Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 118

Федеральное государственное образовательное бюджетное

учреждение высшего образования


«ФИНАНСОВЫЙ УНИВЕРСИТЕТ ПРИ ПРАВИТЕЛЬСТВЕ
РОССИЙСКОЙ ФЕДЕРАЦИИ»
(Финансовый университет)
Департамент языковой подготовки

Дубинина Г.А.
Драчинская И.Ф.
Кондрахина Н.Г.
Петрова О.Н.

Методические рекомендации
для преподавателя
к учебнику
АНГЛИЙСКИЙ ЯЗЫК:
ЭКОНОМИКА И ФИНАНСЫ
THRESHOLD
Часть 1

Для направлений:
38.03.01- «Экономика», профили «Финансы и кредит», «Анализ и
управление рисками», «Бухгалтерский учет, анализ и аудит», «Налоги и
налогообложение»
38.03.02 «Менеджмент», профили «Антикризисное управление»,
«Инвестиционный менеджмент», «Корпоративное управление»,
«Управление проектами», «Финансовый менеджмент»
38.03.03 «Управление персоналом»
(программа подготовки бакалавров)

Москва 2016
УДК 81 (072) =111
М54
ББК 81.2 . Англ. М-54

Рецензенты: Артамонова К.А, к.э.н., доцент, зам. декана факультета «Учет и аудит»
(Финансовый университет)
Звягинцева Е.П., к.пед.н., доцент (Финансовый университет)

Дубинина Г.А., Драчинская И.Ф., Кондрахина, Н.Г., Петрова О.Н.

«Методические рекомендации для преподавателя к учебнику


«Английский язык: Экономика и финансы. Threshold. Ч. 1 - М.:
Финансовый университет, 2016. – 113 с.

Методические рекомендации для преподавателя к учебнику


«Threshold» - первому тому серии учебников для студентов финансово-
экономического профиля - содержат подробные пояснения целей и задач
предлагаемой иноязычной учебной деятельности. Тематика учебника
связана с базовыми экономическими понятиями и основами
экономической деятельности. Все разделы снабжены ключами к
упражнениям.

Учебное издание
Дубинина Галина Алексеевна
Драчинская Ирина Фёдоровна
Кондрахина Наталья Геннадиевна
Петрова Оксана Николаевна

«Методические рекомендации для преподавателя


к учебнику
«Английский язык: Экономика и финансы. Threshold»
Часть 1

 Коллектив авторов, 2016


 Финуниверситет, 2016
Введение
"Английский язык: экономика и финансы» - это серия учебников,
целью которых является углубление и расширение языковых и
экстралингвистических знаний студентов в пределах тематики,
предусмотренной базовой частью дисциплины «Иностранный язык» для
бакалавров финансово-экономического профиля. Материалы учебника
«Threshold», первой части серии, тематически связаны с общими
представлениями об экономической деятельности и охватывают
следующие темы: производство и потребление, альтернативный выбор,
спрос и предложения, доходы и расходы, рынок труда и виды занятости.
Методические рекомендации для преподавателя к учебнику
«Threshold» содержат три раздела:
I. Общие рекомендации по работе с учебником
II. Методические рекомендации по использованию каждого вида
заданий
III. Ключи к упражнениям
Авторы выражают глубокую признательность преподавателям
Финансового университета, принимавшим участие в апробации
учебника в рамках семинара Института повышения квалификации
преподавателей «Методология и методика преподавания учебных
дисциплин на иностранных языках», выпускникам Финансового
университета, преподавателям Департамента языковой подготовки за
помощь в отборе профессионально значимых материалов.
I. Общие рекомендации по работе с учебником
Содержание учебника “Threshold” интегрировано в профильный
контекст обучения и предоставляет возможность использования таких
активных методов обучения, как кейс - анализ; мультимедийные
презентации с использованием программы Power Point; ролевые игры и
Интернет-поиск.
Учебник содержит три раздела (Unit), которые имеют единую
структуру:
 Lead-in – вступительная часть.
 Language Input – словарь урока с примерами и переводом.
 Background Information – профессионально ориентированный текст,
дающий представление о проблематике одного из сегментов
финансово-экономической сферы и упражнения, способствующие точ-
ному пониманию текста и оснащенные речевыми формулами.
 Speaking & Writing – упражнения, направленные на совершенст-
вование умения строить устную и письменную речь на английском
языке по тематике раздела, включая мультимедийную презентацию и
Интернет-поиск.
 Dialogue – профессионально ориентированные диалоги по тематике
раздела, предназначенные для развития навыков ведения диалога и
расширения терминологической базы.
 Reading for Cross-cultural Associations – тексты о межкультурных
особенностях взаимодействия в финансово-экономической сфере.
 Case-study & Role-play – кейс-анализ и ролевая игра по тематике,
соответствующей учебно-познавательной и социально-культурной
направленности раздела.
 Grammar Back up – грамматические упражнения и комментарий
(условные предложения) на лексической основе материалов
учебника.
 Topics for the Power Point presentations. Тематика презентаций.
Работа над структурными частями, направленными на развитие устной
подготовленной и неподготовленной речи проходит в хронологическом
порядке, кроме раздела Grammar Back up. Изучение грамматики
рекомендуется разделить на несколько частей и равномерно дополнять
ими выполнение заданий частей Practice, Dialogue, Reading for Cross-
cultural Associations, Role-play.
II. Методические рекомендации по использованию
каждого вида заданий
 Lead-in Раздел 1.1 LEAD- IN – вступительная часть каждого раздела
предназначена для подготовки к иноязычной деятельности в
определенном контексте.
 Language Input – словарь урока с примерами и переводом. Раздел
1.2 (2.2, 3.2) LANGUAGE INPUT - это справочные материалы,
предназначенные для самостоятельной внеаудиторной работы.
Студенты работают с этими материалами автономно.
 DEVELOPING VOCABULARY
Работу над разделом начинаем с работы над частотными ошибками в
произношении – дома нужно выписать транскрипцию к упр. 1.2.1 (2.2.1 /
3.2.1) и научиться правильно читать эти слова и словосочетания.
Преподаватель может их семантизировать, но на этом этапе не
рекомендуется переводить и проговаривать все словосочетания, - это
будет сделано в последующих упражнениях. Таким же образом
выполняется упражнение Matching 1.2.2 (2.2.2 / 3.2.2). Цель данного
упражнения – научить студентов работать со словарем и пользоваться
1
транскрипцией, а также подготовиться к работе над текстом 1.1 (2.1,
3.1) раздела.
Произношение – это своего рода «визитная карточка» говорящего,
первое, на что мы обращаем внимание при общении с человеком – это
чистота и правильность его речи. Правильность английского
произношения влияет на смысл высказывания (short – shirt, work – walk).
Долгота и краткость гласных (ship – sheep), звонкость и оглушение
согласных (send – sent), ударение (a present- to present) имеют
смыслоразличительное значение.
Умение работать с транскрипцией крайне важно. Не следует
записывать английское произношение русскими буквами, это может
привести к ошибке. Истинно английского произношения, используя
русское написание, не передать. В он-лайн словарях имеется звуковой
образец произношения, который в этом случае будет полезен.
Студенту, начинающему работать с транскрипцией, необходимо
знать следующее:
1. Транскрипция пишется в двух квадратных скобках (bet [bet] — пари)
или в двух прямых косых (bet /bet/ — пари).
2. В английском языке существует два типа ударения. Первое – это
основное ударение (main stress), в отличие от русского языка ставится
не над ударным слогом, а перед ним сверху. Второе ударение –
дополнительное (secondary stress) ставится перед ударным слогом
внизу: hamburger [‘hæmb,ɜːgə] гамбургер
3. Буквы в английском алфавите имеют свои названия, но в словах они,
чаще всего, звучат по-другому. Например, буква C в алфавите звучит
как /si/, а в словах чаще передает звук /k/.
4. Некоторые транскрипционные знаки напоминают английские буквы,
в основном, это согласные:
[f] fine /ф/, с легким прикусом нижней губы
[v] very /в/, с легким прикусом нижней губы
[s] sofa /с/, произнесенное не кончиком языка, а «спинкой»
[z] zone /з/, произнесенное не кончиком языка, а «спинкой»
[h] hall слабый /х/, легкий выдох
[p] park /п/, с резким выдохом (придыханием)
[b] ball /б/
[t] tea /т/, кончик языка — на бугорках за передними верхними зубами, с
резким выдохом (придыханием)
[d] door /д/, кончик языка — на бугорках за передними верхними зубами
[k] kite /к/, с резким выдохом (придыханием)
[g] grass /г/
[m] may /м/
[n] nose /н/
2
[l] lip /л/
[r] rose /р/, язык за бугорками за передними верхними зубами
[w] what, губы «в трубочке», резко разжать, как /уа/, только единым
звуком
5. Некоторые знаки не имеют аналогов в русском языке:
[θ] thin /с/, кончик языка между зубами, «шипение змеи» на выдохе, не
озвученное голосом
[ð] that /з/, кончик языка между зубами, «шипение змеи» на выдохе,
озвученное голосом
[ŋ] long /н/, «спинка языка смыкается с верхним нёбом»
6. Некоторые знаки по звучанию схожи с русскими:
[ʃ] ship средний между /ш/ и /щ/
[ʒ] pleasure мягкий /ж/, почти /жь/
[tʃ] chin /ч/
[dʒ] jam мягкий /дж/, почти /джь/, как единый звук
[j] yacht слабый /й/
7. Гласные звуки делятся на короткие и длинные (указывает знак (:) за
звуком):
[i:] eat долгий /и/
[i] it краткий и, средний между /и/ и /ы/
[e] net краткий /е/ как в слове «лето»
[æ] cap средний между /э/ и /а/
[a:] art глубокий /а/, как говорим врачу, показывая горло
[ɔ] fox краткий /о/
[ʌ] cut краткий /а/, как в слове «табак»
[u] book краткий /у/, губы не в «трубочке», а слегка округлены
[u:] school /у:/, губы не в «трубочке», а слегка округлены
[ə:] bird /ё/, но не /йо/, а единый звук, немного похожий на /Ио/
[ə] sister слабый /э/
[ɔ:] call долгий /о/
8. В транскрипции английского языка существуют так называемые
двугласные - дифтонги. Они состоят из двух звуков, но произносятся
как одно целое, второй звук произносится слабее:
[ei] take /эи/ (не эй)
[ai] like /аи/ (не ай)
[au] house /ау/
[ɔi] boy /ои/ (не ой)
[ou] no /оу/
[iə] ear /иа/
[ɛə] hair /эа/
[uə] poor /уэ/

3
 Background Information – профессионально ориентированный текст,
дающий представление о проблематике одного из сегментов
финансово-экономической сферы и упражнения, способствующие точ-
ному пониманию текста и оснащенные речевыми формулами.
Чтение, перевод текста и ответы на вопросы к тексту из упражнения
1.4.1 (2.4.1, 3.4.1) предназначены для самостоятельной внеаудиторной
работы и составляют домашнее задание.
Приемы работы над текстом, обучение чтению могут по выбору
преподавателя различаться в группах разного уровня языковой
подготовки. Репертуар приемов можно классифицировать по
следующим факторам:
По целевой направленности деятельности
1.ознакомительное
2.просмотровое
3.изучающее
4.поисковое
По форме
1.про себя
2.индивидуальное
3.хоровое
4.громкое
По способу раскрытия содержания
1.аналитическое
2.синтетическое
3.переводное
4.беспереводное
По месту чтения
1.домашнее
2.классное
По характеру организации деятельности
1.подготовленное
2.неподготовленное
3.тренировочное
4.контрольное
Для групп с хорошей подготовкой работу над текстом можно
начинать с поискового чтения (Найдите в тексте ответ на вопрос из
1.4.1). На втором занятии проводится более детальная проверка
понимания текста базе упражнений 1.4.2 – True & False statements.
Студент должен дать аргументированный комментарий не менее,
4
чем из 4-х фраз, показывая глубокое понимание текста и умение
аргументированно отстаивать свою позицию. (Это правильно потому,
что …/ это неправильно потому, что …).
Преподавателю рекомендуется сочетать различные приемы
обучения чтению: чтение с общим охватом содержания (просмотровое,
ознакомительное); чтение с целью детального понимания прочитанного
(изучающее); чтение с целью извлечения конкретной информации
(поисковое).

• Speaking & Writing (1.5, 2.5, 3.5) - это упражнения, направленные на


совершенствование умения строить устную и письменную речь на
английском языке по тематике раздела, включая мультимедийную
презентацию и Интернет-поиск. Упражнения сгруппированы по
следующим параметрам:
- Language focus – лексические упражнения, связанные с
особенностями использования словосочетаний и особенностями
словообразования в английском языке;
- Skills focus - лексические упражнения, связанные с правильным
употреблением активного словаря в определенном контексте;
- Presenting information – обучение навыкам дискурса как в
подготовленной, так и неподготовленной речи.

 Dialogue – профессионально ориентированные диалоги по тематике


раздела, предназначенные для развития навыков ведения диалога и
расширения терминологической базы.

Диалог содержит задание лексической направленности (перевести на


английский язык выражение, данное в скобках; перефразировать
выделенное выражение). После его выполнения вне аудитории студенты
под руководством преподавателя разбирают его содержание, выделяя
главную и второстепенную информацию. Неподготовленную
монологическую речь затем рекомендуется дополнить подготовкой
собственного диалога / полилога с обязательным использованием
функциональной лексики (в учебном диалоге 1.6, 2.6, 3.6 дана
курсивом). Содержание собственного диалога может основываться на
материалах, полученным путем Интернет-поиска, или представлять
собственные мнения коммуникантов по тематике учебного диалога.

5
 Reading for Cross-cultural Associations – тексты о межкультурных
особенностях взаимодействия в финансово-экономической сфере.

Учебные тексты для кросс-культурного сравнения не адаптированы и


предназначены для самостоятельной работы студентов под
руководством преподавателя. Тексты содержат редко употребляемые
слова и словосочетания, в то числе идиоматические. Подготовка к
обсуждению текста в аудитории требует от студентов способности
собрать информацию по частям из разных источников, обобщить и
кратко изложить ее. Более того, на материале раздела студенты
получают социокультурные знания о лингвистических маркерах
социальных отношений и межкультурных различиях, учатся избегать
связанного с этим недопонимания и конфликтных ситуаций.
Преподавателю рекомендуется разделить студентов на «группы
жужжания» (buzz groups) или дискуссионные группы, каждая из
которых проведет кросс-культурное обсуждение определенных аспектов
предложенного текста. Тему обсуждения предлагает преподаватель. Как
правило, аппарат раздела снабжен перечнем тем для обсуждения; либо
словосочетаниями, которые дополняют информацию основного текста;
либо таблицей, позволяющей систематизировать и затем обсудить
представленную информацию.
 Role-play – ролевая игра по тематике, соответствующей учебно-
познавательной и социально-культурной направленности
раздела.
 Ролевая игра дает возможность студентам не только имитировать
общение в предлагаемой ситуации, но и привнести в действия
персонажей свою точку зрения, развернуть дискуссию, моделировать
реальные ситуации. Именно в ролевой игре формируются и
вырабатываются навыки установления контакта; правильного
восприятия и оценки партнера как личности; выработки стратегии и
тактики общения. Но каковой бы ни была фабула ролевой игры, для
студентов важна готовность к кооперации с коллегами, работе в
коллективе, что невозможно без развития социо-культурной
компетенции обучаемых, необходимости соблюдать нормы поведения и
этикет. Именно в ролевой игре формируются и вырабатываются навыки
установления контакта; правильного восприятия и оценки партнера как
личности; выработки стратегии и тактики общения. На этапе подготовки
к ролевой игре преподаватель создает группы из действующих лиц во
главе с модератором. Модератор создает сценарий ролевой игры в
общих чертах (навигацию), не прописывая роли подробно с репликами,
6
а лишь определяя порядок реплицирования,1 модератор может играть
одну из ролей. При оценке ролевой игры работа модератора оценивается
дополнительными баллами. Модератор также может подготовить проект
решения, которое будет окончательно выработано в ходе ролевой игры.
Последовательность подготовки студента к ролевой игре:
Этап 1. Изучить описанную ситуацию.
Этап 2. Выбрать роль
Этап 3. Подготовиться к реплицированию в рамках сценария ролевой
игры, используя активную лексику по теме, обязательную
функциональную лексику из текста ролевой игры, формулы
речевого этикета. Power Point презентация, как добавочный
аргумент в дискуссии, или способ представления решения,
оценивается дополнительными баллами.
Этап 4. Завершающий. Предложить решение проблемы/вывод и
представить его в письменном виде, либо написать протокол,
отчет, докладную или служебную записку, либо статью.

 Grammar Back up – грамматические упражнения и комментарий


(условные предложения) на лексической основе материалов
учебника.
Грамматический комментарий предназначен для самостоятельной
внеаудиторной работы. Студенты работают с этими материалами
автономно. Ознакомившись с ними вне аудитории, студенты
самостоятельно выполняют сопровождающие их упражнения. На
занятии при проверке упражнений преподаватель просит объяснить
выполнение задания, если это необходимо и разъясняет сложные
явления. Грамматические упражнения в процессе иноязычной
подготовки в нелингвистическом вузе носят функциональный характер,
не выходит за рамки школьной программы. Основная задача учебника –
научить студентов подъязыку специальности и профессиональной
коммуникации, при этом лексико-грамматическая корректность должна
быть достаточной для достижения этой цели.
В конце каждого раздела учебника предлагаются TOPICS FOR THE
POWER POINT PRESENTATIONS. В начале работы над разделом
рекомендуется предложить студентам этот перечень с указанием дат,
когда преподавателю необходима данная презентация для дополнения к
работе над содержанием текста, ролевой игрой, диалогом, кейс-
анализом, кросс-культурной информацией или аудиоматериалом.
Студенты выбирают тему презентации из этого списка по желанию,
1
Свойство, заключающееся в том, что говорение определенного собеседника чередуется с
говорением другого или других: 1) либо в порядке смены; 2) либо в порядке прерывания в
эмоциональном диалоге . (Словарь лингвистических терминов Т.В. Жеребило)
7
более того, эти темы, как правило, представлены на устном экзамене в
разделе «Ситуативные задания по пройденной тематике». На занятиях
прослушиваются 2-3 презентации согласно календарному плану.
Максимальная оценка 10 баллов. См. прилагаемую схему 1.

Схема 1
ФИО Следование Структура Использование Манера Содержание Уровень Структура Итоговый
студента регламенту презентации функциональной презентации владени и балл
лексики и и я языком содержание
активного организация слайдов
словаря обратной
связи с
аудиторией
Макс.
балл 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 10
Иванов 9.00-
1 9.07
И.А.
2

Длительность презентации не более 5-7 минут.


Количество слайдов – 7-10:
1. Титул
2. План
3. Основное содержание (3-5 слайдов)
4. Заключение
5. Контактная информация и / или ссылка на источники
Слайды содержат лишь схематическое изложение информации -
наиболее важные пункты / ключевые моменты презентации, связные
предложения допустимы только в исключительных случаях
(цитирование).
На слайде помещается та информация, которую лектор написал бы
на доске, или демонстрировал бы с помощью наглядных пособий
(таблиц, диаграмм, и т.п.).
Не использовать анимацию и др. средства, способные отвлечь
аудиторию от содержания презентации.
Картинки и иллюстрации используются только, если они поясняются
лектором в ходе презентации.
Для текстовой информации размер шрифта: 24–54 пункта
(заголовок), 18–36 пунктов (обычный текст).
Цвет шрифта и цвет фона должны контрастировать (текст должен
хорошо читаться), но не резать глаза.
Для основного текста рекомендуется гладкий шрифт без засечек
(Arial, Tahoma, Verdana),

8
Курсив, подчеркивание, жирный шрифт, прописные буквы
рекомендуется использовать только для смыслового выделения
фрагмента текста.
Для главной и второстепенной информации – шрифт разного
размера.
Цвет шрифта и фона должен быть контрастным, используйте цвет
для выделения информации с осторожностью.
Предпочтителен светлый фон.
Графики и схемы должны содержать заголовки.
Слайды не должны содержать лексико-грамматических ошибок.
Пунктуация на слайдах сведена к минимуму.
Заключительный слайд содержит контактную информацию / либо
ссылки на источники (2-3 самых важных).
Не рекомендуются разговорные формулы («Спасибо!», «Благодарю за
внимание» и пр.)

9
III. Ключи к упражнениям

1 THRESHOLD OF ECONOMICS

DEVELOPING VOCABULARY
1.2.1. Consult a dictionary, write out the transcription and
practise the pronunciation of the following words:

a record ['rekɔːd]
adjust [ə'ʤʌst]
allowance [ə'lauən(t)s]
circumstance ['sɜːkəmstæn(t)s]
commercials [kə'mɜːʃ(ə)l]
consumer [kən'sjuːmə]
determine [dɪ'tɜːmɪn]
distribute [dɪ'strɪbjuːt]
economic [ˌiːkə'nɔmɪk]
economics [ˌiːkə'nɔmɪks
economist [ɪ'kɔnəmɪst]
finite products ['faɪnaɪt] ['prɔdʌkt]
income ['ɪŋkʌm]
infinite needs ['ɪnfɪnət]
item ['aɪtəm]
necessity [nə'sesətɪ]
optional ['ɔpʃ(ə)n(ə)l]
rely [rɪ'laɪ]
require [rɪ'kwaɪə]
resource [rɪ'zɔːs ], [-'sɔːs]
satisfy ['sætɪsfaɪ]
scarcity ['skeəsətɪ]
supply [sə'plaɪ]
the produce ['prɔdjuːs]
to produce [prə'djuːs]
to record [rɪ'kɔːd]
tuition [t(j)u'ɪʃ(ə)n]
typical ['tɪpɪk(ə)l]
10
1.2.2. Match the English word combinations in the left-hand сolumn
with the Russian equivalents in the right-hand column.

1. to consume miscellaneous items l. потреблять разные товары


2. to reduce expenses q. уменьшать расходы
3. capital goods n. средства производства,
основные средства
4. to record the expense of college x. записывать (вести учет) траты
supplies на учебные принадлежности
5. to provide the produce o. снабжать продукцией
6. to keep record of the supply j. вести учет поставок
7. to allocate part of the income for c. отчислять часть дохода на
8. to figure out the expense p. подсчитывать расходы
9. perishable goods y. скоропортящиеся товары
10. an item on the chart v. пункт, статья таблицы
11. to settle the problem b. решить, урегулировать
проблему
12. scarcity of resources e. недостаток ресурсов
13. consumer goods w. потребительские товары
14. to meet needs for goods and d. удовлетворять потребность в
services товарах и услугах
15. to reduce flexible expenses i. снизить эластичные расходы
16. to go bad f. портиться
17. to supply something for resale s. поставлять что-либо для
перепродажи
18. to allocate allowance g. распределять денежное пособие
(льготы, деньги на содержание)
19. to increase the demand for a. увеличить спрос на что-либо
something
20. optional expenses u. необязательные,
дополнительные расходы
21. to adjust the budget r. корректировать бюджет
22. tuition h. обучение; плата за обучение
23. to be used up m. быть изношенным
24. to produce something for t. производить что-либо для
personal use личного потребления

11
25. to earn one’s living by something k. зарабатывать себе на жизнь
чем-либо

REVIEWING THE CONCEPT


1.4.2.Say whether these statements are true (T) or false (F) , and
why.
e.g.1 In my opinion it is true that ... .
I’m afraid it is false that ... because ... .
TF 1. People get acquainted with economics when they are still
very young.
TF 2. People make important economic discoveries only when
they are old.
TF 3. There is no gap between what people want and what they
can have.
TF 4. In the economy people perform a single role, the role of a
consumer (two major economic roles: consumer and producer)
TF 5. In the role of a consumer producer a person makes the goods
or provides the services.
TF 6. Consumer goods are products that satisfy people’s economic
needs or wants.
TF 7. All consumer goods last long. Some consumer goods, such as
food, do not last a long time

TF 8. Most foodstuffs are in the perishable category.


TF 9. Students working after school or during the summer to earn
money are learning about the role of a producer.
T F 10. Outputs (goods and services) are produced from inputs
(resources) sometimes called factors of production. These
factors are land, labour and capital.

1
От exempli gratia (лат) ; "ради примера" , например.
12
WATCH OUT: translator's "false friends"
allowance grant scholarship stipend
1.5.2 a. Look up the dictionary to find the difference between
the words stipend, grant, allowance, scholarship. Match
the words with their meanings.
1 жалованье (особенно выплачиваемое fixed regular sum paid as a salary or
. stipend
священникам, учителям); регулярное as expenses to a clergyman,
денежное содержание teacher, or public official
2 субсидия; дотация; безвозвратная ссуда;
amount of money that a government
. grant
пособие; единовременная денежная or other institution gives to an
выплата individual or to an organization for
a particular purpose such as
education or home improvements.
3
. allowance содержание (денежное на определенный money that is given to someone,
срок, напр. суточные); денежное usually on a regular basis, in order
пособие, денежная помощь; прибавка, to help them pay for the things
надбавка (сумма, выплачиваемая в that they need
дополнение к обычному вознаграждению
в качестве компенсации или поощрения;)
4
. scholarshi Стипендия; регулярная выплата или a grant or payment made to support
p дотация на питание, жилье и т.п., a student's education, awarded on
выдаваемая хорошо успевающему или the basis of academic or other
подающему надежды студенту. В achievement
большинстве случаев основанием для
выдачи стипендии является
материальное положение учащегося и
его семьи.

b. Fill in the blanks with stipend, grant, allowance or scholarship.

1. They’ve got a special grant to encourage research.


2. He lives on a single parent's allowance of ₤70 a week.
3. She gets an allowance for looking after Lillian.
4. If teenagers are given a clothing allowance, they must buy their
clothes themselves.
5. If you get a scholarship to a school or university, your studies are
paid for by the school or university or by some other organization on
a regular basis.
6. Teacher Alfred spends about a quarter of his stipend on rent.
13
7. We received a target grant for research on human resources.
8. A stipend is a sum of money that is paid regularly, especially to a
magistrate or a member of the clergy, as a salary or for their living
expenses.
Communication skills
What to say and how to behave: Introducing people
Task 5. Decide whether the response to each greeting is
appropriate (A) or inappropriate (I). Why?

a) Jack: Hi! I’m Jack.


I Philip: Hi there! My name is Green.
b) Bob: It’s a real pleasure to meet you.
A Philip: Nice meeting you, too.
c) Luke: How are you doing, Philip?
I Philip: Better now. I had a cold the first two days. So-so, could
be worse.
d) John: How do you do? I’m John Carstairs from the London
office.
I Philip: I’m fine. Thanks. How do you do? I’m Philip Green.
e) Gloria: Hi, there! Nice meeting you. I’m Gloria. Gloria
Sanchez.
A Philip: Nice to meet you, too. I’m Philip Green, but please call
me Philip.
f) Linda: How are you?
I Philip: So-so, could be worse. Better now. I had a cold the
first two days.

14
1.6 DIALOGUE
a. Complete the dialogue by using the following word combinations
from the box.
b. Be ready to sum up the point of view of each of the speakers.
(1) college supplies, (2) to develop a useful budget,
(3) optional expenses, (4) miscellaneous items, (5) to adjust the budget,
(6) to allocate part of the income, (7) to figure out the weekly expenses,
(8) to reduce expenses, (9) to keep record
A.: Hello, there. What luck running into you, George!
G.: Hello, old man. What’s up?
A.: Oh, these expenses, ...! I am deeply worried by the problem.
Don’t you think we bought too many miscellaneous items last
week. I tried to figure out the weekly expenses, and I’d like to point
out that we’ll have to adjust the budget.
G.: I’m afraid I know next to nothing about the way to use money
effectively.
P.: Fair enough! It’s not wise to spend money that way. But neither
George nor me can keep track of our actual income and expenses.
We want to have so many things and money is so scarce. Possibly
the way out will be to make our personal budget.
G.: Come off it! You can’t be serious! This decision to develop a useful
budget is a big waste of time for very little money!
P.: I’m not sure I quite agree. When I was in Germany, I noticed that
the Germans keep record of how much they spend for food,
entertainment, clothing, college supplies, personal care,
transportation, etc. It will be impossible for us to reduce expenses
if we do not know what changes to make in the budget.
A.: On balance, we should list all the sources of money and see that
expenses match the income.
P.: Perhaps, but don’t you think that some expenses are set in
advance and must be paid regularly, others change with

15
circumstances, and, of course, we should allocate part of the
income for optional expenses, such as entertainment, personal care
and so on.
G.: That may well be true. I am bound to agree. Let’s try. In for a
penny, in for a pound1.
1.9 GRAMMAR BACK UP
PRACTICE
WITH NOUNS & THEIR DETERMINERS

LEAD-IN
Exercise 1
Task 1. Familiarize yourself with the text and fill in the chart
below with the italicized words from the text. Consult the
Grammar notes below. Translate the text into Russian.
Supply it with the suitable title.
The company of Harper & Grant Ltd. was started forty-two years
ago by two men: Ambrose Harper and Wingate Grant. Wingate Grant
died many years ago, and his son Hector, who is in his fifties (aged
between fifty and sixty) is the present Managing Director, Ambrose
Harper is the Chairman. He is now an old man, semi-retired, but he
still comes in to the office regularly to attend the board meetings and
keep an eye on the business.
The company started by making steel wastepaper bins for
offices. With the increase in smoking, these were considered much
safer than the old type of basket made of cane and straw, because
there were less likelihood of fire. Old Mr. Grant, the Managing
Director’s father, put the business on its feet when he captured a big
contract to supply government offices with steel wastepaper bins.
He always said that luck, or happy coincidence, turned a business
into success or failure. He was rather like Napoleon, who always
asked if an officer was lucky before giving him a higher command.
Mr. Grant Senior used to tell the story that, in the week before he
landed his contract, a cane wastepaper basket had caught fire in a

1
Назвался груздем – полезай в кузов.
16
government department, the fire had spread rapidly and destroyed a
number of irreplaceable documents.
From wastepaper bins, Harper & Grant began to manufacture
other items of office equipment: desks, chairs, cupboards, filing
cabinets and smaller objects, such as filing trays, stapling machines
and so on, until now when there are fifty-six different items listed in
their catalogue. Today, nearly all the items produced by this
company are made of pressed steel. The steel arrives in sheets from
a steel works in South Wales. It is then cut by machinery into the
required pieces; these pieces are then pressed into shape and fixed
together by welding (joining two metal parts by heating so that the
metals flow together), or by drilling holes in the metal and securing
the two pieces with a bolt or a rivet.

Countable Countable plural Collective Non-count nouns Proper


singular nouns nouns nouns
nouns
regular irregular abstract material
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
basket bins men group luck steel Hector
director meetings feet company fire cane Ambrose
chairman documents board equipment straw Harper
desks government success Wingate
man department machinery steel Grant
chairs wastepaper Napoleon
office cupboards
eye cabinets South
business objects Wales
coincidence trays
machines
failure
pieces
officer holes
command
items
catalogue
pieces
shape
metal
bolt
rivet

17
Exercise 2
A. Consult a dictionary and underline the syllable that you will
stress when speaking1:
1. John needs a permit to go on an expensive fact-finding tour.
2. Mr. Grant can’t permit you to waste money for very little
profit.
3. Will they increase exports next year?
4. Mr. Martin is looking for an increase in exports.
5. We must export more.
6. You know what the boss thinks about exports.
7. He objects to the attempt to break into the new market.
8. Don’t treat me as if I were an object.
9. What’s his record in business?
10. The firm recorded a loss after a disastrous attempt to export to
South America.
11. Our imports have increased.
12. The developing countries import too much.
13. Some goods do not require resources to produce them.
14. Winter produce will cost more for the next few weeks.
15. Within a free market system, new businesses find easy access to
the economy and opportunities to succeed.
16. Total group sales and trading surplus were lower than the
previous year largely because of the transfer of special steels.
17. The payments were transferred to reserves for putting back into
the business.
1
With some words, when the stress is on the first syllable, the word is a noun. When the stress is on the
second syllable, it is a verb. Sometimes the meanings are related (¢progress – to pro¢gress), they can also
be quite different (¢conduct – to con¢duct).
18
18. What is the difference between the subjects of microeconomics
and macroeconomics?
19. Each commodity market is subject to special conditions.
20. In the USA anti-trust laws subject activities aimed at cornering
the market to special anti-trust laws that restrict such activities.
21. Improvements in the methods of processing food have
repeatedly allowed the suppliers to raise the supply at a given
cost.
22. They offer services for those who need buildings but are
unfamiliar with the processes and economics of construction.
23. The letter was abstracted from the filing tray.
24. Arrange the abstract with the topic sentence, several
developers and a restatement.
25. Go back to the shop, cancel a purchase and ask for a refund.
26. All money will be refunded if the goods are not satisfactory.
27. Refunding is funding of a debt again by the government.
28. We paid a charge on our excess baggage.
29. The demand for goods was in excess of the actual need.
30. If you need the expert advice you will consult the specialist.
31. The Congress advised the President against signing the treaty.
32. After the QUIZ the teacher proceeded to explain the mistakes
to the class.
33. He sold his shop and invested the proceeds in a computer
repair business.
34. In most firms the relationship between management and
unions is good, but sometimes a labour dispute [dɪs'pjuːt],
['dɪspjuːt]occurs.

B. Note the pronunciation of the following pairs of words.


Transcribe them and submit the examples of your own.
Translate the words into Russian.

elaborate adj [ɪ'læb(ə)rɪt] elaborate v [ɪ'læb(ə)reɪt]

coordinate n, adj [kəu'ɔːdɪnət] coordinate v [kəu'ɔːdɪneɪt]


19
associate n, adj [ə'səusɪət, -ʃɪət] associate v [ə'səusɪeɪt]
estimate n ['estɪmət] estimate v ['estɪmeɪt]
graduate n ['grædjuət,-ʤu-] graduate v ['grædjueɪt]

PRACTICE WITH NOUNS

Exercise 1
Choose the correct form.
e.g. There were / was some imported goods in the store.
1. Economics is / are the study of how people use their resources to
produce, distribute and consume goods.
2. The news that he was enable to earn a living was / were quite
surprising.
3. Two weeks isn’t/ aren’t a very long time to become used up, is it
/ are they?
4. Money isn’t / aren’t the most important thing in life, is it / are
they?
5. Seven pounds is / are an average weight for a new-born.
6. Politics is / are Professor Brown’s speciality.
7. The knowledge gained from the experience was / were
invaluable.
8. Several Japanese was / were reported to complain that the fish
had gone bad.
9. The imports has / have greatly increased which may influence
the supply.
10. A knowledge of statistics, the analysis of how people and
countries use their resources to produce, distribute, and consume
goods and services is / are so important.
11. Sooner or later even very expensive clothes is / are used up.
12. What is / are his politics as to breaking into the South American
market?
20
13. Most people hire / hires people they like, rather than the most
competent person.

Exercise 2
Choose the correct form.
e.g. I’d like some data / datums about the supply of goods.
1. Sue is a woman with blond hair / hairs who lives opposite.
2. Did you have a good travel / journey from Switzerland ?
3. We have the problem of scarcity and we’d like some advice /
advices.
4. The supply of a bread/some bread did not correspond with the
demand for it.
5. I’d like to find out the cost of tuition, have you got an
information / any information?
6. He is trying to find a work / job at the moment, he must do it to
earn a living.
7. Economists studied different phenomenon / phenomena in
order to solve the problem of scarcity.
8. Foodstuff / foodstuffs belong to the category of goods that go
bad if are stored too long.
9. Pennies / pence are made of nickel or cupronickel.
10. The tin of cola costs 90 pennies / pence and you won’t
economize much.
11. Mass medium / media are a good source of job openings.
12. In the English speaking countries eggs are sold in dozen /
dozens.

Exercise 3
Choose the underlined word combination that is incorrect.
1. Hair Hairs found on the victim’s jacket were studied by the police,
A B C
which helped them to find the criminal.
D
2. The knowledge of economics was passed from one generation
21
A B C
to another generations generation.
D
3. One series of statistical booklet booklets that was used at the seminar
A B C
was written by the students themselves.
D
4. Examples of fixed expense expenses are rent payments, hire purchase
A B C
installments, tuition.
D
5. Make a family budget with your adult childs children identifying its
A B
monthly income and expenses.
C D
6. There are the data of our field survey on the files filing cabinet.
A B C
They are very important.
D
7. It was so difficult for a poor man to earn his living because he
A B
had to provide for his numerous son-in-laws sons -in-law and other relatives.
C D
8. John Martin has just read an article in “The Times” about the
A B
recent discovery of a large number amount of oil in the North Sea.
C D
9. There have never been any woman women - managers at this works.
A B C D
10. The contents of the letter were not made public, but bad news
A B C
travel travel fast.
D
11. The Managing Director stopped to cool his temper and the three
A
stood motionless, like sheeps sheep in the stare of a python.
B C D
12. Tony’s FBI criminal file described him as five-feet-eight ,
22
A B
medium build, a hundred and forty-six pounds , black hairs hair,
C D
strong nose, brown eyes, charged with a bank robbery.

Exercise 4
Render the following into English:

1. The contents of the letter were quite unexpected and Tom


decided to find out whether exports to the capital were possible.
2. His wages are very high but his needs are great too.
3. In this article you will find the latest data about the way income
per capita has changed over the past few months as well as
exports and imports of Italy. (exports - объём экспорта (итоговая
стоимость вывезенных товаров)
4. Economics of Labor deals with the problems of labour markets,
examines data on the activities of the companies, their employees
and society as a whole.
5. - The manufacturer reports that the export (вывоз) of this product
requires a license. - I do not think that this is very good news for
consumers.
6. Students who work after school or during the holidays, earn
money, and then spend it on their own needs. In many countries,
even in well-to-do strata of society parents are for their children
to go their own way.
7. These perishable goods have not been delivered to the consumer
yet, and they can go bad.
8. Economic crises are one of the phenomena that economists study
and the media always cover.
9. Statistics (статистические данные) confirm that in recent years
the number of families with two children has decreased and some
families no children at all for money reasons.
10. It is well known that alumni need advice and assistance in job-
hunting.
23
11. – Are you giving away all these clothes? – No, most of them
look perfect.
12. I bought this watch in the Hague. It is very good, but expensive.
Were these expenses justified? Will it liable to duty?
13.- In general, this news is very interesting. And have you found
out whose money it was? –Red tape didn’t give me much chance.

24
Exercise 5
CONTEXT
Read the text below. In most of the lines there is one wrong
word or word combination. Some lines, however, are correct.
 If a line is correct, put a tick (Ö) in the space in the right-hand
column.
 If there is a mistake in the line, write the correct word in the
right-hand column.
1. The firm has a history of slow, steady growth. Hector Grant ...Ö…
2. firmly believes that he knows the best way to run firm. a firm
3. However, his nephew Peter Wiles (the son of the Mr. Grant’s the
4. sister), who joined the company six years ago and is Production ...Ö…
5. Manager, and John Martin, appointed two years ago to be Sales ...Ö…
6. Manager, is more adventurous. They want to treble Harper & are
7. Grant’s business over the next a few years and are certain that, ..a..
8. with modern businesses techniques and increased exports, they business
9. can achieve this. A small firm cannot possibly afford to have ...Ö…
10. on its staff experts in all modern management technique. techniques
11. It usually hires expert advise from outside consultants and advice
12. bureaux. On the other hand, it is important that members of the ...Ö…
13. firm’s management are aware of the more sophisticated ...Ö…
14. techniques. It’s a common knowledge that, while this change- ..a..
15. over from the old way to the new is taking place, there are ...Ö…
16. often difficulties and conflict. But Harper & Grant Ltd., like conflicts
17. the majority their rivals, must get right up-to-date and majority of
18. enlarge their business, or they will be outpaced by a firm ...Ö…
19. whose business organization is better than their own. ...Ö…

25
PRACTICE WITH ARTICLES, DEMONSTRATIVES
AND OTHER DETERMINERS
Exercise 1
Write the correct article (“a”, “an”, or “the”). If no article is
needed, write “o”.
1. .0.. John Martin, .the. Sales Manager, is discussing .an. article he
has just read in .the. Times newspaper about .the. recent discovery
of oil in .0. Abraca.
2. I decided to compare my monthly expenses with .an. expense
chart of my friend.
3. .The. young, like everyone else, have unlimited wants and limited
recources.
4. Ambrose Harper is . an.. old man, but he still comes to .the. office
regularly to .. 0. board meetings.
5. .A.. number of irreplaceable documents were destroyed when ..a.
cane wastepaper basket caught fire in .a.. government office.
6. I decided to convince my relative, .a. clerk at .the. Bank of
Scotland, to lend me .. 0. money to cover .the. cost of my further
education.
7. I’ve been thinking of that scheme of yours to sell our products to
.the. Netherlands. They say .the. Dutch are going to raise their
imports rapidly.
8. The. number of sources of money you can rely upon is decreasing.
9. A lot of goods are transshipped via .the. Hague, which is more
expensive.
Exercise 2
If the underlined word or words are used incorrectly, make correction.1
1. More people are involved in silk production than in any other
activity in the district.
2. One of the two major economic roles is that of a consumer and
the other is that of a producer.
3. Some consumer goods last long, other goods go bad and
become used up soon.
4. Another goods, such as furniture, or refrigerators, last longer.
1
The other means different from the first of the two subjects or objects.
26
5. Teaching is yet another action called service.
6. Some goods are bought for personal use while others are bought
for resale.
7. People make other economic discoveries when they are still
young.
8. Other advice will help you to develop a useful personal budget.
9. One expense may turn higher than planned while another may
be lower.
Exercise 3
Choose the correct form, checking demonstratives.
1. I was shocked by that / those news.
2. There is all this / these red tape involved in getting an import
licence.
3. A field survey shows why that / those specimen of goods is
attractive.
4. I know this / that manager over there.
5. That / those economics courses offered at the university are very
elementary.
6. This / these expenses are to be reduced with effective economic
decisions.
7. The consumers buy this / these cotton shirts more than these /
those silk ones.
8. Our expenses are much higher than your former one / ones.
9. She presented him with the French watch, but he wanted the
Swiss one / ones.
10. Perishable goods can be stored less than non-perishable x- /
ones.

Exercise 4
Possessives usually replace articles before nouns. We can say the
car or Peter’s car, but not Peter’s the car or the Peter’s car. But a
possessive word can have its own article: the boss’s car, the
Browns’ house. Note also: that car of Peter’s, a friend of Peter’s
(like a friend of mine).

27
Put Ö for correct sentences; rewrite the incorrect ones.
1. Is Peter the Grant’s nephew?
2. ÖConsumer goods are products, such as food, clothing, and cars,
that satisfy people’s economic needs or wants.
3. ÖIs this the manager’s file?
4. ÖDo you know John’s last name?
5. Here is the Harper’s address.
6. ÖThe answers to the questions depend on a country’s human,
natural, and capital resources, and also on its customs and values.
7. You also try to focus your partner’s the attention on the
difference between fixed, optional and flexible expenses.
8. ÖThat overspending of John’s reached the peak of 1.5% .
9. ÖWhat is the general relationship between a person’s education
and that individual’s earning power?
10. ÖThe consumer’s desire for a commodity tends to diminish as he
buys more units of it.
11. ÖWhat’s the Wilsons’ number?
12. It’s a crazy idea of John Martin’s.
13. ÖWhere is that uncle of Peter’s?
14. ÖWe can say that the utility of a commodity decreases as the
consumer’s stock of that commodity increases.
Exercise 5
Supply a/an, the or “-”.
1. Mr. Buckhurst is an F.C.A.(= Fellow of the Institute of
Chartered Accountants).
2. John got a B.Sc. (= Bachelor of Science) from Durham
University in 1988.
3. Do you know how much an MP (Member of Parliament) earns?
4. We studied - BASIC (= Beginners’ All-purpose Symbolic
Instruction Code) at the computer class.
5. Does Ukraine belong to - NATO (= North Atlantic Treaty
Organization)?
6. The shareholders are invited to attend the A.G.M. (= the
Annual General Meeting).

28
7. - NASA (=National Aeronautics and Space Administration)
had a setback in1986.
8. An I.Q. is a common abbreviation for an Intelligence Quotient.
9. The EEC (=the European Economic Community) established
common tariffs against products from non-EEC nations.
10. - GATT (=General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade)
encompassed 22 countries in 1947, later the group expanded to
somewhat about 100 countries.
11. The annual report contains a letter to the stockholders from the
CEO (the Chief Executive Officer) of the corporation.
Exercise 6
Choose the word or word combination that is incorrect.
1. Goods that have to be transshipped via the Netherlands turn to come
A B
sooner than the other ones.
C D
2. When they go to college, the young want to use their income
A B
effectively and learn to economise on every twopence to keep
C D
the budget thoroughly.
3. Those consumers, who drink tea four times in a day usually buy
A B
not less than a half pound of tea and often of the best quality.
C D
4. Producers like these are one pence penny a dozen, you’d better look for
A B
some other ones.
C D
6. Germans, Italians as well as the Dutch use English to communicate.
A B C D
7. Milk belongs to the category of perishable goods, the shoes do not,
A B C
as they can be stored for a long time without going bad.
D
29
8. The number of the rich among the Italians does not vary much
A B C
from that among other nations.
D
9. Nakamurasan is a Japanese. Having studied his preliminary
A
desk research, the manager made a conclusion that the Japanese are
B C D
very hard-working people.

10. Mr. Denis Stocks, a Harvard alumnus, has just been given a B.Sc.
A B
for twelve years’ research into an ancient Egyptian industrial
C D
methods.
PRACTICE WITH SUBJECTS

Exercise 1
Write “R” (right) if the subject agrees with the verb, and
“W”(wrong) if it does not.
1. R Sam, along with other students, plans on protesting the change
in academic requirements.
2. W Neither her sons nor her daughter knows what their annual
income is.
3. W Accumulating play money are is what seems to be the
attraction of many board games.
4. R What was decided during the meeting has been well
documented.
5. R The chairmen, together with the Board members, are meeting
the partners.
6. R Two weeks is plenty of time to finish the course.
7. R Peter Wiles, who joined the company six years ago and is
Production Manager, and John Martin, appointed two years ago
to be Sales Manager, are very adventurous.

30
8. W Modernizing a business to increase its profits are is a
complicated affair.
9. W Tom Douglas together with some critics of the new export
markets asks whether the field survey will actually do any good.
10. R Several theories on this subject have been proposed.
11. W The view on these management techniques vary varies from
time to time.
12. W The General Manager as well as his staff are is trying to sort
out the import licence.
13.WAnybody who have has lost his ticket should report to the desk.
14. R Nobody works harder than John does.
15. WEverybody who have has labour trouble can’t meet the
delivery dates.
16. WThere are some people at the Board of Trade who has have a
different way of looking at things.
17. R Every forward-looking manager’s convinced it’s quite the
right time for this probe now.
18. R There are tariffs on certain goods, but the Board of Trade assure
me that our office equipment would not be liable for duty.
19. WAfter he had received a reservation for a first-class return
flight, John decided that everything were was in order.
20. R There are a couple of likely competitors for this project. The
rest of the firms are indifferent.

Exercise 2
Choose the correct subject from the possible choices.
1. Even though 26% of Californian residents do not speak English
in their homes, only _____ do not speak English at all.
(A) that 6% of them
(B) those of the 6% of them
(C) to the 6% of them
(D) 6% of them
2. _____ are effective means of communication.
(A) Theatre, music, dance, and folk tales
31
(B) That theatre, music, dance, and folk tales
(C) To use theatre, music, dance, and folk tales
(D) Using theatre, music, dance, and folk tales
3. When China’s dramatic economic reforms began to encourage
private enterprise, _____ began to set up a variety of businesses
immediately.
(A) that entrepreneurs
(B) to be an entrepreneur
(C) entrepreneur
(D) entrepreneurs
4. _____ is a big waste of time and money for very little profit.
(A) The firm breaks into the new market
(B) Breaking into the new market
(C) Break is taken into the new market
(D) The new markets
5. In the city centre _____ noisy market stalls set in narrow alleys.
(A) it
(B) it is
(C) there
(D) there are
6. In America, _____ a growing demand for Indonesian food.
(A) there is
(B) it is
(C) it
(D) there
7. Nowadays people in most countries use money because ____
impossible to carry on trade in the modern world without it.
(A) it
(B) there
(C) there is
(D) it is
8. _____ unnecessary red tape and promote research were the main
objectives of the committee.
(A) To stop
(B) That to stop
32
(C) The stop of
(D) Stopping

9. When we want to economise, _____ that helps us to spend


money more effectively.
(A) that the personal budget
(B) it is the personal budget
(C) the personal budget
(D) there are personal budgets
10. _____ were produced because of the scarcity of resources.
(A) The number of goods
(B) A number of goods
(C) Number of
(D) Number of a good
11. _____ next to nothing about the difference between fixed,
flexible, and optional expenses.
(A) Both you and Alex knows
(B) Both Alex and you know
(C) Both you know
(D) You and Alex knows
12. Either Sara or the Seddons ______ how much is spent on
tuition.
(A) knows
(B) is knowing
(C) know
(D) are knowing

REVISION
Exercise 1
Below are some flashes of conversation in which different
students speak about their life at college. Tick (Ö) the correct
words or word combinations. Use the patterns in the role-play
“Making a personal budget”.
Roger:
33
I’m in my third year at Ö college | the college| a college on the
computer course and I have already learnt how to programme
computers using a BASIC| an BASIC| BASIC .
Most of work| a work| the work is practical with a lot of time
spent at the keyboard. I’m looking forward to getting the my own|
my own| my the own car soon. At present a taxi transport| the
transport| transports me between home and college and this is a bit
expensive.
Keith:
This is my second year at college.
I am on a “sandwich” course involving three years of theory|
three years theory| three year of theory and a year spent in industry.
I do part-time job| a part-time jobs| a part-time job at weekends –
except when I have to play in a football match – working in a hotel.
The means| These means| This means that, with pocket money from
my parents, I’ve usually got enough to do the things I want.
David:
Most higher education students receive| student receive|
student receives some financial support from LEAs (local education
authorities) with the rest their money| rest of their money| the rest of
their money made up through parental support or through the Student
Loans Company set up by central government to provide subsidized
loans for students.
Frank:

34
Over 90 per cent of students on their first degree receive| receives|
a receive awards covering tuition fees and maintenance. Parents also
contribute, the amount| the number| a number depending on their
income. In addition, students are eligible for an interest-free loan.
Linda:
And here is another| the other| other dilemma for prosperous
parents of university students: should they insist that their children
learn to live on their student grants plus whatever they can earn
during the holidays – or do they give them money to buy that| the|
another clothes and electronic equipment they want?

2 OPPORTUNITY COSTS &


TRADEOFFFS

Contents

2.1 Lead-in Section overview


2.2 Language Input Developing vocabulary
2.3 Background Information Opportunity Costs and Tradeoffs
2.4 Comprehension Understanding the reading
Reviewing the concept
2.5 Speaking & Writing
Language focus Saying numbers
Presenting information Evaluating tradeoffs
35
Communication skills Agreeing / disagreeing / saying
you partly agree
2.6 Dialogue Sixteen is a crucial age
2.7 Reading for Cross-cultural The British Educational System
Associations
2.8 Role-play Consumer skills: The Value of
College Education
2.9 Grammar Back Up Practice with Verbs (I):
Present Simple and Present
Continuous
Past Simple and Past Continuous
Practice with Quantity

DEVELOPING VOCABULARY
2.2.1. Consult a dictionary, write out the transcription and
practise the pronunciation of the following words:

advantage [əd'vɑːntɪʤ]
assume [ə's(j)uːm]
assumption [ə'sʌmpʃ(ə)n]
available [ə'veɪləbl]
bachelor ['bæʧ(ə)lə]
certificate [sə'tɪfɪkət]
concept ['kɔnsept]
convince [kən'vɪn(t)s]
curriculum vitae [kəˌrɪkjələm'viːtaɪ]
economic [ˌiːkə'nɔmɪk, ˌekə-]
economy [ɪ'kɔnəmɪ]
evaluate [ɪ'væljueɪt]
experience [ɪk'spɪərɪən(t)s, ek-]
iron ore ['aɪən] [ɔː]
machine [mə'ʃiːn]
maintenance ['meɪnt(ə)nən(t)s]
opportunity [ˌɔpə'tjuːnətɪ]
per annum [pə(r)'ænəm]
36
percentage sign [pə'sentɪʤ] [saɪn]
philosophy [fɪ'lɔsəfɪ]
postgraduate [ˌpəust'græʤuət]
projected lifetime earnings ['prɔʤektɪd] ['laɪftaɪm] ['ɜːnɪŋz]
qualification kwɔlɪfɪ'keɪʃ(ə)n]
reasoning ['riːz(ə)nɪŋ]
require [rɪ'kwaɪə]
resources [rɪ'zɔːs, -'sɔːs]
society [sə'saɪətɪ]
ten per cent [pə'sent]
to estimate ['estɪmeɪt]
tuition [t(j)u'ɪʃ(ə)n]
variety [və'raɪətɪ]
various ['veərɪəs]
vary ['veərɪ]

37
2.2.2. Match the English word combinations in the left-hand
column with the Russian equivalents in the right-hand
column:
1. on the assumption h. исходя из предположения
2. to be available r. иметься в наличии
3. to assume the real cost of y. предположить стоимость чего-
something либо за вычетом потерь
4. opportunity cost m. альтернативная стоимость
5. the real costs of the product k. затраты производства, выраженные
в ресурсах (в неизменных ценах)
6. to be counted in terms of a. исчисляться в ...
something
7. to cover the cost v. покрывать стоимость
8. to convince somebody to lend b. убедить кого-либо ссудить деньги
money
9. to evaluate tradeoffs i. оценивать альтернативы
10. to fit values and goals t. соответствовать ценностям
и целям
11. to obtain practical job w. получить профессионально-
training техническую подготовку
12. to give up something d. отказаться от чего-либо
13. to gain advantages x. получить преимущества
14. to improve the situation s. улучшить положение
15. full-time job e. работа полный рабочий день
16. level of education f. образовательный уровень
17. loss of income g. потеря дохода
18. lifetime earning power j. возможный пожизненный доход
19. economic reasoning u. экономические доводы
20. investment returns c. (ожидаемая) прибыль на
инвестированный капитал
21. to require various decisions l. требовать разных решений
22. to seek solutions n. искать приемлемые решения

38
23. to be worth the expense of q. стоить затрат на что-либо
something
24. part-time job o. неполная занятость
25. to value practical job p. ценить опыт работы по
experience специальности

REVIEWING THE CONCEPT


2.4.2. Say whether these statements are true (T) or false (F),
and why.
e.g. True enough ... .
I assume it is false that ... because ... .
TF 1. All production involves a cost. This cost is counted only in
monetary terms. also in terms of resources used
TF 2. The various resources used in producing a good or a service are
the real costs of that product.
TF 3. In building a bridge the real costs of it are only natural capital,
human, intellectual resources it consumes.
TF 4. Since resources are limited and human wants are unlimited,
people and societies must make choices about what they want
most.
TF 5. The value of time, money, goods and services given up in
making a choice is called opportunity costs.

39
TF 6. Any resources used for one thing now are then no longer
available for something else.
TF 7. To make choices that best satisfy human wants, people have no
need to must take into consideration any tradeoffs.
TF 8. When people are aware of all the tradeoffs a society will
understand the true costs of making one decision than another,
and can make the decision that best fits its values and goals.
TF 9. One way of using the concepts of opportunity costs and tradeoffs
to explain how the economy works is to construct a simple plan
of the economy called an economic model.
T F 10. A simple plan of the economy called an economic model is
absolutely useless for the economists.

2.5.2. This table shows how words are formed from the stem
var-. List the words, look up the dictionary for their
meaning and transcription, and then use them to complete
the sentences.
y verb ['veərɪ]

40
able ['veərɪəbl]
ed adjective ['veərɪd]
var i ous ['veərɪəs]
ety noun [və'raɪətɪ
ation [ˌveərɪ'eɪʃ(ə)n]
a. Conditions on that market are stable and do not vary very much
from year to year.
b. That seller handles a very varied selection of products, including
apples, toys and cars.
c. It is often difficult to classify the various types of economic
systems in the world, because they tend to be mixed so often.
d. The managers of that company hope to increase the variety of
products which they offer for sale to the public.
e. There has been little variation in price levels over the last five
years.
f. Because prices on that market fluctuate considerably from week
to week, we say that they are variable.
2.5.3. Practise these words and word combinations. Fill in the
blanks with possibility, opportunity, chance1.
1. We do not often have an opportunity of making the right choice.
2. I had an opportunity to work as a baby-sitter or waiter, the
problem was to evaluate tradeoffs.

1
Possibility is hardly ever used with the verb have, it is simply something possible.
Opportunity means a favourable moment or occasion. It is often used:
a) in the constructions
the / an opportunity of doing something / to do something
an opportunity for smb. to do something / an opportunity for something
equality of opportunity;
b) with the verbs
have, find, get, take, make the most of, miss, waste, give, provide, afford, offer;
c) with the following adjectives:
good, excellent, wonderful, golden, welcome, rare, unique.
Chance is often used in the same sense as “opportunity” in informal style.
41
3. The Dean announced that Professor Forester didn’t feel well
and there was a possibility that the lecture would be cancelled.
4. Believe it or not, but David’s English is so poor that he has no
chance of passing the exam.
5. Have you ever considered possibility of changing the title?
6. Everybody knows that ... may cost you something.
7. If a person has more than two choices, then more than one
opportunity cost also exists.
8. The possibility of writing a thesis and becoming a PhD never
came to his mind.
9. We are pleased to give you the chance/opportunity of tasting
Fine Asian Cuisine at our Rickshaw Restaurant.
10. Equality of opportunity is a political ideal that is opposed to
caste hierarchy.
11. That was a golden opportunity for Harper & Grant Ltd., and of
course the Managing Director couldn’t pass it up.
12. I met the careers adviser by chance.
13. I advise you to accept the offer. It is the chance of a lifetime.
14. The best graduates had an opportunity to go to one of the Ivy
League1 Universities and study full-time.

2.6 DIALOGUE
a. Replace the Russian words and phrases by suitable English
equivalents in the appropriate form.
Mr. Ward: Happy birthday, Alan, and many happy returns of
the day! I say, dear, sixteen is a crucial age. This is when you
have to decide whether to stay at school, to go on to college, to
look for (работа с полным рабочим днем), or to start a Youth

1
"Лига плюща", группа самых престижных частных колледжей и университетов на северо-востоке
США: Йельский университет (Yale University), Дартмутский колледж (Dartmouth College),
Колумбийский университет (Columbia University), Пенсильванский университет (University of
Pennsylvania), Принстонский университет (Princeton University), Корнеллский университет (Cornell
University), Гарвардский университет (Harvard University) и Университет Брауна (Brown
University), известные высоким уровнем обучения и научных исследований. Название связано с
тем, что по английской традиции стены университетов - членов Лиги увиты плющем.
42
Training Programme. This should be a decision that will best (fit
values and goals).
Alan, his son: That’s right. I can’t help thinking the same. Our
school careers adviser spoke to us about gaining employment
and said that more and increasingly skilled workers would be
(required/needed) in a job market.
Mr. W.: Oh, definitely. You’d better ask your tutor for advice. The
decision you make will affect the rest of your life. It’s very
important (to evaluate) time and money you (give up) in making
a choice. By the way, what does your school careers adviser
teach you?
A.: We learn to fill out a CV (curriculum vitae) 1, write letters
applying for a job, because for most of my schoolmates this is
uncharted territory2. He also teaches us (to seek solutions) and
apply economic (reasoning) about (opportunity costs) and
(tradeoffs) to possible decisions.
Mr. W.: I see what you mean, but there is another point I should
like to make. Does your adviser think that everyone should
attend college or somehow (improve) their (level of education)?
Why or why not?
A.: He says that the proportion of young people entering university
and other advanced education (on the assumption) will reach 1 in
3 in the near future. But while attending college I’ll get neither
income nor (practical job experience). Won’t it be (the loss) of
time for very little money?
Mr. W.: No way! Going to college means using time and money
now (to gain advantages) in the future. Besides, I know that
some of the students receive awards (to cover the cost) tuition
and maintenance. Also parents usually contribute if they can
afford it.

1
Автобиография.
2
Область непознанного.
43
A.: They say students can (get/obtain) interest-free loans1 through
the Students Loans Company.

Mr. W.: How right that is! I know that the Government also
guarantees a place on the Youth Training Programmes to those
who are not in (full-time job) or education.

A.: It reminds me of the proverb: “We should live and learn, but by
the time we’ve learned, it’s too late to live”.

Mr. W.: That’s one way of looking at it, but there is another


proverb which is more (convincing): “Money spent on the brain,
is never spent in vain”.
b. Read the dialogue again and find out the facts about
 the work of school careers advisers
 the sources of income for the students
 the value of education
 the ways for the parents to contribute to their children’s choice
of future profession

WATCH OUT: translator's "false friends".


high school – higher school
d. Look up the dictionary to find the difference between the
word combinations high school and higher school. Match
the words with their meaning.
1 high A In the United States, it is a school for children
. school usually aged between fourteen and eighteen.
2 high B (in the UK except Scotland) used chiefly in
. school names of grammar schools or independent fee-
paying secondary schools, or for the lower years
of a secondary school

1
Беспроцентная ссуда.
44
3 higher C universities or similar educational establishments,
. school especially to degree level
4 higher D universities and colleges which provide
. school education beyond high school
e. Fill in the blanks with high or higher.
1. It was an 18-year-old inner-city kid who dropped out of high
school.
2. An understanding of opportunity costs and tradeoffs is especially
important to high school students when they are in grades 9
through 12.
3. Sooner or later high school students must make choices about
what to do after the secondary school.
4. According to the UNESCO definition, any institution of higher
learning which prepares specialists on the basis of a complete
secondary education, regardless of the volume of knowledge or
level of qualification it gives its students, is considered a higher
school.
5. The term “higher school” includes universities, polytechnical and
branch institutions (of engineering, agriculture, economics,
medicine, law, pedagogy, art, and others), academies, and other
institutions.

2.8 GRAMMAR BACK UP


PRACTICE WITH VERBS (I)
LEAD-IN
Verbs indicate a point in time or period of time in the past, present
or future. Verbs must agree in number and person with the subject.
The verb may consist of a single word or a main verb with one or
more auxiliary words.
Exercise 1

45
a. Familiarize yourself with the text and use the present simple
of the verbs in brackets. Consult the Grammar notes below.
b. Translate the text into Russian.
Today Mr. Grant’s secretary, Elizabeth Corby, (gets) a telephone
call from a man called George Duncan. He (has) an introduction to
Harper & Grant from a mutual acquaintance, Jock Macpherson. Mr.
Duncan is only staying in London for a few days and he
(telephones) to fix an appointment to see Mr. Grant. Elizabeth (to
tell) him that Mr. Grant is very busy and (suggests) a later date. But
Mr. Duncan, who is rather short-tempered, (expects) that he can
have an appointment whenever he (wants) one. He also (asks) if he
can see over the factory itself to see how some of the office
furniture is made. Elizabeth (has) a good secretary’s sixth sense that
this might be a valuable customer, so she finally (fixes) an
appointment for him at half past three this afternoon. When Mr.
Grant (comes) into the office she tells him about the appointment.
As Mr. Grant (is) so busy, she (suggests) that she herself should
show Mr. Duncan round the factory. Mr. Grant reluctantly (agrees)
to see him. He also (remembers) that the mutual acquaintance, Jock
Macpherson, is a great talker who in the past has wasted a lot of
time and then bought very little. He (thinks) that perhaps his friend,
Mr. Duncan, will be the same, so he (warns) Elizabeth to interrupt
the interview after a short time with the excuse that there is
someone else waiting to see him.
c. Write positive or negative short answers.
1. – Does Elizabeth get a telephone call from a – Yes, she does.
man called George Duncan?
2. – Doesn’t Mr. Duncan have an introduction to – Yes, he does.
Harper & Grant from a mutual acquaintance? (Mr. Duncan has
an introduction to
Harper & Grant)
3. – Is Jock Macpherson a mutual acquaintance of – No, he isn’t.
Mr. Duncan and Elizabeth Corby?
4. – Isn’t Mr. Duncan staying in London for a long – No, he isn’t.
time?
46
5. – Does Mr. Duncan telephone to fix an – Yes, he does.
appointment to see Mr. Grant?
6. – Doesn’t Elizabeth suggest him a later date – Yes, she does.
because Mr. Grant is very busy?
7. – Is Mr. Duncan rather short-tempered? – Yes, he is.
8. – Can Mr. Duncan have an appointment with – No, he can’t.
H. Grant whenever he wants one?
9. – Can’t Mr. Duncan see over the factory to see – Yes, he can.
how some of the office furniture is made?
10. – Does Elizabeth fail to have a good secretary’s – No, she doesn’t.
sixth sense that this might be a valuable
customer?
11. – Doesn’t she finally fix an appointment for him –No, she doesn’t.
at half past six this afternoon?
12. – When Mr. Grant comes into the office does – Yes, she does.
she tell him about the appointment?
13. – As Mrs. Corby is so busy, does she suggest –No, she doesn’t.
that Mr. Grant should show Mr. Duncan round
the factory?
14. – Is Mr. Grant happy to see Mr. Duncan? – No, he isn’t.
15. – Isn’t Jock Macpherson a great talker? – Yes, he is.
16. – Does H. Grant forbid Elizabeth to interrupt the – No, he doesn’t.
interview after a short time even with the excuse
that there is someone else waiting to see him?
Exercise 2
Show polite interest in what your partner says:
M o d e l:
– Jock Macpherson has wasted a lot of time and then bought very
little. – Has he?
– Isn’t
– Mr. Duncan isn’t a great talker like his friend Jock Macpherson. he?

1. Elizabeth shows the visitor round the works. – Does she?


2. Mr. Duncan visits different departments of the factory, or shops as they
are called. – Does he?

47
3. After the visit to the factory Mr. Duncan goes to see Mr. Grant. – Does
he?
4. Mr. Duncan has indicated that he wishes to place a large order for office
furniture for his new office block which is completing construction in
Scotland. – Has he?
5. As agreed, after a short time Elizabeth interrupts the interview. – Does
she?
6. Mr. Grant is no longer interested in escaping from his visitor. – Isn’t he?
7. Elizabeth is not at all surprised by H. Grant’s sudden change of attitude.
Isn’t she?
8. Elizabeth knows her boss very well. – Does she?
9. Harper & Grant Ltd. have all the administrative departments in the office
block: Sales, Accounts, Personnel, and so on. – Have they?
10. Larger items of office equipment are stored in the warehouse. –Are they?
11. The firm keeps a stock of the faster-moving items so that urgent orders
can be met quickly form the stock. – Does it?
12. Mr. Grant assures M. Duncan that they make the best furniture on the
market. – Does he?
13. Mr. Duncan wonders if the production of Harper & Grant Ltd is the
cheapest on the market. – Does he?
14. Harper & Grant Ltd have a wide range of prices. – Have they?/ Do they?
15. Mr. Grant thinks their prices compare favourably with anything on the
market. – Does he?
16. The prices depend on the lines the customers choose. - Do they?
17. We can’t supply you from the stock. – Can’t you/we?
18. I am the Managing Director of G.P. Duncan & Company. – Are you /Am
I?
19. We make artificial fertilizers. – Do you/we?
20. I want our new office block furnished. – Do you/I?
21. We can give you a quotation, including delivery charges. - Can you/we?
22. Two months is our deadline. – Is it?
23. I never like promising a date until I know I can honour it. – Don’t you?

PRACTICE WITH PRESENT SIMPLE


AND PRESENT CONTINUOUS
Exercise 1
Complete the sentences. Use the present simple of the verbs in
brackets:
1. Jet engines makes a lot of noise.
2. She (work) from Monday to Friday. She does not work at
weekends.
48
3. We do not come from Canada. We come from the USA.
4. All production involves a cost.
5. The capital resources include a variety of tools and machines.
6. A producer makes the goods or provides the services that
consumers use.
7. Scarcity forces you to decide what you want most.
8. When a person makes a choice between two possible uses of his
resources, he is making a tradeoff between them.
9. If a nation increases its production of consumer goods, its
people will live better today.
10. Since every economic decision requires a choice, economics is a
study of tradeoffs.
Exercise 2
Complete the questions in the present simple. We use do/does to
make questions and negative sentences. Mind that there is no
inversion in subject-questions* and they have the same word
order as the statement (e.g. Who knows how to write an abstract?).
1. If you need money, why don’t you get a job?
2. I don’t understand the word “tradeoff”. What does tradeoff mean?
3. This decision is perfect. Why don’t you evaluate my choice?
4. *Who understands the true costs of making one decision rather
than another? Mind the list above.
5. Since resources are limited and human wants are unlimited, who
makes choices about people’s wants?
6. If you make choices that best satisfy your wants, what are you
aware of?
7. As each choice involves costs, how do we call the value of time,
money, goods and services given up in making a choice?
8. * If a person has a lot of choices, then how many opportunity costs
exist?
9. If economic models are used to help solve economic problems,
what does their usefulness depend on?

Exercise 3
Choose the correct form.
49
e.g. We produce / are producing capital goods and consumer goods.
1. We use various resources when we produce / are producing
goods or services.
2. They count / are counting the costs not only in terms of
money, but in terms of resources used.
3. We always make / are making choices between people’s wants
and needs.
4. When people make a choice between two possible uses of their
resources they make / are making a tradeoff between them. See
Ex. 1, sent. 8 above.
5. We always require / are requiring natural resources when we
are building a bridge.
6. Everybody assumes / is assuming that this decision is the best
to fit the goal. Mind the list above.
7. Economists always seek / are seeking solutions and make / are
making comparisons between the economic model and the real
world.
8. My friend makes / is making careful decisions now because he
knows how to allocate personal resources.
9. When we talk about “the national labour force” we think / are
thinking of all those people available for work within the
nation.
10. People lose / are always losing their money when they start
their own business without special education.
11. He is trying / tries to find a job at the moment, he must do
something to earn a living.
Exercise 4
Translate the following sentences:
1. We always calculate the production cost in monetary terms and
take into consideration resources used as well as.
2. There is a gap between what people want and can have.
3. An economist always counts the production costs in monetary
terms and relates them with the resources used.
4. When we start any construction, we always need
particular/certain resources.
50
5. An economic model helps professionals (specialists) (to)
analyze economic problems, seek and find solutions.
6. I don't know the man who is talking with the Managing
Director.
7. Since every economic decision requires a choice, we consider
Economics as the study of tradeoffs.
8. The secretary does not see that I am looking at her as she is
reading something with great interest. She looks so busy.
9. Call him now. I think he's not talking with the client yet.
10. This is a warehouse where we usually keep larger items of
equipment. Now we are keeping a stock of faster-moving items
there, so that we can supply urgent orders from stock.
11. The number of students receiving various allowances (benefits)
or temporary income from doing errands is gradually
increasing.
12. He is listening to the audio recording in earphones, that’s why
nobody else hears it.
13. How much I owe you now? Mind the list above.
14. Look! This section consists of a number of grammar exercises.

PRACTICE WITH THE PAST SIMPLE


AND THE PAST CONTINUOUS

Exercise 1
Choose the correct form.
e.g. They opened / were opening a new account last week.
1. The capital resources included / were including a variety of
tools and machines.
2. The society understood / was understanding the true costs of
making one decision rather than another.
3. He was always losing / always lost his money when he
provided capital for new businesses.
51
4. Formally the term “market“ denoted / was denoting a place set
aside for buying and selling.
5. He realised / was realising the real costs of things and found
the right solution.
6. When John studied / was studying at college he had to make
very important decisions.
7. People who were willing to sell a commodity contacted / were
contacting people who were willing to buy it.
8. The engineers discussed / were discussing the scheme at the
meeting the whole day.
9. The manager of the repair department explained / was
explaining the poor quality of the work by the lack of the
qualified workmen.
10. He spoke / was always speaking too fast. I could hardly
understand half of what he said then.
11. When she read / was reading a new labour contract, she found
it necessary to increase wages.
12. Mother stared / was staring out of the window; she seemed
deep in thought.
Exercise 2
Look at the underlined verbs in each sentence. Choose the form
of the verb that is incorrect.
1. Several thousand workers at the plant were threatening to go on
strike unless the company was improving its latest pay offer.
2. We were listening to the sound of voices in the corridor, then
the door opened and Mr. Dent was appearing.
3. When the society was understanding the true costs of making
one decision rather than another it could make the best decision.
4. This section helped us to understand that every economic choice
was involving opportunity cost.
52
5. These students worked the whole summer and earned enough
money to satisfy their wants in clothes and leisure.
6. Since we had limited resources and unlimited wants people and
societies had to make choices about what they were wanting
most.
7. They drew the family budget with their adult children and the
younger children tried to make choices about what they were
needing most.
8. If your coat was wearing out in a year, it certainly wasn’t good
value.
Exercise 3
Identify the one underlined word or phrase that must be
changed in order for the sentence to be correct.
1. They both studied the quotation carefully; so was the man
(A) (B)
three tables away, who was watching them both carefully.
(C) (D)
2. If you are desiring to buy a new house, give up all the needless
(A) (B) (C) (D)
expenses.
3. You always buy a lot of essential goods from us. Can we assume
(A) (B)
that we sold them more cheaply than other shops?
(C) (D)
4. As John wrote the report, Peter was looking for more precise
(A) (B) (C) (D)
information.
5. A mixed economy is one with a combination of nationalism and
(A) (B) (C)
private enterprise and fit the goals of many producers.
(D)
6. When I worked for the Japanese I always was making silly mistakes.
(A) (B) (C) (D)

53
7. The supporters of this economic model are assuming that the
(A) (B)
principle of supply and demand is more effective than
(C)
government control in regulating the economy.
(D)
8. This company was producing a wide range of high-quality
(A) (B)
leather goods which are always available to customers and fit
the
(C) (D)
customers’ values.

9. Many companies are trying to cut labour costs and gradually


(A) (B)
reduce their work force now.
(C) (D)
10. The manager’s eyebrows were moving up and down like the
(A) (B)
Dow-Jones index in an election year – he was always sounding
(C) (D)
like a textbook.

Exercise 4
Render the following into English:
1. Hector Grant realized1 the importance of breaking into the new
market, but at that time he was afraid of losing time and money
for very little profit.
2. Cost of living increases as prices rise, rent and fares increase.
3. Old Mr Grant founded the business and put the company on its
feet when he captured a big contract to supply government
offices with office equipment.

1
Если глагол understand выражает способность человека к осмыслению и пониманию, то глагол
realize [‘rɪəlaɪz] помимо этого еще и подразумевает понимание, осознание и признание некого факта.
54
4. Hector Grant was carefully listening to his Sales Manager, but
did not hurry to make a decision. He was always hesitating
when it came to big expenses.
5. When I was working at the Sales Department I was always
making mistakes.
6. To put it briefly, different resources used for the production of
goods or services are the real costs of production.
7. – Our school careers advisor talked to us about finding a job.
-This would be great!
8. I can't say that I share your point of view. Your parents warned
you that if you go to College, then the opportunity cost will be
spending time and money at the moment to get the greater
advantages in the future.
9. All the morning when That was servng customers, he was
thinking about how much he can earn.
10. – Until I was talking with Mrs. Simon, someone walked into my
Office and stole a computer. -You're joking/kidding!

PRACTICE WITH QUANTITY

Exercise 1
Choose the correct pronoun and complete the sentence.
1. People and societies don’t have much / many natural resources
and must be aware of all the trade-offs.
2. Every / each opportunity cost is the value of time, money,
resources and labour.
3. All / every people make choices about what they want most.
4. We have got all the / the whole information about the
construction of this plant.
5. Another / other natural resources are available and used by
construction workers.
6. Unfortunately, a few / few economic models help economists to
analyse economic problems and solve them.
7. Nothing / none of the decisions were correct and justified.
8. Don’t you have little / a little money to lend me?
55
9. There are hardly some / any students in your group who need
financial help to attend college.
10. One can’t make a choice between two possible uses of resources
without some / any opportunity cost.
11. No / neither of these economic models fits our goals. Try to
find a better one.
12. The managers made quite a number of promises before the
meeting, but haven’t kept either / kept none.
13. The two workshops look very much alike but frankly speaking I
don’t like both of them / either.
14. I have telephoned Mr. Grant three times this week and I reckon
I’ve mentioned Mr. Macpherson’s reference every / each time.
Exercise 2
Fill in the blanks. Complete the sentences using the following
quantity pronouns (Some of them can be used twice.):

A. any D. plenty of G. some (2) J. (a) little


B. a few E. a lot of (2) H. others/other K. both ... and
C. neither (of) F. either I. both (of) L. some other
1. After graduation from high school a lot of young people choose
to go to college; some want to get full-time jobs, others decide
to obtain a technical job training.
2. What are some other considerations in making a choice?
3. You can’t make a choice between two possible uses of your
resources without any opportunity cost.
4. Either decision school graduates make affects the rest of their
lives.
5. I know that you’ve got plenty of money. Could you lend me a
little?
6. Young people have a lot of opportunities today to earn their
living, but they don’t always make the most of them.
7. Neither (of) of us has any chance for research in our new jobs.

56
8. Both the concepts of opportunity costs and tradeoffs are used to
explain how the economy works.
9. If a person has a few choices then more than one opportunity
cost exists.
10. The capital resources these people use include both a variety of
tools and machines.
11. If you spend some time watching TV you cannot spend the
same time at the library.

Exercise 3
CONTEXT
Task 1
a. Read the conversation between Mr. Ward and his son Alan.
In eight of the lines there is one wrong word or word
combination. Other lines, however, are correct.
 If a line is correct, put a tick (Ö) in the space in the right-
hand column.
 If there is a mistake in the line, use the correct word.
Ward: I say, dear, sixteen is a crucial age. This is when every young Ö1
man and girl have to decide whether to stay at school, to go on to 2
a college, to look for a job, or to start a Youth Training Programme. Ö3
Alan: Well, that’s the thing! Our tutor says that every have to think 4
about gaining employment in a job market which demands Ö5
more and increasingly skilled workers. Ö6
Ward: In my youth little young people studied for “A” and “AS” level 7
qualifications. I hear it is a more frequent practice nowadays. Ö8
Alan: True enough. These are two-year courses in single subjects. Students Ö9
will usually take either two nor three subjects which may be combined 10
with one or two “AS” courses. These are offered by both schools and Ö1
colleges. Ö12
Ward: Yes, but on the other hand, if you need some advice, ask a School Ö13
careers adviser. Some advisers teach much useful skills: e.g. filling 14
out a curriculum vitae, writing letters, applying for a job, because Ö15

57
for many young people this is unchartered territory. Ö16
Alan: Yes, but on the other hand, higher education is attractive, too. Ö17
I have heard that the proportion of young people entering university and Ö18
other advanced education is expected to reach 1 in 3 in the near future. Ö19
But while attending college I’ll get no income and no any practical job 20
experience, and lose some time and a lot of money. Ö21
Ward: No way! Going to college means using time and money now Ö22
to gain greater advantages in the future. I know that any 23
students on first degree and comparatively advanced courses Ö24
receive both awards covering tuition and maintenance. Ö25
Alan: How right that is! Most parents also contribute, but that depends on Ö26
their income. They say students are granted some interest-free loans Ö27
through the Student Loans Company. Besides, the Government Ö28
guarantees a place on the Youth Training Programmes to every of us 29
who is not in full-time education or in work. Ö30
Ward: On balance, to a certain extent education is worth the expense, Ö31
especially, if the objective is to gain greater advantages in the future. Ö32

Exercise 4
Change the words in italics into plural references. Mind that we
use they, them without a plural meaning to refer to both sexes.
M o d e l:
Everyone knows whom he reports to, doesn’t he?
Everyone knows whom they report to, don’t they?
1. Anyone planning to furnish their office should give some idea of
their requirements, shouldn’t they?
2. We knew that no one had met their delivery dates.
3. If anybody wants to get the details of the contract they can ask the
Sales Manager.
4. Everyone gets what they deserve, even if they don’t like what they
get.
58
5. One must spend money if they wish to make money.
6. Everybody knows that urgent orders can be met from stock, don’t
they?
7. Ask anyone you know who they think makes the best furniture on
the market and they’ll say it’s our firm.
8. If anyone wants a quotation they can dial 946 88 62.
9. Nobody wants to be told that they are going to be dismissed.
10. The best investment anyone starting out in business could make is
to give all their time, all their energies to work, just plain, hard
work.

Exercise 5
Fill in the gaps with the suitable word combinations from the
box.
a a little c a few e man g bot i some k any
y h
b a lot of d few f muc h no j anythin l littl
(2) h g e

Two years ago I moved to a new neighbourhood. There seem to


be very few people in this area who are without telephones, so I
expected to get a new phone quickly.
I applied for one as soon as I moved into my new house, “We
aren’t supplying any new phones in your area,” an engineer told me.
a lot of people want new phone at the moment and the company is
employing fewer engineers than last year so as to save money. A
new phone won’t cost you much money, but it will take some time.
We can’t do anything for you before December. You need a little

59
patience if you’re waiting for a new phone and you need a few
friends whose phones you can use as well.
Fortunately, I had both. December came and went, but there was
no sign of a phone. I went to the company’s local office to protest.
“They told me I’d have a phone by December,” I protested. “Which
year?” the assistant asked.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
d k b f i j a c g h

3 UTILITY, PRICES & MARKETING


STRATEGY

Contents
3.1 Lead-in Section overview
3.2 Language Input Developing vocabulary
3.3 Background Information Utility, Prices & Marketing
Strategy
3.4 Comprehension Understanding the reading
Reviewing the concept
60
3.5 Speaking & Writing
Language focus Saying numbers
Presenting information Letter-writing
Communication skills Envelope & a Letter Layout
3.6 Dialogue Pricing policies
3.7 Reading for Cross-cultural Shops, shopping and pricing
Associations policies in different cultures
3.8 Role-play Consumer skills: Comparing
prices
3.9 Grammar Back Up Practice with Verbs (II):
– Present Perfect
– Present Perfect Continuous
– Past Perfect
– Past Perfect Continuous
Practice with Adjectives

DEVELOPING VOCABULARY
3.2.1. Consult a dictionary, write out the transcription and
practise the pronunciation of the following words:

access ['ækses]
argument ['ɑːgjəmənt]
characteristic [ˌkærəktə'rɪstɪk]
commodity [kə'mɔdətɪ]
confuse [kən'fjuːz]
desire [dɪ'zaɪə]
determine [dɪ'tɜːmɪn]
diminish [dɪ'mɪnɪʃ]
economical [ˌiːkə'nɔmɪk(ə)l, ˌekə-]
economics [ˌiːkə'nɔmɪks, ˌekə-]
economists [ɪ'kɔnəmɪst]
economy [ɪ'kɔnəmɪ]
evaluate [ɪ'væljueɪt]
excess [ɪk'ses, ek-]
expenditure [ɪk'spendɪʧə, ek-]
gimmick ['gɪmɪk]
61
majority [mə'ʤɔrətɪ]
marginal ['mɑːʤɪn(ə)l]
medicine ['medɪsɪn, -ds(ə)n]
minority [maɪ'nɔrətɪ]
priority [praɪ'ɔrətɪ]
purchase ['pɜːʧəs]
quantity ['kwɔntətɪ]
relate [rɪ'leɪt]
relative ['relətɪv]
relatively ['relətɪvlɪ]
sacrifice ['sækrɪfaɪs]
submarine [ˌsʌbm(ə)'riːn]
successive [sək'sesɪv]
Switzerland ['swɪts(ə)lənd]
the increase ['ɪnkriːs]
to bargain ['bɑːgɪn]
to decrease [dɪ'kriːs]
vegetarian [ˌveʤɪ'teərɪən]
3.2.2. Match the English word combinations in the left-hand
column with the Russian equivalents in the right-hand
column.

1. to fix something in advance s. договориться о чем-либо заранее


2. to quote an appropriate price o. назначить соответствующую цену
3. advertising gimmicks l. рекламные уловки
4. to be freely available a. свободно иметься в наличии
5. an excess of a commodity y. избыток какого-либо товара
6. to consider the options f. рассматривать имеющиеся в
available наличии варианты
7. to rate something highly x. оценивать что-либо высоко
8. to indicate the unit price for q. указывать цену единицы товара
the items
9. to result in the best deal b. получить наилучший результат
10. to evaluate the quality level t. оценить уровень качества
of a product продукции
11. to buy at the current price c. покупать по действующей цене
12. to bargain over prices u. торговаться по поводу цен
13. The Law of Diminishing h. закон об убывающей предельной
Marginal Utility полезности
62
14. price emphasis j. политика акцентирования цен для
стимулирования сбыта
15. to plan expenditures d. планировать расходы
16. to interfere in something m. вмешиваться во что-либо
through something посредством чего-либо
17. to obtain product information e. получить информацию о товаре
18. loss-leader pricing p. установление низкой цены на
товар для привлечения покупателя
19. a successive purchase k. последующая покупка
20. to buy in quantity g. покупать в больших количествах
21. per unit cost r. цена на единицу продукции
22. to vary in relation to w. изменяться по отношению к чему-
something либо
23. to decrease the stock i. уменьшить запас
24. shortage n. дефицит, нехватка, недостаток
25. off-even pricing v. установление цены чуть меньше
круглой

REVIEWING THE CONCEPT


3.4.2 Explain why these statements are true (T) or false (F).
e.g. I reckon it is true, since ... .
I am inclined to think it is false that ... because ... .
TF 1. The utility of a commodity is also related to the quantity
which is available to the consumer.
TF 2. The sellers will supply more goods at lower prices than
at higher ones.
TF 3. At the equilibrium price, the amount producers will
supply and the amount consumers will buy are different.
TF 4. Price controls are often used in times of severe
shortages to make sure that the prices for important
items, such as food and gasoline, do not go too high.
TF 5. If the price is too high, a surplus will develop and move
the item’s price up.

63
TF 6. Utility varies not only in relation to individual tastes
and to geography, but also in relation to time.
TF 7. If there is a shortage of paper, the relative demand for
paper will go down.
TF 8. If the price is too low, a shortage will develop, thereby
driving up the price.
TF 9. A society may interfere in market prices by means of
equilibrium prices.

3.4.3 Practise these words and word-combinations. Replace the


Russian words and phrases by suitable English
equivalents in the appropriate form. Translate the
sentences into Russian.
1. A product’s utility may be very high in a certain part of the
world, while in a different part of the world the same product
isn’t (оценивать высоко).
2. The Law of Diminishing Marginal Utility is the name which
economists give to tendency to diminish for a consumer’s desire
as he buys more units.
3. In the majority of systems prices are fixed but in the minority it
is possible to bargain.
4. We know that a consumer’s satisfaction is greater than his
financial sacrifice if he goes on buying a product at a current
price.
5. Our wants are not satisfied in much the same way by all goods.
6. When a consumer is planning expenses, he must accept fixed
priced.
7. With each successive purchase however, the consumer’s
satisfaction compensates less for the loss of money.
8. Financial sacrifice becomes too great when the quality of the
commodity gets worse.
64
9. The demand for the commodity goes down if the quantity of the
commodity increases.
10. Buyers must obtain/get/receive product information and then
compare and evaluate that information.

3.6 DIALOGUE
3.6.1 A. Complete the text by using the following word
combinations from the box:

(1) to determine the number of sales, (2) to concern, (3) to emphasize


low prices, (4) off-even pricing, (5) to encourage sales, (6) to increase
the demand for, (7) stock, (8) to advertise, (9) price de-emphasis,
(10) to introduce new items of goods, (11) to charge the appropriate
price, (12) “loss leader” pricing, (13) to produce a favourable
psychological effect, (14) price emphasis

Brendon (B.) made a tradeoff between college education and


immediate economic well-being in favour of the latter and started
the business of his own, but he still needs advice from his friend
Mary (M.) who decided that further education is worth money and
effort. They are discussing a new line of products in Brendon’s
shop.

65
B.: You know, the shop has been selling well since I started, but I
reckon that consumers may stop buying things if I don’t (10) 
introduce new items of goods .
M.: Cor! Hasn’t your new line of merchandise (6) increased the
demand for goods in your shop?
B.: That’s what I wanted to talk to you about. I wonder if this time
we (11) have charged the appropriate price . Previous time the
demand for the new (7) stock of merchandise dropped very
quickly. Can you give some ideas how to charge prices?
M.: If I remember correctly, there are two types of pricing
policies: (14) price emphasis and (9) price de-emphasis .
B.: Can you explain the difference?
M.: From what I know the price emphasis policy (3) to emphasize
low prices. This (5) to encourage sales . But it has a weak point, I
mean that low prices don’t give extra services.
B.: True enough. With a really low price the customer will have no
credit, home delivery, repair, installation and other services.
M.: That’s what I mean. But many people are interested only in the
low price and not in the extra services.
B.: That’s one way of looking at it, but I have to think thoroughly
about it, because the price (1) determines the number of sales.
M.: You have my full support! A good example of price emphasis is
(12) “loss leader” pricing . It means that you choose one item
and sell it at a very low price. The customers who buy this “loss
leader” can decide to buy a few other things they need.
B.: It sounds interesting. What other things can you tell me about
pricing policy?

66
M.: There is also (4) off-even pricing. For example, you sell cameras
for $79.95 instead of $80.00. Though it is in fact about the
same, the low price can (13) produce a favourable psychological
effect.
B.: What are the other ways to attract the customers?
M.: You must start with especially low prices to compete with well-
known goods. Mind that it’s important (8) to advertise this.
Please, do consider my words carefully. You should use
newspaper ads, maybe do a big window and floor display.
B.: It makes sense. But I wonder if I can raise the price when my
customers get accustomed to a new brand.
M.: Yes. They will continue to buy it.
B.: I see. And what about the price de-emphasis?
M.: It (2) concerns high quality expensive items. You don’t call
attention to the price at all.
B.: I take your point. I’m so grateful to you for your professional
hints. Don’t forget you have a discount on any shopping you do
in my shop.

WATCH OUT: translator's "false friends"


bribe-charges-commission-dues-fare-fee-honorarium-interest-
premium-rent-retainer-salary-toll-tuition-wage
3.6.2 a. Look up the dictionary to find the difference between
the words bribe, charges, commission, dues, fare, fee,
honorarium, interest, premium, rent, retainer, salary, toll, tuition,
wage. Match the words with their meanings.
1 bribe A sum of money or something valuable that
one person offers or gives to another in
order to persuade him or her to do
67
something.
2 charges B amount of money that you have to pay for a
service.
3 commission C  sum of money paid to a salesperson for
every sale that he or she makes
 a fee for a providing a service, for
example for exchanging money or issuing
an insurance policy
4 dues D sums of money that you give regularly to an
organization that you belong to, for example
a social club or trade union, in order to pay
for being a member
5 fare E the money paid for a journey on public
transport
6 fee F amount of money that a person or
organization is paid for a particular job or
service that they provide.
7 honorarium G  payment given for professional services
[ˌɔnə'reərɪəm] that are rendered nominally without charge
 a fee that someone receives for doing
something which is not a normal part of
their job, for example giving a talk
8 interest H extra money that you receive if you have
invested a sum of money, it is also the extra
money that you pay if you have borrowed
money or are buying something on credit.
9 premium I  an amount to be paid for a contract of
insurance
 a sum added to an ordinary price or charge
1 rent J amount of money that you pay regularly to
0 use a house, flat, or piece of land
1 retainer K fee that you pay to someone in order to
1 make sure that they will be available to do
work for you if you need them to
1 salary L fixed regular payment, typically paid on a
2 monthly basis but often expressed as an
68
annual sum, made by an employer to an
employee, especially a professional or
white-collar worker
1 toll M charge payable to use a bridge or road
3
1 tuition N amount of money that you have to pay for
4 being taught particular subjects, especially
in a university, college, or private school
1 wage O fixed regular payment earned for work or
5 services, typically paid on a daily or weekly
basis
b. Fill in the blanks in the text with bribe, charges, commission,
dues, fee, honorarium, interest, premium, rent, retainer,
salary, toll, tuition, wage.
Price is all around us. You pay rent for your apartment, tuition for
your education, and fee to your doctor or dentist. The airline, taxi,
and bus companies charge you a fare, the local services call their
price a rate; and the local bank makes you pay charges and interest
for the money they borrow. The price for driving your car on a
motorway is a toll and the company that insures you charges a
premium. The guest speaker charges you an honorarium to tell you
about the government official who took a bribe to help some
character steal dues collected by the trade union. Your regular
lawyer may ask for a retainer to cover his/her services. The price of
an executive1is a salary, the price of a salesperson may be a
commission, and the price of a worker is a wage.

3.8 GRAMMAR BACK UP

PRACTICE WITH VERBS (II)


LEAD-IN
Exercise 1
a. Familiarize yourself with the text.
1
должностное лицо, руководитель, администратор
69
b. Rephrase the word combinations in bold type, supplying
them with the appropriate determiners from the box. You
may use some of them more than once or not at all.
c. Consult the Grammar notes below.
d. Translate the text into Russian.
unfortunately already just now yet
reluctantly at last also just
recently lately always usually

AN EMERGENCY IN THE SALES OFFICE


John Martin is due back from his trip to Abraca today and there
is a pile of work on his desk. Unfortunately, there is also an
unpleasant surprise waiting for him. His very efficient secretary,
Sally Langley, has just telephoned to say that she is ill and cannot
come into the office today. Elizabeth Corby, Mr. Grant’s secretary,
copes with the emergency by going to see the Chief Clerk in the
General Office and asking him if he will lend Mr. Martin one of his
shorthand-typists while Sally is away.

70
The Chief Clerk, Mr. Baker, has reluctantly agreed to lend
Fenella, who is inexperienced but willing. Elizabeth has already told
her where to find the stationery, given her a few helpful hints and
then at last left her to her fate. Mr. Martin has a much bigger
emergency to cope with as soon as he arrives. Thirty desks have
unfortunately failed to arrive in Holland, and the agent there, Mr.
Van Eyck, rings Mr. Martin in a panic because he is responsible for
seeing that they are delivered by a certain date to the Dutch
customers. The firm use forwarding agents to clear the goods
through customs, transport them and deliver them. But something
has recently gone wrong somewhere along the line. Apart from this,
and many other jobs which need his attention. John has also got to
report to Mr. Grant on his trip to Abraca. They haven’t yet
discussed the chances of opening up a new market there, who they
will use as an agent and how the money to pay for the goods will be
transferred to Britain. Mr. Grant is likely to decide he wants an
irrevocable letter of credit. A letter of credit is sent by a bank to an
exporter informing him that payment for goods is at the bank. When
the exporter proves that the goods have lately/already left the
country (by showing a copy of a bill of lading with the signature of
the captain, or person responsible, proving that the goods have been
loaded on to the ship) the money is then paid to the exporter. The
buyer – say in Abraca – tells his own bank to send a letter of credit
to the exporter’s bank in London. It is therefore a promise to pay as
soon as the exporter has already shown proof that he has sent the
goods. At the end of the day John has at last cleared up some of his
work, but poor Fenella is nearly at her wits’ end.

PRACTICE WITH THE PRESENT PERFECT


Exercise 1
a. Complete the sentences using the Present Perfect of the verbs
in brackets.
71
b. Give a short summary of what each of the speakers has said.
Supplier (S.): All right, gentlemen. Shall we start? You have
studied our offer, haven’t you?
Customer (C.): Yes, we have carefully examined it. In principle we
have found the terms and conditions quite acceptable.
S.: Good. If you agree to our proposal it won’t take us long to
finalise the matter.
C.: We hope not, but we’d like to clarify some points. The major
point is the equipment cost. We rate your models’ quality and
reliability highly but you have quoted a very high price, I’m
afraid. Our firm would find it difficult to accept it.
S.: I’m not sure you are right about it. $50 per unit is quite a
reasonable price. You see, the total cost may seem a bit high, but
it is fully justified. As you know we have improved the model
lately. The alterations we have just made cover the resources,
power cost, the amount and the quality of the product.
C.:  It sounds convincing. As I have heard for a few months
already the consumer’s desire for your production tends to
increase, but, probably, this is no reason for raising the cost so
much. As to our firm, with each successive purchase the
financial sacrifice becomes greater than the satisfaction of
getting your equipment. We are inclined to bargain over prices.
S.: Yes, that is one way of looking at it, but I’d like to point out that
there is a current annual rise in world prices for this particular
type of equipment and materials. And we can hardly ignore it.
C.: Well, I think we’ll have to look into the matter again. Our
Consultant Company has presented to us their competitors’
materials this week. They are the latest. I hope our experts have
already compared the technological characteristics.
S.: Well, I have thought over your reasons. My opinion is that we
can make the only concession for you, as we have been good
partners for a long time. As I see it we’ll be able to give you a
2% discount off the value of the contract.
C.: All right. But I think we need a couple of days to discuss what
you have just said and to give our final reply.
S.: Fine. We are ready to resume the talks at your convenience.
72
Exercise 2
Write “R” (right) if the tense is used correctly, and “W”
(wrong) if it is not.
1. “W” The production of chemical equipment has fallen sharply 2
years ago. There was no demand for it.
2. We have never planned our expenditure before.
3. “W” Tom has been hearing for three days already that the
government is inclined to control the prices for major consumer
goods and services.
4. This black evening dress was sold at $100 for a long time, but
today the sellers have changed the price.
5. The utility of meat has changed for my friend greatly, since he
made a decision to become a vegetarian.
6. “W” Today I stopped buying tomatoes at the current price as my
financial sacrifice is greater than the satisfaction of eating them.
7. “W” Did you ever see our assembly shop? You can see the
finished products here. Look, here is the latest model of pumps.
We modified it lately.
8. Have you seen the latest ads of diet bread yet? It’s very attractive
and emotional.

Exercise 3
a. Fill in the blanks. Choose from the following: for, since, yet,
ever, never.
1. The prices for goods have changed a lot since you provided us
with your quotations.
2. Mr. Cooper, I have known you now for something like four
years.
3. He has been here … a long time.
4. Is the Sales Manager here? No, he hasn’t arrived … .
5. The suppliers haven’t changed their prices since May.
6. She has worked in London for six months. (= She still works
there now.)

73
7. What’s the best film you have ever seen?
8. He has never rated meat highly.
9. Have we ever rated this firm as sound?
b. Render the following into English:
1. This month, statistics have showed/shown that consumer
demand for our products tends to decrease. But, as far as we
know, our experts have not yet examined this phenomenon in
detail.
2. Leading companies have already stopped production of goods
required in the war time, because their marginal utility has
recently changed.
3. This year we bought an apartment at the current price. It was a
financial sacrifice, but the purchase was successful. Recently the
prices of flats have ranged from high to very high. They have
never tended to diminish / have never had a downward trend.
Exercise 4
Render the following into English:
1. Has the government ever interfered in/with the policy of market
prices through price controls and the ration stamps to make sure
that prices for major consumer goods do not rise too high?
2. Since this commodity/product has become freely available,
demand have fallen sharply. Its usefulness has changed. And I
have never thought that the usefulness of the goods is directly
linked to the amount that is available to cover the needs of a
consumer.
3. – There have appeared many different cosmetic products. Have
you ever attempted to assess the quality of these products, and
compare prices?
- Yes, of course. But, besides, I have never bought a product,
without having studied the information given by the
manufacturer and experts in this field.
4. -Alice, have you already made a list of essential foodstuffs, we
need for a week?

74
– Not yet. I have already been thinking it over for 30 minutes
but has not yet made a final decision. I heard an advertisement
for the new butter just now and want to try it.
– I have never trusted advertising. But this sounds convincing.
Let's take a risk!
5. - Have you seen a receipt from the supermarket? I do not see the
tree dollar record for the apples.

PRACTICE WITH THE PRESENT PERFECT


CONTINUOUS

Exercise 1
Choose the correct form.
1. – Can I have a look at your intake for the month? – Certainly.
You can keep it if you like. I have been reading / have read it.
2. They have been paying / have paid through a London branch
this month, but we haven’t received the payment yet.
3. I’m very sorry, but 30 desks have failed / have been failing to
arrive in Holland.
4. Eve has been saving / has saved nearly two thousand pounds
so far this year.
5. What’s the matter? Has something been going / has something
gone wrong along the line?
6. I have always been paying / have always paid by sight draft.
I’m against irrevocable letter of credit.
7. John has been ringing / has rung you up for 2 hours. He is on
the line.
8. Something has happened / has been happening to our
forwarding agent in Rotterdam. I can’t locate him.
9. Sally Langley has telephoned / has been telephoning to say
that she is ill and cannot come to the office.
10. John has tried / has been trying to find the file under Bills of
Lading concerning consigned motor vessel “Kelpie”, date of
clearance London Docks, 12th September for 2 hours.
75
Exercise 2
Complete the sentences using the appropriate tense of the verbs
in brackets.
1. I’m sorry, I’m late. Have you been waiting long?
2. We have been planning our expenditures since early morning
but we are still in the process.
3. Our specialists have been studying the relative demand for
office furniture for 3 months and now they can demonstrate the
results of their survey.
4. They have been advertising the new type of shampoo
everywhere for a month.
5. – How long have you been looking for the shipping documents
for the thirty M-type desks? – I have been trying to find them
since morning, but I think it’ll take me the whole day.
6. Have you cleared up some of Sally’s work ? It has been a hectic
day.
7. Mr. Best, the Sales Clerk, has been recording the invoiced sales
and order intake for the month since January 3.
8. I have been dialling the number direct for half an hour, but in
vain. Let’s do it through the operator.
9. The National Bank has rated / has been rating this agent as
sound since they got a more detailed report on his performance.
The National Bank rated this agent as sound since (поскольку)
they got a more detailed report on his performance.
10. These agents have been making the long – term assessment for a
week. Do you think we should hire some more specialists?

PRACTICE WITH THE PAST PERFECT


Exercise 1
a. Complete the sentences using the past perfect of the verbs in
brackets.
1. – Why were you so angry when I saw you yesterday? – Oh, I had
just had a big argument with my parents.
2. I tried contacting my pen pal when I was in the US, but she had
changed her address and no one knew where she had moved to.
76
3. He was very nervous when he first drove in Britain because he
had not driven on the left before.
4. When I heard his voice on the phone, I knew I had speaken to
him before. Then I remembered I had already met him. I also
remembered that I did not like him very much.
b. Put one verb in each sentence into the past perfect and the
other into the past simple.
1. I did not laugh) at the joke because I had heard it before.
2. Andy had done the test before, so he found it very easy.
3. – Did you catch the train yesterday? – No, it had already left
when we got to the station.
4. We left the restaurant when we had had dinner.
5. When I found my wallet I discover) that somebody _____ (take)
the credit cards out of it.
Exercise 2
Choose the correct tense.
1. Suddenly I realized that the financial sacrifice ... greater than my
satisfaction of buying this product at the current price.
(A) became
(B) had became
(C) has become
(D) had become
2. This year Bob Hardiman ... yet the time to be qualified for the
full pension.
(A) has not completed
(B) does not completed
(C) has completed
(D) had not completed
3. No sooner ... Peter and Yan the case to H.G. than Mr. Grant
understood that he had to change his decision.
(A) explained
(B) had explained
(C) has explained
(D) have explained
4. Everybody noticed how upset she was. She ... ration stamps for
meat, butter and sugar.
77
(A) looses
(B) has lost
(C) lost
(D) had lost
5. A consumer, who ... already enough items of a commodity, was
not interested in getting more of it.
(A) bought
(B) has bought
(C) have bought
(D) had bought
6. They ... the prices in advance that’s why when planning our
expenditure we must accept these fixed prices.
(A) fixed
(B) have fixed
(C) ‘d fix
(D) had fixed
7. Hardly Elizabeth ... with the emergency, when she saw a pile of
work on Mr. Bell’s desk.
(A) coped
(B) has coped
(C) had cope
(D) had coped
8. The clerks ... the envelopes with all order acknowledgements
and delivery notes but the monthly statements of accounts were
still untouched.
(A) already had franked
(B) had already franked
(C) franked already
(D) already franked
9. When the exporter ... that the goods … the country the money is
then paid to the exporter.
(A) proved … had already left
(B) had prove … had already leaved
(C) had proved … already left
(D) had to prove … have already leaved
10. A letter of credit is a promise to pay as soon as the exporter …
proof that he ... the goods.
78
(A) has shown … had sent
(B) has shown … sent
(C) shown … has send
(D) has showed … has sent already
11. Simon wasn’t at home when I phoned. He ... out .
(A) had went
(B) had gone
(C) has gone
(D) gone
12. Sally was at the General Office when we arrived, but she ... out
soon afterwards to cope with the emergency in the Sales Office.
(A) had gone
(B) went
(C) has gone
(D) had go
13. When John Martin cleared some of his work, Fenella ... the
copies of the shipping documents for the thirty M-type desks
sent to the Netherlands.
(A) brought
(B) had brought
(C) have to bring
(D) has brought
14. A letter of credit was sent by the bank to the exporter informing
him that payment for goods ... .
(A) made
(B) was made
(C) had been made
(D) has been made
Exercise 3
Translate into English.
1. When I found that prices had not been set in advance, I started to
bargain.
2. By a certain moment the marginal utility of these goods had
changed, and consumers stopped buying them at the current
price.
79
3. After we had planned expenses, we decided not to throw money
down the drain (to waste money on a dead horse). We bought a
summer cottage, but were had to accept the seller's price, as it
had been set in advance.
4. Hadly had the consumers got computers in excess, when the
demand for them fell.
5. Once the stock of goods had increased, the usefulness of this
product decreased.
PRACTICE WITH THE PAST PERFECT CONTINUOUS
Complete the sentences using the correct tense.
1. Our company had been producing office equipment for nearly 2
years when we realized that the consumers demand for it had
gone down.
2. Before John Martin went to Abraca, he had discussed his
preliminary desk research with H. Grant and finally he got a
reservation for a first-class return flight to Abraca.
3. The managing director has been examining the data provided by
the Consultant company since he arrived. And now he is busy
with them as well, he is going to discuss the results with the
specialists.
4. John Martin had been arguing with H.G. for an hour, when he
decided to leave the firm.
5. I had known about a first-class reputation of the manufacturing
plant for several years before I made a decision to place an order
with it.
Exercise 2
Translate into English.
1. For a long time I had been rating meat highly, before I became a
vegetarian and prefered fruits and vegetables to meat.
2. We had been producing a new model of submarine for two years
when the demand for it unexpectedly dropped.

80
3. Agents could not raise the price of the apartment, because the
price of housing in some cities in America had been under the
legislation since the housing shortage.
4. A consumer had been buying goods at the current price for a few
weeks, when, finally, he realized that his financial sacrifice was
bigger than the satisfaction of buying this product.
5. The participants of the meeting had been discussing the subject
of price controls and the introduction of ration stamps for two
hours, before they came to the conclusion that this was the only
way to deal with temporary shortage of food.

PRACTICE WITH ADJECTIVES

Exercise 1
Put the words in the right order:
e.g. is / a / generous / Kate / woman / very. – Kate is a very
generous woman.
1. There was an excess of thin spiral imported writing blocks, but
we needed the thick ones.
2. We tried to bargain over two expensive large round wooden
tables.
3. For him the purchase of a pair of costly black leather shoes is a
financial sacrifice.
4. Have you seen my blue T-shirt ?
5. I’m afraid customers will soon stop buying those cheap red
plastic raincoats.
6. People with lower incomes rate the utility of tiny Japanese TV
sets very highly.
7. I cannot approve of buying too much white French fancy rolls.
8. My son is inclined to think that new high black English leather
boots are a must for a teenage boy.

Exercise 2
Open the brackets and complete each sentence using the most
suitable adjectives.

81
1. Peter Wiles was worrying about the future of the company
because old Ambrose Harper was seriously ill. He was a very
sick person.
2. The deep and healthy influence which he exerted upon society is
highly appreciated.
3. You look sick. You are so pale and tired.
4. He was afraid. Suddenly he saw a sleeping man in the dark room.
5. The little boy was alone in the whole world. He resembled a
frightened bird.
6. In some of Canadian provinces it is a living tradition to give
Christmas “boxes” of gifts on December 26th to those, who have
served the family throughout the year and also among the family
and children.
7. Nurses look after sick people.
8. I am afraid that if there is an excess of consumer goods, the
relative demand for them will go down.

Exercise 3
Look at the underlined parts in each sentence. Choose the one
that is incorrect.
1. I’m afraid we should have a two-weeks field survey to find out
A B
the relative demand for these nine-pound T-shirts outside the UK.
C D
2. If a period of employment is interrupted for more than six
A
months, the employee has to work a further period to be
B C
entitled to a full pension. The period is five year long.
D
3. Price controls and ration stamps were also discussed during a
A
two-day summit as a well-known way of dealing with temporary

82
B C
shortages of gasoline and heating oil.
D
4. It’ll be half an hour walk. The distance is only a two miles long.
A B C D
5. Our customers are usually offered a ten pages catalogue
A B
containing information about our firm’s products.
C D
6. Peter Wiles, Production Manager, and John Martin, Sales

Manager, are young and very adventurous. H. Grant is only


A
ten year older, but he is inclined to be cautious and firmly
B C
believes that he knows the best way to run a business.
D
7. When Henryk was fourteen years old he was interesting in the
A B
control of the underground school market.
C D
8. At last Tom saw the new coloured book he was looking for, the
A B
price was $15. And he had only a five-dollar note for his needs.
C D

PRACTICE WITH COMPARATIVES AND SUPERLATIVES


Exercise 1
Maria is slightly fat. She is speaking about the problems of
losing weight. Complete what Maria says using comparatives of
the adjectives in brackets; add than where necessary.

83
“Oh, Why is bread such a tasty thing! I think it’s much more
difficult (much / difficult) to do without bread than any other food.
Sometimes I feel that my waist is getting fatter and fatter, not
thinner! When you first start dieting, it seems a lot easier than doing
exercises and cutting down on bread looks much more
simple/simpler. However, when you become a little more
advanced, it gets a lot more complicated. There are also so many
brands at the baker’s! My will appears to be far too weak)! I’m
already looking for something rather more efficient than cutting
down bread.”

Exercise 2
Underline any comparative that is used incorrectly.
e.g. Northern Mexico generally receives less rain than does Central
Mexico.
1. Fancy bread is the most tasty and popular of all kinds of bread in
the shop.
2. Iowa produces the more feed corn than any other state.
3. ÖThe cheaper of the two suitcases was more suitable for short
trips.
4. ÖThe other side of the settlement has a better supply of
foodstuffs.
5. Waiting to be reduced is the higher of the two prices.
6. ÖEvaluating the quality of a product can be difficult for a
customer. The higher the quality, the higher the price.
7. Choices are not simple for consumers because many factors
influence buying decisions.
8. More often than not a smart buyer makes better buying decisions
than an inexperienced one.
Exercise 3
Make sentences using the structure:

84
the + comparative clause , the + comparative clause
e.g. (small) a purchase is / (easy) it is to adjust the budget.
The smaller a purchase is, the easier it is to adjust the budget.
1. The more complicated the problem the harder it is to find a
solution.
2. The wiser the choice is the better the quality of a product is.
3. The bigger a car is the more expensive it is to run.
4. The worse the weather the more dangerous it is to drive on the
roads.
5. The older he gets the more thoughtful he becomes.
6. The faster he tried to work the less he was able to accomplish.
7. The more advances and improvements are made in technology,
the more convenient the banking transactions become.
8. the more populated the area becomes, the more noise one has to
contend with.

Exercise 4
Put Ö for correct sentences; rewrite the incorrect ones.
1. This is one of the most expensive restaurants in Milton.
2. Ö Let your child choose the most and the least expensive ways to
purchase goods.
3. Only the smartest consumer knows how to use advertising for
his purposes.
4. The better educated one is, the less likely one is to be
unemployed.
5. I think that was one of the worst days of my life.
6. Today there are fewer and fewer jobs which require unskilled
labour.
7. My neighbour is one of the most boring people I know.
8. ÖWhat is the most popular brand of beer in your pub?
9. Tell me if you have any further problems. (= any more
problems)
85
10. ÖThe eldest customer was given a free basket of food.

Exercise 5
Fill in the blanks with a or the whenever necessary.
1. Don’t you know that in - most of London buses fares depend on
the distance travelled.
2. When offering a new job, - most firms select from the total
number of applicants a small number who they think have …
the best qualifications on paper.
3. This is a most efficient way of improving the sales.
4. This is not surprising that - most of the English regard
themselves as sportsmen.
5. When he was in prison they fed him on thin soup and dry bread -
most of which was mouldy.
6. - Most of all, yuppies are Professional: they can be seen setting
off to work every day in the most elegant business suits and
pretentious dresses.
7. This has been the best year in the company's history, the most
productive in output and certainly less hard than the previous
one.
8. Who were you given this information by? It sounds - most
interesting and convincing.
9. The experts gave us - most (чрезвычайно) important advice.
Very vital indeed!
10. We already know that - most foodstuffs are in the perishable
category.
11. You see, the most important thing when interviewing a candidate
is his character, his ability to react, his intelligence and his
suitability for the position.
12. Find out the way to use money - most effectively.
13. Thank you for a most impressive preliminary report.

Exercise 6
Render the following into English:

86
1. – Look! This is a new variety of bread, it is advertised on TV
every day. This price seems high for me.
– Yes, it is true, but this bread smells really good and it looks
delicious! I am for buying it.
2. Please listen to my words carefully: this big black leather bag is
a little bit more expensive, but I think that its quality is much
better than of that artificial leather bag. It is well known that the
higher the quality, the higher the price you have to pay for the
goods.
3. In times of shortage control over prices is as important as the
introduction of stamps for food and consumer goods.
4. Scientific studies confirm the fact that the more units the
consumer buys, the less his desire to have this product becomes.
Economists call this trend “The Law Of Diminishing Marginal
Utility".
5. –In my opinion, diversity of consumer goods on the market
makes the problem of choosing the desired product more
difficult.
- I completely agree with you, but I think that is not so difficult to
choose the goods, as to evaluate the quality of the product.
.

87
4 INCOME & SPENDING

Contents

4.1 Lead-in Section overview


4.2 Language Input Developing vocabulary
4.3 Background Information Income and Spending
4.4 Comprehension Understanding the reading
Reviewing the concept
4.5 Speaking & Writing
Language focus Saying numbers
Presenting Information Summarising Talks
Communication skills Letter of Application
4.6 Dialogue Recruitment
4.7 Reading for Cross-cultural Labour problems in Russia and
Associations the UK
4.8 Role-play Consumer skills:

88
Finding a Job
4.9 Grammar Back Up Practice with verbs: Future (III)
Practice with Adverbs

DEVELOPING VOCABULARY
4.2.1. Consult a dictionary, write out the transcription and
practise the pronunciation of the following words:

a resume ['rezjuːmeɪ]
a transfer payment ['træn(t)sfɜː, 'trɑːn-]
adult-to-adult relationship ['ædʌlt, ə'dʌlt]
allowance [ə'lauən(t)s]
blue-collar workers ['kɔlə]
changes throughout the economy [θru'aut]
colour 'kʌlə]
curriculum vitae [kərɪ̱ kjʊləm vi͟ːtaɪ, AM -ti]
debt [det]
determine [dɪ'tɜːmɪn]
employee [ˌɪmplɔɪ'iː, em]
inheritance [ɪn'herɪt(ə)n(t)s]
interviewee [ˌɪntəvju'iː]
interviewer ['ɪntəvjuːə]
janitors ['ʤænɪtə]
jewelry ['dʒuːəlrɪ]
major source ['meɪʤə] [sɔːs]
measure ['meʒə]
medical practitioners [præk'tɪʃ(ə)nə]
paycheque ['peɪʧek]
personnel manager [ˌpɜːs(ə)'nel]
plumber ['plʌmə]
possession [pə'zeʃ(ə)n]
proprietor compensation [prə'praɪətə]
proprietorship [prə'praɪətəʃɪp]
purchase ['pɜːʧəs]
89
receipt [rɪ'siːt]
recruitment [rɪ'kruːtmənt]
reward [rɪ'wɔːd]
solicitor [sə'lɪsɪtə]
to recruit [rɪ'kruːt]
to transfer [træn(t)s'fɜː, trɑːn-]
utilise [ju͟ːtɪlaɪz]
wealth [welθ]
4.2.2. Match the English word combinations in the left-hand
column with the Russian equivalents
1. transfer payments w. передаточные/трансфертные платежи
2. to be self-employed n. работать на себя, не по найму
3. to buy into the firm g. купить часть фирмы
4. fringe benefits k. дополнительные выплаты, льготы
5. to pay a fixed wage l. платить фиксированную заработную
плату
6. interest on savings c. проценты по сбережениям
7. the month’s rent and utilities o. квартплата и коммунальные платежи за
месяц
8. to cut down on something a. снизить расходы на что-либо (обогрев)
(heat waste)
9. to subtract debts from q. вычесть долги из личного капитала
personal wealth
10. expenses of a business f. деловые издержки
11. health and accident m. страхование от болезней и несчастного
insurance случая
12. to utilise the refuse of daily b. утилизировать ежедневные отходы
existence
13. to provide something for a d. предоставить что-либо за
reward вознаграждение
14. corporation stock p. акционерный капитал корпорации/
корпоративная акция
15. employee and proprietor r. доход служащих и предпринимателей
compensation
16. to earn something as a e. заработать что-либо в качестве
return on something прибыли
17. to own the property j. владеть собственностью
18. to possess the assets h. владеть средствами, фондами, активами
90
19. to send a letter of applica- i. послать заявление о приеме на работу и
tion and curriculum vitae автобиографию
20. to interview junior v. проводить собеседование с
members of the staff нижестоящими сотрудниками
21. to be a back-room t. работать в “подсобке” (оформлять
employee операции, вести счета и пр.)
22. to apply for the position s. подать заявление о приеме на должность
23. to recruit personnel u. набирать штат

REVIEWING THE CONCEPT


4.4.2. Say whether these statements are true (T) or false (F),
and if they are false say why.
e.g. I believe it is true that … .
I strongly doubt that … because … .
T F 1. Proprietor compensation is the income that people
working for themselves and not on the payroll of a
company earn.
T F 2. The income earned by working for others includes wages
and fringe benefits such as health and accident insurance
and is called proprietor compensation.
T F 3. Money paid as income on investments or loans is called
interest.
T F 4. Money paid to use an office or house or factory for a
period of time is rent.
T F 5. The total income is the sum of employee and proprietor
compensation, corporation profit, interest and rent
excluded.
T F 6. Gifts, inheritances, rent and aid to the poor are examples of
transfer payments – money one person or group gives to
another, only if the receiver has provided a specific good or
service.
T F 7. At present most people are employees and not self-
employed.
T F 8. A house, a car, a debt, allowance, a paycheque, a gift, or
jewelry, are not only a part of an individual’s income but
also of any resource that can be used to produce income.
T F 9. Most of an individual’s income is spent and thus becomes
91
income for someone else or, in other words, multiplies
throughout the economy as others receive and spend parts
of it.
T F 10. On the evidence to date spending has resulted in changes
throughout the economy.

4.4.3 Change the italicised expressions by the synonyms from


the box.
(a) interest; (b) employee compensation; (c) to be self-employed;
(d) transfer payment; (e) rent; (f) wage; (g) corporation profit (2);
(h) proprietor income
Nothing in the economy can change without causing changes
throughout the entire economy. Think of what happens when
workers receive a (1) (f) wage raise. As consumers, these
individuals have more money to spend. As they increase their
spending, corporations receive greater (g) corporation profit.
There are five basic types of income in the USA: (3) the income
earned by working for others(b) employee compensation; (4) (h)
proprietor income; (5) (g) corporation profit; (6) (a) interest; (7) (e)
rent. The distribution of income between the five categories
changes over time. During the past century, the percentage of
people (8) (c) to be self-employed has generally declined.
Increasingly, people are employees and not employers.
One other type of income is (9) (d) transfer payment. Gifts,
inheritances, and aid to the poor are examples of this type of
income.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
f g b h g a e c d
4.4.4 a. Replace the Russian word combinations by their
English equivalents. Summarise the dialogue.

92
A.:  I dare say that the good news is that thanks to the bad news of the
energy crisis and sky-high (prices), the habit of mindless waste is
replaced with the intention to cut down everything possible.

93
B.:  My attitude from the beginning of the energy crisis has been that
to begin with we should apply common sense to cut down on heat
waste.
C.:  I know that to avoid (debts) more people are scheduling meatless
meals. Some are raising vegetables for reasons other than taste.
A.:  Of course if the government doesn’t supply people with (fringe
benefits), cuts aid for the poor, the signs of thrift and prudence 1
are seen all over the country. For example, families are turning to
the second-hand markets for things like bikes, people are taking
more shoes to shops for repair.
C.: You may well be right, people are eager to find (a part-time job)
mending goods like handbags, belts and golf bags.
B.:  You have a point here, the do-it-yourself trend in carpentry,
plumbing, auto repair, where people (are self-employed) is
expanding. I have also noticed that solid citizens have taken to
buying used clothes, and garage sales and tag sales are popular in
many neighbourhoods.
A.:  I see what you mean, also those who (own property) seem
increasingly willing to utilise the refuse of daily existence – cans,
bottles, newspapers – into recycling systems. Some restaurants
report more calls for doggie bags for taking home left-overs.
C.:  I agree completely. Even proprietors are learning to turn out
lights, when they are not in use, to cut (business expenses).
b. Sum up the ways to economize.
c. Draw a parallel between the thrift habits in Russia and Great
Britain.
4.4.5 Render the following into English:
As far as I know, at present, the incomes of students vary, as they
often receive money/allowance/funds either from parents or
scholarship at the University. Fewer students have a savings
account in a Bank and earn interest on it.
B.: I absolutely agree with you. Besides, today the majority of
students are employed in part-time jobs, receiving the payment,
and this salary/these wages allow(s) them to widen/vary the
sources of income.
11
Экономность и бережливость.
94
A.: It’s interesting that some enterprising young people have their
own business and are self-empoyed, i.e., receive income, after
paying all business costs. The number of those who use rent for
some property as an extra income is growing.
B.: In other words, if students have studied well how people earn
money, this will help them to increase their own income.
A.: Exactly! Couldn’t have said it better myself! When the time
comes to evaluate and sometimes measure the knowledge
Economics in monetary terms it’ll help them.
C.: I really must take issue with you here, but sometimes students
have more than one source of income. And only a small part of
this kind of income is spent on paying the cost of tuition.
B.: Let me disagree with you here. Still, most students receive
neither salaries nor interest on deposits, nor the income from
entrepreneurial activity. The main source of their income is their
parents’s contributions or scholarship, which cannot be
considered permanent payments as it depends on the results of
examinations.
C.: Maybe you're right. However, the cause of difference, in my
opinion, is the necessity to distinguish between income and
wealth.
A.: What do you mean by that?
C.: It is well known that income is not wealth. But wealth can be
used to generate income, for example, in the form of rent,
interest on deposits, income from a corporation share. Therefore,
the sources of income of students depend on the sources of the
well-being of their families.

4.5 SPEAKING & WRITING

4.5.2. Fill in prepositions or adverbial particles where necessary.


(Below is an extract from a TV interview)

95
Sanderson is one of America’s poor. On November 6, Carla and
her three children dined on frozen waffles and water. Carla knew
that her children would have to eat waffles or nothing. Carla,
what is your monthly pay?
Carla Sanderson: Well, I’d just like to say that my monthly take-
home pay is $718, but I have paid the $365 as the month’s rent
and utilities, and some other bills this month.
TV correspondent: Would it be right to place your family among
the poor?
Carla Sanderson: I have grown up in a middle-income family. To
admit the truth, I am poor. The last week in August we ate
oatmeal three times - a day because that’s what was left in the
cupboard; can you believe that?
TV correspondent: The Bureau of the Census defined poverty as
an income of $9,862 a year1 for a family of four. This amount
was $1,000 more than Carla Sanderson earned as a secretary at a
local government agency of a small city.
Carla Sanderson: Sorry to butt in, but about a year ago I left my
husband in California. He was sick with alcoholism and I worried
about the safety of our children. I sold my possessions and started -
home. Within two weeks I found an apartment and a job. The rent
for the apartment was nearly 50 per cent of my income. I decided
to stay here no matter how difficult it was to meet expenses. I buy
clothes at thrift shops2. I received $60 - a month from the federal-
and state-funded program for parents with children under 18. But
government budget cuts eliminated my child aid. So I have only to
rely on income from my job.
TV correspondent: Thus, unemployment is not one of Carla
Sanderson’s problems. She has a job, though it doesn’t pay well.
Stretching her income to meet daily expenses is her main
economic problem.
4.6.4 a. Study the following CV carefully to see how the
information is presented and decide where each of the
following headings should be placed:
1
In 1989. Poverty level for 2009 was defined as $ 21,832.
2
Stores selling used but serviceable clothes.
96
(a) REFERENCES (c) PERSONAL DETAILS (e) EDUCATION

(b) INTERESTS (d) PROFESSIONAL EXPERIENCE (f) ADDITIONAL SKILLS

Use the following as a model for Janet Nicholson’s CV.


Curriculum vitae
1 PERSONAL DETAILS
Name: Susan Robertson
Date of Birth: 6 June 1968
Nationality: British
Address: 52 Hanover Street
Edinburgh EH4 3LM
Scotland
Telephone: 031 449 0237
2 EDUCATION
1991–1992 London Chamber of Commerce and Industry
Diploma in Public Relations
1988–1991 University of London
BA (Honours) In Journalism and Media Studies
1981–1988 Fettes College, Edinburgh
A-levels in German (A), English (B), History (B)
3 PROFESSIONAL EXPERIENCE
1992 to present: Scottish Wildfire Trust
Department of Public Relations
Summers of Three-month training period with the Glasgow
1990 and 1991 Herald. Assistant to the sports editor.
Summer of 1989 Sales assistant in the record department of Harris
Stores Ltd., Edinburgh
4 INTERESTS
Sports: Cross-country skiing, rock-climbing and swimming.
Secretary of the local branch of “Action”, an association organising summer
camps for disabled children.
5 ADDITIONAL SKILLS
Camp counselling certificate
Grade 3 ski instructor
Driver’s licence (car and motorcycle)
PC user (Word, Excel, Power Point)
Fluent German and good working knowledge of French
97
6 REFERENCES
Geoffrey Williams, Professor of Journalism, University of London
Bill Denholm, Sports Editor, Glasgow Herald
WATCH OUT: translator’s “false friends”.
Income-returns-profit-surplus
4.6.5 a. Look up the dictionary to find the difference between
the words income, returns, profit, surplus. Match the words
with their meaning.
1. income A money received, especially on a regular basis, for
work or through investments
2. returns B a profit from an investment
3. profit C a financial gain, especially the difference between
the amount earned and the amount spent in buying,
operating, or producing something
4. surplus D an amount of something left over when
requirements have been met; an excess of
production or supply; an excess of income or
assets over expenditure or liabilities in a given
period, typically a financial year; the excess value
of a company's assets over the face value of its
stock
f. Fill in the blanks with income, returns, profit, surplus.
1. Product areas are being developed to produce maximum returns.
2. I advise you to keep record of your actual income and expenses for a
month.
3. Could you invest $30,000 now forego a college education, and with
your investment returns still have the same lifetime earning power as
a college-educated person?
4. Equilibrium price is the point when there is no surplus or shortage
so there is no pressure on price.
5. This is the sort of income one could expect for unskilled, casual
or part-time work.
98
6. If the price is too high, a surplus will develop and move the
item’s price down.
7. Growth also keeps people employed and earning income.
8. Entrepreneurs, seeing the opportunity of profit in a growing
economy, will form new businesses, such as consulting firms,
restaurants and stores.
9. Future returns from the equipment justify the purchases.

4.8 GRAMMAR BACK UP


PRACTICE WITH VERBS (III)

Choose the correct form of the verb.


1. I hear the government has announced it will raise / are going to
raise taxes again.
2. At what point will the consumer stop buying / is the
consumer going to stop buying the commodity at the current
price?
3. My car won’t start / isn’t going to start. It must be the cold, I
think.
4. Why don’t you come round tomorrow and I shall / am going to
cook you a meal?
5. I’ll start / am going to start a new job next week.
6. A consumer will go on buying / is going on buying a product
for as long as he continues to be satisfied.
7. The demand for the commodity will go down / is going to go
down if the quantity of the commodity increases.
8. – John told me that you are delivering the console control desks
for a big computer company. – Yes, we will / are going to sign
another contract with it next month.
9. The suppliers have got some trouble. I’m afraid they will be /
are going to be late with delivery.
10. – Would you like to come to the Sales Office and discuss the
penalty clause with us? – All right. I shall come / am going to
come at 11.
99
11. – Have you changed your mind about accepting the offer? – No,
I shall accept / am going to accept it.
12. – I’ve come out without any money. – Never mind, I’ll lend /
am going to lend you some. How much do you want?
13. – Look what I’ve just bought at an auction! – What an
extraordinary thing! Where will you put it / are you going to
put it?
14. – I’ve planned my actions for the next week. – That is very
clever of you. What will you do/are you going to do with that
penalty clause?
Exercise 2
Put the verb into the correct form using will or going to.
1. The prices determine who will buy the products and what will be
the mix of consumer and capital goods.
2. – Look! There is smoke coming out of the assembly shop! It’s
on fire!
– Good heavens! I will call the fire brigade immediately!
3. – We haven’t delivered goods in time.
–Yes, our partners are going to claim compensation.
4. – Have you decided on what to do when the price goes up?
– Oh, yes. If the price goes up a little, chances are I will/shall
pay extra amount rather than go without this product.
4 – What shall we do with the failure of suppliers to deliver on
time?
– I don’t know! I can’t make up my mind!
– Come on, hurry up! Make a decision!
– Okay then. We will insist on the penalty.
6. – Why are you looking for the file under Bills of Lading?
– Mr. Martin is going to find the exact date of clearance for this
vessel.
7. In a perfect market there can be only one price for a given
commodity; the lowest price which sellers will accept and the
highest which buyers will pay.

100
8. The financial sacrifice will become too great when the quality
of a commodity gets worse.
9. – I hear you have been offered a job. – That’s right, but I’m not
going to take it.
10. – This food is awful, isn’t it? – Yes, it’s disgusting! I will
complain.
Exercise 3
Complete the conversation. Use will/shall, going to, present
continuous and the verbs given. Write a short summary of the
situation.
Mary and Nigel run a shop together
Monday
M.: I don’t know what we shall do. We’ve hardly made any money
for ages.
N.: I think we should advertise. We can send our leaflets.
M.: Yes. That will probably get our name more widely known. But
do you think people will come into the shop?
N.: Well, we could try advertising in the local paper.
M.: That might be better. I‘ll phone and find out their rates. And
what about local radio?
N.: Good idea. Shall I phone them?
M.: OK, thanks.
Tuesday
M.: We haven’t got enough money to pay for all the advertising we
need. I’ve been in touch with the bank. I am going to see the
manager on Friday.
N.: Will he give us a loan, do you think?
M.: I hope so.
Friday
Manager: So you want to borrow some money. How are you going
to spend) it?
M.: We are going to advertise on local radio and in the paper.
We’ve planned it carefully. We only need 500 pounds.

101
Manager: Very well. The bank will lend you the money. But you
must pay us back in three months. Can you do it?
M.: We will do it, I promise.
Manager: Now, go and see the loans clerk and he will help you fill
in the necessary forms.
M.: Thank you for your help.
Manager: You’re welcome.
PRACTICE WITH THE PRESENT SIMPLE FOR THE
FUTURE
Exercise 1
Complete the sentences using the correct form of the tense in
brackets.
1. Our train leaves Moscow at 3.00 on Saturday and arrives in
Minsk at 9.00 on Sunday.
2. The most important bidding starts at 11.00 and finishes at 16.00
on Friday.
3. We’ve got plenty of time. Our plane will not take off until 7
a.m.
4. I ‘ll lend you the money provided you pay me back tomorrow.
5. We’d like to have some clarifications. The consumer will be
entitled to any compensation if goods break down through no
fault of his.
6. We’ll outbid the last recorded price until we are sure that the
item is worth buying.
7. We will claim compensation if they fail to deliver desks on
time?
8. The programme reads that the pension fund meeting is to be
held next week.
9. What time does the delegation arrive?
10. There is a penalty clause: we stand to lose ten per cent of our
price each week of overdue delivery.
11. According to the contract we keep the production line clear till
the end of the month.
102
12. His father will not give him any more money until he learns not
to waste it.

Exercise 2
Choose the correct form of the verbs in the anecdote.
Socialism:
If you have/will have two cows, you give/will give one to your
neighbor.
Communism:
If you have/will have two cows, you give/will give them to the
government and the government gives / will give you some milk.
Fascism:
If you have/will have two cows, you keep/will keep the cows and
give/will give the milk to the government; then the government
sells/will sell you some milk.
Capitalism:
If you have/will have two cows, you sell/will sell one and buy/will
buy a bull.

Exercise 3
Correct the expressions marked in bold type.
The proprietor of a highly successful optical shop was
instructing his son as to how to charge a customer.
“Son, he said, after you have fit/fitted the glasses, and he asks
what the charge will be, you say, “The charge is $10.” Then pause
and wait to see if he will flinches.
If the customer will does not flinch, you then say, “For the
frames. The lenses will to be another $10”. Then you pause again,
this time only slightly, and watch for the flinch. If the customer
won’t doesn’t flinch this time, you say firmly, “Each”.
103
PRACTICE WITH THE FUTURE CONTINUOUS:
WILL BE + ... –ing
Exercise 1
Complete the sentences using the will have + Past Participle form
of the verbs in brackets.
1. I need my car first thing tomorrow morning. Do you think you
will have repaired it by then?
2. Let’s hurry. The auction will have started by the time we get
there.
3. – We promise to pay the account within 5 days. – No, that’s too
late. We‘ll have placed the matter in the hands of our solicitors
by the end of the week.
4. – Let’s meet outside the shop at 6 p.m. – All right. I think I‘ll
have persuaded Alex to make a complaint, because, I am sure,
the law is on our side.
5. The Managing Director is inclined to begin negotiations at 10
a.m. Will you have clarified all the details of the contract by the
moment?
6. – One of our customers came to make a complaint about the
faulty mixer. He is aggressive! – The manager will be with you
in half an hour. – This man will have broken all the shop
windows by then!
7. Guy is in casino. He has very little money and he is spending
too much too quickly. Before the end of this hour, he will have
spent all his money.
8. You should stop using the faulty washing machine! By the time
you call the repairman it will have broken completely.
9. I paid cash for a faulty lamp, but I didn’t keep the receipt. I’m
afraid it’s too late. Tomorrow it will have been 8 days with me.
10. I‘ll have returned my companion’s money by June 25th.
104
PRACTICE WITH THE FUTURE PERFECT:
WILL HAVE + PAST PARTICIPLE

Exercise 2

Peter Wiles is the Production Manager. He is going to have a


very hectic day tomorrow. Look at Peter’s plan. What will Peter
have done by a certain time tomorrow?
M o d e l:
By 9.30 tomorrow Peter will have dictated a report to the secretary.
By 12.00 Peter will have reported to the Managing Director.
By 14.00 Peter will have had lunch with the Sales Manager.
By 15.30 Peter will have met Alan Smith, the Globe Forwarding
Company.
By 17.00 Peter will have looked through the contract of Computer
Company.
By 18.00 Peter will have phoned the Works Manager.

09.00–09.30 Dictate a report on the trip to A. to the secretary.


10.00–12.00 Report to the Managing Director.
13.00–14.00 Have lunch with the Sales Manager.
14.30–15.30 Meet Alan Smith, the Globe Forwarding Company.
16.00–17.00 Look through the contract of Computer Company.
Attention: Penalty clause!
17.30–18.00 Phone the Works Manager.

PRACTICE WITH THE FUTURE IN THE PAST:


105
WAS / WERE GOING TO
Exercise 1
Complete the sentences with the correct form using the future in
the past of the verb in brackets.
1. She was going to drive to Boston last week, but her car broke
down, so she had to go by train.
2. Henryk was going to change his job last year, but the General
Director offered him the new post and higher salary, so he made
his mind to stay with the firm.
3. The auctioneer was going to bring out a used electric popcorn
maker, but there was no demand for it, so he had to change the
lot.
4. Our new calculator broke down after only 3 working days. So
we were going to negotiate its quality level with the supplier of
this type of goods.
5. The buyers were going to study the information provided by the
manufacturing firm thoroughly before purchasing goods.
6. I understood that the firm were was going to make a refund.
Why didn’t they?
7. I was going to ask how the calculator was operated, but
somebody interrupted me.
8. Paul thought the shop was going to put right the faulty parts.
Why did the shop refuse him?
9. The customer was going to return the damaged item, but he
didn’t keep the receipt and couldn’t prove that he had bought it
in that shop.

PRACTICE WITH ADVERBS OF MANNER, PLACE


AND DEFINITE TIME
Ask yourself these questions when checking adverbs of manner, place
or definite time.
1. How are adverbs of manner formed?
a. Most of adverbs of manner are formed by adding –ly to the
adjective.
106
Bad – badly usual – usually high – highly But! Good – well
b. We use fast, hard, late as both adjectives and adverbs.
He is a hard worker / He works hard.
But! “Hardly” means “almost no”. – I’ve hardly got any money
left.
c. Not all words ending in –ly are adverbs. Some adjectives also
end in -ly and have no adverb forms: (un)likely; (un)friendly;
costly; deadly; lovely; silly; ugly.
Selling your house can be a costly and time consuming business.
We use the following adjectives instead of adverbs in different
structures:
The manager received a new employee in a friendly way
(not: friendlily).
Daily, weekly, monthly, yearly, quarterly – are both adjectives
and adverbs.
Yearly dividends were paid out to (the) stockholders.

2. Where to place an adverb? What is the word order like?


a. Adverbs of manner, place and time normally go after the direct
object.
__direct object__ + __adverb__
The manager considered the project very carefully.
___direct object____ + __adverb__
He bought a faulty calculator yesterday.
b. The adverb goes after the verb if there is no direct object.
____verb____ + __adverb__
The faulty parts were studied carefully.
c. If there is more than one adverb, the usual order is:
manner + place + time.
The foodstuffs were sold profitably at Brendan’s shop last
month.
Manner place time
d. An adverb does not normally go between a verb and its direct
object.
If you are at the auction you must decide everything quickly.
107
The firm employed the workers the other day.
e. Some adverbs of manner, place and time also go at the
beginning of a clause if we want to emphasize it.
Tomorrow we have to take part in the bidding.
3. Should we place an adverb before or after the verb?
a. An adverb normally goes before a full verb but after the verb
“to be”, an auxiliary verb (have, will, can), or the first auxiliary
when there is more than one auxiliary.
In a market economy buyers and sellers usually answer
the basic economic questions.
Consumers are usually sensible to some price changes than
to others. He has never taken part in the bidding before.
b. In negative sentences adverbs of probability (probably, certainly)
normally go before the negative won’t; not, etc.
We probably won’t fulfil the customers’ demand.
4. What is the place of the adverbs of time: still, yet, already?
a. Still goes before a full verb or after “to be“ or an auxiliary verb.
These factors still influence the process of production of goods.
Economists are still using a tool called a demand schedule to
study demand.
b. Yet is used only in questions and negatives and normally goes at
the end of a clause.
Have you studied our catalogue and price list yet?
These goods aren’t sold to the highest bidder yet.
c. We normally use “already” before a full verb or after “to be”
or an auxiliary.
He has already made up his mind about asking for a refund.
He already changed jobs many times.
We can also use ”already” at the end of a clause for emphasis.
I’ve paid his bills already.
108
Exercise 1
Choose the correct answers.
1. They have close/closely studied the terms of Black & Co. for
the machines they were going to buy.
2. As the items are sold one at a time buyers must fast/fastly
decide what prices they are willing to pay.
3. I’m sorry to say but we are not complete/completely satisfied
with the quality of your goods.
4. The boxes containing spare parts are not safe/safely packed. It
should be done more proper/properly.
5. If the company want to attract new customers they must
wide/widely advertise their goods.
6. If your shoes came apart without misuse after only one day’s
wear, it is a very serious/seriously problem and it should be
settled reasonable/reasonably.
7. The company makes profits and pays quarter/quarterly
dividends to their stockholders.
8. You have to think of the price of the house as it is a cost/costly
purchase.
9. The sellers sometimes change the terms of delivery if they are
not very good/well for the customers.
10. We are interested in buying these computers as we require them
urgent/urgently.
Exercise 2
Complete the sentences by putting the parts in brackets in the
proper order.
1. Since the company has lately increased the prices considerably
they are not attractive to customers.
2. He didn’t have enough time to read the contract attentively
yesterday.
3. The engineers studied the terms of the contract carefully later
on in the day.
4. Nowadays economists use a demand schedule widely to study
consumers’ demand.
109
5. People invariably buy the same amount of products now.
6. If you spend all your money at the auction at once you will
have to drop out very quickly.
7. John is eager to buy this picture at the auction one of these days
outbidding all the other participants.
8. Since Bond & Co. always provide shipping facilities to their
customers they usually sell their goods on CIF terms.
9. To make these desks urgently the firm needed steel sheets by
the end of the week.
Exercise 3
Put the adverb in brackets into the correct place ˅ (with the
verb).
1. The customers have ˅ been trying to contact us the whole day.
(probably)
2. ˅ Suppliers ˅ want the price that allows them to make the
most of money. (usually)
3. This section will ˅ help you understand how consumers fulfil
their demands. (surely)
4. We live in the ˅ changing world of computer technology.
(rapidly)
5. The auctions of sellers and buyers ˅ set the prices of goods and
services. (always)
6. Have you studied reasons for elasticity of demand ˅? (yet)
7. I ˅ recommend you not to accept a repair and to ask for a
replacement of a faulty vacuum cleaner. (strongly)
8. Mike is ˅ waiting for a compensation from a shop. (still)
9. ˅ You and the supplier must ˅ negotiate a reasonable
settlement. (certainly)
10. A car may ˅ cost 50% of your annual income. (easily)
Exercise 4
Choose the one underlined word combination which is
incorrect.
1. Ann has a lot of responsibility in her job but she isn’t good-paid.
110
A B C D
2. The people for the experiment were chosen complete at random.
A B C D
3. There is one more topic to discuss the question namely
A B C D
of your salary.

4. He tried hardly to find a job but he had no luck.


A B C D
5. When I came to the firm the company’s staff treated me very
A B C
friendly.
D
6. Buyers have been always more sensitive to some price changes
A B C D
than to others.
7. Up-to-date equipment is introduced continually into production.
A B C D
8. Your decision actually is the result of your tastes and your
A B
available cash income at the moment.
C D
9. Upon receipt the customers had close looked through the terms
A B C
of the contract and agreed to sign it at once.
D
10. She can hardly control her feelings. Even though she is
A B
an elderly woman and her son is 40, she treats him motherly.
C D
11. – He doesn’t hardly ever write to us. But we normally do not
A B
worry if he visits Pam. – Oh! Pam is sometimes not responsible
C
for what she does.
D

111
PRACTICE WITH ADVERBS OF FREQUENCY OR
REPETITION
PRACTICE WITH ADVERBS OF PROBABILITY
PRACTICE WITH ADVERBS OF DEGREE
Exercise 1
Put the adverbs of frequency and repetition in the correct place
in the sentences. Sometimes more than one answer is possible.
1. ˅ Students ˅ work after school or during summer to sometimes
earn money for buying some of the things they want.
2. He always has ˅ been interested in using a demand curve to
study demand.
3. He is ˅ late for hardly ever appointments.
4. Many often people ˅ include savings as a fixed expense because
they ˅ save regularly a part of their income ˅.
5. ˅ High school students must ˅ make choices usually about what
to do after graduation.
6. ˅ Evaluating sometimes the quality of a product can ˅ be
difficult for the customer.
7. The consumer’s decision always is ˅ a matter of personal taste.
8. This item is ˅ in great demand rarely, so we make it in a small
quantity.
9. ˅ Time deposits also sometimes are considered a form of
money.
Exercise 2
Put the adverbs of probability in the correct place in the
sentence.
Peter Wiles is ˅ going to have a hectic day (probably). ˅ He ˅
thinks he will have a quiet morning dictating into a dictating
machine a long report (maybe). ˅ His secretary, Jane, can type it
back later (perhaps).
John Martin comes into Peter’s office because he ˅ isn’t
satisfied with the delay in delivery of some special plastic coated
sheets (obviously).

112
These sheets are wanted for a special order. To get this order,
Harper & Grant ˅ had to promise to deliver these desks before a
certain date (definitely). ˅ If they fail to deliver on time, they will ˅
lose money, because there is a penalty clause in the contract
(certainly).
But ˅ Harper & Grant did not have a penalty clause in their
contract with the suppliers (occasionally). So they will ˅ lose
money unless something can be done about it pretty quickly
(probably).
Exercise 3
In the following sentences, choose the correct form in brackets.
1. There were not (enough people/people enough) to consider the
complaints and to determine goods as satisfactory.
2. Allen has checked the thing (enough carefully/carefully
enough) to operate it in the appropriate way.
3. Do you have (enough time/time enough) to go to the shop with
me and help me with the complaint?
4. The demand for substitutes rises (enough fast/fast enough)
because the price of the genuine product has doubled.
5. Improvements in the methods of processing food allowed
suppliers to increase supply (enough soon/soon enough).
6. We arrived (enough early/early enough) to get on to the
manager and to put him in a mess.
7. You should type (enough slowly/slowly enough) so that you
will not make an error.
8. There are (enough orders/orders enough) for the goods which
are wanted for stock and have no time limit.
9. We have (enough funds/funds enough) to share the extra cost
of a field survey.
10. This man doesn’t have (enough experience/experience
enough) to honour the delivery in this urgent situation.
Exercise 4
CONTEXT

113
Read the conversation between a customer (C.) and a manager
(M.) In most of the lines one word or word combination is not in
its proper place. Some lines, however, are correct.
 If a line is correct, put a tick (Ö) in the space in the right-
hand column.
 If there is a mistake in the line, correct it.
C.: Good morning, miss. I’d like to speak to the manager. Ö1
M.: I am the manager, sir. How can I help you? ˅2
C.: Oh, really? It’s this radio. It doesn’t work. ˅3
˅ I yesterday bought it here costly. Look, you switch it on and nothing 4
happens.
M.: Could I see your receipt? ˅6
C.: Receipt? I haven’t got one. ˅7
M.: Oh, you immediately should ˅ have obtained a receipt at the 8
department when you bought it. ˅9
C.: I ˅ did probably. I must have thrown it away. 10
M.: Ah, well, have you got any other proof of purchase? The ˅ 11
customer is ˅ given usually a guarantee simultaneously when 12
he pays for the purchase at the shop. ˅ 13
C.: No. It must have been in the box. I ˅ didn’t probably keep it and 14
threw that away too. ˅ 15
M.: Oh, dear. You ought to have kept it. We need to know the date ˅ 16
of exactly the purchase ˅. 17
C.: What? I bought it yesterday. That young man ˅ served willingly 18
me. Oh, I paid by check. I have ˅ got still the check stub. 19
M.: That’s all right then. ˅ 20
Did you ˅ check the radio ˅ before you left the shop thoroughly? 21
C.: Check it? No, it was in the box. I expected it to work. It wasn’t ˅ 22
a cheap radio, it evidently is ˅ a good make. 23
M.: You should have checked it. ˅ 24
C.: Come on! Stop telling me what I should have done, and do ˅ 25
114
something! Either ˅ give immediately me my money back or give 26
me another radio! ˅ 27
M.: There is no need to get aggressive, sir. Let me look at it. ˅ 28
You see on the back this switch ˅? 29
C.: Yes? ˅ 30
M.: It’s on “mains”, and should be on “battery”. ˅ 31
You should have read first the instructions ˅. 32

115