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The Role of Administrators in the Administration Management of the

Professional Educational Institutions in India

Enamul Hoque 1
1
Research Scholar, Faculty of Education, Dr. A.P.J. Abdul Kalam University,
Indore, (M.P.), India, E-Mail ID: enamul77786@gmail.com

Abstract
Administrators are making every effort to improve the interests of professional educational
institutions and the interests of the society. At present the administrative management of
professional educational institutions requires further change and improvement of
administrators. The study mainly discusses the modern education system management and
quality control of professional educational institutions and other issue. It can be further said
that this paper discusses the types of governance and various administrative roles for
managing the management of professional educational institutions.
Keywords: Administrators, Administrative, Management, Administration, Professional,
Educational, Institutions etc.

Introduction
Education is the process by which a person develops his or her self-consciousness by
developing the self-consciousness of the people who compose it. It is not merely a public
directive, it is a social organization, which provides mental, physical, normative and even
more training to every person of the nation so as to gain full awareness of their purpose, its
purpose in life and to achieve that goal. Kadushin (1992) observes that in the primary goal of
administration and supervision is to ensure the adherence of policy and procedure of work.
Managing educational institutions that work with and through individuals and groups to
achieve goals. The head of an educational institution has to understand the different types of
administration and manage the institution. He must achieve the goals of the organization with
the help of other personnel working in the organization and with the necessary technology
and all available inputs. In Shipilina L. (1999) research, devoted to managers professional
training, a model of education manager was designed, the constituent components of which
are the model of personality, the model of activity and the model of the object of professional
activity, i.e. educational system. Leadership is integral to achieving organizational goals
Leadership in education refers to efficient ways of achieving institutional goals.

Types of Administration

1. Autocratic or Authoritarian Administration


2. Democratic Administration

Autocratic Administration
Autocratic administration involves one man’s administration over others. One has a boss and
everyone else has to obey his commands regardless of whether they like it or not. Such
an administration would only be appropriate in a society where there is a dictatorship in
the country. In this national society, everyone is in favor of living an authoritarian way
of life and thinking.

Democratic Administration
Democratic administration is the one which is fully decentralized. In such an administration,
no one acts as a boss to pass orders and to rule over others. A democratic set-up of life would
like to have democratic type of administration. Every administrator will recognize that the
purpose of the administrative system is to help people achieve a systematic and good
grade achievement of their educational and social ideals.
In a society where the dominant ideals are democratic, whereas in a society favoring
autocratic pattern of living and thinking, the administrative organization for education is
necessarily autocratic. A democratic way of life would accept democratic administration.
Here we should know well what do we mean by democratic way of life. The administrator
with autocratic attitude and of rigid type is a misfit in a democratic setup of environment.
When such a person becomes rigid and has always the complex of being a ruler, he is all
failure in his administration though he may pretend that he is doing well. He may say to all
the concerned authorities that his institutions are running well and he is going on smoothly.
But the hard facts about the functioning of the institutions can never remain concealed, who
does not know the tensions and problems he is face to face with? In fact, the institutions
under his administration is not running, it is just crawling. The autocratic administrator in a
democratic set up of life will lavabo shake off his complexes, become flexible and be in tune
with the staff to whom he is to show leadership. Adoption of basic principles of democratic
administration like quality, fraternity and brotherhood will help in creating a suitable
environment.

Type of Administration for India of Today


In India we have accepted democracy as our political, social and economic creed.
Development and progress of the country on the right lines necessitates democratic outlook
and ideals. These are permitted in a democratic administration only. Only a democratic type
of administration will be the most suitable to the people of these country. While describing
the educational needs of democratic India, the secondary education commission report says,
India has recently achieved its political freedom and has, after careful consideration decided
to transform itself into a secular democratic republic. This means that the education system
must contribute to the development of habits, attitudes and character traits that enable its
citizens to properly discharge their responsibilities of democratic citizenship and the board
can fight against all the isolated tendencies that stand in the way of national upliftment and
secular outlook.

Principles of Democratic Administration


The following are the different principles of democratic Administration

Principle of Sharing Responsibility


A democratic head shares his responsibility with others. His belief is in the decentralization
of powers. It enables the leader and the followers to have good mental health. The democratic
head does not consider himself to be a boss over others. He delegates his powers to his
colleagues and student representatives. He introduces student Govt. in the school which
works under the guidance of some expert teacher. Thus, he is able to reduce his burden of
work considerably. A democratic Headmaster is more than official, punctilious about his
headmaster routing, he is a leader, guiding and directing a scared undertaking. Sharing of
responsibility is nothing but sharing of worries of organization and administration. Besides;
the staff and the students are able to identify themselves with the school. That way they work
more and are in the welfare of the school.

Principal of Equality
Democracy demands equality of opportunity to all. All are equal in the eyes of the law. A
democratic Head does not consider himself aloof from others. He feels as if he is one social
being in an inseparable unity of the same social structure. So, he looks upon each one of his
colleagues as equal to him. In the running of school, in decision making, he always his
colleagues into confidence. In a democracy, there are no subordinates. The democratic Head
considers his colleagues as his co-workers and his subordinates. A democratic head considers
his colleagues as his co-workers and not his subordinates. A democratic administrator looks
upon his personnel as socially equal to himself; he does not take decision by himself but his
colleagues he makes them feel responsible and share in his administration. He has a code of
set rules of administration which he and his colleagues. Follow rigidly, making no
discrimination in their application and lastly, be wants no special privilege.

Principle of Freedom
Principle of freedom is one of the unique principles of democracy. The democratic head gives
full freedom to his staff so- that they may work according to their free will. There are no
external impositions upon the staff. A teacher is free to teach the class by using any method
he likes. Thus, a research minded teacher is encouraged so that he is able to improve his
methodology, his own self etc. The head provides full freedom to the teachers to ask
questions, to criticize, reason out anything and present different viewpoint. Not only the
teachers but the students are also allowed freedom to a considerable extent. The underlining
idea of this principal is that people are at their best when they have freedom to exercise their
power and talents.

Principal of Co-operation
The running of a school is not a man’s job. It needs combination of many hands and heads.
Every members of schools should Co-operate fully with colleagues, the head of the
institution. Teaching staff and should also co-operate with fully with each other. Co-operation
of the non-teaching teaching staff is also essential. Only then the proper functioning of the
institution can be ensured. Principal of co-operation is the basis of the democratic
administration. Full understanding ang goodwill should prevail between the headmaster and
teachers, between the staff and students, the parents and the school, the school and the
controlling authorities.

Principal of Justice
Democratic administration demands full justice on the part of head of the institution. The
democratic heads always show full justice to all. He is against any type of favoritism. It-case
of some type of injustice, he will lose all co-operation from his followers. The democratic
administration will be successful only if the head plays a fair game and does justice one and
all.

Principal of Recognition of Individual Worth


In a democratic administration, the head shows equality to all. He comes closer to his
followers and tries to understand everyone. Capability, quality or merit of-each individual is
well recognized by him. We show due to one end all irrespective of the fact that a person is
not the teaching staff, in the ministerial staff of a student. Only after knowing fully about the
individual, he is able to allocate duties to the entire satisfaction of all concerned. Democracy
regards the individual in two ways as a sovereign personality and as a member of sovereign
group and its function is to establish and to maintain a harmonious balance between these two
views of sovereignty. The form of social organization where the individual and the group are
in relative balance or dynamic harmony called democracy.

Principal of Leadership
Democratic type of administration needs leadership at different levels. The head should lead
the staff students and community as well. This is possible only if the head possess all
qualities of democratic leadership.

Administration and Supervision


Administration and supervision and generally considered to be synonymous but actually they
are different. We may consider them to be two sides of the same coin. One in the absence of
the other is insignificant. Administration makes provision of things in order to create
teaching-learning situations. Supervision improves upon these situations so as to create a
healthy environment. Even when administering certain tasks in the administration, it is
regarded as an integral part of it. Supervision should be a non-managerial service,
primarily within the overall responsibility of the administration. Administration and
supervision considered functionally cannot be separated or set of from each other. The two
are co-ordinate, correlative, mutually shared functions in the Operation of educational
systems. The administration presents the whole issue of school management. Supervision
is a part of the administration. The administrator has many duties to perform one of duties is
to carry on supervision. The whole supervision is administration is not supervision. The
Administration sounds to be autocratic whereas supervision is all democratic. Administration
is meant for organizing or setting up of things where as supervision is for the improvement of
organization. Through supervision, care is taken and guidance of all type provided so as to
achieve the fixed up and desired ends of the administrator with regard to something.

Major Issues in Educational Administration


In educational administration, there are some problems which are generally faced by the
administrators. Some of the issues are of common type which can be overcome by every
administrator easily. Some others are won over through experience.
A few major issues are
1. Tanning of educational administrators.
2. Forecasting in educational administration.
3. Administrator’s rigid attitude in an age of democracy.
4. Problem solving and decision making in educational administration.

Training of Educational Administration


Education needs control in the hands of experts. Every institution has a number of teachers
and students. Now the questions arise whether it can run smoothly without an administrator.
There should be no problem as such’-this is what a layman would suggest. But the hard fact
is that leadership is needed in every social-circle, we need somebody who should lead all
and’ show them the way. So, the above-question can be answered that the headship is a for
running the institution. Every institution, big or small, is a problem school or a problem
college these days. In such a case, we need some expert administrator who should be able to
hold well the reins of the institution. The administrator should really be a guide; a true leader
for others so that there are less chances of confusions in the set-up of the institutions. The
popular belief is that educational administrator need no special training and it is in the school
of experience that educational administrators learn techniques and procedures of
administration. Many more things are imbibed by them through the circumstances and
situations where they are placed. For running an institution generally, a person who has been
a teacher for some time is selected. That person while being a teacher, has learnt, many
things. He has been able to lead as a teacher and now when he feels confident, he would be
able to discharge his duties to the satisfaction of all concerned. That period as a teacher
proves to be a period of training for him in the art of administration. In some cases,
administrators are selected straight way by virtue of their qualifications and without any
practical experience of background of teaching. Such a person might face hardship though
through labor and some tactics one might succeed. In each case it would be better if an
administrator is posted in a small institution to begin with and then gradually, he may go to
the bigger institution acquiring experience and gaining confidence side by side. So, we
cannot say that an administrator without any training and experience can do well in
institution. There is a need of some training every case. It would prove much useful if some
training centers are started and these administrators are given training. All the teachers who
have put in say eight years of service could be admitted and given training in administration.
Visiting some good institutions in the country should from one important aspect of the
curriculum prescribed. Thus, we find that some training is a must for every administrator.

Forecasting in Educational Administration


Forecasting means assessing about a thing before-hand. It is done on the basis of the facts
available today. Through guess and imagination, some inference is drawn about the future
shape of things. Forecasting is very essential for every administrator. Developing attitude for
this is in fact the basis of a successful administrator. Sometimes we find that the administrator
continues in his job and he sleeps over matters concerning the institution. Only a few minutes
before or just on the actual day of work, he finalizes things. Vary rarely a person would
succeed in this way. The work may be accomplished just superficially but it would not satisfy
any one. On the whole, a good many lacuna remain there which become the point of criticism
for many people. The administrator is not just to kill time to satisfy his own-self. The
educational institution is a common platform whose responsibility-rests on many people. The
teachers, the ministerial staff, the students, the servants, the parents, the public, the local
committee if any, all are concerned with it. The administrator should allow things to happen
in such a way that there remains no scope for criticism of work being done. It is possible if he
forecasts everything and plans accordingly. Forecasting attitude of an administrator makes
him more farm and confident. Such a person is sure to win laurels throughout. There will be
all success in his plans and carrying out the work. He need not feel puzzled any time.

Administrators Rigid Attitude in an Age of Democracy


The successful administrator always tries to cope with the fast-changing social set up. He
never puts on and continues with this rigid attitude over anything that he is doing. A person
with rigid attitude can hardly succeed in the present-day educational set up. Some old type of
administrators who are still continuing in their chairs are very rigid. In the present age of
democracy things are rapidly undergoing changes. The administrator his way and means need
also be modified according to the needs and requirements of the society.

Problem Solving and Decision Making in Educational Administration


Educational administrator is confronted with a number of problems every day. Sometimes a
staff member brings a problem for a solution. At, other time some other staff member creates
a problem the ministerial staff have their own problems. Similarly, the student the servants
the local guardians etc. everyone has a problem sometimes. They come to administrator for a
solution of their problems. Some teachers may pose problems to embarrass the administrator.
The administrator is to deal with all these things in a very intelligent way so that everybody
goes away fairly satisfied. Undoubtedly, the administrator cannot make everybody happy and
satisfied. But still his desired should, be to do good to all-to his work, to his duties, to his
colleagues or subordinate as the case may be. Besides, the administrator may have his own
problems created by some authority or they may be-self created problems. The good
administrator is not led away by the currents of these problems. He should have patience and
cool minds. With all intelligence and tactfulness, he should find solution to them.
And above all, the administrator’s job is not to go on solving problems only. He may
constitute administrator’s job is not to go on solving problems only he may constitute sub-
committees comprising the staff members and the students. Let them think over and decide
things in consultation-with the head of the institution. That will only make things more
democratic but it also lightens the work of the administrator. Thus, the main duties of the
administrator are solving the problems and take necessary decision. In doing so, the
administrator should take care of the following facts: -

(a) The policy of lingering on with the-decision should be discarded.


(b) A decision should be taken after considering its future consequence or after effects.
(c) In decision making the administrator should involve the staff and some group leader of
student’s community. That way it will be binding on every one to carry out the decision.
(d) The decision should be arrived at on the spot as far as possible. Delay should occur only in
exceptional cases.
(e) Hasty decisions should be avoided.
(f) Personal whims and prejudices of any kind should be kept aside-while giving decisions.
(g) In decisions making, nothing should be taken as a matter prestige as it sometimes happens
these days.
(h) As a result of some decision, the course of actions should be clear to all.
Thus, we find that problem solving and deciding things as a result thereof, are some of the
important duties of an administrator. The head should, therefore take special pains in finding
solutions to a problem. It will raise the status of the administrator. A seasoned person with all
experience finds this job quite simple but a new comer has to face some difficulties to begin
with. The challenging job of administrator has to be accepted by one and all with a well-
prepared mind.

Conclusion
Educational management is not only the experience that can be gained, it is the field of
scientific knowledge, which should be acquired and should be art, requires natural
ingredients, special talents and leadership qualities. The manager of a modern educational
institution is not only an activity, but also a profession, because this activity contains all the
features of the profession: it is a special profession that requires special knowledge, skills and
abilities, special personal and professional qualities. In this connection, the management of
any level of organizational education from the world becomes the activity, more specialist
training is required.

References
Kadushin, A. (1992). Supervision in Social Work. 3rd Ed. New York: Columbia University
Press.

Shipilina L.A. (1999) Theoretic and technological foundations of education managers


training in pedagogical training. Barnaul. p. 295.

About the Author


Enamul Hoque is a Research Scholar, Faculty of Education from Dr.
A.P.J. Abdul Kalam University, Indore, (M.P.), India, E-Mail ID:
enamul77786@gmail.com