 4-го абзаца
сочинения
• explain why you do
hot agree with the
opposing opinion

4 .,

Вывод с обязательным подтверждением собственного мнения:

26. Clothes people are wearing can influence their behaviour.


What is your opinion? Do you agree with this statement?

Частичный или полный перифраз предложенной темы:

Вывод с обязательным подтверждением собственного мнения:

27. Buying souvenirs is a waste of money.


What is your opinion? Do you agree with this statement?

Частичный или полный перифраз предложенной темы:


Вывод с обязательным подтверждением собственного мнения:

28. Everybody should be able to cook.


What is your opinion? Do you agree with this statement?

Частичный или полный перифраз предложенной темы:

Аргумента! против

ш аяваавйя^^^^ш
■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ И И
• explain why 1

Вывод с обязательным подтверждением собственного мнения:

29. Exams are a fair way of testing knowledge.


What is your opinion? Do you agree with this statement?

Частичный или полный перифраз предложенной темы:


Аргументы за Аргументы против Контраргументы)
для 4-го абзаца
сочинения
• explain why you do
not agree with the :
■ opposing opinion

Вывод с обязательным подтверждением собственного мнения:

30. Exams motivate students to study harder.


What is your opinion? Do you agree with this statement?

Частичный или полный перифраз предложенной темы:

...... * ■7ГГ-............
| А й р « к т ы ;.заШ:;'® Контраргумент(ы) |
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• explain why you do j
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^ m opposing opinion

Вывод с обязательным подтверждением собственного мнения:

31. Public libraries are becoming less popular and they will soon
disappear.
What is your opinion? Do you agree with this statement?

Частичный или полный перифраз предложенной темы:


Аргументы за Аргументы против Жт*№»$тшт(ы)
для 4-го абз
тттвттттш^
not agree with the
^У::.ШШтМШё

Вывод с обязательным подтверждением собственного мнения:

32. One must discuss all important decisions in the family circle.
What is your opinion? Do you agree with this statement?

Частичный или полный перифраз предложенной темы:

Ь , "1 | j h
Аргументы за Аргументы щ м ш ж ц ^ „ ч
H
r,/v itлги l* m яб.чянй -’
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сониненин
ШШЯШЯШШШЯШЯШШШ
шшяшшшшшаятшш ' ЛЪ*£т?$Ъг

Вывод с обязательным подтверждением собственного мнения:

33. School plays a major role in the life of teenagers.


What is your opinion? Do you agree with this statement?

Частичный или полный перифраз предложенной темы:


'- ' -— -
Аргументы за Аргументы против : Контраргументы) j
: для 4-го абзаца '
сочинения j
* explain why you do *
*' > '' ‘ ' | not agree with the j
opposing opinion
\LsLlJE£

Вывод с обязательным подтверждением собственного мнения:

34. Sport unites people.


What is your opinion? Do you agree with this statement?

Частичный или полный перифраз предложенной темы:

Вывод с обязательным подтверждением собственного мнения:

35. Everyone should spend some time serving in the army.


What is your opinion? Do you agree with this statement?

Частичный или полный перифраз предложенной темы:


Вывод с обязательным подтверждением собственного мнения:

36. It is better to see a film version rather than read a book.


What is your opinion? Do you agree with this statement?

Частичный или полный перифраз предложенной темы:

Вывод с обязательным подтверждением собственного мнения:

37. People cannot do without cars these days.


What is your opinion? Do you agree with this statement?

Частичный или полный перифраз предложенной темы:


Аргументы за Аргументы против Контраргумент(ы)
для 4-го абзаца
сочинения
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not agree with the
. . .. ИИне. - opposing opinion

Вывод с обязательным подтверждением собственного мнения:

38. A good teacher should always be strict and exacting (demanding).


What is your opinion? Do you agree with this statement?

Частичный или полный перифраз предложенной темы:

...7~"..... " '


Контраргумент(ы)
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• explain why you do
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Вывод с обязательным подтверждением собственного мнения:

39. It is very important to get along with your neighbours.


What is your opinion? Do you agree with this statement?

Частичный или полный перифраз предложенной темы:


■11':;,' :::: 1
;!V
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opposing opinion

Вывод с обязательным подтверждением собственного мнения:

40. It is better for animals to live in the zoo.


What is your opinion? Do you agree with this statement?

Частичный или полный перифраз предложенной темы:

Аргументы за Аргументы против Контраргумент(ы)


для 4-го абзаца

I . e x p lT ™ h 7 y o u do
I *©t agree, with the
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Вывод с обязательным подтверждением собственного мнения:


ГЛ А В А 4 г
Примеры готовых эссе J
You have 60 minutes to do this task.
Comment on one of the following statements.
40.1 __________________ :____________
40.2 _____

Write 200—250 words.


Use the following plan:
• make an introduction (state the problem paraphrasing the given
statement);
• express your personal opinion and give 2 -3 reasons for your opinion;
• express an opposing opinion and give 1 -2 reasons for this opposing
opinion;
• explain why you do not agree with the opposing opinion;
• make a conclusion restating your position.

1. Young people prefer Internet communication to personal contacts.


What is your o p i n i o n ?Do you agree
These days there is a popular opinion that teenagers would rather
communicate online than personally. However, some people doubt it
saying that for youngsters there is nothing as good as talking to a
person eye to eye. Personally, I agree with the former point of view.
To start with, I think that in today’s fast-moving world the Internet
has taken over every aspect of our lives, from studying to relaxing,
because it is exceptionally convenient and timesaving. Thus, young
people find it easier and faster to talk through many networking sites
available. Moreover, as our school curriculum is getting more complicated
every year, teenagers have less and less time to spend relaxing at home,
let alone hanging out with friends. That is why sometimes it is simply
impossible for young people to communicate with each other in person.
Therefore, the Internet is at their service when it comes to chatting.
However, some people claim that every now and then teenagers long
for eye-to-eye communication, because only this way they can see each
other’ s emotions, which are undoubtedly of great importance, especially
regarding the issues of teenage friendships.
Nevertheless, I cannot subscribe to this point of view. Today’ s social
networks have a variety of smileys available to make conversations in a
livelier way. What is more, if such a necessity appeared, youngsters can
use Skype or FaceTime to see each other or just record audio messages.
In conclusion, I firmly believe that these days teenagers prefer
communicating online for many reasons. Technological advances are
rapid and young people are trying to keep up with the times.

2. Technological advances make societies less human.


What is your opinion? Do you agree with this statement?
Nowadays most people are sure that technological advances adversely
affect people’s feelings and behaviour in the modern world. They believe
we are becoming boring and robot-like because of various new inventions
while other people do think that different technologies have no influence
on us and they do not make us less understanding and compassionate.
Personally, I agree with the first point of view.
To begin with, sometimes, spending most time with our gadgets, we
forget about people around us. We value live communication less and
less but some special apps or computers more and more. Also, we start
relying on electronic devices, totally depending on them. Instead of
trying to remember some meaningful information or dates of important
appointments, we often just put a note on our phones. This definitely
means we gradually forget about our human nature.
However, the opponents of this would say that using, for example,
gadgets is completely natural for modern people and it dews not affect
our feelings, emotions and behaviour in any way. They believe, in our
modern world, it is just impossible to cope with so much information.
Therefore, in their opinion, technologies do not change us, they just help
us to get used to everything new in our life.
Nevertheless, I still adhere to my point of view. I consider that
people are not able to resist technologies, eventually turning into robots
themselves. I think that our society quite often seems to be absorbed in
these technologies. Computers, cars, phones and other innovations just
do not let us notice the world around. We stop enjoying the life as it is.
To sum up, I am of the view that technological advances do make us
less human. They always replace real life with something new, which
does not appear to be exactly what we need.

3. When 16 years old, teenagers should not ask their parents for
pocket money.
What is your opinion? Do you agree with this statement?
These days there is a popular opinion that 16-year-olds should not ask
their parents for pocket money. However, some people doubt it saying
teenagers ought to turn to parents when they need money. Personally,
I agree with the latter point of view.
First of all, I believe that if youngsters ask their parents for cash,
they learn how to be economical because they have to spend their parents’
money wisely or else teens may not get it another time. I think it is
important to learn how not to spend too much, not to waste money from
the young age. Moreover, young people simply do not have their own
money as they do not have jobs, so teenagers turn to their parents.
16-year-olds are not experienced enough to get a greatly paid job, so
asking parents appears to be the only way of getting cash.
On the other hand, some people claim that young people, when they
are 16 years old, should not always ask their parents for allowance.
Teenagers have to work in order to get pocket money.
Nevertheless, I do not agree with this point of view. To my mind, if
16-year-olds work, they will not have time for getting their education,
so I believe it is quite normal to ask parents for a small amount of
money each week.
All in all, I think that when you are 16 years old, you have no other
way of getting pocket money but ask your parents for it. Youngsters
do not need too much, so it is not a disaster if they ask for some cash.

4. It’s a waste of time to read the same book more than once.
What is your opinion? Do you agree with this statement?
These days there is a popular opinion that reading the same book more
than once is a waste of time. However, some people doubt it saying it
is better to reread interesting books. Personally, I agree with the latter
point of view for a number of reasons.
First of all, I firmly believe that as time flies, people forget many
important and interesting things from those books they have once read.
It is really beneficial to read them again in order to refresh this or that
plot in your memory. Moreover, some books are just meant to be read
many times throughout one’ s life. They can include eternal truths that
are much valued and may be understood in a different way at each stage
of your long life.
On the other hand, some people have another point of view and claim
that there is no use rereading books as the first impressions of them are
usually the rightest ones.
Nevertheless, I do not agree with this opinion. I think that as we
grow, our beliefs change, so when we read the same books again, we
may notice precious things that were hidden from us before.
All in all, I consider that all books that grab your attention should
be read more than once so as to be better understood and perceived.

5. Everybody would like to work from home.


What is your opinion? Do you agree with this statement?
These days there is a popular opinion that every single person would
like to work from home. However, some people doubt it saying that
there are many jobs requiring special workplaces that are preferable.
Personally, J[ agree with the latter point of view.
Firstly, I think it is not easy to focus on your work at home as there
are many distractions, for example, a sudden urge to watch TV. On the
contrary, an office creates a working atmosphere that helps you to be
productive and concentrated, so your house does not seem to be the best
working place. Moreover, there is a great lot of jobs that simply require
getting out of your house and are at the same time very interesting
and significant, which makes them attractive to people. For instance,
reporters have to travel a lot to provide millions of people with vital
information.
On the other hand, some people claim that home is the only right
working place, because it is not only cheaper, but also more comfortable
because you can work without taking o ff your pyjamas.
Nevertheless, I do not agree with this opinion. I think that work
uniform is comfortable enough to wear, let alone it is made specially to
satisfy all your working needs. For example, builders have many pockets
on their jackets to carry many different tools.
All in all, I firmly believe that it is much more enjoyable to work out
of your home than stay there all year round. Every job needs a special
place to help people cope with different tasks.

6. There is no weather you cannot enjoy.


What is your opinion? Do you agree with this statement?
These days there is a popular opinion that there is no such weather
that you cannot take pleasure in. However, some people doubt it saying
it is impossible to like rain or cold. Personally, I agree with the latter
point of view.
Firstly, I believe that stormy weather makes everyone feel blue
because everything is dark and overall depressing. You feel no will to
do anything but lie on your bed and grumble over all the failures of your
life. Moreover, bad weather may not just ruin your mood, it can also
hurt you. For example, it is no surprise that during hurricanes many
people lose their houses and relatives, as well as their own lives, so bad
weather is not enjoyable at all.
On the other hand, some people claim that rainy and cloudy weather
makes them feel relaxed because the light is dimmed and the sound of
rain is like music to their ears.
Nevertheless, I disagree with this opinion. I think that dark and faded
colours cannot improve a person’s mood. The idea of a good mood itself
revolves around the sun and blue sky, so I believe cloudy weather forces
people to feel tired not relaxed.
All in all, I tend to think that various types of weather can affect
you in different ways, so they definitely have a great influence on your
mood. No weather is perfect, so not all weather is meant to be enjoyed.

7. It is not healthy to eat meat.


W hat is your opinion? Do you agree with this statement?
These days there is a popular opinion that meat is unhealthy to eat.
However, some people doubt it saying that eating meat is good for you.
Personally, I agree with the latter point of view.
First of all, I believe that meat is very nutritious as it contains all
the necessary proteins. When you eat it, your, body gets everything
it needs to work properly. Secondly, when cooked right, meat is not
too high in calories but it is still enough to keep you up and running.
A right number of calories is exactly what you need to stay healthy, so
eating meat is not bad to your health.
However, some people claim that eating meat is unhealthy as it is
not only usually cooked in plenty of oil, but also goes with other fat
food, so you tend to overeat. That is why these people say that meat is
harmful for your health.
Nevertheless, I do not agree with this opinion. I think th at you
decide how to eat meat - deep-fried or boiled - so the number of calories
depends on your preferences and meat itself has nothing to do with being
unhealthy.
All in all, I firmly believe that eating meat affects you and your
health in a good way. So, if you crave for some chicken or lamb, why
not eat them!

8. Teenagers should be allowed to read whatever books they like.


What is your opinion? Do you agree with this statement?
The subject of a teenagers’ book choice has been under heated debates
recently. Some people say that we should allow teens to read every text
they like whereas others believe that adolescents’ book list should be
verified. Personally, I find the former point o f view more truthful.
To start with, it is well-known that with the help of books people
have the chance of getting to know with the best thoughts of people
of different cultures and from different centuries. For this reason,
forbidding teenagers to read what they prefer is just unfair. What is
more, people tend to remember the information about something better
if they are interested in the topic. It is easier to broaden your horizons
when you love the way the text is written and what it is about. That
is why giving adolescents the right to choose whatever book they like
is very useful.
However, there are those who oppose to this point of view. They claim
that along with inappropriate films many books of the same quality
exist. They say we should take care o f what teenagers read otherwise
their mental health can be harmed.
Nevertheless, I cannot but adhere to my standpoint. I believe that
we learn life from books and if a teenager escapes from anything bad
written in a book, it does not guarantee that they will not meet it in
their real life.
To sum up, I hold the opinion that every adolescent should have a
free will to read whatever they want to.

9. Getting marks does not motivate students to study.


What is your opinion? Do you. agree with this statement?
The subject of students’ motivation has been under heated debates
recently. Some people think that getting marks does require students
to study harder whereas others say that there is no correlation between
grades and motivation. Personally,, I find the former point of view more
truthful.
First of all, from my point of view, the marks you get in the
educational institution are equal to the salary adults are paid. Grades
and future pay. are connected because after getting used to doing your
best at school or university you’ll do the same at work. Secondly, it
is a well-known fact that there are special grants for А -students in
university. This is why marks do motivate a student since the harder
you study the more you’ll get.
However, there are those who oppose to this. They believe that getting
marks does not encourage students to study, the marks we get at school
do not reflect anything. These people also say that working for grades
will not have any profit in the future.
Nevertheless, I cannot but adhere to my standpoint. I think that
marks are the reflection of the amount of energy you spend at school.
Also, getting grades helps you to strengthen your character which will
definitely help you after graduating.
To cut in a nutshell, I hold the opinion that getting marks does help
students to study and gives them motivation to do it better.

10. Some people think that it is better to study six days a week at
school.
What is your opinion? Do you agree with this, statement?
These days many people would agree that it is more appropriate for
pupils to study six days a week. Others argue we should not overestimate
students’ abilities and overload them with 5 -6 other classes on Saturday.
As for me, I believe studying on Saturdays should be prohibited.
To start with, the pupils who study five days a week have more spare
time they chn spend preparing school homework. It means teachers’
tasks will be done properly and that is really crucial for the process of
education. What is more, we do understand how significant it is to care
about students’ health. One of the main problems teenagers suffer from
is lack of sleep. That is why having two days o ff school allows them to
get enough sleep which helps young people to stay healthy.
On the other hand, as an old English proverb says “ a coin has two
sides” and there are people who subscribe to the opposite point of view.
They claim that students should always concentrate bn their studies even
on Saturdays because they would like to pass all final exams successfully
and to enter prestigious universities.
Nevertheless, I cannot agree with this statement. Little do we realise
that students always try to work hard in order to succeed in passing
their exams but they also need a break to relax before starting a new
week which is filled with obtaining new knowledge.
All things considered, in my opinion it is better to study five days a
week. Only in this way will the educational process be really efficient.

11. Fast food outlets should be closed.


What is your opinion? Do you agree with this statement?
These days many people share the opinion that fast food outlets ought
to go out of business. Others argue that we cannot do without them as
they help us in many different situations. As for me, I think it is better
to live without consuming fast food products.
To start with, junk food has a bad influence on human’ s health. Hardly
do we realise that having regular meals in fast food outlets increases our
chances of gaining serious diseases. For instance, it is widely known
that eating junk food regularly can lead to people becoming overweight.
What is more, the recent scientific researches show that if you eat fast
food on a daily basis, you will soon become addicted to it. This kind of
addiction is very hard to cure, so it is better to avoid eating fast food
products.
However, there are people who argue that fast food outlets are very
significant for modern citizens, especially for businessmen. At fast food
outlets people can have a quick lunch, which is very delicious at the
same time.
Nevertheless, I can’t agree with this statement. Maybe fast food is
tasty but it is definitely not wholesome for us. There are no vitamins
in it at all. If you want to live a long and prosperous life, you should
start eating naturally-grown food, containing ingredients which are vital
and health-giving for your body.
To sum up, I think people should try to live a healthy lifestyle, so
fast food outlets should be banned.

12. In any occupation discipline is more important than talent.


What is your opinion? Do you agree with this statement?
These days in our fast-developing world many character traits are
required to carry through different types of occupation. Some people
suppose that discipline is more crucial than talent while others believe
that you cannot manage any business without an inclination for it.
Personally, I do agree with the former point of view.
To start with, if a person is well-organised, it means they can
easily arrange their time so that their better results will be gained
in a shorter period. For instance, this way they will not be distracted
from necessary work by chatting with friends or surfing the Internet.
Moreover, discipline helps us set priorities. For example, to figure out
what should be done firstly. It not only lightens the work but also gives
us an opportunity to have time to complete more tasks.
However, some people have the other opinion. They consider that
the only way any occupation can be interesting and productive is when
a person is talented and creative. They think such a feature as self-
organisation is not enough to do qualitative work.
Nevertheless, I disagree with this viewpoint. Having a talent is not a
sign of success and quality. We know that many talented people waste
their time on unnecessary things and in most cases it turns into negative
consequences. It does not matter how creative you are if you cannot
manage your own business properly.
To sum up, although there are different opinions on this topic, I
firmly believe that discipline is the most important part regarding any
work.

13. Many years ago young people were more responsible and mature.
What is your opinion? Do you agree with this statement?
Some people, especially older ones, think that many years ago a young
generation was more reliable and grown-up. Others argue that modern
pace of life makes young people more rational. As for me, I suppose
that behaviour of many teenagers leaves much to be desired these days.
To begin with, in the past parents paid more attention to child-
rearing. Not only were they just stricter or more demanding, but also
endeavoured to foster important moral statures. These days it can often
be seen that children are left' to themselves and get into a bad company.
What is more, people used to be more religious. Faith tradition regulated
people’s behaviour, being some kind of dos and don’ts. Because of this,
there were not as many criminal cases with the involvement of the young
people as we have now.
On the other hand, some claim that young population is no longer
repressed by out-of-date principles and can become more independent
and take responsibility for their actions, so their immaturity is not
the case.
Nevertheless, I disagree with this point of view, many young people
cannot make the best of this freedom and instead of developing themselves
often become addicted to poor habits, to dependence and sponging these
days.
To sum up, although youths have more chances to take responsibility
for the life, very few of them can use it properly. I firmly believe that
many years ago young people were under stronger supervision and that’ s
why they were more responsible and mature to become the shield and
buckler of the family.

14. Some people think that a supermarket is a better place for


shopping than small local stores.
What is your opinion? Do you agree with this statement?
In today’ s rapidly changing world all aspects of our day-to-day life
are becoming more and more advanced. Hence, there’ s an opinion that
small local stores are gradually turning into a thing of the past, giving
way to huge supermarkets. There’re people, though, who still consider
local stores a better place for shopping. However, I do think saying so
is rather unreasonable.
First and foremost, it cannot be argued that the range of goods
supermarkets have to offer is much wider than a small local shop has.
Undoubtedly, the more you have to choose from, the higher is the chance
you will be pleased with the purchase. Furthermore, being it easier to
survive for them in the conditions of today’ s highly competitive market,
supermarkets are able to keep the prices down, while for small shops it
appears sometimes virtually impossible.
Those who prefer local stores anyway, however, emphasise the fact
that the supermarkets lack personal approach, whereas if you buy stuff
at the same small shop every week, the shop assistant gets to know you
and you can use their advice or have a small talk.
Although I cannot help but agree with that statement, I adhere
to my standpoint. Fortunately, our life still has so many wonderful
opportunities for people to communicate in person, that it seems silly
to cling to each and every of them if it is clearly not as convenient as
its modern equivalents.
To put it in a nutshell, I do believe nowadays a supermarket has
become a far better place for shopping than a local store. Tastes differ,
however, so everyone can opt for what they like but shopping malls have
the game in the hands anyway.

15. It is important for high school students tostudy compulsory


subjects, even if they do not see any need for them in the near future.
What is your opinion? Do you agree with this statement?
In today’s rapidly advancing world the education young specialists are
required to possess is becoming more and more profound and specific.
That’ s why high school students find themselves on the horns of a
dilemma: whether to study all the compulsory subjects or to concentrate
on those that may be useful in the future. As far as I am concerned,
the latter choice seems to be much more reasonable.
First and foremost, it is self-evident that nowadaysknowledge is
power, however, this concerns only knowledge in a particular field. For
example, if you are an adept at chemistry, your knowledge of the 14th-
century Italian literature is unlikely to be your advantage over other
chemists. Furthermore, unfortunate as it is, people tend to forget all the
information they feel no need for often enough. Seldom do doctors, for
instance, remember a word of a foreign language they studied at school
if they have not practised it since then.
Those who oppose this opinion, however, insist that only if a student
gets a well-rounded education, can he or she become an accomplished
person, otherwise our world will have narrow-minded people unable to
keep a dialogue alive.
Nevertheless, I adhere to my standpoint. It is the brightest students
who can afford to study both subjects they need on an advanced level
and the ones they see no need for whatsoever on a basic level, but I fear
it is one or the other for a mediocre student.
To put it in a nutshell, I strongly believe that in our competitive
society students should leave the subjects they do not need in middle
school in order to succeed.

16. Childhood is the safest period of human life.


What is your opinion? Do you agree with this statement?
Being children, we often heard that we were having the best, funniest
or safest time of our life, that is a widespread belief in our society.
However, that point of view is being criticised as well. Personally, I
do not think childhood can possibly be defined as the safest period of
human life.
First and foremost, it cannot be argued that a child’ s psyche is
extremely fragile and, therefore, the youngest members of the society
are at much bigger risk of suffering from a psychological trauma.
Professor Freud thought every problem of a person has its roots in
their childhood and he might have been right. Furthermore, a child has
few, if any, ways of escaping domestic violence. While a woman violated
by her husband can easily leave him, a child, as a rule, has nowhere
to go.
Those who consider childhood to be the most secure period of life,
though, claim that a child is always protected by grown-ups from any
financial problems his or her family may face, so a child is, so to say,
financially secure.
Although this is self-evident for most of the Western countries, I
stick to my standpoint. Only when the parents can somehow manage
to make ends meet, does their kid know almost nothing of the current
state of affairs. When it gets really bad, the child will be working in
order to feed his or her family, too, as it happens here and there in the
underdeveloped countries.
All things considered, true as it may be for a lucky kid, I believe
that childhood is not the safest period of each and every person’ s life.

17. Young people like travelling more than senior citizens.


What is your opinion?D o you agree with this statemen
In today’s globalised world the growing appeal for travelling seems
rather obvious. According to a common belief, it’s young people who
take most pleasure in this activity. Personally, I, however, firmly believe
that is just another myth to be shattered and senior citizens tend to
travel even more than the young.
First and foremost, no one can appreciate the freedom of going
wherever they like, but those who were deprived of it for almost a
lifetime. For the elderly of today lived most of their lives during the
Cold War seldom had they the opportunity to visit countries of the
hostile camp. Fortunately, nowadays they have that chance and few of
them intend to miss it. Furthermore, in high-speed frenzy of modern life
only when retirement comes, can you thoroughly enjoy travelling with
the aim of not simply escaping from everyday routine, but of broadening
your horizons.
Those who contradict this opinion, though, claim the older a person
gets, the more likely he or she is to adopt a couch-potato lifestyle and,
hence, not be so zealous to experience anything new.
Albeit I cannot help, but partly agree with this point of view, I adhere
to my standpoint. Everything depends on the country in question, since
the elderly of developed countries are growing more and more broad­
minded. I strongly hope this tendency will expand to the rest of the
world sooner or later.
All things considered, I would like to reiterate my point that senior
citizens take even more pleasure in travelling than young people do and
it is about time the majority woke up to this fact.

18. If you are fluent in English, you will not have communication
problems in any country of the world.
What is your opinion? Do you agree with this statement?
Hardly can it be argued that English is incontestably the international
language of today’ s world, so the assumption that being fluent in English
you can easily communicate with the whole world seems quite reasonable
to me, notwithstanding the fact there’ re a lot of opponents of this point
of view.
First of all, due to the globalisation tourist flow to different countries
is increasing rapidly and the more it flourishes, the better level of
command is demonstrated. Even the Moscow police are now obliged to
brush up their English! Awful as their pronunciation may be, you will
still be able to understand them.
The opponents of this idea, though, claim that if while travelling in
Russia, for instance, you found yourself in some village in the middle
of nowhere, your chances of finding an English-speaking person would
be slim, to say the least.
I can’t help but partly agree with this statement. Nonetheless,
I adhere to my standpoint. Seldom do the tourists try going somewhere
o ff the beaten track and visiting the popular tourist destination they are
bound to find someone who will understand them.
To put it in a nutshell, I am of the view that fluency in English will
spare your communication difficulties in any country of the world.

19. Big cities all over the world have lost their national identity and
now look the same.
What is your opinion? Do you agree with this statement?
Globalisation seems to be becoming more and more intense these
days. Although people from different countries are communicating more,
international business is flourishing, it is said that at the same time
countries start losing their identity and all the big cities have already
become similar. Personally, I do not share this opinion, though.
First and foremost, although there can be some modern structures
that look alike in big cities, each and every of them has its own history
and, hence, historical sights. Obviously, you can’ t mistake London for
another city because of the Tower Bridge, Big Ben, St Paul’s Cathedral,
etc. Furthermore, while constructing new buildings modern architects of
each country try their best to create something unique. Not only is it
ancient buildings that express the originality of London, but it can also
be, for instance, the Cucumber Tower.
Some people claim, however, that if you found yourself in some
bedroom community of a capital far away from the known sights, you
wouldn’t be able to tell the difference between Berlin and Paris.
Notwithstanding the fact that there’ s a grain of truth in this opinion,
I adhere to my standpoint. I don’ t think that two districts that seem
slightly alike can be enough to justify the claim that the whole cities
have become impossible to tell apart.
To put it in a nutshell, I am convinced that globalisation does no
harm to national identity and appearance of big cities.

20. You cannot become popular at school if you have low grades.
What is your opinion? Do you agree with this statement?
These days there is a common opinion that it is impossible to become
popular at school having low grades. However, some people doubt it
saying that marks are not the thing that really matters. Personally,
I agree with the former point of view.
First of all, I believe that school is a place where you gain knowledge
and experience, so the better you study, the more attention and positive
feedback from the teachers you get. Tutors will definitely appreciate
your persistence and praise you in front of other students. Moreover,
if you pass all your tests with flying colours, your peers will look up
on you and always ask for advice. Good marks can help students get
a great reputation that will make them more popular among other
pupils.
However, some people claim that grades have never been a big deal in
the question of popularity. They say that students can get school-famous
partying with their peers at discos, because many popular scholars spend
their free time this way. Thus, if you do so, you will make it into the
most famous school company.
Nevertheless, I do not agree with this point of view. I think that if
all you do is partying, you will get not famous but notorious for it, as
it will show your immaturity. I believe that to become popular you need
to stand out in the crowd, not be a part of such an ill-mannered group
of underage people.
Summing everything up, I would like to say that at school your results
affect your reputation greatly. Hence, it is crucial to get good marks in
order to become famous at school.

21. Travelling abroad helps to understand your own country.


What is your opinion? Do you agree with this statement?
In today’s globalised world where travelling is becoming more and
more popular there is an opinion that one can forget about one’s own
culture while exploring the other. The opponents of this opinion, though,
claim that travelling can even help to understand one’s own country.
Personally, I share the latter point of view.
First and foremost, having grown up in a certain culture you have it
inside you without realising it. Only when you are exposed to a completely
different culture, will you see what it is that makes your own culture
so unique. Furthermore, not only can foreign people introduce you to
their own country’s traditions, but they may also tell you how they see
your motherland and your fellow countrymen, which will undoubtedly
be of help.
The opponents of my point of view, however, emphasise the importance
of exploring the culture from the inside, rejecting the possibility to learn
anything new while being miles away from home.
Notwithstanding the fact that I cannot but agree with my opponents
about learning from the inside, I adhere to my standpoint. Great though
may seem to you understanding of your own culture, without your
knowing the perception of it from the outside it would still be lop-sided.
To put it in a nutshell, I strongly believe that travelling can help one
better understand one’s own culture while broadening one’s horizons and
showing one everything from a foreigner’s point of view.

22. A popular actor’s life is always fun.


What is your opinion? Do you agree with this statement?
In today’s world where film industry is on its highest point, the
cherished desire of more and more teenagers is becoming an actor, since
they presume their lives are going to become nothing but merriment
and prosperity. Personally, I, however, object to this point of view for
a number of reasons.
First and foremost, not only do actors have fun going out to clubs
and parties in their free time, but they also face plenty of difficulties
the most obvious of which seems to be lack of privacy. Being always
in the public eye means yellow press constantly making up savoury
stories about you, let alone discussing every aspect of your private life.
Furthermore, numerous actors wouldn’t have been so successful but for
their devotion to their job and readiness to make sacrifices. Are all
teenage girls prepared to shave their heads for a role like Karen Gillan
— did to become Nebula in “ Guardians of the Galaxy” ? I suppose not, just
as they wouldn’t put up 20 pounds like Renee Zellweger for “ Bridget
Jones’s Diary” .

66
However, it is claiming that fashionable parties raid luxurious
ceremonies actors attend can easily make up for far-fetchedinconveniences
of their lives.
Despite this widespread belief, I adhere to my standpoint. Recognition
is a mere tip o f the iceberg beneath which lie long hours of hard and
strenuous work every day. Actors are often forced to make ends meet
as nobody wants to give them parts in films or performances.
To put it in a nutshell, glorious though a celebrity’s life may seem,
I do believe it is not entirely as splendid as hordes of screaming fans
believe.

23. Too much parents’ love can spoil a child.


What is your opinion? Do you agree with this statement?
Nowadays the question of how you should bring up your children is
becoming a topic of a more and more heated debate. Some people say
you should love your children unconditionally, while others note that too
much parents’ love will inevitably spoil the young. Personally, I agree
with the latter point of view.
First and foremost, not only can a child praised too much by his parents
start to look down on other people, but he may also develop disrespect to
the parents themselves. Furthermore, should the things a child does be
estimated inadequately, his moral principles may be formed in a wrong
way, which will lead to conflicts and problems in his future life.
The opponents of this opinion claim, however, that threating your
children too strictly can cause psychological problems lasting for a
child’ s entire life. Sigmund Freud did believe that all the roots of adult
self-deprecation and other problems lie in the childhood.
Notwithstanding the fact that I cannot but agree with the renowned
psychiatrist, I adhere to my standpoint. Strict though the upbringing
of our grandparents was, they seemed to have pretty happy lives. It is
finding the middle ground between being too hard and too lenient what
a good parent must reach.
To put it in a nutshell, I do believe that parents should love their
children, but never turn a blind eye to their misbehaviour.

24. Sewing and knitting clothes at home is a waste of time and money.
What is your opinion? Do you agree with this statement?
In today’s trendy world the main objective of eccentric teenagers
has become self-expression. That’ s why a great number of modern girls
take up hobbies their grandmothers were keen on - sewing and knitting,
which nowadays are considered by some a complete waste of time and
money. Personally, I do not share this opinion and do believe the effort
put in sewing or knitting clothes is indisputably going to be paid off.
First and foremost, only if you make your clothes yourself, provided
you possess a certain level of creativity, can you be sure they are
unique. Assuredly, designer clothes can be one of a kind as well, but
they are undoubtedly much more expensive. Furthermore, this can be an
additional source of income, since if you are skilful enough, not only can
you make your own clothing items, but you also have the opportunity
to sell them to others in order to make some money.
Those who oppose this opinion, however, claim that the quality of
a handmade piece of clothing might not be up to the stock clothes’
standard, so they are not worthy of rubbing your fingers to the bone
while making it.
Notwithstanding the faet that there’s a grain of truth in this opinion,
I adhere to my standpoint. Quantity makes quality, so the more you sew
or knit, the better you become at it.
To put it in a nutshell, I strongly believe sewing and knitting are
hobbies of great usefulness and taking them up may not only save you
some money, but also bring you satisfaction.

25. It is not right to be strict with little children.


What is your opinion ?D o you agree with this statement
The question o f how parents should bring up their children has always
been a subject of heated debates. In the past being strict with one’ s
children was generally considered to be right, but nowadays more and
more people are saying that this is not an option. Personally, I agree
witk t k ш аad, mam Medm neiit a# vim.
First and foremost, it’ s scientifically proven that the roots of most
adult psychological problems lie in the childhood, as Sigmund Freud
noticed more than a hundred years ago. By being too strict with your
child you may do harm to his or her mental health. Furthermore, only
if a child trusts his or her parent completely, can they become really
close. It’s self-evident you will not trust anyone you fear might punish
you with your secrets.
The opponents of the coneept o f being lenient to small children,
though, claim that not only may the children of indulgent parents grow
up to be rude, but they will also never become mature.
Notwithstanding the fact that I cannot but agree that such a situation
is possible, I adhere to my standpoint. Effective as punishment may be
in terms of making a child behave themselves, it is not the only option.
There are many other methods of upbringing which do not include being
too strict.
To put in a nutshell, I do believe that parents should not be strict
with their little children, however effective they may find it.

26. Clothes people are wearing can influence their behaviour.


What is your opinion? Do you agree with this statement?
These days there is a popular opinion that people’s behaviour is based
on clothes they are wearing. However, some people doubt it saying the
way they dress does not influence the way they act. Personally, I agree
with the former point of view.
First o f all, I believe that the uniform, for example, people are
wearing affects them in a good way because it makes students more
concentrated during lessons as they focus on learning, not on the way
they look. Moreover, I think that if clothes are too open, they make
people feel insecure. Thus, he or she acts in a more reserved way. People
usually feel uncomfortable wearing vests, shorts or bikinis, so their
behaviour changes.
However, some people claim that clothes have nothing to do with the
way they act. They say that each person has a unique character that
cannot be influenced by the way they are dressed, because what really
matters is a person’s inner world.
Nevertheless, I do not subscribe to this point of view. I am of the
view that clothes express a person’ s individuality, so wearing what they
like makes them feel happier. Thus, a person tends to be more friendly,
open-minded and active.
All in all, I firmly believe that clothes we are wearing influence our
behaviour greatly. An eye-catching outfit that a person likes is a key to
being themselves and feeling overall happy and independent.

27. Buying souvenirs is a waste of money.


What is your opinion? Do you agree with^ this statement?
According to statistics, over the last few years souvenirs sales have
increased greatly. Nowadays you can find stalls selling magnets and
postcards even in the most remote areas of the world. Some people think
that buying souvenirs is a complete waste of money while others believe
they are worth buying. Personally, I share the latter point of view.
Undoubtely, souvenirs have some advantages. First and foremost,
it is memory. I mean people buy souvenirs so that they remind them
of the trips they took and the places they visited. Moreover, some
souvenirs, for example, carpets, paintings and so on, can be used as
interior decorations. By the way, some people even collect coins, magnets
or postcards.
However, some people claim that souvenirs are absolutely useless and
are not worthy of spending money on them. They also say that today
souvenirs are becoming more and more expensive.
Nevertheless, I cannot agree with this opinion. Nowadays there is a
wide range of souvenirs and everyone can find something to suit his
or her pocket and taste. You can also buy things such as umbrellas,
neckerchiefs, T-shirts or even jewelleries as they are both practical and
memorable.
All in all, I firmly believe that souvenirs are worthy of the money
they cost. Eventually, it is not all about magnets and postcards. In
today’s world every person can choose something special that will help
cherish their memories forever.

28. Everybody should be able to cook.


What is your opinion? Do you agree with this statement?
In our fast-moving world people have almost no time for cooking, and
they prefer eating out or ordering a takeaway. Some people still think
that everyone should have basic cookery skills while others believe that
now there is no need to prepare food by yourself. Personally, I identify
myself with the first point of view.
To start with, nutrition is one of our most basic needs, so everyone
should be able to support their life unaided. Moreover, home-cooked meal
is healthy and tasty as you have an opportunity to choose fresh and
qualitative ingredients and cook whatever you want and whenever you
want. In this way, you also feel a great deal of independence. Finally,
if you are able to cook, you can treat your friends and relatives with a
delicious cake, for example.
However, some people claim that in our modern world they are just
too busy to cook themselves while cooking requires a lot of time and
you are not always pleased with the results. So, they prefer eating at
a restaurant or at a cafe or simply buying food in the nearest super­
market.
Nevertheless, I cannot share this opinion. Cooking is a long process
but this time is worth spending because eating out is much more
expensive and not everyone can afford to do it while living on dry
rations is harmful to your health. Besides, you are more likely to get
food poisoning when you eat somewhere at a cafe.
All in all, I firmly believe that everyone should be able to cook. It is
an essential skill that everyone should acquire as it is almost taken for
granted and can prove to be really useful in your life.

29. Exams are a fair way of testing knowledge.


What is your opinion? Do you agree with this statement?
The issue of traditional examinations frequently generates a great
deal of heated debates. Most people claim that it is reliable while testing
students’ capabilities. Still, others think that exams may prevent a
person from demonstrating their genuine knowledge. Personally, I totally
disagree with those who say that exams are effective.
In my opinion, an exam often provides an inaccurate presumption
of a test taker’s intelligence. In the first place, an exam is likely to
check a student’ s ability to do tests rather than authentic knowledge.
As a result, a student with well-developed test-taking skills may have
an edge over that with a deeper knowledge of a subject. Furthermore,
the multiple choice format of most exams limits creativity. Therefore,
students who think outside the box tend to have problems demonstrating
their outstanding capabilities.
On the other hand, it is argued that the standardised system of most
exams ensures that students in each part of the state are equal while
writing the finals. Not only do the questions remain unchanged but there
is also a universally fair grading system provided regardless of where
an exam is taken. .
Nevertheless, I am still convinced that exams are not so advantageous.
The standardised system suggests that students know what to expect
from an exam. Thus, there are a lot of opportunities for cheating.
Consequently, the results may turn out to be unfair.
Taking everything into account, whilst there are strong arguments in
favour of exams, I firmly believe that they are not as reliable as they
seem to be.

30. Exams motivate students to study harder.


What is your opinion? Do you agree with this statement?
Nowadays, fortunately or unfortunately, we cannot imagine our
school life without exams. Some people think it is a good motivation for
students to study harder while others believe that teenagers’ progress
in studies does not depend on exams. Personally, I identify myself with
the first point of view.
To start with, I believe all of us want to enter a prestigious university
and have a well-paid and rewarding job in the future. So, students have
to study hard at school because without passing all their exams with
flying colours they will not achieve these goals. Moreover, teenagers
spend a great deal of time preparing for their exams as the results they
will have are considered to be the indicators of their knowledge and, of
course, no one wants to fail.
However, some people claim that everything depends on a person.
If some students do not want to study, even exams cannot encourage
them to change their mind, and vice versa. Those who are interested in
learning something new do it without any incentive.
Nevertheless, I cannot share this opinion. Even the laziest ones are
forced to study harder when they know that they must take exams which
will have an impact on all their future life, especially on their career.
And diligent pupils will try to do their best to achieve great results, too.
All in all, I firmly believe that exams inspire students to study harder.
It is a crucial moment in our life and we try to prepare for it as well
as possible.

31. Public libraries are becoming less popular and they will soon
disappear.
What is your opinion? Do you agree with this statement?
The issue of public libraries is quite controversial nowadays. Most
people claim that they are no longer necessary in a day of instant
technology and are likely to disappear in the near future. Still, others
think that public libraries will manage to survive. Personally, I disagree
with those who say that public libraries will be in demand.
In my opinion, a library can be compensated by the Internet. In the
first place, going to the library is time-consuming. One has to scroll the
contents of numerous books to find the material, whereas the Internet
helps get the information more quickly and without even leaving home.
Furthermore, a library holds a limited number of titles. Therefore, a
book might not be available and a person will have to wait until it is
returned.
On the other hand, it is argued that libraries contribute to the
research being done effectively. Silence and a study environment suggest
that one can concentrate on the work while the Internet tempts a person
with incoming messages and advertising pop-ups which take the focus
away from work.
Nevertheless, I am still convinced that the library is not as beneficial as
it is considered to be. The focus and attention depend on the personality
rather than the source of information. An individual can get distracted
even in a library if he or she is not serious about the work.
Taking everything into account, whilst there are strong arguments in
favour of public libraries, I firmly believe that they will struggle to keep
current in view of modern technology dominating our life.

32. One must discuss all important decisions in the family circle.
What is your opinion? Do you agree with this statement?
Sometimes people face really controversial situations and they do not
know what to do. Some of them think it is a good idea to discuss their
problems in the family circle while others believe it is up to everyone
to decide what to do in this or that situation. Personally, I share the
former opinion.
I do believe that people should discuss all important decisions with
their family members. First of all, when you share your problems with
someone else, you are likely to get a useful piece of advice. It will help
you find a solution more quickly. Moreover, it is vitally important to
discuss issues which might affect your family members because you
cannot make such resolutions without their agreement. Finally, it is
better when you have a variety of solutions to choose from. You can
think over all pros and cons and decide on the best option.
However, some people claim that nobody can solve your problems
better than you yourself, so you should not discuss it with anybody else.
It is your own business. Sometimes bad advice can lead you astray.
Nevertheless, I cannot agree with this point of view. You are not
expected to follow someone’s advice strictly. You should just listen to
others and then make your own conclusion. Sometimes you can be given
such extraordinary but still effective advice that you cannot find yourself.
All in all, I firmly believe that discussing your problems in the family
circle is a really good idea. Eventually, a problem shared is a problem
solved as the old English proverb says.

33. School plays a major role in the life of teenagers.


What is your opinion? Do you agree with this statement?
Nowadays teenagers almost cannot imagine their life without school
no matter what they think about it. Some people believe that school is an
essential part of students’ life while others are of the opinion it is not
so important. Personally, I identify myself with the first point of view.
To my mind, school is part and parcel of our life. First of all, we
should definitely take into account that we spend a great amount of time
at school or doing our homework, so it is one of the major points in our
activities. Furthermore, it plays a vital role in our nurture as we get a
great deal of knowledge at school and our personalities are also formed
there. Finally, the acquaintances we make at school usually stay with us
forever so it influences our future life.
However, some people claim that we should not overestimate the
role school plays in our life. They think that school curriculum is too
complicated but still does not teach any practical skills which students
need for work.
Nevertheless, I cannot share this opinion. School prepares children for
their later life and ones who pay necessary attention to school subjects
and extracurricular activities are usually more likely to be successful in
their coming life rather than those who miss classes and ignore teachers’
advice.
All in all, I firmly believe it goes without saying that school does play
a core role in teenagers’ life. It has a huge impact on their destiny, so
people usually cherish school memories forever.

34. Sport unites people.


What is your opinion? Do you agree with this statement?
Nowadays sport is gaining more and more popularity among humans
all over the world. Some people claim that sport brings people together
while others think that it divides them. Personally, I share the former
point of view.
To start with, sport cannot help but unite the members of the same
team. People learn to cooperate with each other, trust each other, be
responsible and tolerant, That is why it is a good idea for children to
play team sports so that they develop these positive traits of character
from the early age. Furthermore, sport brings people of all nationalities
together no matter what political situation is in this or that country.
Even wars are stopped during sports events. Needless to say, that
sportsmen make new acquaintances during such events.
However, some people argue that sport does not unite people but vice
versa. They think it breeds bitter strife among people. They are jealous
of each other’ s achievements, so they even might try to do harm to
each other.
Nevertheless, I cannot agree with this opinion. Such cases are single
and they depend on a person and his or her upbringing, so they can be
easily prevented. Eventually, people must understand that sport is just
a game and they should not pay too much attention to it.
All in all, I firmly believe that sport truly unites people. Of course,
there can be some problems but I am sure they can be easily dealt with.
35. Everyone should spend some time serving in the army.
What is your opinion? Do you agree with this statement?
Hardly anyone would opt for serving in the army unless the evasion
was punishable. Nevertheless, there are those who consider some time in
the army necessary not only for men but also for women. I do believe
they fail to take into account some indispensable aspects.
First and foremost, numerous scientific breakthroughs are yet to be
made. In my opinion, some people are far better at mental tasks than at
manual ones. Hence, the military service appears a waste of time for a
vast majority of people. Another compelling reason is that the modern
army tends to be condemned as profitless for people o f both genders
as the need for soldiers has dropped sharply recently. I do also believe
that the commonplace notion of army being a cruel and dangerous place
holds water.
On the other hand, however, there are those who claim that the army
fosters determination and will power. According to them, it is beneficial
for both mind and body and should be made compulsory for everyone.
Nevertheless, as far as I am concerned, these people have not yet
woken up to the fact that the army does provoke violence and cruelty.
To my mind, the best qualities of people should be revealed peacefully
and not in the military service.
All things considered, I reiterate my opinion that serving in the
army is not up to everyone. In my opinion, it’s high time it was made
voluntary.

36. It is better to see a film version rather than read a book.


What is your opinion? Do you agree with this statement?
In high speed frenzy of the modern world we have hardly any time for
relaxing, let alone reading. Hence, the overwhelming majority of people
tend to opt for a film version of a book instead of the original book itself.
If I was asked to choose, however, I would undoubtedly opt for a book.
In my opinion, the main objective of a piece of writing is to provide
the reader with a plunge into the world of the characters. When it comes
to films, impressive though special effects may be, they would not create
a better image than your imagination could. Another compelling reason
is that portrayals of characters may not live up to one’ s expectations and
thus spoil the average impression. For me personally, getting to know
the characters and the plot down the line seems the most pleasurable
part of a book. In the light of the above, I do prefer books to their
film versions.
On the other hand, some people claim that a well-directed film based
on a book is well worth watching. They do suppose it is an adequate
exchange for time and money.
Notwithstanding the totally obvious saving of time, I stick to my
point of view. As far as I am concerned, reading a book is more of an
entertainment than a chore. Given this fact, I do not see the point of
opting for the film just for the sake of saving time.
AH things considered, watching a film version is definitely not my cup
of tea, but tastes differ, so some people, understandably, prefer films.

37. People cannot do without cars these days.


What is your opinion? Do you agree with this statement?
In our fast-moving world people pay more attention to different means
of transport, especially to cars. Some of them believe it is an important
invention, which has changed the world, while others think the world
would be better without cars. In my opinion, cars play a significant role
in our everyday life for several reasons.
First of all, using cars helps us to save our time, as we do not have to
wait for the public transport. Moreover, you can create your own short
way to the place of destination. Secondly, using cars is more comfortable
than using public transport, as it is your own one, your property.
Furthermore, you can create your own design or even the atmosphere
in the passenger compartment, forgetting hustle and bustle outside.
On the other hand, some people believe cars make lots of trouble. They
create traffic jams, produce car fumes, which lead to the environmental
problems, such as air, water, noise pollution.
In my opinion, cars do harm to the ecology, however, without cars
we would have problems travelling to the countryside, for instance, out
of the city, or even with the delivery of goods. Nevertheless, there are
ecologieally-friendly cars, which cannot damage the ecosystem.
All in all, I do not think we could imagine our lives without cars.
Using them makes our living less difficult, more dynamic and convenient,
giving us the opportunity to save our time.

38. A good teacher should always be strict and exacting.


What is your opinion? Do you agree with this statement?
It goes without saying that a teacher plays a vital role in the
educational process. Some people think that teachers should be strict and
demanding in order to make this process more effective, while others
argue that it is better to be prepossessing to spark the interest in the
subject. As for me, I think a teacher should instil respect and a bit of
fear to the students. y
To begin with, it cannot be denied that discipline in the class has always
been part and parcel of teaching. It allows students to concentrate on
their work and pay attention to the teacher, without getting sidetracked
by secondary matters. Apart from this, students are bound to have a
responsible attitude towards their homework. Not only will they just
do it, but they also make efforts to do it properly for fear of being
punished.
On the other hand, some people claim that excessive severity can have
a negative impact on a student’s mind, leading to anxiety and stress.
Nevertheless, I disagree with this opinion, if a student does their
best, there will be no need for them to worry.
To sum up, I firmly believe that it is a good idea for a teacher to be
both demanding and prepossessing, but there is certainly no room for
back-slapping in the relationship between a student and a teacher.

39. It is very important to get along with your neighbours.


What is your opinion? Do you agree with this statement?
These days lots of people live in blocks of flats and have neighbours.
Some people believe that there is no point in being on good terms with
them. Others argue that it is very important to get along with people
living next door. Personally, I do not think you should have conflicts
with your neighbours either.
To start with, your neighbours can help you in a difficult situation.
For example, if you are far away from your apartment, and something
will happen with it, they will always call and inform you about the
problem. Moreover, constant conflicts with the people living very near
to you will not do anything good for them or for you. Is not it better
to live in mutual understanding and agreement rather than argue and
live in the nervous atmosphere? I believe, the answer is obvious.
On the other hand, there are people who have a different point of
view. They believe that it is unnecessary to get on with your neighbours.
In this way, they will not pry into your personal life or. tell you about
their problems. Our life is full of other problems.
Nevertheless, I disagree with this opinion. Good neighbours will never
be interested in your personal life. Also, I think people living next door
should always try to help each other. Who will first call you if your
apartment is flooded? Of course, your neighbours will.
To sum up, it is highly important for me to get on with my neighbours.
I firmly believe that it is much better to live in friendship with them
than in constant conflicts.

40. It is better for animals to live in the zoo.


What is your opinion D
? o you agree with this statement?
These days, by gauging public opinion, we can conclude that the
question of whether it is better for animals to live in the zoo or not has
become a bone of contention in our society. Some people firmly believe
that living in their natural habitat has a detrimental effect on animals,
while others argue that cages in zoos are not the right places for species
which used to live in freedom. Personally, I identify myself with the
second statement. .
I think some animals may find it difficult to get accustomed to life
in cages on the grounds that it differs from the atmosphere of freedom.
For instance, food in zoos is delivered strictly on the rigid schedule and
it may cause physical disorder. Moreover, as far as I am concerned, zoo
workers often do not understand what animals are in desperate need of.
Hence, it appears to me that such superficial knowledge of endangered
species’ feelings can lead to their death and extinction.
On the other hand, many people claim that poaching is a threat that
even the strongest animals are not able to cope with and in this case
zoos offer a unique opportunity for animals to live safe and sound in
the restricted area.
Nonetheless, much though I respect such a point of view, I still
do think that poaching has declined in recent years because national
governments have succeeded in the fight with illegal hunting.
In conclusion, I would like to reiterate that we had better let animals
live in their natural habitat due to the fact that it is their unique way
of existence that we should not meddle in.
Список тем по разделам кодификатора ЕГЭ /
\ для тренировки /
A. Повседневная жизнь и быт, распределение домашних
обязанностей в семье. Покупки.
1. Boys should learn how to cook.
2. Household chores make families quarrel.
3. Even small children must have household chores.
4. Shopping is the best relaxation.
5. A supermarket is the best place for food shopping.
6. Buying food products at the market supports Russian farmers.

Б. Жизнь в городе и сельской местности. Проблемы города


и села.
1. Life in the city centre is better than in its suburbs.
2. Living in the countryside opens up more new opportunities for young
people.
3. Only big cities need good roads.
4. Only people who live in the countryside keep traditions alive.
5. The most efficient kind of transport is the underground.
6. Bicycle is the transport of the future.

B. Общение в семье и школе, семейные традиции, межлич­


ностные отношения с друзьями и знакомыми.
1. An extended family is an example of friendly relations among its
members.
2. A new-born baby always has a warm welcome to the family.
3. Gardening is the tradition strengthening family ties.
4. Bullying is a common thing in modern schools.
5. Neighbours are a kind of relatives to us.
6. Love at first sight is unbelievable.
7. Early marriage leads to misunderstanding in the near future.
8. The more children there are in the family, the stronger the family
ties are.
9. It is great to be an only child.
10. Having a room of your own is better than sharing it with your siblings.
11. Curiosity helps to make friends.
12. Eye contact in communication shows that you are interested and
trustworthy.
13. Collecting things is the hobby of the past generations.
14. Learning from home gives students more opportunities.
15. New technologies will replace traditional methods of teaching.
16. Boarding schools form the student’ s character.
17. An excellent mark at school is the best way to praise the student.

Г. Здоровье и забота о нём, самочувствие, медицинские


услуги.
1. Regular exercise makes you feel more energised throughout the day.
2. Yoga is a natural stress fighter.
3. Having a family doctor is the best idea for every family.
4. Private hospitals and clinics can guarantee a successful cure.
5. A regular visit to the doctor prevents serious diseases.

Д. Роль молодёжи в современном обществе, её интересы


и увлечения.
1. All young people should try themselves in politics.
2. International festivals unite young people and strengthen friendship
among them.
3. Young people today expect only pleasure from life and society.
4. More young people should work in the state organs of power.
5. Young people today have more opportunities to develop their interests
and abilities than it was in the past.

E. Досуг молодёжи: посещение кружков, спортивных


секций, клубов по интересам. Переписка*
1. A sense of humour can make you the heart and soul of any company.
2. Paying compliments gives people your encouragement.
3. Writing letters develops communicative skills of young people.
4. Most young people today have no intellect.
5. A hobby is a time-killing activity.

Ж. Родная страна и страны изучаемого языка. Их геогра­


фическое положение, климат, население, города и сёла,
достопримечательности.
1. Russian winter is the best season of all.
2. Africa is the last place people can travel to.
3. The most picturesque nature on the globe is Russian nature.
4. Spring and autumn make us bored and pessimistic.
5. Country studying is a must for all foreign language learners.

3. Путешествие по своей стране и за рубежом, осмотр


достопримечательностей.
1. A family trip is always beneficial.
2. The coolest trip is visiting an exotic country.
3. It is a must to travel twice a year.
4. Travelling makes people bored and exhausted.
5. Visiting museums and art galleries broadens your mind.

И. Природа и проблемы экологии.


1. It is impossible to solve ecological problems of the planet Earth.
2. Water pollution can kill the mankind.
3. Deforestation on the planet Earth is inevitable.
4. People must leave the city with bad ecology.
5. The world climatic changes can be stopped.

К. Культурно-исторические особенности своей страны и


стран изучаемого языка.
1. Only culture makes a country unique.
2. Russian traditions should not be lost and forgotten.
3. British people are more conservative that Russian people.
4. Every person should know traditional folk songs and dances.
5. Every country has its customs and we must respect them.

<JI. Вклад России и стран изучаемого языка в развитие


науки и мировой культуры.
1. Space travelling is a hobby of the near future.
2. Working on the orbital space station needs unusual skills and abilities.
3. People will enjoy living more than 200 years.
4. Russian culture provides peace and friendship among nations.
5. Moscow and St Petersburg have gained a greater popularity among
foreign tourists as compared to other Russian towns and cities.

М. Современный мир профессий, рынок труда.


1. A university student should have a part-time job to get experience.
2. School pupils should be informed about job requirements in the
country.
3. Career counselling is a must in all Russian schools.
4. Working professions are no longer popular.
5; School teachers are responsible for their children’s career.

H. Возможности продолжения образования в высшей


школе.
I. Higher education should be free.
2. Technical school (vocational school) is more beneficial than university.
3. It is better to live in a campus while studying abroad.
4. Learning at a British or American university gives more opportunities
for Russian students.
5. If you fail the RNE (Russian National Exam), you have no chance of
getting higher education.

0 . Планы на будущее, проблема выбора профессии.


1. The profession of a teacher has lost its popularity and prestige.
2. Your parents are the best advisers while choosing a future job.
3. Any advice is useless when choosing a future career.
4. A childhood dream is often a reality.
5. It is wrong to choose a university before choosing a career.

П. Роль владения иностранными языками в современном


мире.
1. Speaking English with a new-born baby makes it possible to use it as
its mother tongue.
2. English will open all doors.
3. Chinese is the global language of the future.
4. It is no use learning foreign languages as modern electronic translators
have been invented.
5. British textbooks give more profound knowledge in learning English
than the books published in Russia.

P. Школьное образование. Изучаемые предметы, отноше­


ние к ним. Каникулы.
1. Mathematics can boost your memory and help you learn better.
2. Primary school is the best period of school education.
3. High school is the most memorable time of learning.
4. English should not be a compulsory Russian National Exam.
5. History should be a compulsory Russian National Exam.

С. Научно-технический прогресс, его перспективы


и последствия.
1. Future belongs to the alternative sources of energy.
2. It is dangerous to predict what new technologies will be like in a few
years’ time.
3. The development of science and technology will make our life worse.
4. Life in space is a pure dream.
5. Transport of the future will still be dangerous for people.

Т. Новые информационные технологии.


1. New information technologies will reduce the level of education.
2. IT technologies cannot provide successful teaching at schools.
3. Every teacher uses modern technologies in teaching the younger
generation.
4. IT technologies make an educational process more productive.
5. The world without IT technologies will be regressing.

У. Праздники и знаменательные даты в различных


странах мира.
1. International holidays like Christmas and Easter can unite people of
the world.
2. A noisy party is the best idea when celebrating a holiday.
3. Holidays today are made of money.
4. Long New Year holidays make people lazy.
ГЛАВА 6 г
~~\ Список тем для самостоятельной работы /

1. A good teacher should always be strict and exacting (demanding).


2. A pupil cannot study effectively without a computer.
3. A university degree is a must for success in the modern world.
4. All work experience - even unpaid work experience - is valuable.
5. Big cities all over the world have lost their national identity and now
look the same.
6. Buying souvenirs is a waste of money.
7. Everybody should be able to cook:
8. Everybody Would like to work from home.
9. Everyone should spend some time serving in the army.
10. Exams motivate students to study harder.
11. Getting marks does not motivate students to study.
12. Having a wide circle of friends is better than having just a few.
13. If you are fluent in English, you will not have communication
problems in any country of the world.
14. In a big city you can hardly do without the car.
15. In any occupation discipline is more important than talent.
16. In our time clothes play an important part in the life of young
people.
17. It is beneficial in many ways to host international sports events.
18. It is easy to follow a healthy lifestyle.
19. It is not important to keep and observe traditions and customs.
20. It is the government’s responsibility to protect theenvironment.
21. It is very important to get along with your neighbours.
22. It is a pity that people do not write real letters anymore. The
Internet is great for information but poor for sharing thoughts and
emotions.
23. It is a waste of time to read the same book more than once.
24. It is impossible to learn English at home by yourself.
25. It is never too late to change your life.
26. It is not healthy to eat meat.
27. It is not worth going on holiday to the same place more than once.
28. Speaking a foreign language is an important skill.
29. Living on campus is the best option for students.
30. Many years ago, young people were more responsible and mature.
31. Movies serve only for entertainment.
32. One TV set for a family is enough.
33. Online newspapers will soon replace printed newspapers.
34. Playing computer games teaches us nothing.
35. Public libraries are becoming less popular and they will soon
disappear.
36. School plays a major role in the life of teenagers.
37. Some people think that it is better to study 6 days a week at school.
38. Some people think that social networks can substitute real-life
communication.
39. Some people think that winning is the only thing that matters in
sport.
40. Some people think that within 50 years there will be no families.
41. Some students believe that homework should be optional.
42. Sport unites people.
43. Tattoos and piercings make young people look more attractive.
44. Technological advances make societies less human.
45. Teenagers must earn their pocket money themselves.
46. Teenagers should be allowed to read whatever books they like.
47. The best holiday is in the countryside.
48. The best holidays and festivals are those with specific traditions for
celebrating.
49. The best things in life are free.
50. The house is the best place to rest.
51. The school uniform is useless.
52. There is no weather you cannot enjoy.
53. To be healthy people should eat only food that is produced locally.
54. To get enough exposure to art and learn to understand it — it is
enough to go on virtual excursions via the Internet.
55. Today teenagers are only friends on the Internet.
56. Today young people think only about making money and career.
57. Too much parent’ s love can spoil a child.
58. Two foreign languages are compulsory to learn for every pupil.
59. When 16 years old, teenagers should not ask their parents for pocket
money.
60. You cannot become popular at school if you have low grades.
61. Young people like travelling more than senior citizens.
62. Young people prefer Internet communication to personal contacts.
63. One must discuss all important decisions in the family circle.
ГЛ А В А 7

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КРИТЕРИИ ОЦЕНИВАНИЯ ЗАДАНИЯ 40
(Максимальный балл — 14)

| Бал­ Решение коммуникативной Организация текста


лы задачи

К1 К2

3 Задание выполнено полно­ Высказывание логично; сред­


стью: содержание полно и ства логической связи исполь­
точно отражает все аспек­ зованы правильно; структура
ты, указанные в задании; текста соответствует предло­
стилевое оформление речи женному плану; текст пра­
выбрано правильно (допу­ вильно разделён на абзацы
скается 1 нарушение ней­
трального стиля)

2 Задание выполнено частич­ Высказывание в основном


но: 1—2 аспекта содержа­ логично (имеются 1—2 ло­
ния, указанные в задании, гические ошибки), И/ИЛИ
раскрыты не полностью или имеются 1— 2 недостатка при
неточно; стилевое оформле­ использовании средств логи­
ние речи в основном пра­ ческой связи, И/ИЛИ имеют­
вильно (допускается 2—3 ся 1—2 отклонения от плана
нарушения нейтрального в структуре высказывания,
стиля) И/ИЛИ имеются 1—2 недо­
статка при делении текста на
абзацы

1 Задание выполнено не пол­ В высказывании имеются


ностью: в содержании 1—2 3—4 логические ошибки,
аспекта не раскрыты, ИЛИ И/ИЛИ имеются 3—4 ошибки
3—4 аспекта содержания в использовании средств ло­
раскрыты неполно или не­ гической связи, И/ИЛИ име­
точно, ИЛИ 1 аспект не ются 3—4 отклонения от
раскрыт и 1—2 аспекта со­ предложенного плана; имеют­
держания раскрыты непол­ ся 3—4 недостатка в делении
но или неточно; имеются текста на абзацы
ошибки в стилевом оформ­
лении речи (допускается 4
нарушения нейтрального
стиля)

0 Задание не выполнено: все В высказывании имеются 5


случаи, не указанные в оце­ и более логических ошибок,
нивании на 1, 2 и 3 балла, И/ИЛИ имеются 5 и бо­
ИЛИ ответ не соответствует лее ошибок в использовании
требуемому объёму, ИЛИ средств логической связи, И /
более 30 % ответа имеет ИЛИ предложенный план от­
непродуктивный характер вета полностью не соблюдает­
(т. е. текстуально совпадает ся, И/ИЛИ деление текста на
с опубликованным источни­ абзацы отсутствует
ком)
Лексика Грамматика ; Орфография и
Баллы

КЗ К4 К5

3 Используемый сло­ Используемые грам­


варный запас соот­ матические сред­
ветствует высокому ства соответствуют
уровню сложности высокому уровню
задания; практи­ сложности задания,
чески нет наруше­ нарушений практи­
ний в использо­ чески нет (допуска­
вании лексики (до­ ются 1-2 не повто­
пускается 1 лекси­ ряющиеся грамма­
ческая ошибка) тические ошибки)
2 Используемый сло­ Используемые грам­ Орфографические
варный запас соот­ матические сред­ ошибки практиче­
ветствует высоко­ ства соответствуют ски отсутствуют;
му уровню слож­ высокому уровню текст разделён на
ности задания, од­ сложности задания, предложения с пра­
нако встречаются однако в тексте вильным пунктуа­
2 -3 лексические имеются 3 -4 грам­ ционным оформле­
ошибки, ИЛИ сло­ матические ошибки нием (допускаются
варный запас огра­ 1 орфографическая
ничен, но лексика И/ИЛИ 1 пунктуа­
использована пра­ - - л ционная ошибка)
вильно
1 Используемый сло­ Используемые грам­ В тексте имеются
варный запас не матические сред­ 2 -4 орфографиче­
вполне соответству­ ства не вполне соот­ ские И/ИЛИ пунк­
ет высокому уров­ ветствуют высокому туационные ошиб­
ню сложности за­ уровню сложности ки
дания, в тексте задания, в тексте
имеются 4 лекси­ имеются 5 -7 грам­
ческие ошибки матических ошибок
0 Используемый сло­ Используемые грам­ В тексте имеются
варный запас не матические сред­ 5 и более орфогра­
соответствует высо­ ства не соответству­ фических и / и л и
кому уровню слож­ ют высокому уров­ пунктуационных
ности задания, в ню сложности за­ ошибок
тексте имеются 5 и дания, имеются 8 и
более лексических более грамматиче­
ошибок ских ошибок

Примечание:
Критерий «Орфография и пунктуация» в разделе «Письмо» оценива­
ется максимум в 2 балла. При получении экзаменуемым 0 баллов по
критерию «Решение коммуникативной задачи» всё задание оценива­
ется в 0 баллов.
ПРИЛОЖЕНИЕ
Языковой репертуар, необходимый для успешной органи­
зации текста сочинения в задании 40

Useful Vocabulary Essays)

Вводные фразы, выра­ • I think ... I believe ...


жающие ваше мнение • In my opinion, ... In my view, ...
The way I see it ...
• It seems to me (that) ... As I see it ...
• I doubt whether ...

Фразы, перечисляющие • In the first place, ... First of all, ...


точки зрения и аспекты • To start/begin with, ...
обсуждаемой проблемы • Secondly, ... Thirdly, ... Finally, ...
в порядке их значимо­ • Last but not least ...
сти

Фразы, добавляющие • Furthermore/Moreover/What is more ...


новые аспекты обсуж­ • In addition to this/that ...
даемой проблеме • Besides/Also, ... Apart from this/that ...
• Not to mention the fact that ...

Фразы, выражающие • Because ... The reason why ... is that ...
причины, уточняющие • What I like/dislike about ... is ...
высказывание • This would mean ...
• By doing this ... As a result of this ...

Фразы, подчёркиваю­ • It is argued that ... People argue that ...


щие контраст, связыва­ • There are people who oppose ...
ющие различающиеся • Contrary to what most people believe ...
идеи • Opponents of this way say ...
• However, ... On the other hand, ...
• In spite of/Despite ...
• Even though/Although ...
• Nevertheless, ... Otherwise, ... Yet, ...

Фразы, приводящие при­ • For example/For instance, ...


мер, доказательство, ар­ • Such as v*. Like ... Especially ... In par­
гументацию ticular ...

Заключительные фразы • In conclusion/On the whole, ... To sum


up, ... , All in all, ...
• All things considered, ... To put it in a
nutshell, ...
• Taking everything into account ...

1- I
186
p ill
ЗАКЛЮЧЕНИЕ
В заключение давайте ещё раз обратимся к советам и рекомендациям
по успешной подготовке к письменной части экзамена по английскому
языку - заданию 40.

СОВЕТЫ при подготовке к данному заданию


Письменное высказывание с элементами рассуждения, общие стра­
тегии:
• строить высказывание в соответствии с предложенным планом;
• начинать введение следует с общего представления темы й пред­
ложения, отображающего её проблемный характер;
• во введении перифразировать тему/проблему, данную в задании, не
повторяя её дословно;
• при планировании письменного высказывания сначала продумать
ключевые фразы каждого абзаца;
• делить текст на абзацы, которые отражают логическую и содержа­
тельную структуру текста;
• каждый абзац должен быть написан соответствующим образом: ре­
комендуется в первом предложении абзаца выразить его основную
мысль и далее её развивать, подкреплять примерами и аргумента­
ми и т. д.;
• введение и заключение должны быть приблизительно одинаковы
по объёму;
• в основной части должно быть как минимум три абзаца, при­
близительно одинаковые по размеру;
• общий объём основной части не должен быть меньше общего объ­
ёма введения и заключения;
• особое внимание уделять средствам логической связи текста как
внутри предложений, так и между предложениями.

Особенно важно в письменном высказывании с элементами рассуж­


дения «Моё мнение»:
• в основной части сначала высказать своё мнение и аргументиро­
вать его (ВТОРОЙ АБЗАЦ), затем представить другие точки зрения
(ТРЕТИЙ АБЗАЦ) и дать аргументацию, почему вы с ними не со­
гласны (ЧЕТВЁРТЫЙ АБЗАЦ);
• приводя контраргументы, отстаивая свою точку зрения, не выра­
жать своё мнение теми же словами, что были употреблены ранее,
а использовать перифраз, синонимию;
• в заключительном абзаце (заключении) ещё раз указать на про­
блемный характер темы; показать, что, хотя у вас есть своё мне­
ние, вы способны видеть и другие точки зрения; тем не менее своя
кажется вам более убедительной.

Верьте в себя и в свои силы. 14 баллов за эссе (сочинение) — это


реальность.
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