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The International Journal of Cement Composites and Lightweight Concrete, Volume 5, Number 4 November 1983

SYNOPSIS
Mix design and Pulverised fuel ash (PFA) is the principal waste product
obtained from coal burning power stations in the

properties of generation of electricity. Vast volumes of such PFA


anticipated further in the next two decades would create
serious disposal and environmental problems in many

concrete made countries. One effective method of utilising these large


volumes of PFA is to manufacture aggregates from them
for plain and structural concrete. The paper presents
from PFA extensive test data on the mix design, strength and
elasticity properties of concrete made from PFA coarse
aggregates and sand and having 28 day strengths of 20
coarse to 60 N/mm 2. A mix design chart is given together with
equations related to strength and elastic modulus.

aggregates and Stress-strain curves for such concrete for structural


applications are also reported.

sand KEYWORDS
Fly ash, waste utilization, lightweight aggregates,
porosity, water absorption, concrete mix design,
lightweight concretes, mechanical properties, elastic
R. N. Swamy* and G. H. Lambert¢ properties, strength of materials, failure, stress-strain
diagrams, materials testing.

INTRODUCTION
It is now being increasingly recognised that with the
fastly depleting oil and gas reserves in the world, coal will
probably remain as the major form of fuel for the
generation of electricity for at least the next few
decades. One of the inevitable side-effects of having coal
fired power stations is the problem of disposal of the
residues from the coal burnt, and this can create serious
local as well as national economic and environmental
issues. The major waste product obtained from
pulverised coal burning power stations is pulverised fuel
ash (PFA) - - a fine dust collected in cyclones and
electrostatic precipitators from the flue gases of the
furnaces.
From an engineering point of view the significant
characteristic of these ashes is their high degree of
variability - - in colour, in chemical composition, carbon
content and in their physical properties such as fineness
and density. A wide range of factors influence the
chemical and physical characteristics of the ash - - the
origin and quality of the coal, the degree of pulverisation,
the design of the boiler units, the charging and firing
techniques, and finally the process of collection, handling
and storage of the ash. The most effective means of
removing fly ash of all particle sizes down to 2/~m
appears to be through electrostatic precipitators - -
small-diameter multicyclones tend to be less efficient
compared to the former or a combination of the two.
With the increasing use of coal, the volume of waste
PFA is also likely to increase. In the UK alone, by the
© Construction Press 1983 1970s, the total PFA produced annually amounted to
0262-5075/83/05450263/$02.00
some 7.5 m tonnes of which about half was being
utilised in construction. By 1980, about 12-15 m tonnes
*Department of Civil and Structural Engineering, University of of PFA were being produced, with a stockpile of 250 m
Sheffield, Sheffield, England. tonnes; the annual usage, however, has remained static
+AIIott and Lomax, Consulting Engineers, Fairbairn House, at about 50% of the annual production.
Manchester, England. Worldwide production annually of PFA by 1980 is

263
Mix design and properties of concrete made from PFA coarse aggregates and sand Swamy and Lamber~

estimated at about 180-200 m tonnes. Of these less EXPERIMENTAL P R ~ E


than about 20% was used in concrete related materials
such as cement manufacture, concrete and concrete Materials. Ordinary portland cement, fly ash coarse
products, and lightweight aggregates. It is estimated aggregates and natural sand fines were used throughout
that by the turn of this century some 750 m tonnes of this study. Although several batches of all three materials
PFA will be produced annually world-wide. had to be used during the course of the investigation, the
source of each material was constant throughout.
The cement used satisfied all the relevant
A G G R E G A T E S F R O M FLY A S H
Apart from using fly ash as partial cement replacement specifications of BS12: [8]. The fly ash coarse
aggregates were supplied in five batches and their
and in the manufacture of concrete and concrete blocks,
one major area of ash utilisation could be in the form of grading analysis together with fineness modulus are
aggregates for concrete. Current annual production of shown in Table 1. The coarse aggregates were sampled
and tested in accordance with BS 3681, Part 2, 1973 [9]
coarse and fine aggregates from PFA is of the order of
600,000 m 3 in UK and 300,000 m 3 in the USA; this and BS 3797, Part 2, 1976 [10] respectively. The
represents the utilisation of only a fraction of the total ash aggregates satisfied the recommended grading limits
collected in the world. The estimated annual production [10], and had an average loose dry bulk density of
of aggregates in the UK alone by the 1980s was of the 830 kg/m 3, and a maximum aggregate size of 14 mm.
order of 230 m tonnes of which all lightweight The sand was sampled and tested according to BS
aggregates put together amounted to less than 1%. The 812, 1975 [111 and BS 882, 1973 [12]. The sand
world-wide annual production of cement by the year conformed to the grading limits for Zone 2 [12], and its
2000 is estimated to be about 1800 m tonnes, which fineness modulus ranged from 2.74-2.92. Its average
would require aggregates amounting to some 15 000 m loose dry bulk density was 1560 kg/m 3.
tonnes. It can be easily seen that a major utilisation of
PFA could be in the form of aggregates, and this is an
area that would merit attention in many parts of the Table 1 Grading limits for fly ash coarse aggregates from
world, bearing in mind the rapid dwindling of sources of batches 1 to 5.
natural aggregates.
In the UK, aggregates from PFA are produced by the Percentage passing (by weight)
sintering process* [1 --4]. The sintering process produces
aggregates the main chemical constituents of which are Sieve 14 mm nominal
silica (about 30 to 60%) and alumina (about 15 to 30%). size graded aggregate Batch Batch Batch Batch Batch
Because of this, fly ash aggregates, like brick, are (mm) BS 3797 I10i 1 2 3 4 5
chemically inert to most substances encountered in
building construction, and in particular, are immune to 20 100 100 100 100 100 100
alkali-aggregate reaction. 14 95-100 99 99 99 99 99
Like most manufactured aggregates, PFA aggre- 10 50- 90 85 83 76 82 88
gates are lightweight in nature, and have therefore low 5 0- 15 9 8 9 8 3
bulk density and specific gravity, low particle strength
and high porosity [5,6]. The pore structure of aggregates Fineness
modulus -- 5.93 5.97 6.05 5.97 5.99
made from sintered pulverised fuel ash, their absorption
characteristics and relative density have been studied in
detail and reported by the authors [7]. In spite of the low
particle strength and high proportion of voids, it has been Mixing procedure. Aggregates manufactured from fly
shown that concrete of structural quality and suitable for ash are necessarily classified as lightweight and have a
prestressing can be easily produced with aggregates highly porous structure [7]. A major difference in
manufactured from PFA [5,6]. producing concretes containing such lightweight porous
For a number of reasons, the current tendency is to aggregates from those of normal weight aggregates is
use the fines obtained from the PFA sintering process in that the former absorb considerably more water than
the manufacture of concrete blocks, whilst the coarse conventional gravel or crushed rock aggregates. This
aggregates are used with natural fines for structural factor needs to be considered both in designing the
concrete. There is little systematic information on the mixes and in making concrete containing such
mix design and properties of PFA coarse aggregate- aggregates.
natural sand concrete. This paper reports a detailed study In order to have adequate control of the amount of
of such concrete, and presents a mix design chart for water added to the mix, two pieces of data are
PFA coarse aggregate - - natural sand concrete for 28 necessary, namely, the absorption characteristics of the
day strengths of 20 to 60 N/mm 2. Comprehensive test dry coarse aggregates and the moisture content of the
data are also presented on strength, elasticity and stockpiled aggregate at the time of making the concrete.
stress-strain behaviour, and where appropriate, regres- The first of these i.e. the percentage absoption by
sion equations are suggested for prediction of strength dry weight and the relative density of the fly ash
and elastic modulus. aggregates were determined according to BS 812: Part
*Trade name 'Lytag'. 2:1975 [11 ]. Samples from several batches were used

264
Mix design and properties of concrete made from PFA coarse aggregates and sand Swamy and Lambert

for both these tests, and the average absorption values having a slump of 75-100 mm and 28 day target
after 30 sec, 30 rain and 24 hrs were 9.0%, 9.9% and strengths (dry cured) of 30, 45 and 60 N/mm 2 were
13.1% respectively [7]. Based on these data, an designed (Table 2). Apart from investigating the strength
allowance of 12% by weight, of dry coarse aggregates, characteristics of the concrete, this test series was also
was made for water absorption by the fly ash designed to examine four other factors: (i)the influence
aggregates. The average relative density of the of different batches of aggregates on the target strength,
aggregates based on oven dry, saturated surface dry and (ii) the influence of internal or external vibration, (iii) the
apparent conditions [11] were 1.56, 1.76 and 1.96 rate of strength development and (iv) the influence of
respectively [7]. initial moisture content of aggregates on compressive
The fly ash coarse aggregates were stockpiled in the strength.
open air, and used in the moisture condition in which
they were found at the time of mixing. To allow for the
absorption of the aggregates, the moisture content of
several samples of the stockpiled aggregate was Table 2 Mix proportions for various concrete strengths
determined, immediately prior to use, by means of a
'speedy moisture tester'. The average of these values Dry weights per
together with the 12% absorption value of the dry 28 day cubic metre Free Free
aggregates was then used to adjust the water added at target (kg) water water/
the mixer. strength content cement
The sand for the concrete was dried and left to cool (N/mm 2) O.P.C. Sand Lytag (kg) ratio
prior to use so that its moisture content was practically nil
for mix design purposes. 30 250 715 715 175 0.70
The concrete was mixed in a horizontal pan-type 45 335 645 715 175 0.53
mixer. Several different methods of combining the 60 485 515 715 175 0.36
constituents were tried, and the following method was
found to produce the most homogeneous mix with the
highly absorptive fly ash aggregates. Firstly the coarse
aggregates were placed in the pan, and approximately Mixes were then cast for each of these target
one third of the mixing water added. The aggregates and strengths from all five batches of aggregates. All the test
water were then mixed for approximately one minute to specimens were cast in steel moulds, covered with
allow the aggregates to absorb water. The cement and polythene sheet and left in an uncontrolled internal
sand were then added and mixed for another 30 environment for about 24 hours before demoulding. Dry
seconds. The remaining water was then added and the curing was adopted for this series to assess the effect of
mixing continued for a further 90 seconds. the extreme condition that is likely to occur on site
namely, that of no curing after stripping the formwork.
CONCRETE M I X DESIGN CONTAINING FLY ASH The results of this series of tests are shown in Tables
COARSE AGGREGATES 3 and 4 and Figures 1 and 2. All the tabulated or plotted
In broad terms, the aim of mix design is to produce the values are the average of at least three test specimens.
most economical concrete mix that will have the Table 3 shows the average compressive strength for the
required strength and workability characteristics to allow three mixes cast using different batches of aggregates,
it to be easily placed and fully compacted. There is a and the strength values are seen to be reasonably
wealth of information available on mix design procedures consistent. The effect of the type of vibration on
for dense concrete; that on lightweight concrete is not so compressive strength is shown in Figure 1. Test cubes
extensive but nevertheless data are available for different from the same mix were compacted using either a high
types of aggregates [5,13-16]. frequency vibrating table or a 25 mm diameter poker
The initial trial mixes for the 28 day cube strength of vibrator. The results show no significant effect of the
20-60 N/mm 2were carried out based on the information
supplied by the manufacturers of fly ash aggregates [13]
and the experience gained in the Department in previous Table 3 Average compressive strength of air-cured
research [5,6]. The first trial mixes had high effective concrete made with various batches of fly ash
water contents, namely 180 kg/m 3, which produced coarse aggregates.
very high slump values and made mixes of lower cement
contents prone to bleeding. When the time between 28 day Averagecompressive strength (N/mm 2)
mixing and placing was extended, as would occur on a M ix target
site, much of the bleeding was, however, reduced. proportions strength Batch Batch Batch Batch Batch
Based on these trials, an effective water content of by weight (N/mm2) 1 2 3 4 5
175 kg/m 3 was decided upon for all subsequent mixes
used in this test programme. 1:2.85:2.84 30 30.5 3 2 . 5 '32.1 3 1 . 9 33.0
1:1.94:2.14 40-45 39.6 4 6 . 2 4 5 . 4 46.2 47.0
TEST SERIES 1 1:1.06:1.47 60 58.0 -- 59.0 -- 60.0
Based on the initial trial mix results, concrete mixes,

265
Mix design and properties of concrete made from PFA coarse aggregates and sand Swamy and Lamber1

Table 4 Strength development of air cured concrete made


0
from fly ash aggregates. 60 0
0
Strength as percentage of J~
28 day strength 50 V g V
Concrete strength
- - ~ v - - ~ -~ v
N/ram 2 1 day 3 days 7 days 14 days c.Oc~
E V___._V. V V q
V V q
30 20 45 70 85 ~ z
45 20 50 75 90 t_ 00000 0 0
m
o- 0 - -
E
o
3C o o Oo°-e-°-°
(D o 0 o o ~ o

20
Line of equal /
50 strength

z
E

40
S 28 day
10 ....... I
7 8
I I
9
Initial Aggregate Moisture Content
(% by weight}
I
10 11
I
1
I2

t-

c- Figure 2 Effect of initial coarse aggregate moisture


content on the 28 day compressive strength of
g3o air cured cubes.
-> c:~
~r) , -
~ 20 O WORKABILITY, CEMENT CONTENT A M B D I E I ~ i T Y
/ ? day The mixes were generally designed for a slump of
O
75-100 mm, although in practice the slumps were much
10 higher and gave inconsistent results. These variations
are thought to be due to the various factors influencing
workability measurements, and in particular, the initial
0 I I I l I moisture content of the aggregates and the time lag
0 10 20 30 L0 50 between mixing and testing. The coarse aggregates
Compressive Strength ( N/mm 2 ) made from fly ash in UK have a spherical particle shape
which helps to increase workability but has a tendency to
(Immersion vibrator) give mixes a harsh appearance, which of course is in no
Figure 1 Effect of method of compaction on the 7 and way harmful to the resulting concrete.
28 day compressive strength of air cured cubes From the results of Series 1, the relationship
between 28 day compressive strength and water-
cement ratio, cement content and density were derived
and are shown in Figures 3 to 5. The strength-total
method of compaction on compressive strength
provided of course the compaction is thorough.
The strength development for the 30 N/ram 2 and -
45 N / m m 2 strength air cured concrete is shown in Table a /
4, as a percentage of the 28 day strength. The values ~ 8o o Lytag-Sand(Authors)
shown are average values for several batches of ~ ~... ~ A[[-Lytag (13}
concrete made from the five batches of aggregate " x . o ~ #lr - -- S a n d - G r a v e [ (17)
shown in Table 1. The strength development shown ~ 6o (Best fit curvel
appears to be of the same order as for normal weight
concrete. >~ L0
The effect of the initial moisture content of the fly
ash coarse aggregates on the 28 day compressive
C ~r ~rd ~ - ~ A-'V"'--~____C----~_o__-
strength of air cured cubes is shown in Figure 2. The ,S 2c
results show that there is no significant variation in ~,
compressive strength as a result of the initial moisture
I F _m I I 1~__ I I
content of the aggregates. From the tests carried out in ~ 0
o2 04 0 6 08 10 12 1L 16
this study, it appears that in practice it is better to ensure
Total Water/Cement Ratio
that the aggregates have some moisture content left in
them prior to concreting. This may mean that aggregates Figure 3 Compressive strength - total water cement
kept dry have to be wetted before use. ratio relationship.

266
Mix design and properties of concrete made from PFA coarse aggregates and sand Swamy and Lambert

Figure 4
Influence of cement content
on compressive strength of
60 various lightweight
4. aggregate concretes.
z
¢-
50
f
> /,0
~a
Q
E
o
30

,m

OD
20
t~
x-_,f " Foamed Slag-Sand (1/,)
* e ~ ' ~----~e7 x Leca-Sand (16)
lC

0 I I I I I
200 300 400 500 600
Cement Content ( kg/m 3 )

water-cement ratio relationship for the fly ash aggre- a given strength obviously depends on the type of
gates - - sand concrete (air cured)is compared with that aggregate used, and fly ash aggregates when used with
of concrete containing fly ash coarse and fine aggregates natural sand appear to compare very well with concrete
[13] and normal sand and gravel concrete [17]. In made from natural aggregates up to a strength of about
general, for a given workability, the total water-cement 45 N/mmL
ratio should decrease when lightweight fines are The differences in the cement contents of the mixes
replaced by sand. In Figure 3, this apparent anomaly in used in this study and those of Balendran [18] are due
water requirement is due to the fact that the slump of to the fact that the latter mixes had only a maximum
mixes containing fly ash coarse and fine aggregates was coarse aggregate volume concentration of 50%.
only about 40-50 mm compared to 75-100 mm for the The strength-density relationship is shown in Figure
fly ash coarse-sand mixes used in this study. 5. When the concrete contains lightweight coarse
The compressive strength - - cement content aggregates and natural sand fines, the density is
relationship for fly ash aggregates is shown in Figure 4 increased by about 15% compared to concrete
and compared with other lightweight [13,14,16,18] and containing both coarse and fine fly ash aggregates.
normal weight aggregates [19]. The cement content for
M I X DESIGN C H A R T
From the results of test series 1 and further several tests,
a mix design chart for concrete containing fly ash
E aggregates and natural sand has been developed and is
80
o Lytag-Sand (Authors)
A[[- Lytag (13) shown in Figure 6. The chart is of simple graphical and
t- tabular form and is based on the premise that for a given
/ degree of workability both the coarse aggregate and
~, 6C
L- / o water contents can be held relatively constant for a wide

/ o/ range of cement contents. Similar charts have been


produced by other investigators [5,18,20,21].
The data shown in Figure 6 should provide a simple
and adequate basis for initial mix design. Because of the
E ~/ o
0 high variability of fly ash not only between those obtained
0
2O from different power stations but also between ashes
o
£3
/ / from different countries, it is likely that the aggregates
derived from them will also have different characteris-
0; I
1500
I
1600
I
1?00
I
1800 1900
A
2000
I tics. It may therefore be necessary to produce such mix
design charts for each brand of aggregates. The data
Air Dried Density( kg/m 3) provided in Figure 6 should give a good starting point for
Figure 5 Relationship between compressive strength such mix design charts.
and density. The cement content shown in Figure 6 is based on

267
Mix design and properties of concrete made from PFA coarse aggregates and sand Swamy and Lambert

Concrete Density Fresh 2035 2015 2010 1980


'Saturated 2050 2040 2030 2025
(kg/m3)at28days. Air Dried 1935 1875 1855 1.810
16°C & 50%RH. 1935 1885 1650 1815
Total water / Cement Ratio (By weight ) 0.54 0-78 1-04 1.30
"Free water/Cement Ratio ( By weight) 0.36 0.52 0.70 0.88
I I I

Materials
-60 ~ ° ~ Stump: ?5-100mm
Cement : 0. P.C.
Fines : Zone2 sand
Coarse: Lytag 12ram -50 v ~ ~ o 28Day
Notes
1. Air cured strength
2. Free water = Total water - 12%
absorption, by weight
of c o a r s e aggregate
3. Effective water content = 175 kg/m 3 '~ ~ n 3 Day ~ o-.~
4.* Tote[ water to be added allowing
-20 ~ " - ~ V~v -
(3.
12% for aggregate absorption E
o
o
-10 ~ A I Day ~D--_
A-

I I I
"Proportions for one cubic Cement /,85 335 250 200
metre of compacted concrete Fines 515 645 715 770
(kg) Coarse 715 715 715 715
Water * 260 260 260 260
Figure 6 Mix design chart for air cured concrete containing fly ash coarse aggregates and natural sand.

strength considerations alone. For low strength mixes of constant temperature and humidity conditions, there isa
20 to 30 grade, higher cement contents may be required continuous increase in strength with age. The maximum
for durability. increase in strength expressed as a percentage of 28 day
strength varied between 10 and 40% at about one year
for water curing, and between 1 and 12% after two years
STRENGTH CHARACTERISTICS OF FLY ASH
AGGREGATE CONCRETE
under constant temperature and humidity conditions.
Under uncontrolled internal environment, there was
In order to assess the validity of the mix design chart
shown in Figure 6 aswell as to establish the properties of some loss in strength, ranging up to a maximum of 10%,
this concrete, tests were carried out to determine the loss occurring after about 3 to 6 months. This slow
compressive strength (100 mm cubes), flexural strength retrogression of strength with time under continued dry
(100 x 100 x 500 mm prisms), tensile splitting strength curing is associated with shrinkage -- induced
(100 x 200mm cylinders), elastic properties and micro-cracks, and has also been observed by other
stress-strain behaviour in compression. Mix design was investigators [18,22,23]. In some cases the strength loss
was recovered, but these data confirm the need for
carried out according to Figure 6, and three curing
regimes were generally used: prevention of moisture loss during the early life of a
concrete member.
1. water at 22°C _ 3°C With synthetic lightweight aggregates such as those
2. uncontrolled internal environment made from fly ash, the mode of failure depends upon
3. constant temperature and humidity conditions: 16°C both the cement content and therefore strength. As both
_ 0.5°C and 50% _+ 2% RH these increased, the proportion of fractured aggregates
increased under both wet and dry curing. At low
TEST RESULTS A N D DISCUSSION strengths, aggregate-matrix bond failure predominated
whilst at high strengths, aggregate fractures were
Compre=~ve Sll=ength The effects of age and curing predominant (Figure 7 ). This characteristic was observed
conditions on compressive strength are shown in Table not only in cubes but also in prisms and cylinders tested
5. The data show that under both water curing and for flexural and tensile splitting strength respectively.

268
Mix design and properties of concrete made from PFA coarse aggregates and sand Swamy and Lambert

Table 5 Compressive strength development of fly ash Tensile Strength The effect of age and curing
coarse aggregate -sand concrete conditions on flexural strength and tensile splitting
strength is shown in Tables 6 and 7. The Tables also
Total show the development of strength as a proportion of 28
Cement:Sand: water/ Compressive strength (N/mm 2) day strength and the relationship between tensile
Age Lytag ratio cement strength and compressive strength.
(days) (by weight) ratio Water Laboratory C.T.H.R.t Both tensile strengths show similar trends - -
strength generally increasing with age when wet cured,
1:3.85:3.58 1.30 11.1 11.4 11.0 but showing a fall in strength under dry curing. The loss in
1:2.77:2.78": 1.04 14.0 13.3 -- strength due to moisture loss generally occurs at higher
1:2.60:2.68 1.00 14.5 13,5 12.6 strengths, the loss being higher the greater the strength.
1:1.94:2.14 0.78 22.0 20.5 19.5 The loss of strength is higher with flexural strength, and
1:1.07:1.48 0.54 29.0 31.0 29.0 is invariably fully recovered subsequently by 28 days. The
phenomenon of loss of tensile strength due to
1:3.85:3.58 1.30 14.8 15.7 14.8 non-uniform moisture loss, and subsequent recovery
1:2.77:2.78 1.04 20.0 22.2 -- when drying becomes more or less uniform is well
1:2.60:2.68 1.00 24.0 22.0 19.6 established in literature [18,19,21,24,25].
1:1.94:2.14 0.78 30.5 29.5 28.2
1:1.07:1.48 0.54 46.5 46.5 45.0 Relationship of tensile strength to compressive
strength Figures 8 and 9 show the variation of flexural
1:3.85:3.58 1.30 17.7 19.3 18.5 strength and tensile splitting strength respectively with
1:2.77:2.78 1.04 27.5 28.0 -- compressive strength for fly ash coarse aggregate-sand
14 1:2.60:2.68 1.00 28.5 26.0 26.6 concrete. Regression analysis gives the following
1:1.94:2.14 0.78 38.5 36.5 35.0 equations:
1:1.07:1.48 0.54 51.5 54.5 55.7
fMR = 0.90 f:oo,3 (wet) (r = 0.99) (1)
1:3.85:3.58 1.30 19.5 22.5 22.0 fMR = 1.20 fco° 26 (dry) (r = 0.65) (2)
1:2.77:2.78 1.04 32.0 33.1 -- fsp = 0.30 fcu° 0, (wet)(r = 0.95) (3)
28 1:2.60:2.68 1.00 32.5 31.0 29.9 fsp = 0.54 fcu° 4, (dry) (r = 0.90) (4)
1:1.94:2.14 0.78 44.0 40.0 38.2 where fMa = modulus of rupture
1:1.07:1.48 0.54 56.0 58.0 57.4 f~p = tensile splitting strength
fcu = cube compressive strength,

1:2.77:2.78 1.04 38.6 40.0 B and r = correlation factor.


91 1:2.60:2.68 1.00 35.5 36.5 B

In view of the erratic effect of dry curing, it would seem


1:1.94:2.14 0.78 45.0 39.5 m

advisable to use separate equations for each curing


1:1.07:1.48 0.54 60.0 56.5 condition.
Modulus of rupture and tensile splitting strength can
be correlated as follows:
1:2.77:2.78 1.04 42.6 35.6 m

182 1:2.60:2.68 1.00 39.0 41.0 fMR = 2.05 fsp o 6, (wet) (r = 0.95) (5)
1:1.94:2.14 0.78 48.5 38.0 m fMR = 1.84 fsp o s2 (dry) (r = 0.59) (6)
1:1.07:1.48 0.54 61.5 56.5
Elastic properties Static and dynamic modulus of
m
elasticity as well as Poisson's ratio were determined, the
1:2.77:2.78 1.04 44.3 36.3 first two according to BS 1881:19 [26]. Four concrete
365 1:2.60:2.68 1.00 40.0 29.5 strengths (20-60 N/ram 2) and three curing conditions (as
1:1.94:2.14 0.78 50.5 38.5 before) were investigated. The static modulus and
1.1.07:1.48 0.54 62.0 56.0 m
Poisson's ratio were obtained from 100 × 100 x
300 mm prisms, and the dynamic modulus from 100 x
100 x 500 mm prisms. The tests were carried out at
1:2.77:2.78 1.04 44.0 ..... 37.0 ..... -- different ages up to 28 days. All the mixes were designed
766 1:2.60:2.68 1.00 40.5 31.0 33.4 according to Figure 6, and all the test specimens
1:1.94:2.14 0.78 50.0 39.0 38.5 fabricated and cured as before.
1:1.07:1.48 0.54 61.0 54.0 58.2 Table 8 shows the development of static and
dynamic moduli, up to 28 days, and under different
"Batch 2 aggregate and cement. curing conditions. Both moduli increase with age and
"*Tested at 635 days. concrete strength; those for wet cured specimens are
tConstant temperature and humidity room. consistently higher than those for dry cured specimens,
by about 5% for static modulus and by about 15% for
dynamic modulus.

269
Mix design and properties of concrete made from PFA coarse aggregates and sand Swamy and Lambert

Figure 7
Aggregate fracture in cubes
tested at 28 days.

Table 6 Flexural s t r e n g t h p r o p e r t i e s o f fly ash coarse aggregate - sand concrete.

28 day Percentage of Modulus of rupture


air cured Modulus of rupture (4) (5__.~) 28 day strength Compressi~,e strength
cube ( N / m m 2) (3) (3) (%) at age shown in col. 2 (%)
strength Age
( N / m m 2) (days) Water Laboratory C.T.H.R. ~ (%) (%) Water Laboratory Water Laboratory C.T.H.R, ~

(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (10) (11 ) (12)

22.5 1 0.68 0.68 0.68 100 100 22 27 15 15 15


33.5 1 1.09 1.04 1.04 100 100 27 34 19 19 19
47.5 1 1.88 1.88 1.88 100 100 92 56 15 15 15
64.0 1 3.32 3.32 3.32 100 100 65 98 13 13 13

22.5 3 1.72 2.00 -- 116 -- 55 81 15 18


33.5 3 3.32 2.80 -- 121 -- 60 91 14 15
47.5 3 3.16 3.44 -- 109 -- 71 102 12 13
64.0 3 4.80 3.32 -- 69 -- 94 98 11 7

22.5 7 2.00 2.16 -- 108 -- 64 87 14 14


33.5 7 3.20 2.80 -- 88 -- 82 91 14 12 m

47.5 7 3.92 3.08 -- 79 -- 88 92 11 8 m

64.0 7 5.00 2.28 -- 46 -- 98 67 10 4 m

22.5 14 2.66 2.32 -- 87 -- 85 94 15 12


33.5 14 3.32 2.91 -- 88 -- 86 95 13 14
47.5 14 4.40 3.39 -- 77 -- 98 101 11 8
64.0 14 4.93 3.03 -- 61 -- 97 89 9 5

22.5 28 3.12 2.48 2.40 79 77 100 100 16 11 11


33.5 28 3.88 3.08 2.80 79 72 100 100 13 9 9
47.5 28 4.48 3.36 3.56 75 79 100 100 11 7 8
64.0 28 5.08 3.40 2.84 67 56 100 100 9 5 5

*Constant temperature and humidity room

270
Mix design and properties of concrete made from PFA coarse aggregates and sand Swamy and Lambert

Table 7 Tensile s p l i t t i n g strength properties o f fly ash coarse aggregate - sand concrete.

28 day Percentage of Tensile splitting stren£1th


air cured Tensile splitting strength (4) (5) 28 day strength Compressive strength
cube ( N / m m 2) (3) (3) (%) at age shown in col. 2 (%)
strength Age
( N / m m ~) (days) Water LaboratoH C.T.H.R.;: (%) (%) Water Laboratow Water Laboratow C.T.H.R. ~

(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (10) (11) (12)

22.5 1 0.51 0.51 0.51 100 100 24 21 11 11 11


33.5 1 0.55 0.55 0.55 100 100 21 22 10 10 10
47.5 1 1.24 1.24 1.24 100 100 35 41 10 10 10
64.0 1 2.16 2.16 2.16 100 100 47 63 9 9 9

22.5 3 1.02 1.11 -- 109 -- 48 46 9 10 m

33.5 3 1.14 1.44 -- 126 -- 43 58 9 10 m

47.5 3 2.17 2.06 -- 95 -- 61 69 10 9


64.0 3 3.15 3.34 -- 106 -- 69 97 7 7

22.5 7 1.43 1.37 -- 96 -- 67 57 10 9 m

33.5 7 1.69 1.95 -- 115 -- 64 79 10 9


47.5 7 3.09 2.46 -- 80 -- 87 82 9 7
64.0 7 4.01 2.96 -- 74 -- 88 86 8 5

22.5 14 1.77 1.93 -- 109 -- 83 81 10 10


33.5 14 2.92 2.36 -- 81 -- 110 96 10 9 m

47.5 14 3.32 2.39 -- 72 -- 93 80 8 6 m

64.0 14 4.38 3.03 -- 69 -- 96 88 8 5

22.5 28 2.13 2.39 2.16 112 101 100 100 11 11 10


33.5 28 2.65 2.47 2.58 93 97 100 100 9 7 8
47.5 28 3.57 2.99 3.02 84 85 100 100 8 6 6
64.0 28 4.58 3.44 3.15 75 69 100 100 8 5 5

Constant temperature and humidity room

¢'4
equi
E A
-I
c~E Z,
Equation (3)
4.
Z

.c3
eJ
L
= Equation (2) ~go"
~2
v Water cunng J~ v Water curing
LL // o UncontrotLed internal.
1 1
/// ~ ControlLed temperature and humidity
and humidity £
lb 3'0 s'0 6b 7b 0( 10
I I
20 30
I
A
~)
50 50
I I
70
I

Compressive strength ( N/ram2 I Compressive strength (N/ram 2)

Figure 8 28 day relationship between flexural strength Figure 9 Tensile splitting -compressive strength
and compressive strength. relationship at 28 days,

271
Mix design and propertles of concrete made from PFA coarse aggregates and sand S vv,~_~m~, r~l~ L ~fr}:~;,.~ !

Table 8 Development of elastic moduli with age

28 day compressive static modulus at '3 rd cube


strength strength Dynamic modulus

Age Wet Dry Water Laboratory C.T.H.R. ~ Water Laboratory C.T.H.R.


(days) (N/mm 2) (N/mm 2) (kN/mm 2) (kN/mm ~) (kN/mm 2) (kN/mm 2) (kN/mm 2) (kN/mm 2)

19.5 22.5 . . . . . 11.0 11.0 10.5


29.5 33.5 . . . . 12.5 12.5 13.0
45.5 47.5 -- -- -- 16.0 16.5 16.0
59.0 64.0 . . . . 19.5 20.0 19.5

19.5 22.5 12.0 11.5 12.5 17.0 16.0 15.5


29.5 33.5 14.0 14.0 14.0 18.0 18.0 18.0
45.5 47.5 15.0 15.5 15.0 21.5 21.5 21.0
59.0 64.0 t 7.5 18.0 18.0 25.0 24.5 24.5

19.5 22.5 12.5 12.5 13.0 20.0 17.5 17.5


29.5 33.5 15.5 15.5 15.5 21.5 20.5 20.0
45.5 47.5 18.0 17.5 17.0 24.0 23.5 23.0
59.0 64.0 20.0 19.5 19.0 26.5 25.5 25.5

t9.5 22.5 14.5 14.0 15.0 21.5 18.0 18.5


29.5 33.5 17.0 16.5 16.5 23.0 21.5 21.0
14
45.5 47.5 19.0 18.5 19.0 25.5 24.0 23.5
59.0 64.0 21.0 20.0 20.5 27.5 26.0 26.0

19.5 22.5 15.5 14.0 16.0 22.5 18.0 18.5


29.5 33.5 18.0 17.5 17.5 24.5 21.5 21.5
28
45.5 47.5 20.0 19.0 19.5 26.0 24.0 24.0
59.0 64.0 22.0 21.5 21.5 28.5 26.0 26.0

C o n s t a n t t e m p e r a t u r e and humidity r o o m

The following regression equations w e r e obtained other available data [18, 19]. The results show that the
from an analysis of the data in Table 8, relating elastic values predicted by equation [7] for fly ash coarse
moduli and cube strength. aggregate - sand concrete is about 60% of that of dense
concrete given in CP110 127 I. The Code values appear to
Static: Es= 5.82 fcu o 32 (wet and dry) (r : 0.95) (7)
over-estimate the values obtained in this study by some
Dynamic: ED= 13.34fcu°2°(wet) (r-0.99) (8)
10% on average. The use of natural sand as fine
ED -- 6.57 fcu o 33 (dry) (r : 0.99) (9)
aggregate appears to enhance the elastic modulus by
If all other available data on fly ash aggregate - sand about 2 0 - 2 5 % compared to those w h e n both the coarse
concrete are considered [18,19], a single equation of and fines are derived from fly ash.
sufficient accuracy can be developed as follows:
Relation between static and dynamic moduli The
Static: Es = 6.84 foe° 28(wet and dry)(r - 0.79) (10)
dynamic modulus test is easier to carry out compared to
Dynamic: ED = 9.92 fcu ° 24 (wet and dry) (r = 0.77 ) (11)
the static test (equipment being available), and the
It is w o r t h noting that equations (7) to (11) are results more consistent. It is therefore often more
independent of density. Although many formulae convenient to estimate the static modulus from the
currently being used relating elastic modulus to density dynamic modulus. Taking into consideration all the data
s h o w good correlation w i t h experimental results, it is s h o w n in Table 8 as well as those of Balendran [18; w e t
considered simpler to relate elastic modulus to curing], the following regression equation is suggested:
compressive strength for a given type of lightweight
aggregate. Es = 0.93 ED - 2.56 (r : 0.93) (12)
A comparison of the static modulus obtained in this
study for fly ash coarse aggregate - sand concrete is Poisson's Ratio The values of Poisson's ratio obtained in
made in Figure 10 with those r e c o m m e n d e d by C P l 1 0 this study are s h o w n in Table 9. These values do not
[27] for dense and lightweight concrete as well as with appear to have any consistent relationship to compres-

272
Mix design and properties of concrete made from PFA coarse aggregates and sand Swamy and Lambert

• Dense Concrete CP 110 sive strength. In general, the static Poisson's ratio for fly
• Lightweight Concrete CP 110 (D c=1875 kg/m 3 I ash coarse aggregate -sand concrete lies between O.16
o Lytag- sand (Authors)(Wet .Dry) and 0.21 i.e. 0.185 - 0.025.
v At[-Lytag (19}(Air)
+ Lyteg-sond (19) Stress-strain behaviour A knowledge of the complete
Lytag or Tac[ite-sand (18) (Wet]
38 stress-strain behaviour of concrete is necessary for limit
/
state design. This characteristic was obtained in this
/
/ study for four different strengths from 75 x 75 x
3/* /
/0 /
300 mm prisms. The test specimens were water cured
/
/
/ for 28 days, and the results presented are the average of
/e
/ three tests.
~" 30 /
F: / In order to obtain the descending part of the
/e /
/ stress-strain curve, the constant rate loading testing
/
~ 26 / machine was transformed into a constant rate of
/
/ straining device by using the machine to deform an
AI - ~ . - o Equation7 elastic member, the deformation of which was utilised to
o~......~. ~ ~o" +~ control the deformation of the test specimen. This
technique has been used to obtain the complete
stress-strain curve in compression, tension, modulus of
~ 18 rupture and splitting strength [28]. In this study a steel
-5
/ "O/ V ~ V
tube was used in parallel with the test specimen, similar

to the technique adopted by Wang e t al. [29], the steel
u 14
£J having a linear elastic stress-strain characteristic.
Figure 11 shows the test arrangement and
10 instrumentation. The steel tube was calibrated before
and after each test; from a knowledge of the total load,
and the strains in the steel tube, the concrete
i JO i I° i i I stress-strain behaviour was evaluated.
10 2 30 4 50 60 70 The results of the tests are shown in Figure 12. Each
Compressive Strength (N/mm2} curve is the average of three specimens. The maximum
Figure 10 C o m p a r i s o n of static m o d u l u s of elasticity stress attained in the tests was sensibly constant at 84 -+
with published data. 2% of the cube strength.

Table 9 Static Poisson's ratio values at various ages. 2 m•[ [ ,///. / /


Machine Head
//,\//,,//,,,// // //~. --~-15mm

28 day compressive
strength (N/mm =) Static Poisson's ratio O.5mm H ] ~o:o '6~I
Age Plastic "J ~' o~8:
(days) Water Laboratory Water Laboratory CTHR Padding ~ 25 or 4Omm

19.5
29.5
45.5
22.5
33.5
47.5
0.101
0.074
0.119
0.116
0.111
0.122
0.109
0.117
0.116
H .0','0.
.~o.
.:"~
o,I
~:~
T

rJ/, Strain Oauge


59.0 64.0 0.145 0.161 0.169 E

19.5 22.5 0.117 0.152 0.142


29.5 33.5 0.100 0.133 0.147
45.5 47.5 0.109 0.152 0.139
Mitd steel tube
59.0 64.0 0.142 0.196 0.193

19.5 22.5 0.146 0.157 0.152 Specimen


29.5 33.5 0.140 0.162 0.197 75x75x300 mm
14
45.5 47.5 0.142 0.157 0.190 ~:~;, ..o:&. IJ
59,0 64.0 0.148 0.207 0.200 F~eo ~.~.~.' rJ
mm--~ i.~.~.::. ~'.o:a. rl
19.5 22.5 0.210 0.181 0.212 '1 / / // "e// 77 ~"~-['15mm
2
29.5 33.5 0.159 0.168 0.199
28 Machine Base
45.5 47.5 0.157 0.161 0.192
59.0 64.0 0.181 0.180 0.202
Figure 11 Test a r r a n g e m e n t for stress-strain curves.

273
Mix design and properties of concrete made from PFA coarse aggregates and sand. Swamy and Lambert

Figure 12
Stress-strain behaviour of
4/- fly ash coarse aggregate -
Key sand concrete.
/.0 28 Day woter fcu
cured strength (N/ram 2)
36 • 195
a 295
32 . /.55
o 59"0 81% fcu
~ 28
E

83% fcu
~ 20
16
83%
12

0 I I I I I
0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000
Strain (m/m * 10 6)

The ascending portions of the stress-strain curves strength, tensile strength, elasticity and stress strain
shown in Figure 12 compared favourably with the tests behaviour. Equations are presented where appropriate
on elastic moduli, and the calculated elastic moduli relating strength and elasticity.
ranged from 14.0 kN/mm 2 to 22.0 kN/mm 2 for concrete
strengths of 20-60 N/mm 2. These values compare well ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
with those given in Table 8. The strain at maximum The tests reported in the paper form part of a larger
stress for the strengths shown in Figure 12 varied from investigation based on a CASE project between the
2250 to 3250 microstrains, compared to 2500-3500 University of Sheffield and Lytag Ltd. The authors wish to
microstrains reported for concrete containing coarse and express their thanks to the Science and Engineering
fine fly ash aggregates (all Lytag concrete) of Council for the CASE Award and to Lytag Ltd. for their
25-30 N/mm 2 strength [13]. Tests reported on Ameri- support of the project.
can lightweight concretes showed strains at maximum
stress varying from 2750 to 3750 microstrains for REFERENCES
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partly to the capping material used and partly to the end pp. 571-4.
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274
Mix design and properties of concrete made from PFA coarse aggregates and sand Swamy and Lambert

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275