Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 23


A noun is a word that names something: either a person, place,
or thing. In a sentence, nouns can play the role of subject, direct
object, indirect object, subject complement, object complement,
appositive, or adjective.

Proper Nouns vs. Common Nouns

A​ ​PROPER NOUN​ ​is a specific name of a person, place, or
thing, and is always capitalized.
● Does Tina have much homework to do this evening?
● Tina is the name of a specific person.
● I would like to visit Old Faithful.
● Old Faithful is the specific name of a geological phenomenon.
A common noun, sometimes known as a generic noun. A
COMMON NOUN ​Is the generic name of an item in a class or
group and is not capitalized​ unless appearing at the beginning
of a sentence or in a title.

● The girl crossed the river.

Girl is a common noun; we do not learn the identity of the girl by reading
this sentence, though we know the action she takes. River is also a
common noun in this sentence.

Types of Common Nouns


A​ CONCRETE NOUN ​is something that is perceived by the

senses; something that is physical or real.
● I heard the doorbell.
● My keyboard is sticky.

Doorbell and keyboard are real things that can be sensed.

An ​ABSTRACT NOUN​ i​ s something that cannot be perceived

by the senses.
● We can’t imagine the courage it took to do that.
Courage is an abstract noun. Courage can’t be seen, heard, or sensed in
any other way, but we know it exists.
A ​COLLECTIVE NOUN​ ​denotes a group or collection of
people or things.
● That pack of lies is disgraceful.
Pack of lies as used here is a collective noun. Collective nouns take a
singular verb as if they are one entity – in this case, the singular verb is.
● A pride of lions roamed the savanna.
Pride of lions is also a collective noun.

Nouns as Subjects
The ​SUBJECT ​of a sentence ​is the person, place, or thing that
is doing or being the verb in that sentence.
● Maria is happy.
Maria is the subject of this sentence and the corresponding verb is a form
of to be (is).

Nouns as Objects
An object can be either a ​DIRECT OBJECT​ ​(a noun that
receives the action performed by the subject​)​ or an​ INDIRECT
OBJECT​ ​(a noun that is the recipient of a direct object).
● Give the books to her.
Books is a direct object (what is being given) and her is the indirect object
(who the books are being given to).

Nouns as Subject and Object Complements

Another type of noun use is called a ​SUBJECT COMPLEMENT​.
In this example, the noun teacher is used as a subject
● Mary is a teacher.
Subject complements normally follow linking verbs like to be,
become, or seem​. A teacher is what Mary is.

A related usage of nouns is called an ​OBJECT COMPLEMENT​.

● I now pronounce you husband and wife.

Husband and wife are nouns used as object complements in this sentence.
Verbs that denote making, naming, or creating are often followed by object

Appositive Nouns and Nouns as Modifiers

An ​APPOSITIVE NOUN​ is ​a noun which immediately follows another

noun in order to further define or identify it​.
An ​APPOSITIVE NOUN​ is ​a phrase that renames or restates the
preceding noun or pronoun.
● My brother, Michael, is six years old

Michael is an appositive here, further identifying the subject of the

sentence, my brother.

● An overpowering ​fragrance,​ ​apple trees in blossom​, drifted through

the open window.
Appositive phrases are almost always punctuated as parenthetical
elements of a sentence set off by commas.
An exception is a one-word appositive, where commas are unnecessary:
● My ​brother​ ​Joseph​ reads six or seven blogs a day.

Sometimes, nouns can be used adjectivally as well. 

He is a speed demon. 
Speed is normally a noun, but here it is acting as an adjective 
to modify demon. 
OBJECT OF THE PREPOSITION​ is​ ​the ​noun that comes after
the preposition​.

To find the object of the preposition:

1) Find the preposition.
2) Then, put the preposition in the blank and ask "_____ who or
● Our school is ​around​ the ​corner​.
● Marcus hid ​under​ the ​bed​.
● Please give the paper ​to​ ​Marissa​.

Below are some additional examples of prepositional phrases and objects of the
1) Jennifer sits beside me in class. (Beside who?) me
2) Morgan's house is across the street. (Across what?) street
3) The play will begin at 7:00. (At what?) 7:00
4) Lee cried during the movie. (During what?) movie
5) The grape rolled under the table. (Under what?) table
6) I hid behind the tree. (Behind what?) tree
7) The phone is on the table. (On what?) table
PRONOUNS​ ​replace nouns​. Without them, language would be
repetitious, lengthy, and awkward:
With pronouns taking the place of some nouns, that sentence reads
more naturally:

● President John Kennedy had severe back trouble, and although ​he
approached stairs gingerly and lifted with care, ​he​ did swim and sail,
and occasionally ​he​ even managed to play touch football with friends,
family members, or co-workers.

Six types of Pronouns

Personal Reflexive
Indefinite Relative
Possessive Demonstrative

PERSONAL PRONOUNS​ also ​refers to specific​ persons,

places, or things. Pronouns have characteristics called number,
person, and case.
Number refers to whether a pronoun is singular (him) or
plural (them). Thus John Kennedy becomes he or him, while the
president's friends would be they or them.

First person Second person Third person

Subjective Objective Subjective Objective Subjective Objective
I, we me, us you you he, she, it, him, her, it,
they them

Subject pronouns also are used after linking verbs, where they refer
back to the subject:
"The valedictorian was she."

INDEFINITE PRONOUNS ​refers to general​ persons, places, or

things. Indefinite pronouns all are third-person pronouns and can
be subjects or objects in sentences.
Any indefinite pronoun that ends in -one, -body, -thing is singular​:
anyone anybody anything either each
no one nobody nothing another one
someone somebody something any
everyone everybody everything

On the other hand, some indefinite pronouns are plural:

both few many several

Plural indefinite pronouns take plural verbs and plural pronouns​:

● "Both were rewarded for their courage."
● "Many attend in spite of their other obligations."

A few indefinite pronouns can be ​either singular or plural​, depending on

the context:

most any all none some neither

● "All is well," (singular) in reference to the general condition of things

● "All are attending," (plural) in reference to individuals
● "Many left their trash on the riverbank," ​many is a pronoun ​replacing
● "Many students went tubing on the river," ​many is an adjective
modifying students.

POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS​ ​replace possessive nouns​.

POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS​ ​never take apostrophes​.
my our your his, her its their whose
mine ours yours his, theirs
The words in the upper row must accompany nouns:
● Her Corvette, our Nissan.
The pronouns in the lower row stand alone, as replacements for the
adjective + noun pair
● Hers is fast; mine is slow.

REFLEXIVE PRONOUNS ​add emphasis​.

They always follow a noun or personal pronoun and do not
appear alone in a sentence​:
● Jamie herself changed the tire.
● She herself changed the tire.
REFLEXIVE PRONOUNS​ also​ show that someone did something to
himself or herself.
● She surprised herself with how well she did on the test.
myself ourselves yourself himself, herself, itself
yourselves themselves
REFLEXIVE PRONOUNS​ cannot replace the subject of a sentence
● Burcu and I are taking that class together.
● Burcu and I myself are taking that class together.
There is no theirself or theirselves:
● They waxed the car themselves at home.
There is no hisself:
● Jesse taught himself French.

RELATIVE PRONOUN​ ​begins a clause that refers to a noun in

a sentence.
(A clause is a word group with its own subject and verb.) Who
begins a clause that refers to people:
"Krista is the math tutor who helped me the most."
That may refer either to persons or things:
"Laura is the math tutor that knows the most about calculus;
calculus is the class that I am taking in the fall."
Which begins a clause that refers to things:
"Statistics, which is the interpretation of collected numerical data,
has many practical applications."
that who whoever whose
which whom whomever what
Who is a subject pronoun​; it can be the subject of a sentence:
● Who was at the door?
Whom is an object pronoun​. It cannot be the subject of a
sentence, but it can be a direct or indirect object or the object of a
● Don't ask for whom the bell tolls.
Who and whom often appear in questions where the natural word
order is inverted and where the words you see first are the
pronouns who or whom, followed by part of the verb, then the
subject, then the rest of the verb. So it isn't always easy to figure
out if you should use who or whom. Is it "Who did you visit last
summer?" or "Whom did you visit last summer?" To decide, follow
these steps:

1. Change the question to a statement: "You did visit who/whom last summer."
This restores natural word order: subject, verb, direct object.
2. In place of who/whom, substitute the personal pronouns he and him: "You
did visit he last summer"; "You did visit him last summer."
3. If he, a subject pronoun, is right, then the right choice for the original
question is who–another subject pronoun. If him, an object pronoun, is
correct, then the right choice for the original question is whom–another
object pronoun.
4. Based on step three, above, correctly frame the question: "Whom did you
visit last summer?"

Similarly, whoever is a subject pronoun, and whomever is an object

pronoun. Use the same test for, "Whoever/whomever would want to run on
such a humid day?" Change the question to a statement, substituting he and
him: "He (not him) would want to run on such a humid day." The right word,
therefore, would be whoever, the subject pronoun. On the other hand, you
would say, "Hand out plenty of water to whomever you see." You would see
and hand the water out to him, not to he; this sentence requires the object

DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS​ indicate specific persons,

places, or things​.
● That is a great idea!
(That is a pronoun referring to the abstract noun idea.)
this these
that those
(Like some indefinite pronouns, demonstrative pronouns can also
be used as adjectives. In "That band started out playing local
Chico clubs," that modifies the noun band.)

VERB​ ​expresses what the subject does

● She ​hopes​ for the job.

or what the subject is.

● She i​s​ confident.


● Action verbs
● Linking verbs
● Helping verbs

ACTION VERB​ ​tells what the subject does​.

ACTION VERB​ ​expresses physical or mental actions: think,
eat, collide, realize, dance​.
● I finally realized my mistake.
● The outfielder collided with the second-baseman.
● She dances every Friday night.
In the present tense, statements with subjects of he, she, or it, we
add an s to the verb: I go downstairs, we go downstairs, and
ballplayers go downstairs, but he goes downstairs and Loren
goes downstairs.

LINKING VERBS ​are ​not very active at all.

LINKING VERBS​ t​ ells what the subject is rather than what it
LINKING VERBS​ e ​ xpress a state of being​.
LINKING VERBS ​connect a subject
For example, all the forms of the verb to be are linking verbs:
1st person (I; 2nd person 3rd person
we) (you) (she, he, it;
present am; are are is; are
past was; were were was; were
participle [have] been; [have] been; [has] been;
[had] been [had] been [had] been
Loren is an athlete, or Loren was glad.
LINKING VERBS​ are those pertaining to our five senses--seeing,
tasting, touching, hearing, and smelling--and how we perceive the
world: the verbs appear, seem, look, feel, smell, taste, and sound,
for example. When used as linking verbs, they connect the
subject with a word offering more information about that subject:
● Loren seems anxious about the test.
● The well water tastes wonderful.
● My carpet still feels damp.
● You sound hoarse.
● The curtains smell a little smoky.
As linking verbs, these "sense" verbs have about the same
meaning as is.
● Loren seems anxious (is equivalent to)
● Loren is anxious.
● The curtains smell smoky.(they are about the same as)
● The curtains are smoky.
These verbs are or are not a linking verb whether it draws an
equivalence with the subject, almost like a math equation:
Loren = anxious;
curtains = smoky.
Consider the sentence I can't taste my lunch because I have a
cold. Taste here does not draw an equivalence between I and
lunch; rather, here it is an action verb, something the subject
does. In the sentence Can you smell smoke? smell does not
describe what the subject is, but what the subject does; it is an
action verb.
Other common linking verbs include become, remain, and grow,
when they link the subject to more information (either a noun or
an adjective) about that subject:
● You will soon become tired of the monotony.
● Pha has become a very responsible teenager.
● I remain hopeful.
● Daniel grew more and more confident.
Again, these verbs might be action verbs in other sentences, such
as in I grew carrots.

VERBS TENSES​: ​past, present, and future​.

The past is used to describe things that have already happened
(e.g., earlier in the day, yesterday, last week, three years ago).
The present tense is used to describe things that are happening
right now, or things that are continuous.
The future tense describes things that have yet to happen (e.g.,
later, tomorrow, next week, next year, three years from now).

The following table illustrates the proper use of verb tenses:

Simple Simple Past Simple Future
I ​read​ nearly Last night​, I ​read​ an I ​will read​ as much as
every day. entire novel. I can this year.
Present Past Continuous Future Continuous
I am ​reading I ​was reading​ Edgar I ​will be reading
Shakespeare at Allan Poe last night. Nathaniel Hawthorne
the moment. soon.
Present Past Perfect Future Perfect
I ​have read​ so I ​had read​ at least 100 I ​will have read​ at
many books I books by the time I least 500 books by the
can’t keep was twelve. end of the year.
Present Past Perfect Future Perfect
Perfect Continuous Continuous
I ​have been I ​had been reading​ for I ​will have been
reading since I at least a year before reading​ for at least
was four years my sister learned to two hours before
old. read. dinner tonight.
ADJECTIVE​ is a word ​used to describe, or modify, noun or a pronoun​.
ADJECTIVE​ ​usually answer questions like which one, what kind, or how many​:
● that hilarious book
● the red one
● several heavy books
For instance, instead of saying the unkempt, dilapidated, dirty little house, consider just saying
the hovel. (It's not true that he who uses the most adjectives wins; it's he who uses the most
suitable adjectives.)

DESCRIPTIVE ADJECTIVES​ ​adds meaning to the noun that it modifies.

DESCRIPTIVE ADJECTIVES​ ​used to provide more information to a noun by describing
or modifying it.
DESCRIPTIVE ADJECTIVES ​a noun in detail by giving an attribute to that particular
It does not only add meaning or provide additional information to a noun, but adds
color to the entire text in general.
The underlined words in the sample sentences below are some examples of descriptive

● She brushed her ​long​ ​brown​ hair.

● The ​slender​ man appeared out of nowhere.
● You should always eat ​green​ ​leafy​ vegetables.
● The ​fat​ boy teased the ​small​ kids in the park.
● The spider has ​hairy​ legs.
● The ​old​ man asked the ​pretty​ girl for food.
● The extremely ​bright​ light almost blinded me.
● That ​thin​ girl is my best friend.
● The ​attractive​ guy fell off his b
​ lack​ horse.
● I think he’s pretty ​short​ for his age.

DEMONSTRATIVE ADJECTIVES​ ​are ​special adjectives or determiners used to identify or

express the relative position of a noun in time or space.
DEMONSTRATIVE ADJECTIVES​ comes b ​ efore all other adjectives in the noun phrase.
Some common demonstrative adjectives are ​this, that, these,​ and ​those.​

DEMONSTRATIVE ADJECTIVES ​answer the question which one(s)?

They are the only adjectives that have both a singular and plural form--this and that are singular;
these and those are plural.
DEMONSTRATIVE ADJECTIVES​ point to particular or previously named things.
This and these indicate things nearby (in time or space), while that and those suggest distance
(in time or space):
● This novel is the worst I've ever read; these biographies are much better.
● Tell me more about that author; why does she write about those events?

POSSESSIVE ADJECTIVES​ answer the question whose?

They include my, our, your, his, her, its, and their:
● our joke book
● its well-worn pages

INDEFINITE ADJECTIVES​ include some, many, any, few, several, and all:
● some jokes
● few listeners
Note that these words can also be used as pronouns:
Some were in bad taste; few could carpool.

Questioning adjectives
Which and what are adjectives when they modify nouns or pronouns:
Which joke did you like better, and what reason can you give for your preference?
Like indefinite adjectives, the questioning (or interrogative) adjectives can also function as

​ADVERB​ is a ​word or phrase that modifies the meaning of an
adjective, verb, noun, determiner, or other adverb, expressing
manner, place, time, or degree (e.g. gently, here, now, very)​.
Some adverbs, for example 'sentence adverbs', can also be used to
modify whole sentences”.
ADVERB​ is a ​word that describes or gives more information
about adverb, adjective, adverb, or phrase”.
ADVERBS​ ​end with 'ly' (which are used to express how an action is
performed) such as carefully, gracefully, cheerfully, quickly, steadily, speedily,
happily, foolishly, angrily, etc.
Some are without 'ly' such as well, very, fast, never, now, most, far, least,
more, less, there., etc.
Types of Adverb


ADVERB OF ​TIME​ ​is an adverb which ​tells us about time of

happenings or time of something is done in the sentence. Adverbs of
time are used in the beginning (as a form of emphasis) or end of the
sentence. Adverbs of time are like already, afterwards, immediately,
always, last month, soon, then, now, and yesterday.

For example:

● He was admitted to hospital and died ​yesterday​.

● My factory caught fire and burned down in the ​last month​.
● I have completed my homework ​already​.


ADVERB OF PLACE​ ​is an adverb which ​tells us about the place where
something is done or happens in the sentence. It is used generally
after the verb, object or end of the sentence. Adverbs of place are
like below, here, above, inside, outside, there, over there, under,
upstairs, etc.

For example:

● We need to stop ​here​ for dinner.

● He was eating ​under​ the table.
● A bird flies ​above​ in the sky.


ADVERB OF MANNER ​is an adverb which ​tells us about the manner of

how something is done or happens in the sentence. Such types of
adverbs generally end with 'ly' such as cheerfully, badly, quickly,
happily, angrily, sadly, slowly. However, some are simple like fast,
well, hard, etc.

For example:

● I went to school ​cheerfully​.

● He runs ​fast​.
● We celebrated teacher's day ​happily​.


ADVERB OF DEGREE ​is an adverb which​ tells us about the level or

extent of something that is done or happens in the sentence. It is
used before the adjective or adverb. Adverbs of degree or quantity
are like almost, nearly, quite, much, really, too, very, so, etc.

For example:

● It was ​too hard​ a task for us to complete. (adverb is used

before adjective)
● I am ​quite​ interested in the topic.
● I am feeling ​really​ sad for my friend's father's death.


ADVERB OF FREQUENCY ​is an adverb which ​tells us how often

something is done or happens in the sentence. Adverbs of frequency
are like almost, again, frequently, generally, ever, hardly ever,
nearly, nearly always, always, occasionally, often, rarely, never,
seldom, twice, usually, sometimes, and weekly.

For example:

● My parents were ​almost​ thirty when I was born.

● He studies ​hardly​ during holidays.
● She thinks she is ​always​ right however it is not so.
● He told me that he will ​never​ talk to me.
● I talk to my neighbors very ​occasionally​.



confirms or denies the action of a verb in the sentence. It is also
used to reinforce the action of verbs. Adverbs of affirmation are like
definitely, surely, absolutely, etc however adverbs of denial or
negation are like no, can’t, don’t, never, etc.

For example:

I will ​certainly​ go to the school. (adverb of affirmation)

I ​never​ leave you alone. (adverb of negation)


Using adverbs of comment, we can ​make a comment on the entire

sentence. This adverb can change and describe the verb as well as
influence the whole sentence. Adverbs of comment are like
fortunately, unfortunately, patiently, honestly, obviously, constantly,

For example:

● Unfortunately​, he got discharged from his post.

● Luckily,​ I got admission in the top college.
● Obviously​, it is the wrong way to do it.
● We happily celebrated the birthday of our class teacher.

ADVERB OF CONJUNCTION​ helps us in​ connecting the ideas or

clauses. It shows effect, sequence, contrast, cause or other
relationships between two clauses in the sentence. We need to use a
semicolon (;) to conjugate two clauses. Adverbs of conjunction are
like anyway, accordingly, consequently, again, contrarily, almost, as
a result, besides, certainly, additionally, comparatively,
consequently, comparatively, conversely, etc

For example:

Clause 1: He was going to attend an important meeting.

Clause 2: He made sure to attend the meeting on time.

Use of Adverb of conjunction in the above two clauses:

● He was going to attend an important meeting; ​accordingly​,

made sure to attend the meeting on time.


There are three types of ​ADVERBS OF COMPARISON​, they are-

positive, comparative and superlative adverbs​.

Positive adverbs of comparison are used to make general

comparisons without directly comparing two or more things​. Some
examples of positive comparison are- quick, big, long, deep, strong
and cool etc.

Comparative Adverbs on the other hand are used to compare

two things and end with the alphabet ‘er’​. For example- ​quicker,
bigger, longer, deeper, stronger and cooler.

Superlative adverbs are used to compare two or more things

together and end with ‘est’​. Some examples of superlative adverbs
are-​quickest, biggest, longest, deepest, strongest and coolest.

● Positive Adverbs of Comparison List

Big, small, long, quick, deep, happy, sad, strong, hot, little etc

● Comparative Adverbs of Comparison List

Bigger, smaller, longer, quicker, deeper, happier, sadder, stronger,

hotter, less etc

● Superlative Adverbs of Comparison list

Biggest, smallest, longest, quickest, deepest, happiest, saddest,

strongest, hottest, least etc.

PREPOSITIONS ​are ​common; they are not flashy. They are sometimes very
little words, like ​on​, ​in​, and ​unlike​; sometimes they are two words, like ​according
to.​ A preposition combined with a noun (or pronoun), in that order, makes a
prepositional phrase:

● in​ Duffy's Tavern

● on t​ he dashboard of my car
● unlike​ most biologists
● according to​ most moviegoers

about below inside throughout

above beneath into to

across beside like toward

after between near under

against beyond of underneath
along by off unlike
among down on until

around during out up

as except outside upon

at for over with

before from past within
behind in through without

CONJUNCTIONS​ are ​words that link other words,
phrases, or clauses together.

● I like cooking and eating, but I don’t like washing dishes

● Sophie is clearly exhausted, yet she insists on dancing till

Conjunctions allow you to form complex, elegant

sentences and avoid the choppiness of multiple short
sentences. Make sure that the phrases joined by
conjunctions are ​parallel ​(share the same structure).

● I work quickly and carefully.


words, phrases, and clauses of equal grammatical rank in a

sentence. The most common coordinating conjunctions are

for, and, nor, but, or, yet, and so; you can remember them by

using the mnemonic device FANBOYS.

● I’d like pizza or a salad for lunch. We needed a place to
concentrate, so we packed up our things and went to the
library. Jesse didn’t have much money, but she got by.

​ omma when a coordinating conjunction is joining

*Notice the use of the c

two independent clauses​.*

Correlative Conjunctions

Correlative conjunctions​ are ​pairs of conjunctions that work

together. Some examples are ​either/or, neither/nor,​ and ​not

only/but also.​

● Not only am I finished studying for English, but I’m also

finished writing my history essay. I am finished with both my
English essay and my history essay.

Subordinating Conjunctions

Subordinating conjunctions​ ​join independent and dependent

clauses.​ A ​subordinating conjunction​ can ​signal a

cause-and-effect relationship, a contrast, or some other kind

of relationship between the clauses​.

Common ​subordinating conjunctions​ are ​because, since,

as, although, though, while,​ and ​whereas.​ ​Sometimes an

adverb, such as ​until, after,​ or ​before​ can function as a


● I can stay out until the clock strikes twelve.

Here, the adverb ​until​ functions as a coordinating

conjunction to connect two ideas:

I can stay out​ (the independent clause) and ​the clock

strikes twelve​ (the dependent clause). The independent

clause could stand alone as a sentence; the dependent clause

depends on the independent clause to make sense.

*The subordinating conjunction doesn’t need to go in the middle of the

sentence. It has to be part of the dependent clause, but the dependent

clause can come before the independent clause.*

● Before he leaves, make sure his room is clean.

If the dependent clause comes first, use a comma before the independent clause.

● I drank a glass of water because I was thirsty. Because I was

thirsty, I drank a glass of water.
List of Conjunctions

Coordinating Conjunctions
for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so

Correlative Conjunctions
both/and, either/or, neither/nor, not only/but, whether/or

Some Subordinating Conjunctions

after, although, as, as if, as long as, as much as, as soon as,
as though, because, before, by the time, even if, even
though, if, in order that, in case, in the event that, lest , now
that, once, only, only if, provided that, since, so, supposing,
that, than, though, till, unless, until, when, whenever, where,
whereas, wherever, whether or not, while


INTERJECTIONS​ are w ​ ords used to express

strong feelings or sudden emotion.​ They are included
in a sentence (usually at the start) ​to express a
sentiment such as surprise, disgust, joy, excitement,
or enthusiasm.

An interjection is not grammatically related to

any other part of the sentence.