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# Chapter 1:GIS

1.1 GIS
1.2 Elements of GIS
1.3 Applications of GIS
1.4 Integration of GIS, Web2.0, and Mobile Technology
1.5 Organization of This Book
1.6 Concepts and Practice

## Geospatial data: Data that describe both the locations

and characteristics of spatial features on the Earth’s surface.

## Mashup Mapping: Mapping that combines the user’s contents

(e.g., text, photos, and videos) with Web-based maps.

## Object-based data model: A data model that uses objects to

organize spatial data and stores geometries and attributes in a
single system.

Raster data model: A data model that uses a grid and cells to
represent the spatial variation of a feature
.
Relational database: A collection of tables that are
connected to one another by keys.
Topology: A subfield of mathematics that, when applied to GIS,
ensures that the spatial relationships between features are
expressed explicitly.

## Triangulated irregular network (TIN): Composite vector data that

approximate the terrain with a set of non overlapping triangles.
Vector data model: A spatial data model that uses points and their
x-, y-coordinates to construct spatial features of points, lines, and
polygons.

## Volunteered geographic information: Geographic

information generated by the public using Web
applications and services.

REVIEW QUESTIONS
1. Define geospatial data.

## 3. Go to the USGS National Map website

(http://nationalmap.gov/viewer.html) and see what kinds of

## 4. Go to the National Institute of Justice website

how GIS is used for crime analysis.

## 5. Location-based services are probably the most commercialized

GIS-related field. Search for “location-based service” on
Wikipedia (http://www.wikipedia.org/) and read what has been
posted on the topic.

6. What types of software and hardware are you currently using for
GIS classes and projects?
7. Try the map locators offered by Microsoft Virtual Earth, Yahoo!
Maps, and Google Maps, respectively. State the major differences
among these three systems.

## 8. Define geometries and attributes as the two

components of GIS data.
9. Explain the difference between vector data and raster data.

10. Explain the difference between the georelational data model and the
object-based data model.

management?

## 13. The following link, http://www.openstreetmap

.org/#map=12/52.1977/0.1507, shows a map of Cambridge, England, based
on OpenStreetMap data. Use the map to compare the quality of

14. Suppose you are required to do a GIS project for a class. What types of
activities or operations do you have to perform to complete the project?

## 16. Name two examples of raster data analysis.

17. Describe an example from your discipline in which a GIS can provide
useful tools for building a model.

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