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2017). It is similar to the Mercator projection, except that the cylinder is wrapped around the

ellipsoid so that it touches the surface along the great circle path chosen for the central line,

instead of along the earth's equator(Osserman, 2011). Scale becomes infinite 90 degrees from

the central line and is true along a chosen central line, along two straight lines parallel to the

central line, or along a great circle at an oblique angle. The Oblique Mercator projection is

used for geographic regions that are cantered along lines that are neither meridians nor

parallels, but that may be taken as great circle routes passing through the region, such as the

Alaskan panhandle. In this variation of the Oblique Mercator projection, a point and an

azimuth define the central line where the cylinder touches the ellipsoid.

The co-ordinate reference system, used in South Africa as the foundation for all

surveying, engineering and geo-referenced projects and programmes, is the Cape Datum.

This Datum is based on the Clarke 1880 ellipsoid and has its origin point at Buffelsfontein

near Port Elizabeth(du Plessis & Van Niekerk, 2014). The Cape Datum is based on the work

of HM Astronomers Sir Thomas Maclear, between 1833 and 1870, and Sir David Gill,

between 1879 and 1907, whose initial geodetic objectives were to verify the size and shape of

the Earth in the Southern Hemisphere and later to provide geodetic control for topographic

maps and navigation charts. From these beginnings, this initial network was extended to

eventually cover the entire country and now comprises approximately 29 000 highly visible

trigonometrical beacons on mountains, high buildings and water towers as well as

approximately 20 000 easily accessible town survey marks.

As with other national control survey networks throughout the world, which were

established using traditional surveying techniques, flaws and distortions in these networks

have become easily detected using modern positioning techniques such as the Global

Positioning System (GPS)(Huston & Coleman, 2017). In addition to these flaws and

distortions, most national geodetic networks do not have the centre of their reference

ellipsoids co-incident with the centre of the Earth thus making them useful only to their area

of application. The upgrading, re-computation and repositioning of the South African co-

ordinate system has thus been driven by the advancement of modern positioning technologies

and the globalization of these techniques for navigation and surveying. As from the 1st

January 1999, the official co-ordinate system for South Africa will be based on the World

Geodetic System 1984 ellipsoid, commonly known as WGS84, with the ITRF91 (epoch

1994.0) co-ordinates of the Hartebeesthoek Radio Astronomy Telescope used as the origin of

the system. This new system will be known as the Hartebeesthoek94 Datum. At this stage all

heights will remain referenced to mean sea level(Ntuli, 2014).

The Cassini Soldner projection is the ellipsoidal version of the Cassini projection for

the sphere(Grafarend & Krumm, 2014). It is not conformal but as it is relatively simple to

construct it was extensively used in the last century and is still useful for mapping areas with

limited longitudinal extent. It has now largely been replaced by the conformal Transverse

Mercator which it resembles. Like this, it has a straight central meridian along which the

scale is true, all other meridians and parallels are curved, and the scale distortion increases

rapidly with increasing distance from the central meridian. A transverse cylinder is projected

conceptually onto the globe and is tangent along the central meridian(Jenny & Šavrič, 2017).

Cassini Soldner is analogous to the Equirectangular projection in the same way Transverse

1

Mercator is to the Mercator projection. The name Cassini Soldner refers to the more accurate

ellipsoidal version, developed in the 19th century and used in this software. it is normally

used for large scale maps of areas predominantly northsouth in extent. It is used for the

Ordnance Survey of Great Britain and some German states in the late 19th century. Also used

in Cyprus, former Czechoslovakia, Denmark, Malaysia, and the former Federal Republic of

Germany.

Also known simply as the Cassini projection. Used for topographic mapping formerly

in England and currently in a few other countries(Valentine, Piekut, Winiarska, Harris, &

Jackson, 2015). Although the Cassini projection has been largely replaced by the Transverse

Mercator, it is still in limited use outside the United States and was one of the major

topographic mapping projections until the early 20th Century and the scale is true along

central meridian and along lines perpendicular to central meridian. Scale is constant but not

true along lines parallel to central meridian on spherical form, nearly so for ellipsoid. The

Mercator projection maintains shape and direction. The Sinusoidal and Equal-Area

Cylindrical projections both maintain area, but look quite different from each other (Figure

1). The Robinson projection does not enforce any specific properties but is widely used

because it makes the earth’s surface and its features "look right.“ (ESRI Press)

Sensing Page, 2010. Best model of the earth would be a 3-dimensional solid in the same

shape as the earth. Spherical globes are often used for this purpose(Larmat, Maceira, Higdon,

& Anderson, 2017). However, globes have several drawbacks such as globes are large and

cumbersome. Besides, they are generally of a scale unsuitable to the purposes for which most

maps are used. Usually we want to see more detail than is possible to be shown on a globe.

Standard measurement equipment (rulers, protractors, planimeters, dot grids, etc.) cannot be

used to measure distance, angle, area, or shape on a sphere, as these tools have been

constructed for use in planar models. The latitude-longitude spherical coordinate system can

only be used to measure angles, not distances or areas. Here is an image of a globe,

2

displaying lines of reference (Figure 2). These lines can only be used for measurement of

angles on a sphere. They cannot be used for making linear or areal measurements.

There are 3 major shape of projection such as conic projection, cylindrical projection

and planer projection. Allt these 3 projection will give different ‘value’ and referrence for the

world location.

Standard parallels are where the cone touches or slices through the globe. The central

meridian is opposite the edge where the cone is sliced open (Figure 3). Conic projections are

used frequently for mapping large areas (e.g. states, large countries, or continents).

Standard parallels are where the cone touches or slices through the globe. The central

meridian is opposite the edge where the cone is sliced open(Monmonier, 2015). Conic

projections are used frequently for mapping large areas (e.g. states, large countries, or

continents). The most common cylindrical projection is the Mercator projection, which is the

basis of the UTM (Universal Transverse Mercator) system. In certain cases, there a get

different cylindrical projection orientation such as normal cylindrical, tranverse and oblique

(Figure 5).

3

Figure 4: Cylindrical projection concept.

Cut the cylinder along any meridian and unroll it to produce your base map. Note: The

meridian running down the centre of the map is called the central meridian (the red line).

Planar projections, also called azimuthal projections, project map data onto a flat

surface. The simplest planar projection is tangent to the globe at one point. Although the

point of contact may be any point on the earth's surface, the north and south poles are the

most common contact points for most GIS databases. Other locations are used primarily for

specific applications, such a navigation or locational inset maps.

When the plane touches the earth at either the north or south poles, longitude lines

converge at the point of contact and radiate outward from the pole at their true angle like the

spokes on a wheel, the distance between them increasing as the distance from the contact

point increases. Latitude lines appear as a series of concentric circles (Figure 6).

4

Figure 6: This particular map projection's light source original the centre of the earth, but

this is not true for all planar map projections.

Because area and shape distortion are circular around the point of contact, planar

projections accommodate circular regions better than rectangular regions. For this reason,

they are used most often to map polar Regions.In the polar form, longitude lines passing

through the point of contact are represented by straight lines and directions from the point of

contact are accurate.

Some planar map projections, such as the example Figure 7, represent all great circles

as straight lines. Because the shortest distance between two points on the globe is a great

circle, or a portion of a great circle, the shortest distance between two points on this type of

projection is also a straight line. This makes planar map projections that maintain this trait

extremely useful for plotting navigational routes for airplanes.

5

3.0 PROJECTION SYSTEM TRANSFER TO COORDINATE SYSTEM (Oblique

Mercator – MRT – RSO).

Typically, there are many different methods for projecting longitude and latitude in

coordinate reference. Table 1 shows the coordinate system and the map projection.

Oblique cylindrical projection. A line of true scale is drawn at an angle to the central

meridian. The Rectified Skew Orthomorphic (RSO) projection is used throughout the world,

particularly in Malaysia. The Hotine Oblique Mercator (HOM) projection is a cylindrical,

conformal map projection. It is similar to the Mercator projection, except that the cylinder is

wrapped around the sphere so that it touches the surface along the great circle path chosen for

the central line, instead of along the earth's equator. Scale becomes infinite 90 degrees from

the central line and is true along a chosen central line, along two straight lines parallel to the

central line, or along a great circle at an oblique angle. The HOM projection is used for

geographic regions that are cantered along lines that are neither meridians nor parallels, but

that may be taken as great circle routes passing through the region, such as the Alaskan

panhandle. Two cases of the Hotine Oblique Mercator projection are implemented within the

Geographic Calculator, differing only in their defining parameters. The RSO projection is

equivalent to a HOM projection except that the defining parameters are different.The oblique

Mercator (OM) projection for which the basic formulae were originally developed by

Brigadier M. Hotine is used where the area of interest is oblong, and the longer axis through

the territory is skewed with respect to the meridians (Hotine, 1946–1947). The "Hotine

Oblique Mercator" Projection has in Figure 8.

6

Figure 8: Hotine Oblique Mercator.

There are two existing local geodetic reference systems in Malaysia namely the

Malayan Revised Triangulation (MRT) for Peninsular Malaysia and Borneo Triangulation

System 1968 (BT68) for Sabah and Sarawak. The MRT is the coordinate system used for

mapping in Peninsular Malaysia as the figure 9.

7

The datum is based on the old Repsold Triangulation and computed using data

collected mainly in the period 1948 to 1966 using the Modified Everest ellipsoid. It consists

of about 1,200 stations plus a number of more recent standard traverses and has an inter-

station accuracy of around 13 to 15 ppm. Coordinates in this system are known as MRT48

coordinates which represent a unified datum, albeit distorted (see Lithen, 1993), for the whole

Peninsular.

In 1880s denoted a critical stage with the beginning of across the board

trigonometrical works in different parts of Malaya, incorporating a triangulation review in

Penang in 1832. The trigonometrical overview in Perak together with the Penang and

Province Wellesley triangulations and also Malacca Triangulation. The establishment the

framework for the current control structure was done between the year of 1886 and 1888.

This was trailed by the beginning of other trigonometrical studies in different parts of the

nation that included Selangor and Negeri Sembilan. The MRT system began since the

foundation of PERAK and ASA triangulation during th the 19 century. The triangulation is

based on the measurement of at least a baseline and angles. The basic principles stated that if

the length of one side of a triangle is known and angles are accurately measured, the other

two side of the triangle can be calculated. Figure 10 shows the history of Peninsular Malaysia

Triangulation Network.

However due to inaccuracy in geodetic within the system, a new system was

introduced called Primary or Repsold Triangulation which was completed in 1916. In 1948,

MRT 48 was introduced by the survey authority with Rectified Skew Orthomorphic (RSO) as

the mapping projection (Figure 11). Basically, MRT 48 is the unification of PERAK, ASA

and Repsold Systems. The distortion issue for the whole Peninsular Malaysia present in

MRT 48 has brought to a new revised system called Malaysia Revised Triangulation 1968

(MRT 68). The MRT68 network consists of 77 geodetic, 240 primary, 837 secondary and 51

tertiary stations. It is based on conventional observations with many of the triangulation

points dated as far back as 1885.

8

Figure 11: Rectified Skew Orthomorphic (RSO) projection

Mercator projection developed by Hotine in 1947 (Snyder, 1984). This projection is

orthomorphic (conformal) and cylindrical. All meridians and parallel are complex curves.

Scale is approximately 21 true along a chosen central line (exactly true along a great circle in

its spherical form). It is thus a suitable projection for an area like Switzerland, Italy, New

Zealand, Madagascar and Malaysia as well.

The RSO provides an optimum solution in the sense of minimizing distortion whilst

remaining conformal for Malaysia. Table 3 tabulates the new geocentric RSO parameters for

Peninsular Malaysia and East Malaysia.

9

The notation adopted for use in this section is as follows:

λc= Longitude of the center of the projection

αc =Azimuth(true) of the center line passing throught the center of the projection

γc= Rectified bearing of the center line

kc = Scale factor at the center of the projection

Φ = Geographical latitude

λ = Geographical latitude

to = Isometric latitude for = 4o

A = a .B .kc (1-e2)0.5 / (1-e2 sin2 (𝜙c))

A’ = B(ρoυo)1/2

C = cosh-1(A/ ρo) - Bto

D = (B√1- e2) / ( cos𝜙c √ 1- e2 sin2 𝜙c )

H = F .toB

G = (F – 1/F) / 2

Sin γo= -0.6

Basic Longitude = λo= λc– [arc sin (G tan λo) /B]

To compute (E, N) from a given (𝜙, λ)

𝜋 𝜑

𝑡𝑎𝑛 ( 4 − )

2

𝑡=

[(1 − 𝑒 𝑠𝑖𝑛 𝜑)/(1 + 𝑒 𝑠𝑖𝑛 𝜑)]𝑒/2

10

Q = H / tB

S = (Q – 1/Q) / 2

T = (Q + 1/Q) / 2

V = sin [ B (λ – λo)]

U = ( S sin γo – V cosγo ) / T

v = A ln [(1-U)/(1+U)]/2B

For the Hotine Oblique Mercator (where the FE and FN values have been

specified with respect to the origin of the (u, v) axes):

𝐴

𝑢= arctan[( 𝑆 cos 𝛾𝑜 + 𝑉 sin 𝛾𝑜 )/(cos(𝐵(𝜆 − 𝜆𝑜 )]

𝐵

N = u cos 𝛾𝑐 + v sin 𝛾𝑐 + (FNorNc)

v’ = (E-FE) cos 𝛾𝑐 – (N-FN) sin 𝛾𝑐

u’ = (N - FN) cos 𝛾𝑐 – (E -FE) sin 𝛾𝑐

Q’ = exp[-(Bv’/A)]

S’ = (Q’ – 1/Q’)/ 2

T’ = (Q’ + 1/Q’)/ 2

V’ = sin [Bu’/A]

U’ = (V’cos𝛾𝑐 + S’ sin 𝛾𝑐 ) / T’

t’ = [ H / √ (1+ U’ ) / (1- U’ )]1/B

x = π / 2 – 2 .arctan (t’)

+ 81le8 / 11520) + sin 6 x (7e6 / 120 + 8 le8 / 1120) + sin 8x (4279e8 / 161280)]

The convergence of the map meridians is defined as the angle measured clockwise

from true North to the Rectified Grid North, and is denoted 𝛾𝑅 (Figure 12).

11

Figure 12: The angle of 𝛾𝑅

Where,

tan𝛾 = tan 𝛾o – sin B (λo - λ) sinh (Bt + C) / cos B (λo– λ) cosh(Bt + C)

= sin [Bv/A’mo] sinh [Bu/A’m] + tan 𝛾o /cos[Bv/A’mo] cosh [Bu/A’mo]

The formula giving the scale factor ‘m’ at any point in terms of isometric latitude and

longitude and coordinate (v,u) are:

It can be shown that the initial line of the projection has a scale factor that is nearly

constant throughout its length.

The scale factor for a line can be computed from the formula:

1

m = 1𝑚 = 6 (𝑚1 + 4𝑚3 + 𝑚2 )

where𝑚1 , 𝑚2 are the scale factors at the ends of the line and 𝑚3 the scale factor at its

mid-point. The scale factor for a line also may be evaluated from the following

formula:

where ,

∅𝑚 and𝜓𝑚 are evaluated for the mid-latitude of the line

𝑢1 and𝑢2 are the u – coordinate of the points:

12

Figure 12: Arc – To - Chord

In Figure 12, if a is the true azimuth of a line, 𝛽𝑅 is the rectified grid bearing, then

𝑎 = 𝛽𝑅+ 𝛾𝑅 + 𝜇

Where,

1

𝜙3 = (2𝜙2 + 𝜙2 )and(𝜆1 + 𝜆2 ) is measured in seconds.

3

For a line not exceeding 113 km (70 miles) in length, the maximum value of the second term

of the formula is 0.007𝑛 , it can therefore safely neglected.

There are nine state origins used in the coordinate projection in the cadastral system

of Peninsular Malaysia. The Cassini- Soldner map projection has been used for over one

hundred years and shall continue to be used for cadastral surveys in the new geodetic

frame.The mapping equations are as given in Richardus and Adler, 1974 and the formulas to

derive projected Easting and Northing coordinate are as follows:

a. Forward Computation

N = FN + M0 + v ∗ tan 𝜙[A2/2+ (5-T + 6C) A4/24]

where,

FE, FN = Cassini State origin coordinate

A = (𝜆 - 𝜆𝑜) cos 𝜙

where,

𝜆 = Longitude of computation point

𝜆𝑜 = Longitude of state origin

13

ϕ =Longitude of state origin

T = Latitude of computation point

𝑒2

C = (1−𝑒 2) cos 2 𝜙

𝑎

= (1−𝑒 2 sin2 𝜙)1⁄2

= a [1 - 𝑒 2 /4 - 3𝑒 4 /64 - 5𝑒 6/256-..) ϕ – (3e2/8 +3e4/32 + 45e6/1024 + sin 2 ϕ

+ (15e4/256 + 45e6/1024 )sin 4 ϕ – (35e6/3072 )sin 6 ϕ]

with ϕ is in radians.

b. Reverse Computation

𝑣1 Tan ∅𝟏 𝐷2 𝐷4

∅ = ∅𝟏 − [ − (1 + 3𝑇1 ) ] )

𝑝1 2 24

𝐷3 𝐷5

𝜆 = 𝜆0 + [𝐷 − 𝑇1 + (1 + 3𝑇1 )𝑇1 15 ] / cos ∅1

3

Where,

ϕ1 = µ1 + (3𝑒1 /2 − 27𝑒1 3⁄32 + . . ) sin 2µ1 + (21𝑒1 2⁄16 − 55𝑒14/32 + . . ) sin 4µ1 +

(151𝑒1 3⁄96 + . . ) sin 6µ1 + (1097e 14/512 - …) sin 8µ1 + …

𝑎 (1−𝑒 2 )

𝑝1 = (1− 𝑒 2 sin2 ∅

1 )3⁄2

𝑎

𝑣1 = (1− 𝑒 2 sin2 ∅

1 )1⁄2

Where,

1− (1−𝑒 2 )1⁄2

𝑒1 = (1+(1− 𝑒 2 )1⁄2

𝑀1

µ1 =

𝑎(1− 𝑒 2 / 4 − 3𝑒 4 / 64 − 5𝑒 6 / 256 −⋯ )

M1 = M0 + (N − FN)

= M0 is the value of M calculated for the latitude of the origin

D = (E – FE) /v1

T1 = tan 2ϕ1

14

c. Scale and Arc-to-Chord Correction for Cassini Projection

Refer to Figure 13,

𝛿𝐴𝐵 = (𝑡 − 𝑇)" = ((𝑁𝑏 − 𝑁𝑎 )(𝐸𝑏 + 2𝐸𝑎 ))/(6𝑅 2 . sin 1")

where,

Na, Nb, Ea, Eb = Cassini Coordinate

(t – T) " = Arc-to-Chord

Bearing correction:-

(𝛽 − 𝑎)" = ((sin 𝑎0. cos 𝑎0. )/( 6𝑅 2 . sin 1") 𝐸 2 𝜇

d. Polynomial Function

The relationship between the MRSO coordinate and the Cassini SoldnerOld is defined by

a series of polynomial function which make use of the coordinate of the origin of both

projections for each state in Peninsular Malaysia. The following are the formulae used:

E (MRSO) = ∆E (CAS) + E (OMRSO) + (R2+XB1+YB2+XYB3+X2B4+Y2B5)

N (CAS) = ∆N (MRSO) + N (OCAS) - (R1+XA1+YA2+XYA3+X2A4+Y2A5)

E (CAS) = ∆E (MRSO) + E (OCAS) - (R2+XB1+YB2+XYB3+X2B4+Y2B5)

Where,

E (MRSO) = MRSO coordinate in east component

N (CAS) = Cassini coordinate in north component

E (CAS) = Cassini coordinate in east component

∆N (CAS) = Cassini coordinate – Cassini coordinate of origin (north)

∆E (CAS) = Cassini coordinate – Cassini coordinate of origin (east)

∆N (MRSO) = RSO coordinate – RSO coordinate of origin (north)

∆E (MRSO) = RSO coordinate – RSO coordinate of origin (east)

X = ∆N (CAS) / 10000 or ∆N (MRSO)/ 10000

Y = ∆E (CAS) / 10000 or ∆E (MRSO)/ 10000

All values of the coordinates must be in unit chains (use 0.11678249) as the multiplying

factor to convert from metres.

15

4.0 HISTORY ON COORDINATE SYSTEM

the position of the points or other geometric elements on the Euclidean space. The order of

the coordinates is significant where their position or location will be identified in the order of

tuple. While in the coordinates system has been used in geography to refer a location of a

points or element in the earth surface it will be known as the geographic coordinates system.

In the coordinates system, it contains three main element such as the vertical position

(latitude), horizontal position (longitude) and elevation (height). (Figure 14) The coordinates

system was developed since 3rd century BC and the a few evolutions existed to develop a

more accurate coordinates, so that it can be represent the real location of the object in the

Earth’s surface.

In the past, the invention of the coordinates system was generally credited by the

Eratosthenes of Cyrene, who composed his now-lost Geography at the Library of Alexandria

in the 3rd century BC. A century later, Hipparchus of Nicaea improved on this system by

determining latitude from stellar measurements rather than solar altitude and determining

longitude by timings of lunar eclipses, rather than dead reckoning. In the 1st or 2nd century,

Marinus of Tyre compiled an extensive gazetteer and mathematically-plotted world map

using coordinates measured east from a prime meridian at the westernmost known land,

designated the Fortunate Isles, off the coast of western Africa around the Canary or Cape

Verde Islands, and measured north or south of the island of Rhodes off Asia Minor. Ptolemy

credited him with the full adoption of longitude and latitude, rather than measuring latitude in

terms of the length of the Midsummer Day.(McPhail, 2011)

While in the Ptolemy's 2nd-century Geography, they used the same prime meridian

but measured latitude from the equator instead. After their work was translated into Arabic in

the 9th century, Al-Khwārizmī's Book of the Description of the Earth corrected Marinus' and

Ptolemy's errors regarding the length of the Mediterranean Sea, causing medieval Arabic

cartography to use a prime meridian around 10° east of Ptolemy's line. Mathematical

cartography resumed in Europe following Maximus Planudes' recovery of Ptolemy's text a

little before 1300; the text was translated into Latin at Florence by Jacobus Angelus around

1407.(Evans, 1998)

16

In 1884, the United States hosted the International Meridian Conference, attended by

representatives from twenty-five nations. Twenty-two of them agreed to adopt the longitude

of the Royal Observatory in Greenwich, England as the zero-reference line. The Dominican

Republic voted against the motion, while France and Brazil abstained. France adopted

Greenwich Mean Time in place of local determinations by the Paris Observatory in 1911.The

prime meridian determines the proper Eastern and Western Hemispheres, although maps

often divide these hemispheres further west in order to keep the Old World on a single side.

The antipodal meridian of Greenwich is both 180°W and 180°E. Therefore, the coordinates

system has been developed and transformations occur to create a suitable reference

coordinates system in different nation and local area like in Malaysia.

Datum of the Coordinates system has been established in many regions around the

world since the 19th Century by using conventional surveying techniques and procedures.

Most of them were confined to small areas of the globe, fit to limited areas to satisfy national

mapping requirements. They are therefore regional in nature and generally are not aligned

with global geocentric coordinate’s frames. In Malaysia where it has two conventional

geodetic datum such as the Malayan Revised Triangulation (MRT) for Peninsular Malaysia

(West Malaysia) and the Borneo Triangulation 1968 (BT68) for Sabah and Sarawak (East

Malaysia). (Figure 15)

In 1880s, it denoted a critical stage with the beginning of across the board

trigonometrical works in different parts of Malaya, incorporating a triangulation review in

Penang in 1832. The first trigonometrical overview is in Perak together with the Penang and

Province Wellesley triangulations and also Malacca Triangulation. The establishment the

17

framework for the current control structure was done between the year of 1886 and 1888.

This was trailed by the beginning of other trigonometrical studies in different parts of the

nation that included Selangor and Negeri Sembilan. However, the MRT system began since

the foundation of PERAK and ASA triangulation during the 19th century. The triangulation

is based on the measurement of at least a baseline and angles. The basic principles stated that

if the length of one side of a triangle is known and angle are accurately measured, the other

two side of the triangle can be calculated

The MRT is the coordinate system used for mapping in Peninsular Malaysia (Figure

16). The datum is based on the old Repsold Triangulation and computed using data collected

mainly in the period 1948 to 1966 using the Modified Everest ellipsoid. It consists of about

1,200 stations plus a number of more recent standard traverses and has an inter-station

accuracy of around 13 to 15 ppm. Coordinates in this system are known as MRT48

coordinates which represent a unified datum, albeit distorted for the whole Peninsular.

The MRT system began since the foundation of PERAK and ASA triangulation

during the 19th century. The triangulation is based on the measurement of at least a baseline

and angles. The basic principles stated that if the length of one side of a triangle is known and

angles are accurately measured, the other two side of the triangle can be calculated. However

due to inaccuracy in geodetic within the system, a new system was introduced. The distortion

issue for the whole Peninsular Malaysia present in MRT 48 has brought to a new revised

system called Malaysia Revised Triangulation 1968 (MRT 68). The MRT68 network consists

of 77 geodetic, 240 primary, 837 secondary and 51 tertiary stations. It is based on

conventional observations with many of the triangulation points dated as far back as 1885.

While the first datum for Sabah and Sarawak was the Primary Triangulation of

Borneo 1948 (BT48) established by the Directorate of Overseas Survey (DOS) which was

based on the Timbalai Datum and Everest Ellipsoid for referenced. This triangulation was

further strengthening through the readjustment and was later known as Borneo Triangulation

1968 (BT68). This network consists of the Borneo West Coast Triangulation of Brunei and

Sabah (1930-1942), Borneo East Coast Triangulation of Sarawak, extension of the West

Coast Triangulation of Sabah (1955-1960) and several Doppler points surveyed between

18

1961 and 1968. The adjustment produced an overall accuracy of about 5ppm. The BT68,

which also referred as the Timbalai Datum, uses the Modified Everest ellipsoid for referenced

(Figure 17).

However, with the advent of new technologies such as Global Positioning System

(GPS) and unified GIS applications over large areas, the existing datums of MRT and BT68

have become obsolete in that they cannot match the accuracy needed for new applications.

Therefore, the World Geodetic System (WGS8) has been used as a reference framework for

geospatial data and is the reference framework for the Global Positioning System (GPS).

reference system and geodetic datum. WGS 84 depends on a reliable arrangement of

constants and model parameters that portray the Earth's size, shape, and gravity and

geomagnetic fields. WGS 84 is the standard U.S. Department of Defence is a meaning of a

worldwide reference framework for geospatial data and is the reference framework for the

Global Positioning System (GPS). It is compatible with the International Terrestrial

Reference System (ITRS).

• The semi-major axis of the WGS 84 ellipsoid

• The flattening factor of the Earth

• The nominal mean angular velocity of the Earth

• The geocentric gravitational constant

The International Earth Rotation Services (IERS) keeps up this present day terrestrial

reference system through an International Terrestrial Reference Frame (ITRF), which is

characterized by embracing the geocentric Cartesian directions and velocities of global

tracking stations, got from the investigation of VLBI, SLR, and GPS information. The usage

of geocentric datum for Malaysia will require the association with such reference outline

(ITRF).

19

The following stages of realization of the geocentric datum have been planned and carried

out:

• GPS data collection for the Zero Order Geodetic Network.

• Data processing and adjustment of Zero Order Geodetic Network.

• Computation of the new geocentric datum coordinates at a specific epoch.

• Determination of velocity model for Malaysia.

• Strengthening and readjustment of Peninsular Malaysia Primary Geodetic Network

(PMPGN2000)

• Derivation of transformation parameters.

Over the years, the Rectified Skew Orthomorphic (RSO) and Cassini Soldner

(Cassini) map projection systems have been used for national mapping and cadastral

purposes, respectively, based on these two local datums. The rectified skew orthomorphic

(RSO) map projection is an oblique Mercator projection developed by Hotine in 1947.(Figure

18) This projection is orthomorphic (conformal) and cylindrical. All meridians and parallel

are complex curves. Scale is approximately true along a chosen central line (exactly true

along a great circle in its spherical form). It is thus a suitable projection for an area like

Switzerland, Italy, New Zealand, Madagascar and Malaysia as well. The RSO provides an

optimum solution in the sense of minimizing distortion whilst remaining conformal for

Malaysia.

The Hotine RSO defining parameters for MRT 1948 consist of:

• Conversion Factor (1 chain = 20.11678249 )

• Projection origin ϕo = 4º 00’ N, λo = 102º 15’ E

• Scale Factor at Origin (mo ) = 0.99984

• Basic or initial line of projection passes through the Skew Origin at an azimuth of (γo ) =

–Sin-1 (– 0.6) or 323º 01’ 32.8458”

• False Easting = 804,671 m, False Northing = zero

20

Besides that, Cassini-Solder Coordinate Projection System which is a plane

coordinate system for local cadastral system also have been used in Malaysia for cadastral

survey. Each state has its own origin and reference meridian resulting in a total of 9 different

states’ coordinate systems. Different origins in different states have resulted in

incompatibility as far as digital database is concerned. (Figure 19) It was impossible to

retrieve a homogenous and unique cadastral data, which eventually led to confusion among

users especially to those conducting crossover-states cadastral survey works.

Figure 19: The origin of coordinates for Cassini parameter in West Malaysia

Besides that, Cassini Soldner or also called Cassini, this transverse cylindrical

projection maintains scale along the central meridian and all lines parallel to it and is neither

equal area nor conformal. It is most suited for large scale mapping of areas predominantly

north south in extent. In projection method, a transverse cylinder is projected conceptually

onto the globe and is tangent along the central meridian. Cassini Soldner is analogous to the

Equirectangular projection in the same way Transverse Mercator is to the Mercator

projection.

The name Cassini Soldner refers to the more accurate ellipsoidal version, developed

in the 19th century .The point of tangency is a line, specified as the central meridian. The

linear graticules is the equator, central meridian, and meridians 90° from the central meridian.

The property of Cassini Soldner varies in shape, area, direction and distance. Shape has no

distortion along the central meridian. Distortion increases with distance from the central

meridian but the direction is generally distorted. For distance, scale distortion increases with

distance from the central meridian; however, scale is accurate along the central meridian and

all lines perpendicular to the central meridian. Distortion increases with distance from the

central meridian. There is limitation in Cassini Soldner.

21

Used primarily for large-scale mapping of areas near the central meridian. The extent

on a spheroid is limited to 5° to either side of the central meridian. Beyond that range, data

projected to Cassini Soldner may not project back to the same position. Transverse Mercator

often is preferred due to the difficulty in measuring scale and direction on Cassini Soldner.

Normally used for large scale maps of areas predominantly north south in extent. Used for the

Ordinance Survey of Great Britain and some German states in the late 19 the century. It also

have been used in Cyprus, former Czechoslovakia, Denmark, Malaysia, and the former

Federal Republic of Germany.

In Malaysia, the geodetic datum has been used such as the WGS84 and the MRT.

Peninsular Malaysia Primary Geodetic Network (PMPGN 2000) has been successfully

established with connection to the Zero Order Geodetic Network and its coordinates referred

to the ITRF2000 Epoch 00.0. The PMPGN2000 has achieved an accuracy of 1 to 3 cm.

While the MRT is refer to the terrestrial and astronomical observations, which were

established before the availability of modern satellite techniques. PMGSN94 was established

in 1994 and based on approximate World Geodetic System (WGS 84). Furthermore,

PMGSN94 is based on GPS observations with outdated GPS receiver technology and the

absolute accuracy of the coordinates is around 1.5 m.

Therefore, the geocentric datum such as the GDM2000 has unified the geodetic datum

in Malaysia in a geocentric reference frame defined in ITRF system with particular epoch

(ITRF2000@0.00). The GDM2000 is forming the backbone for the national adjustment of

the existing GPS stations to define all coordinates in ITRF system. The new GDM2000

would be maintained and managed through the MASS networks which form the Zero Order

Geodetic Network and thus a high accuracy, homogeneous and up-to-date datum would

always be available for the nation.

The new Geocentric Datum for Malaysia 2000 (GDM2000) is based on the Malaysia

Active GPS System (MASS), which fits into a global geodetic framework. MASS consists of

eighteen (18) active permanent GPS stations which were established for geodetic surveying

and scientific purposes since 1998 by the Department with a nominal spacing of about 200

km. These MASS Stations form the Zero Order Geodetic Network. Three years of MASS

data (1999 and 2002 for 15 stations) have been used for processing and reference frame

determination. (Figure 20) Eleven (11) International GPS for Geodynamic Services (IGS)

stations data around Malaysia have been included and held fixed in the processing (Figure

21) The processing has been carried out using the precise orbits acquired from IGS. These

new set of coordinates are known as the Geocentric Datum of Malaysia or GDM2000 and

was officially launched on 26 August 2003. There are some differences among the geodetic

and geocentric datum such as in (Figure 22).

22

Figure 20: MASS Network

23

Figure 22: The Difference between Local Geodetic Datum (MRT) and Geocentric Datum.

The GDM2000 supersedes the classical geodetic datums in Malaysia and has been

established with respect to a geocentric reference frame defined in ITRF system at ITRF2000

epoch 2 January 2000 at an accuracy of 1 cm. On the other hand, the new GDM2000 (2009)

coordinates have taken into account the displacement and movement due to the Sumatran

earthquakes in 2004, 2005 and 2007. This new GDM2000 (2009) would be continuously

maintained and managed through the use of MyRTKnet permanent tracking stations to ensure

the availability of highly accurate, homogeneous and up-to-date datum of Malaysia. With the

GDM2000, Malaysia is now competitive enough to face the challenges with the developed

countries in the field of geodesy.

In Malaysia there are several coordinate system that have been used to represent location of

Earth’s surface or geographic features in the form of x and y space.

on the cylindrical Transverse Mercator projection where the cylinder in the Transverse

Mercator projection is digression along a meridian (line of longitude) or it is secant, in which

case it cuts through the earth at two standard meridians like in Figure 23(Lampinen,2001).

24

Figure23: The Cylindrical Transverse Mercator projection

The UTM system is not a single map projection where it divides the Earth into sixty

zones, each being a six-degree band of longitude, and uses a secant transverse Mercator

projection in each zone. Zone 1 covers longitude 180° to 174° W and the zone numbering

increases eastward to zone 60, which covers longitude 174°E to 180° like in Figure

24(Grubb, T.G. and W.L. Eakle, 1988). The Polar regions south of 80°S and north of 84°N

are excluded. In Malaysia, the zones assigned for Peninsular Malaysia are the Zone 47 and

Zone 48 while in Sabah and Sarawak the designated zones are 49 and 50 as shown in Figure

25.

25

Figure 25: The UTM zones numbers for Malaysia

In UTM, each of the 60 zones uses a transverse Mercator projection that can map a

region of large north-south extent with low distortion. By using narrow zones of 6° of

longitude (up to 668 km) in width, and reducing the scale factor along the central meridian to

0.9996 (a reduction of 1:2500), the amount of distortion is held below 1 part in 1,000 inside

each zone. Distortion of scale increases to 1.0010 at the zone boundaries along the equator.

Although the distortions of the UTM system are small, they are too great for some accurate

surveying. zone boundaries are also a problem in many applications, because they follow

arbitrary lines of longitude rather than boundaries between jurisdictions.

datum. WGS84 is based on a consistent set of constants and model parameters that describe

the Earth's size, shape, and gravity and geomagnetic fields. WGS84 is the standard U.S.

Department of Defense definition of a global reference system for geospatial information and

is the reference system for the Global Positioning System (GPS)(Maling, D.H.,2013). It is

compatible with the International Terrestrial Reference System (ITRS). The current

realization WGS84 (G1762) follows the criteria outlined in the International Earth Rotation

Service (IERS) Technical Note 21 (TN 21). The responsible organization is the National

Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA). NGA plans to conduct a WGS84 reference frame

network adjustment in 2013 to incorporate IERS Conventions 2010 Technical Note 36 (TN

36).

WGS84 identifies into four defining parameters such as the semi-major axis of the

WGS84 ellipsoid, the flattening factor of the Earth, the nominal mean angular velocity of the

Earth, and the geocentric gravitational constant as specified below (Grafarend,2014). (Figure

26)

26

Parameter Notation Value

In Malaysia, there have two earliest datums extant in Malaysia such as the Perak

System and the Bukit Asa System, both referenced to the Everest 1830 ellipsoid. However,

the quality of the early works of this two datums were so inconsistent that it was decided to

re-observe the principal triangles of the general triangulation with the object of bringing the

work up to modern standards. This triangulation scheme in Peninsular Malaysia was known

as the Primary or Repsold Triangulation which was completed in 1916 and thedatum origin is

at Kertau, where astronomical latitude and azimuth were determined.(Kennedy,2000).

During that time, two Grids have been used for Peninsular Malaysia either the Malay

Cassini-Soldner Grid or the Johore Cassini-Soldner Grid where both of it were referenced to

the Indian Datum of 1916, the ellipsoid of revolution was the Everest 1830. However, in

1948, it was replaced by a new system named as the Malayan Revised Triangulation

(MRT68) after followed by a lengthy process of additional measurements and re-

computation. The geodetic network used in Borneo is called the Borneo Triangulation

(BT68). The Malayan Revised Triangulation has been used for geodetic, mapping, cadastral

and several other activities since 1948 in Peninsular Malaysia. This network consists of 77

geodetic, 240 primary, 837 secondary and 51 tertiary stations. This network is based on the

conventional observations with many of the triangulation points are dated as far back as

1885. The MRT 1948 has been adopted as a result of the re-computations of the earlier

network together with the Primary (Repsold) Triangulation carried out between 1913 and

1916. The reference ellipsoid used for the MRT 1948 is the Modified Everest and the MRT

1948 datum origin is also at Kertau, Pahang .The map projection for Peninsular Malaysia is

the Rectified Skew Orthomorphic (RSO) developed by the late Brigadier Martin Hotine

specifically for Malaysia and Borneo.

projection developed by Hotine in 1947. (Figure27)This projection is orthomorphic

(conformal) and cylindrical. It is similar to the Mercator projection, except that the cylinder is

wrapped around the sphere so that it touches the surface along the great circle path chosen for

the central line, instead of along the earth's equator. The scale becomes infinite 90 degrees

from the central line and is true along a chosen central line, along two straight lines parallel to

the central line, or along a great circle at an oblique angle It is thus a suitable projection for

an area like Switzerland, Italy, New Zealand, Madagascar and Malaysia as well. The RSO

provides an optimum solution in the sense of minimizing distortion whilst remaining

conformal for Malaysia. The RSO origin in Peninsular is at Kertau, Pahang, while the origin

for BRSO is at Bukit Timbalai, Labuan. Basically, the RSO projection used in large and

medium scale topographic mapping and engineering survey.

27

Figure 27: The Oblique Mercator projection that used in RSO

Timbalai 1948 / RSO Borneo (m) is a projected CRS last revised on April 21, 2018

and is suitable for use in Brunei - onshore and offshore; Malaysia - East Malaysia (Sabah;

Sarawak) - onshore and offshore. Timbalai 1948 / RSO Borneo (m) uses the Timbalai 1948

geographic 2D CRS as its base CRS and the Rectified Skew Orthomorphic Borneo Grid

(meters) (Hotine Oblique Mercator (variant B)) as its projection. Timbalai 1948 / RSO

Borneo (m) is a CRS for Exploration and production operations in Brunei. Formerly also

large and medium scale topographic mapping and engineering survey. It was defined by

information from Defence Geographic Centre. Original projection definition in chains where

1 chain = 792 inches. Adopts Sears 1922 metric conversion of 39.370147 inches per meter

and replaced by CRS code 3376 in East Malaysia and CRS code 5247 in Brunei.

Besides that, the Hotine RSO defining parameters for MRT 1948 as below:

• Conversion Factor (1 chain = 20.11678249 m from Chaney & Benoit, 1896)

• Projection origin ϕo = 4º 00’ N, λo = 102º 15’ E

• Scale Factor at Origin (mo ) = 0.99984

• Basic or initial line of projection passes through the Skew Origin at an azimuth of (γo

) = –Sin-1 (– 0.6) or 323º 01’ 32.8458”

• False Easting = 804,671 m

• False Northing = zero

Soldner projection) is a map projection described by César-François Cassini de Thury in

1745.It is the transverse aspect of the equirectangular projection, in that the globe is first

rotated so the central meridian becomes the "equator", and then the normal equirectangular

projection is applied. Considering the earth as a sphere, the projection is composed by using

the operations like in Figure 28 where λ is the longitude from the central meridian and φ is

the latitude. Normally, the projection has always been applied to models of the earth as an

ellipsoid, which greatly complicates the mathematical development but is suitable for

surveying. Nevertheless, the use of the Cassini projection has largely been superseded by the

Transverse Mercator projection, at least with central mapping agencies (Maling,2013).

28

Figure 28: The operation of Cassini-Soldner projection

In the Cassini-Solder Coordinate Projection System, each state has its own origin and

reference meridian resulting in a total of 9 different states’ coordinate systems. Different

origins in different states have resulted in incompatibility as far as digital database is

concerned. It was impossible to retrieve a homogenous and unique cadastral data, which

eventually led to confusion among users especially to those conducting crossover-states

cadastral survey works.

Besides that, the Cassini Soldner also refers to the ellipsoidal version which has been

developed in the 19th century .The point of tangency is a line, specified as the central

meridian. The linear graticule is the equator, central meridian, and meridians 90° from the

central meridian. The properties of Cassini Soldner are varies in the shape, area, direction and

distance. Shape has no distortion along the central meridian. Distortion increases with

distance from the central meridian but the direction is generally distorted. For distance, scale

distortion increases with distance from the central meridian; however, scale is accurate along

the central meridian and all lines perpendicular to the central meridian. For area, there is no

distortion along the central meridian. Distortion increases with distance from the central

meridian. There is limitation in Cassini Soldner

However, the Cassini Soldner primarily for large-scale mapping of areas near the

central meridian. The extent on a spheroid is limited to 5° to either side of the central

meridian. Beyond that range, data projected to Cassini Soldner may not project back to the

same position. Transverse Mercator often is preferred due to the difficulty in measuring scale

and direction on Cassini Soldner. Normally used for large scale maps of areas predominantly

north south in extent. Used for the Ordinance Survey of Great Britain and some German

states in the late 19 the century. The Cassini projection also has been used in Cyprus, former

Czechoslovakia, Denmark, Malaysia, and the former Federal Republic of Germany.

While in Malaysia, there have 10 different coordinate systems which can be divided

into three different systems. There is Malaysian Revised Triangulation (MRT) System for

states of Kelantan, Terengganu and parts of Perak, ASA System for states of Johor, Negeri

Sembilan, Melaka, Pahang and Selangor, while PERAK System is for the states of Penang,

Kedah, Perlis and north Perak.

coincides with the center of the mass of the earth and the directions of their axes are defined

by convention (Figure 29). The adoption of geocentric datum will definitely lead to a

homogeneous national coordinate datum across the country, and will ensure that coordinates

are directly compatible with GPS coordinate output and with international mapping and

charting standards. The International Earth Rotation Services (IERS) maintains this present

day terrestrial reference system through an International Terrestrial Reference Frame (ITRF),

which is defined by adopting the geocentric Cartesian coordinates and velocities of global

tacking stations derived from the analysis of VLBI, SLR, and GPS data [Bock, 1998]. The

29

implementation of geocentric datum for Malaysia will required the connection to such

reference frame (ITRF). The following stages of realization of the geocentric datum have

been planned and carried out:(Kennedy,2000).

• Data processing and adjustment of Zero Order Geodetic Network.

• Computation of the new geocentric datum coordinates at a specific epoch.

• Determination of velocity model for Malaysia.

• Strengthening and readjustment of Peninsular Malaysia Primary Geodetic Network

(PMPGN2000)

• Derivation of transformation parameters.

In the early of 1990s, JUPEM has embarked on the Global Positioning System (GPS)

technology bandwagon with the objective of adopting a global unified datum for Peninsula

Malaysia, Sabah, and Sarawak .Established permanent GPS tracking stations known as

Malaysia Active GPS System (MASS) at the end of 1998 that comprises eighteen (18)

permanent GPS tracking stations. It also obtained the GPS data from the International Global

Navigational Satellite System (GNSS) Service (IGS) stations. While the Geocentric Datum of

Malaysia 2000 (GDM2000) using data from 1999- 2002.

Malaysia Active GPS Network or MASS is a permanent GPS network that was

established in 1999 and formed a homogeneous and coherent network. The MASS station

GPS data have been used along with those from the International GNSS Service (IGS)

stations for the realization of the zero-order geodetic network for Malaysia. The GPS data

from seventeen MASS stations and eleven IGS stations from 1999 to 2002 have been

processed to establish the zero-order geodetic network. The eleven permanent GPS tracking

stations of the IGS world-wide network in ITRF2000 Epoch 1997 were used as fiducial

points in the processing to obtain the MASS set of station coordinates. The reference IGS

station coordinates which are in ITRF2000 at epoch 1997.0 were transformed to the same

epoch as the adjusted MASS station coordinates, i.e. ITRF 2000 at epoch 2000.0. These new

set of coordinates are known as the Geocentric Datum of Malaysia or GDM2000 and was

officially launched on 26 August 2003.

The GDM2000 supersedes the classical geodetic datums in Malaysia and has been

established with respect to a geocentric reference frame defined in ITRF system at ITRF2000

epoch 2 January 2000 at an accuracy of 1 cm. On the other hand, the new GDM2000 (2009)

30

coordinates have taken into account the displacement and movement due to the Sumatran

earthquakes in 2004, 2005 and 2007. This new GDM2000 (2009) would be continuously

maintained and managed through the use of MyRTKnet permanent tracking stations to ensure

the availability of highly accurate, homogeneous and up-to-date datum of Malaysia

(Hotine,1991).

GEOCENTRIC SYSTEM.

The geodetic coordinate is defined using three quantities: latitude, longitude, and the

geodetic height which are respectively denoted by λ, ϕ, and h. The longitude measures the

rotational angle (ranging from −180° to 180°) between the Prime Meridian and the measured

point. The latitude measures the angle (ranging from −90° to 90°) between the equatorial

plane and the normal of the reference ellipsoid that passes through the measured point. ]The

height (or altitude) is the local vertical distance between the measured point and the reference

ellipsoid. It should be noted that the adopted geodetic latitude differs from the usual

geocentric latitude (ϕ), which is the angle between the equatorial plane and a line from the

mass center of the earth. The latter defines the position of a point on the surface of the Earth

with respect to the reference ellipsoid. (Figure 30)

There are two existing local geodetic reference systems in Malaysia namely the

Malayan Revised Triangulation (MRT) for Peninsular Malaysia and Borneo Triangulation

System 1968 (BT68) for Sabah and Sarawak. The MRT is the coordinate system used for

mapping in Peninsular Malaysia ( Figure 31).

The datum is based on the old Repsold Triangulation and computed using data

collected mainly in the period 1948 to 1966 using the Modified Everest ellipsoid. It consists

of about 1,200 stations plus a number of more recent standard traverses and has an inter-

station accuracy of around 13 to 15 ppm. Coordinates in this system are known as MRT48

coordinates which represent a unified datum, albeit distorted for the whole Peninsular.

31

Figure 31: Malayan Revised Triangulation 1948 (MRT48)

The first datum for Sabah and Sarawak was the Primary Triangulation of Borneo

1948 (BT48) established by the Directorate of Overseas Survey (DOS) which was based on

the Timbalai Datum and Everest Ellipsoid for referenced. This triangulation was further

strengthening through the readjustment and was later known as Borneo Triangulation 1968

(BT68). This network consists of the Borneo West Coast Triangulation of Brunei and Sabah

(1930-1942), Borneo East Coast Triangulation of Sarawak, extension of the West Coast

Triangulation of Sabah (1955-1960) and several Doppler points surveyed between 1961 and

1968. The adjustment produced an overall accuracy of about 5ppm. The BT68, which also

referred as the Timbalai Datum, uses the Modified Everest ellipsoid for referenced (Figure

32).

32

The geocentric coordinate system is defined as the earth-fixed coordinate system

which locations are identified by their x-, y-, and z-values with the origin at the centroid of

the earth. The x-axis is in the equatorial plane and intersects the prime meridian or passing

through the Prime Meridian at the Equator. The y-axis is also in the equatorial plane; it lies at

right angles to the x-axis and passing through 90 degrees East longitude at the Equator. The

z-axis coincides with the polar axis and passing through the North Pole. In Malaysia, the

geocentric coordinates system that has been used is the GDM2000. The GDM2000 is an

example of such a datum. For most practical applications the refined WGS reference frame

can be considered to be coincident with the ITRF. The level of coincidence between the

refined WGS84 frame and the ITRF is estimated to be of the order 10cm. It is customary to

define a global geodetic coordinate system through a set of parameters of its reference

ellipsoid. The defining parameters for the GRS80 ellipsoid used in GDM2000 are

defined(Kadir,2003). (Figure 33)

Figure 33: The parameters for the GRS80 ellipsoid used in GDM2000

involves transforming a given point in geodetic coordinates with quantities of latitude (ϕ),

longitude (λ), and height (h), into the geocentric Cartesian coordinates (X, Y, Z) . The

approach taken in (Burchfiel,1990) relies on trigonometry to perform the interconversion.

The algorithm in (Burchfiel,1990) for geodetic to geocentric conversion is accurate and

efficient with two minor corrections as described in(Lin,1992). The solution presented is an

exact solution and the equations are similar to the ones presented in the Military

Handbook(Lin,1995). The equations are presented below for completeness.

Y = (𝑅𝑛 + h) cos ϕ sin λ (2)

𝑏²

Z = (𝑎² 𝑅𝑛 + h) sin ϕ (3)

Where 𝑅𝑛 is defined as the radius of curvature in the prime vertical and is defined by:

𝑎²

𝑅𝑛 = √(a²cos²ϕ + b²sin²ϕ) (4)

b: semi-minor axis of the reference ellipsoid

With the launching of Geocentric Datum of Malaysia 2000 on 26th of August 2003,

the single referenced geocentric datum is adopted to convert the state-based localize Cassini-

Soldner system into the Geocentric Cassini Coordinate Projection System. The conversion

allows efficient data exchange and sharing from various information systems compatible with

global coordinates obtained from GNSS and other coordinate systems adopted in many parts

of the world such as the satellite images, topographical maps and aerial photographs.

33

8. CURRENT ISSUES ON PROJECTION SYSTEM AND COORDINATE SYSTEM

Figure 34: Cartesian Coordinates System (left) and Geographic Coordinate System (right).

The main issue on coordinates is coordinates conversion and before that, need to

understand the coordinate itself. Locations on the Earth's surface are measured and

represented in terms of coordinates. A coordinate is a set of two or more numbers that

specifies the position of a point, line, or other geometric figure in relation to some reference

system. The simplest system of this kind is a Cartesian coordinate system, named for the 17th

century mathematician and philosopher René Descartes. A Cartesian coordinate system, like

the one above in Figure 34, is simply a grid formed by put together two measurement scales,

one horizontal (x) and one vertical (y). The point at which both x and y equal zero is called

the origin of the coordinate system. In the illustration above, the origin (0, 0) is located at the

centre of the grid (the intersection of the two bold lines). All other positions are specified

relative to the origin. The coordinate of the upper right-hand corner of the grid is (6, 3). The

lower left-hand corner is (-6,-3).

Cartesian and other two-dimensional (plane) coordinate systems are handy due to

their simplicity. They are not perfectly suited to specifying geographic positions. However,

the geographic coordinate system, as seen in Figure 34, is designed specifically to define

positions on the Earth's roughly spherical surface. Instead of the two linear measurement

scales x and y, the geographic coordinate systems brings together two curved measurement

scales.

A comparison of these two scales is given below in Figure 35. The north-south scale,

called latitude (designated by the Greek symbol phi), ranges from +90° (or 90° N) at the

34

North pole to -90° (or 90° S) at the South pole with the equator being 0°. A line of latitude is

also known as a parallel.

symbol lambda), ranges from +180° to -180°. Because the Earth is round, +180° (or 180° E)

and -180° (or 180° W) are the same grid line. A line of longitude is called a meridian. That

+/- 180 grid line is roughly the International Date Line, which has diversions that pass around

some territories and island groups so that they do not need to cope with the confusion of

nearby places being in two different days. Opposite the International Date Line on the other

side of the globe is the prime meridian, the line of longitude defined by international treaty as

0°. At higher latitudes, the length of parallels decreases to zero at 90° North and South. Lines

of longitude are not parallel, but converge toward the poles. Thus while a degree of longitude

at the equator is equal to a distance of about 111 kilometres, that distance decreases to zero at

the poles.

The fact that both latitude and longitude are measured in degrees, but what about

when needs a finer granularity measurement? To record geographic coordinates we can

further divide degrees into minutes, and seconds. The degree is equal to sixty minutes, and

each minute equal to sixty seconds. Geographic coordinates often need to be converted in

order to geo-register one data layer onto another.

There are many software to derive the conversion which is via offline or online

through the internet. Geographic coordinates may be expressed in decimal degrees, or

in degrees, minutes, and seconds. Sometimes need to convert from one form to another and

how it works? Table 2 shows the method and the formula for conversion.

Conversion from

Decimal degree to

Degree, minutes and

second

Conversion from

Degree, minutes and

second to Decimal

degree.

Although the coordinate’s conversion is using the good formula or algorithm, there

are still having an errors that related to the accuracy of decimal point. In certain cases, to

35

combine more data in one map need to know the map projection coordinates conversion and

transformation.

For the simple explanation of the conversion, transformation and the projection is in

figure 36. Transformation is related to different coordinate system that will affect the datum.

In this case, datum in MRSO Malaysia is Kertau will change to World Geodetic System 84

that the origin is in earth’s center of mass being defined for the whole earth including oceans

and atmosphere.

(PekelilingPengarahUkurdanPemetaanBil 3 Tahun 2009).

Normally in Malaysia has two different coordinates system that include local Cassini

and RSO. Origin both of them is RSO at Kertau, Pahang and Cassini is suitable for cadastral

refer to the state in Malaysia such as GenungBelumut for Johor, Bukit Asa for Perak,

GunungSenyum for Pahang and etc.

From this different origin that the idea to manage in one centralized origin that

anywhere in Malaysia will tide at one centre point and know as Geocentric Datum Malaysia

(GDM 2000). GDM2000 is being built by GPS space geodetic technology based on

International Terrestrial Reference Frame (ITRF2000) and Geodetic Reference System 1980

(GRS80) reference ellipsoid. GDM2000 is connected to ITRF2000 by the inclusion of 17

International GPS Service (IGS) sites from the nearby regions in the precise baselines

processing and adjustment of a network of existing Malaysian Active GPS System (MASS)

stations. The process of implementing GDM2000 in particular matters related to datum

transformation and map projection is being addressed. New sets of transformation parameters

concerning conversion from the existing local datum to the new GDM2000 have been

developed. Its implication on the existing cadastral and mapping practices, various GPS non-

mapping applications, and GIS/LIS related applications have been considered.

Even though GDM 2000 has developed, Cassini coordinates system is still in use for

cadastral lot or in ‘Title Survey’. It is because every title survey need refer to a datum that

pointed in the ‘Standard Sheet’. All most standard sheet is in Cassini except the new standard

sheet is using GDM 2000. National Mapping agency such as JUPEM and Pejabat Tanah and

Galian are one of the custodian need to collaborate, manage and control this issues.

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9. COMPREHENSIVE DISCUSSION ON PROJECTION SYSTEM AND

COORDINATE SYSTEM FOR EAST MALAYSIA AND WEST MALAYSIA

a. Cassini

Cassini Soldner or also called Cassini, this transverse cylindrical projection maintains

scale along the central meridian and all lines parallel to it and is neither equal area nor

conformal. It is most suited for large scale mapping of areas predominantly north south in

extent.

and is tangent along the central meridian. Cassini Soldner is analogous to the Equire

rectangular projection in the same way Transverse Mercator is to the Mercator projection.

The name Cassini Soldner refers to the more accurate ellipsoidal version, developed in the

19th century and used in this software. The point of tangency is a line, specified as the central

meridian. The linear graticules is the equator, central meridian, and meridians 90° from the

central meridian. The property of Cassini Soldner varies in shape, area, direction and

distance. Shape has no distortion along the central meridian. Distortion increases with

distance from the central meridian but the direction is generally distorted.

areas near the central meridian. The extent on a spheroid is limited to 5° to either side of the

central meridian. Beyond that range, data projected to Cassini Soldner may not project back

to the same position. Transverse Mercator often is preferred due to the difficulty in measuring

scale and direction on Cassini Soldner. The coordinates of Cassini Soldner is suit for

cadastral lot in Malaysia. The entire standard sheets are using the Cassini Soldner. Origin

Cassini is based on every state in Malaysia. Figure 37 shows the origin and state that related

in Cassini.

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b. RSO

Borneo and is similar to the Oblique Mercator. For projection method, Oblique cylindrical

projection. A line of true scale is drawn at an angle to the central meridian. Line of contact is

a single, oblique, great-circle line. Linear graticules is two meridians 180° apart. Shape is

conformal or local shapes are true. Area increases with distance from the central line.

Distance is true along the chosen centre line. For East Malaysia the origin is at Kertau,

Temerloh Pahang.

Sabah and Sarawak or East Malaysia has one specific coordinates system that located

at Bukit Timbalai, Labuan. This is the origin for Borneo Rectified Skew Orthomorphic or

known as BRSO. BRSO also is utilizing in cadastral survey in Borneo and that is make this

Origin more specialize.

a. GDM 2000

Malaysia 2000 (GDM2000), where the coordinate system is a best match for the physical

form of the earth. The origin of the GDM2000 coordinate system is at the center of the earth.

Major adjustment of GDM2000 is based on Malaysian stations Active GPS System (MASS).

This MASS station meet the global geodetic circuit, where it is forming a network named as

Zero Order Geodetic Network.

With GDM2000 it will allow uniformity data to be done for all measuring products

and mapping. Switching to a uniform system will facilitate data exchange on in geomatic

disciplines, such as mapping products, geographic information systems (GIS), system

information land (LIS). Remote sensing products, scientific research, and more.

All new mapping products and JUPEM replicas will be generated from digital based

on the ground GDM2000, this includes maps and map scan images. GDM2000 is also a

system reference all GPS products, therefore all GPS information will refer to GDM2000

through the process transformation. While for works that have agreements such as borders

measurements international, coordinated system of coordinates is maintained.

This reference system will also avoid the complex transformation process and

resulting in a drop in accuracy and accuracy for measuring and mapping products. By

receiving using GDM2000 as datum reference, JUPEM will be able to provide and supply

measuring products and high quality and uniform mapping to users. The geocentric datum is

a geospatial reference system with a point of origin (0,0,0) coincide with the center of the

earth while its 3 axes lie in the specified direction.

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b. WGS84

datum. WGS84 is based on a consistent set of constants and model parameters that describe

the Earth's size, shape, and gravity and geomagnetic fields. WGS84 is the standard U.S.

Department of Defence definition of a global reference system for geospatial information and

is the reference system for the Global Positioning System (GPS).

current realization WGS84 (G1674) follows the criteria outlined in the International Earth

Rotation Service (IERS) Technical Note 21 (TN 21). The responsible organization is the

National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA). NGA plans to conduct a WGS84 reference

frame network adjustment in 2013 to incorporate IERS Conventions 2010 Technical Note 36

(TN 36). Its Origin Earth’s centre of mass being defined for the whole earth including oceans

and atmosphere. Z-Axis at the direction of the IERS Reference Pole (IRP). This direction

corresponds to the direction of the BIH Conventional Terrestrial Pole (CTP) (epoch 1984.0)

with an uncertainty of 0.005. X-Axis at Intersection of the IERS Reference Meridian (IRM)

and the plane passing through the origin and normal to the Z-axis. The IRM is coincident

with the BIH Zero Meridian (epoch 1984.0) with an uncertainty of 0.005. Y-Axis at

Completes a right-handed, Earth-Centred Earth-Fixed (ECEF) orthogonal coordinate system.

Its scale is that of the local Earth frame, in the meaning of a relativistic theory of gravitation.

10. CONCLUSION

In conclusion, projection and coordinate systems form the basis for how a GIS can

store, analyse, and display spatial data. Projections and coordinate systems are important

knowledge to have, especially if you deal with many different sets of data that come from

different sources. As for projection, the best model of the earth would be a 3-dimensional

solid in the same shape as the earth. Spherical globes are often used for this purpose.

However, globes have several drawbacks such as globes are large and cumbersome.

Besides, they are generally of a scale unsuitable to the purposes for which most maps

are used. Standard measurement equipment (rulers, protractors, planimeters, dot grids, etc.)

cannot be used to measure distance, angle, area, or shape on a sphere, as these tools have

been constructed for use in planar models. The latitude-longitude spherical coordinate system

can only be used to measure angles, not distances or areas. Coordinate systems enable

geographic datasets to use common locations for integration. A coordinate system is a

reference system used to represent the locations of geographic features, imagery, and

observations, such as Global Positioning System (GPS) locations, within a common

geographic framework.

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