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CHAPTER 1

THE PROBLEM AND ITS SCOPE

Rationale

Modern-day requires the need to possess mathematical knowledge as

Mathematics meaningfully influences students’ education and their individual lives.

Mathematical skills are essential to independent living in a numerate society,

affecting educational opportunities, employment and socio-economic status.

According to the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM, 2000), those

who have mathematical competence will have significantly greater chances and

possibilities for shaping the future while a lack of mathematical competence will keep

the doors closed, thus, everyone needs to understand Mathematics.

The problem of low mathematics performance pervades among the high

school students. Based on the findings of the study of Sa’ad et. al (2014), the students’

negative attitude towards Mathematics, anxiety and fear, poor teaching methods,

inadequate teaching materials and learning disabilities such as dyscalculia, are some

of the reasons of poor performance in Mathematics. Carey (2016) revealed that

mathematics anxiety could cause low mathematics performance. Anxiety could

interfere with learning and generates distracting thoughts and sensations which

affect memory capacity. A student experiencing mathematics anxiety can’t

understand the subject because anxiety makes it hard to focus on some details, causes

self-doubt, fear of failing and other emotional issues. Too many students give up on

mathematics learning by withdrawing effort from any task that is perceived as likely
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to result in failure (Chinn, 2012). Mathematics anxiety can make students question

their abilities, even if they have strong skills. This is the challenge to be resolved by

the students, teachers and even the parents.

Lee (2013) studied an intervention, called mathematical resilience, which

works against mathematics anxiety and was considered as an antidote of

mathematics helplessness. A study of Zuill (2016) revealed that resilience has a

significant relationship with academic achievement and mathematics scores.

Therefore, this study focused and aimed to determine the respondents’ level

of mathematics anxiety and mathematical resilience and their relationship on the

performance of the students in Mathematics.

Theoretical Background

Related Theories

This study was anchored on Xu Ma’s Reciprocal Theory and Dweck’s Growth

Mindset Theory. The Reciprocal Theory focuses on the bidirectional link between

mathematics anxiety and poor mathematics performance; that is, mathematics

anxiety causes poor mathematics performance, or poor mathematics performance

elicits mathematics anxiety, while Growth Mindset Theory focuses on why people

succeed and how to foster the idea of success in schools. These two theories focus on

the performance of the students and how achievement and individual mindset affects

them.
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The Reciprocal Theory is a mixture of deficit theory and the debilitating

anxiety model. Deficit theory states that people who start out with poorer

mathematics performance are more likely to develop anxiety about Mathematics

while the debilitating anxiety model describes the link between mathematics anxiety

and mathematics performance is driven by anxiety’s devastating consequences on

learning and recalling mathematics skills. As Figure 1 indicates, the reciprocal theory

states that both theories might both play a part in the relationship between

mathematics anxiety and performance (Carey e. a., 2014).

Increased math anxiety Decreased math performance

Figure 1. Xu Ma’s Reciprocal Theory

Figure 1 also shows the bidirectional link between mathematics anxiety and

mathematics performance.

The second theory is the Growth Mindset Theory. It is the belief that

intelligence can be developed. Students with a growth mindset believe that they can

be more intelligent through hard work, with the help of effective strategies, and

assistance from others when needed. It proposes that people see their traits as the

starting point, and these can be developed through dedication, hard work, and effort.

The belief that intelligence can be developed has a positive effect on one’s motivation
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and consequently on their achievement. Individuals with a growth mindset, believe

that effort or training can change one’s qualities and traits. They are not scared of

failure, because it only means that they need to be given importance, invest effort and

master the new learning opportunity. When students know they can be more clever,

they realize that effort makes them tougher. The effort will make them able to learn

the skill or knowledge, which will improve their performance. They then exert extra

time and effort which results in higher achievement. Therefore, they attribute success

to learning (Armero, 2015).

Related Literature

This section gives an overview of researches done on mathematics anxiety and

mathematical resilience which includes its indications, who are affected, its reasons,

how it is measured, and its significance in the mathematics performance of the

students.

Mathematics anxiety (MA) refers to the feeling of fear, defeat, distress, and a

dread of disappointment towards Mathematics (Espino, 2017). It is generally given

meaning as the moods of tension and anxiety that affects with operating of numbers

and the answering of mathematical problems in our daily lives and academic

circumstances (Richardson, 1972).

As explained by Dowker (2016), MA is defined as a debilitating emotional

reaction to Mathematics; other professionals suggest it has both a cognitive and an

affective dimension. It is a strong emotional feeling of anxiety that people have about

their capacity to comprehend and do Mathematics. Learners experiencing


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mathematics anxiety feel that they are unable of performing activities and classes

which include Mathematics.

MA is a subtle and intricate problem with no simple solution. Cultural and

educational systems play a significant part in creating MA. It is usually associated with

prior negative experiences like a result of a student’s negative or embarrassing

experience with Mathematics. These past undesirable experiences with Mathematics

are often transferred and result in a lack of understanding of Mathematics. For many,

these undesirable experiences remain throughout their adult lives (Abo Hamza,

2013).

Learning Mathematics can be challenging. Hardships and problems in the

process of learning it can lead to unpleasant pressures and negative conditions. These

undesirable circumstances can be a bad practice for learners. The culture of anxiety

in Mathematics is already deep-rooted that it is tough to erase this problem in the

mindsets of the learners (Lee, 2013).

Resilience is related to students' affective ability to deal with and be able to

overcome hardships and negative situations in the learning process, turning those

negative situations into situations that support them. Resilient students can get better

learning outcomes than they expect (Hutauruk, 2017). It is the capacity of persons to

confront and answer positively to unkind situations that are unavoidable and to take

those unkind situations into a prospect for personal self-development (Hutauruk,

2017).
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According to Hudson (2007), resilience is a key construct in school-based,

universal interventions that aim to develop it as part of social and emotional

competence or emotional well-being (Lee, 2013). It is a critical factor in dealing with

change. People who are resilient remain calm in the process of change, spring back

after difficulties, and become stronger after the change. It is the method of adjusting

well in the aspect of difficulty, suffering, disaster, pressures or significant sources of

stress. If one has a resilient disposition, one can have poise and a healthy level of

bodily and mental and emotional wellness in the face of life’s challenges. It means

"bouncing back" from difficult experiences (American Psychological Association,

2019).

Mathematical resilience (MR) describes a positive stance to learning that

enables learners to engage successfully in what can be a difficult endeavor, that of

learning mathematics. Mathematical resilience defines that quality by which some

learners do Mathematics with determination and a willingness to discuss, reflect,

learn and investigate (Johnston-Wilder, 2010).

A study by Gürefe (2018) defines mathematical resilience as the ability to

persevere when faced with difficulties, work collaboratively with peers, possess the

language skills needed to express one’s understandings or lack of it, and withstand

learning-related difficulties and the ability to have a positive outlook in spite of

difficulties.
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Related Studies

This section provides numerous studies and researches that have been

conducted in relation to effects of mathematics anxiety and mathematical resilience

on the performance of the students in Mathematics.

According to Afolayan, et.al (2013), anxiety is a common reason for low

academic performance among learners in every part of the world. Some researchers

conducted studies which ask students about experiences, feelings, and thoughts

related with anxieties during the study process to identify anxiety sources among

students. Based on these previous studies, researchers found that there are many

sources of anxiety among students such as mathematics anxiety, language anxiety,

family anxiety, library anxiety, exam anxiety, presentation anxiety, and social anxiety

which includes social stressors, lack of sleep, overscheduling and lack of preparation,

to name a few. Anxiety is a real phenomenon. A student cannot perform well if they

are having a problem regarding anxiety (Prima Vitasari, 2010).

Persons who are extremely anxious in mathematics avoid mathematics, which

tend to be avoiding career paths that involve the subject. A student whose

mathematics anxiety is aroused diverts the attention away from the content of the

class and toward personal fear and anxieties over Mathematics. This can lower the

mastery of the concepts to be learned information which can affect the performance

of the students in Mathematics. The higher one’s mathematics anxiety, the lower one’s

mathematics learning, mastery, and motivation which led to poorer grades in the

Mathematics classes (Ashcraft, 2007).


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Mathematics anxiety affects learners in different countries and across

educational levels. In Malaysia, a study revealed that MA is one of the factors which

affects student achievement. It is said that weaknesses among learners in learning

Mathematics particularly will affect the efforts of various sectors in transforming

Malaysia a fully developed nation by 2020. Teachers should endeavor to understand

mathematics anxiety and implement teaching and learning to overcome anxiety

(Zakaria, 2012).

In a study by Schillinger (2018) which elucidates the link between

mathematics anxiety and Mathematics, students with MA were found to illustrate

both lower numerical intelligence and specific discrepancies in Mathematics.

Mathematics anxiety can perceive the performance of students in

Mathematics. Students with high mathematics anxiety are anticipated to attain a

lower score in mathematics performance. But those who have low mathematics

anxiety are anticipated to attain a higher score in Mathematics (Karimi, 2015).

MA has a big impact on the performance of the students, that performance

would decrease as anxiety increased. Individuals with higher anxiety benefit from

higher levels of metacognition, as their mathematics performance was similar to

those individuals with low mathematics anxiety (Legg, 2009). Mathematics-anxious

individuals fail their low-anxious peers on both real-world mathematics tests and a

laboratory-based task (Brunye, 2013)

MA is also a determinant of mathematics performance which means that the

higher the students’ anxiety, the lower the students’ performance in Mathematics and

vice versa (Alcover, 2018).


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Schedule of classes can also have an effect on the academic performance of

students. According to Williams (2014), student’s classes are scheduled throughout

the day is often determined by necessity but can have a meaningful impact on

academic performance. Their study states that there are negative effects brought by

early morning classes. Intelligence tests are significantly poorer during the first

morning hours. Anxiety is caused by a lack of sleep which means that getting more

high-quality sleep is associated with better academic performance, especially in

mathematics.

In contrast, some studies indicate that the morning schedule of classes has a

positive impact on students in Mathematics and indicate that afternoon and night

classes lowered mathematics test scores. According to Andreoli (2011), when

comparing students in morning and night classes, the morning students had the

higher scores. Students attending night classes go to sleep later than those attending

morning classes. Quality of sleep was higher for morning students. Later wake-up

times were associated with lower academic performance, which suggests an effect of

night shift work and sleep deficits. A 2013 survey conducted by the American College

Health Association reported students might feel too much stress which can lead

themselves struggling with a lack of motivation and anxiety.

Teaching resilience, sense of purpose in schools can prevent depression,

anxiety and improve grades. With these, there is already a resilience training program

to promote resilience to students. The Penn Resilience Programme (PRP) (also

referred to as the UK Resilience Programme) is an 18-lesson curriculum that is aimed

at 11-13-year old (although it has been used with a range of different age groups).
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The curriculum covers the national Personal, Social, Health, Education (PSHE)

requirement and will deliver a high-quality curriculum to students; and it will provide

one lesson per week from year 7 to year 10. The program PRP has different delivery

models and options being adapted in schools across the UK, such as PRP is taught

once a fortnight over 38 weeks. The whole year group is split into 4 teaching groups.

And another delivery model, PRP is taught at the end of year 7 and into the beginning

of year 8, with extra time to allow for review given the 6-week break. This program

enables young people to develop skills that empower them to be more resilient in

dealing with situations both in and out of school. Resilience training can help students

learn how to have a more positive outlook in the face of adversity. It can teach them

methods for doping in a healthy way when life throws you a curve ball. Without these

skills, students might feel overwhelmed by problems, which could lead to anxiety or

depression. American Psychological Association reported that the students who took

the program showed more enjoyment and engagement in school. The teachers

reported those students were more curious about what they were doing, loved

learning and showed more creativity and effects were particularly strong for students

in regular, non-honors classes.

Lee (2010) explained that to build mathematical resilience, students need

resilience coaches which included parents and teachers. Parents should take part in

the learning of the students by giving positive views on mathematics instead of giving

pressures to students. Teachers must be resilient to produce and develop resilient

students. Mathematical resilience coaches enabled students to continue learning

despite having to deal with obstacles and difficulties.


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Fg'Dcec’ study (2014) revealed strong evidence connecting resilience and

academic success. Teaching academic resilience was found to be effective in

improving academic performance. Resilience together with the creation of positive

and conducive learning environment can lead to improved academic achievement.

A study by Agasisti (2018) revealed that several countries were able to

increase the share of resilient students over time, reflecting improvements in the

average performance of students. Individuals with mathematical resilience including

a growth mindset will be able to develop the necessary mathematical skills, provided

mathematics anxiety is addressed explicitly where it has taken hold (Sue Johnston-

Wilder, 2014).

Results from a study of Kooken (2013), mathematical resilient learners know

that they have the right to understand, know that learning Mathematics may involve

struggle, refuse to feel mathematically stupid, refuse to feel mathematically isolated

and are willing to share their energies. Resilient students know how to ask questions,

actively seek understanding, know how to get help, see asking as clever and

understand that persistent asking allows them to become even more clever. It is the

positive construct for mathematics anxiety.

Based on the related theories, literature and studies, which primarily dwell on

mathematics anxiety, mathematical resilience and mathematics performance, the

conceptual framework is presented in Figure 2 on the next page.


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Conceptual Framework

The theoretical background which shows the conceptual framework of the

study in a schematic diagram is shown in Figure 2.

Figure 2. Schematic Diagram of the Conceptual Theoretical Framework of the Study


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As shown in Figure 2, the Reciprocal Theory and the Growth Mindset Theory

guided the process of the study which categorized the anxiety and resilience of the

students in mathematics. Reciprocal Theory states that mathematics anxiety might

cause decreased performance and poorer performance might elicit mathematics

anxiety, while Growth Mindset Theory suggests that intelligence can be developed

through dedication, time and effort.

The subjects in the study are the Grade 9 students of Bankal National High

School and Bankal Night High School. Sets of questionnaires were given to the

students.

The students’ anxiety was identified using Abbreviated Mathematics Anxiety

Rating Scale. This scale contains three subscales: Mathematics Test Anxiety,

Numerical Test Anxiety, and Mathematics Course Test Anxiety.

The resilience of the students was measured through the Mathematical Rating

Scale which consists of three affective dimensions: Value, Growth, and Struggle.

The performance of the students in Mathematics was measured using their

Fourth Grading Periodical test scores.

The data were collected, analyzed and interpreted. From these findings,

conclusions and recommendations were developed.

The Problem

Statement of the Problem

The study was designed to determine the relationship between mathematics

anxiety and mathematical resilience to the mathematics performance of the Grade 9


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students of Bankal National High School (Day shift students) and Bankal Night High

School (Night shift students) in Mathematics 9 (Geometry). Specifically, it meant to

answer the following:

1. What is the level of mathematics anxiety of the students for both day and

night shifts towards

1.1. mathematics test;

1.2. numerical task;

1.3. mathematics course; and

1.4. as a whole?

2. What is the level of mathematical resilience of the students for both day

and night shifts in terms of

2.1. value;

2.2. growth;

2.3. struggle; and

2.4. as a whole?

3. What is the level of mathematics performance of the Grade 9 students in

the

3.1. Day shift; and

3.2. Night shift?

4. Is there a significant relationship between the mathematics anxiety,

mathematical resilience and mathematics performance of the students in the

4.1. Day shift; and

4.2. Night shift?


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Hypotheses of the Study

These are the hypotheses of the study:

𝐻𝑜1 : There is no significant difference between the hypothetical mean and the

actual mean of the Grade 9 students in mathematics.

𝐻𝑜2 : There is no significant correlation between the Grade 9 students’

mathematics anxiety, mathematical resilience and their performance in mathematics.

Significance of the Study

The findings of this study could benefit the following:

students could be helped to improve their mathematics performance,

increase their willingness to engage with Mathematics, and be more determined in

dealing with difficulties to become a competent individual,

teachers could develop strategies and methods that would allow students to

be comfortable in learning Mathematics and develop resilience in them,

administrators could implement policies and practices to develop competent

and resilient students, and

future researchers could use this study as a basis for further researches and

a reference for other studies related to this topic.

Scope and Delimitation of the Study

The general goal of this study was to determine the relationship of

mathematics anxiety and mathematical resilience with the performance of the

students in Mathematics of the Grade 9 students of Bankal National High School and
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Bankal Night High School. This was focused on the anxiety and resilience of the

students, excluding the other factors that may affect the performance of the students.

The study was conducted in January 2019-March 2019 in Bankal National High

School located in Bankal, Lapu- Lapu City, Cebu.

Definition of Terms

The following definitions are provided for terms that are being used in this

study:

Mathematics Anxiety. It refers to the feelings of fear, tension, and

apprehension that many people experience when engaging in Mathematics. In this

study, mathematics anxiety of the students refers to the scores they obtained on a 24-

item Mathematics Scale, adapted from Alexander & Martray (1989) and modified by

Mary Jale Alcover (2018).

Mathematics Test Anxiety. It is a condition which students

experience extreme stress, anxiety, and discomfort when dealing with tests in

mathematics.

Numerical Task Anxiety. It is a feeling of pressure, apprehension or

fear that affects mathematics performance like manipulating numbers

and solving mathematics problems.

Mathematics Course Anxiety. It is a negative emotional reaction of

students when attending in a mathematics class.

Mathematical Resilience. It is a positive adaptation that allows people

to overcome barriers that are frequently present when learning mathematics. In this
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study, mathematical resilience of the students refers to the scores they obtained on a

24- item Mathematical Resilience Scale, adapted from Janice Kooken (2016).

Value. The belief that mathematics is a valuable subject and worth

studying.

Struggle. The recognition that struggles with mathematics is universal

even with people who have a high level of mathematical skill.

Growth. The confidence that all people can develop mathematical skill

and belief that everyone can learn more mathematics with effort and support.

Mathematics Performance. It is the numerical score of the students in

Mathematics 9 in the Fourth Grading Period of the SY 2018-2019.


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CHAPTER 2

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

This chapter outlines the research methodology that was used in completing

the study. It included the research design, research environment, research

respondents, research instrument, the data gathering procedure and the statistical

treatment of data.

Research Design

This study utilized descriptive method using regression analysis on

mathematics anxiety and mathematical resilience on students’ mathematics

performance of the Grade 9 students of Bankal National High School and Bankal Night

High School, S.Y. 2018-2019. The students were assessed on their anxiety towards

mathematics, how resilient they are towards it and how it affects their mathematics

performance.

Research Environment

The research study was conducted at Bankal National High School and Bankal

Night High School, Barangay Bankal, situated approximately seven kilometers from

the bustling economic center of Lapu-Lapu City, Cebu. These are public schools under

the Department of Education (DepEd). There are approximately 110 Junior High

School teachers, 22 Senior High School teachers and eight Night High School teachers

with two separate school principals. Bankal National High School is considered as

one of the mega schools in Lapu- Lapu City for it consists approximately 3,760
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students in Junior High School and 795 students in Senior High School while the

Bankal Night High School consists of 230 students.

Figure 3 shows the location map of the research environment.

Figure 3. The Location Map of Bankal National High School


and Bankal Night High School

Retrieved from Google Maps


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Research Respondents

The Grade 9 students of Bankal National High School and Bankal Night High

School were the respondents of this study. This grade level had a population of 901

students, with 18 sections consisting of 30 to 60 students per class. In this study, the

researcher used the simple random technique in gathering data and had 240 students

as respondents, 210 students from the Day shift and 30 from the Night shift.

Data Gathering Procedure

The researcher sent a letter to the Schools Division Superintendent of Lapu-

Lapu City through the School Principal of Bankal National High School and Bankal

Night High School requesting for the conduct of the study with the Grade 9 Junior High

School students as respondents (See Appendix A, B and C). As soon as the request was

approved, the researcher conducted the study according to its time frame.

Two sets of questionnaires were used to collect data with regards to the level

of mathematics anxiety and mathematical resilience of the students. The students

answered the Abbreviated Mathematics Rating Scale, then the Mathematical

Resilience Scale. The students’ mathematics performance was measured with the use

of their Mathematics Fourth Grading Periodical Test Scores. The data gathered were

used to answer the problem of the study.

Research Instrument

This study employed the following instruments: Abbreviated Mathematics

Anxiety Rating Scale (AMARS) by Alexander & Martray (1989), with minor
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modifications and was modified by Alcover (2018) to fit in the Philippine context, for

measuring mathematics anxiety of the sample, and Mathematical Resilience Scale

(MRS) by Janice Kooken with Johnston-Wilder and Lee in UK (2013) for measuring

mathematical resilience and a 50-item unified test in Mathematics 9, specifically

Geometry, for measuring the performance of the students in Mathematics (See

appendices E, F and G).

The AMARS has 24-items with reliability value of 0.86. It consists of three

subscales: Mathematics Test Anxiety (items 1-14), Numerical Task Anxiety (items 16-

19), and Mathematics Course Anxiety (items 20-24). Responses shared 5-point rating

scale, responses ranging from 1 (not at all), 2 (less anxious), 3 (moderately anxious),

4 (more anxious) to 5 (most anxious), where 1.00-1.80 is under Not at all, 1.81-2.60

is Less Anxious, 2.61- 3.40 is Moderately Anxious, 3.41- 4.20 is More Anxious, and

4.21-5.00 is Most Anxious. Participants are expected to vary widely in mathematics

anxiety levels.

The MRS is a 24-item scale developed from the construct ‘mathematical

resilience’ with reliability value of 0.87. The MRS has three affective dimensions:

Value (items 1-8), Struggle (items 9-17), and Growth (items 18-24). Kooken et. al

(2016) found that the reliability coefficient for the value factor is 0.94, for the struggle

factor is 0.73 and for the growth factor is 0.83. Responses are given on a 5-point

Likert-type scale with responses ranging from 1 (strongly disagree), 2 (disagree), 3

(undecided), 4 (agree) to 5 (strongly agree), where 1.00-1.80 is under Not at all, 1.81-

2.60 is Less Mathematically Resilient, 2.61- 3.40 is Moderately Mathematically

Resilient, 3.41- 4.20 is More Mathematically Resilient, and 4.21-5.00 is Most


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Mathematically Resilient. Six items of the scale are negative and scoring of the

negative worded items was reversed so that a high score would mean higher

mathematical resilience.

Statistical Treatment of Data

This study analyzed and inferred the results using the following statistical

tools:

1. Weighted Mean – this statistical treatment was used to determine the level

Mathematics Anxiety and Mathematical Resilience of the students.

Formula:

∑ 𝑥𝑊
𝑊𝑀 = ∑𝑊

where:

𝑊𝑀 = weighted mean,

𝑥 = each of the item value,

𝑊 = actual mean,

𝑆𝐷 = weight of each item, and

∑ = “the sum of”.

2. One Sample t-test – this statistical treatment was used to compare the mean

of a population with a theoretical value.

Formula:

ℎ𝑚−𝑎𝑚
𝑡= 𝑆𝐷
√𝑛
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where:

𝑡 = computed t- value,

ℎ𝑚 = hypothetical mean,

𝑎𝑚 = actual mean,

𝑆𝐷 = standard deviation, and

𝑛 = sample size.

3. Multiple Regression Using SPSS – this statistical treatment measured the

relationship between three variables, specifically, mathematics anxiety,

mathematical resilience and the mathematics performance of the students.

All tests were set at 5% level of significance.


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CHAPTER 3

PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA

This chapter presents, analyzes and interprets the data gathered to answer the

problems of the study.

Level of Mathematics Anxiety of the Grade 9 Students

The level of mathematics anxiety of the Grade 9 students was attained using

the modified Abbreviated Mathematics Anxiety Rating Scale (AMARS) conducted to

them.

Table 1 presents the level of mathematics anxiety of the students of Bankal

National High School (Day Shift) and Bankal Night High School (Night Shift) in terms

of the three subscales of the AMARS: Mathematics Test Anxiety, Numerical Test

Anxiety and Mathematics Course Anxiety (See Appendix G).

Table 1. Level of Mathematics Anxiety of the Grade 9 Students


Qualitative
Classification n Mean SD
Description*
DAY SHIFT
Mathematics Test Anxiety 210 2.95 0.7 Moderately Anxious
Numerical Task Anxiety 210 2.51 0.92 Moderately Anxious
Mathematics Course Anxiety 210 2.74 0.88 Moderately Anxious
As a whole 210 2.81 0.64 Moderately Anxious
NIGHT SHIFT
Mathematics Test Anxiety 30 2.81 0.79 Moderately Anxious
Numerical Task Anxiety 30 2.66 0.90 Moderately Anxious
Mathematics Course Anxiety 30 2.78 0.95 Moderately Anxious
As a whole 30 2.77 0.78 Moderately Anxious
*4.21-5.00 Most Anxious
3.41-4.20 More Anxious
2.61-3.40 Moderately Anxious
1.81-2.60 Less Anxious
1.00-1.80 Not at All
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In Table 1, it was shown that the Day Shift students’ mean was 2.95 (SD=0.7)

in mathematics test anxiety, 2.51 (SD= 0.92) in numerical task anxiety, 2.74 (SD=0.88)

in mathematics course anxiety and 2.81 (SD=0.64) in mathematics anxiety as a whole.

Meanwhile, the Night Shift students’ mean was 2.81 (SD=0.79) in mathematics test

anxiety, 2.66 (SD= 0.90) in numerical task anxiety, 2.78 (SD=0.95) in mathematics

course anxiety and as a whole, 2.77 (SD=0.78).

Both Day and Night Shift students were categorized as Moderately Anxious in

the three subscales: numerical task anxiety, numerical task anxiety and mathematics

course anxiety.

This moderate level of anxiety could be attributed to the students’ experiences

in learning Mathematics which might not have fostered a good feeling towards

mathematics. Because of prior experiences towards Mathematics, students might

have been afraid to be embarrassed to fail or to make mistakes. Regardless of whether

they are prepared or not for examinations students might still be anxious and think

of negative thoughts. These feelings could also be due to the way the teachers handle

the class, pressure from parents and peers.

This finding supported the study of Hamza (2013) which revealed that

mathematics anxiety was usually associated with prior mathematics experiences

such as student’s negative or embarrassing experiences in learning Mathematics.

These past undesirable experiences with Mathematics could have resulted to a lack

of understanding of the subject.


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Level of Mathematical Resilience of the Grade 9 Students

The level of mathematical resilience of the Grade 9 students was obtained

from the Mathematical Resilience Scale (MRS) administered to them.

An analysis was done to determine the Day and Night Shift students’ level of

mathematical resilience of in terms of the three subscales: Value, Struggle and Growth

(See Appendix H). The results are presented in Table 2.

Table 2. Level of Mathematical Resilience of the Grade 9 Students


Classification N Mean SD Qualitative Description*
DAY SHIFT
Value 210 3.75 0.54 More Mathematically Resilient
Struggle 210 3.89 0.55 More Mathematically Resilient
Growth 210 3.47 0.61 More Mathematically Resilient
As a whole 210 3.72 0.38 More Mathematically Resilient
NIGHT SHIFT
Value 30 3.76 0.58 More Mathematically Resilient
Struggle 30 3.75 0.38 More Mathematically Resilient
Growth 30 3.08 0.64 Moderately Mathematically
Resilient
As a whole 30 3.56 0.38 More Mathematically Resilient
*4.21-5.00 Most Mathematically Resilient
3.41-4.20 More Mathematically Resilient
2.61-3.40 Moderately Mathematically Resilient
1.81-260 Less Mathematically Resilient
1.00-1.80 Not at All

In Table 2, it was shown that the Day Shift students’ mean mathematical

resilience was 3.75 (SD=0.54) in Value subscale, 3.89 (SD= 0.55) in Struggle subscale,

and 3.47 (SD=0.61) in Growth subscale. As a whole, the Day Shift students’ mean

mathematical resilience was 3.72 (SD=0.38). For the Night shift, the students’ mean

mathematical resilience was 3.76 (SD=0.58) in Struggle, and 3.08 (SD=0.64) in

Growth. As a whole, the Night shift students’ mean mathematical resilience was 3.56

(SD=0.38).
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In Value and Struggle, both Day and Night shift students were categorized as

More Mathematically Resilient. For Growth, Day Shift students were categorized as

More Mathematically Resilient while the Night shift students were categorized as

Moderately Mathematically Resilient. Overall, both Day and Night shift students were

categorized as More Mathematically Resilient.

Being more mathematical resilient may imply that students in both Day and

Night Shift students could cope up well with stress in Mathematics. The result could

probably be attributed to the fact that these students might have known that success

is measured by the obstacles that come their way. This high coping mechanism

exhibited by the students might have been developed by people with positive thought

such as teachers and parents who helped them cope with loss and adapt to change.

For Growth, Day Shift students are more resilient than Night Shift students. This

result could probably be attributed to the fact that Day Shift students have better

quality of sleep than Night Shift students. For Night Shift students, this might be an

effect of part-time works and sleep deficits which let students feel too much stress

that lead to lack of motivation and anxiety.

This finding supported the study of Kooken (2013) which stated that

mathematical resilient learners know that they have the right to understand, know

that learning mathematics may involve struggle, refuse to feel mathematically

inadequate. Resilient students know how to ask questions, actively seek

understanding, know how to get help, and understand that persistent asking allows

them to become even more clever. This result also agreed with the study of Lee et. al

(2010) which specified that to build mathematical resilience, students need resilience
28

coaches which included parents and teachers. These resilience coaches enabled

students to continue learning despite having to deal with obstacles and difficulties.

Level of Mathematics Performance of the Grade 9 Students

Table 3 shows the level of Mathematics performance of the Grade 9 students

for the Fourth Grading Period (See Appendix I).

Table 3. Level of Mathematics Performance of the Grade 9 Students


TEST STATISTICS
Qualitative
Shift N 𝐇. 𝐌.𝐚 A.M. SD Computed Table
p-value Description
z Value
Below
Day 210 30 26.88 8.6 5.26* 1.96 0.00001*
Average
Below
Night 30 30 24.13 7.63 4.21* 1.96 0.000026*
Average
H. M.a – 60% of the items
*significant at 𝛼=0.05

From Table 3, the students have actual means of 26.88 (SD=8.60) and 24.13

(SD=7.63) for the Day and Night Shifts respectively. The computed z-values of 5.26

and 4.21 are greater than the tabled value of 1.96 with corresponding p-values of

0.00001 and 0.000026 which are less than 𝛼=0.05. These are significant, hence the

rejection of 𝐻𝑜1. This means that the actual mean of the Day and Night Shifts were

significantly lower than the hypothetical mean. Their mathematics performance were

Below Average. Both students in the Day and Night Shifts did not reach the 60%

standard criterion of passing rate, stated under the DepEd Order No. 8, s. 2015 Policy

Guidelines on Classroom Assessment for the K to 12 Basic Education program, set by

DepEd. This below average performance of the Grade 9 students could be attributed

to factors that students might have experienced such as stress, anxiety, fear and other
29

emotional factors. This could also be probably due to the fact that the students might

have not mastered the skills and concepts in Mathematics 9. Furthermore, for the

Night shift, probably lack of sleep and poor diet might also be contributory factors of

low performance.

This finding supported the study of Tan (2018) which stated that the

mathematics performance of the students in private schools in Bukidnon is at

beginning level which means that the content of the K to 12 standards is not fully

achieved. This contests the curriculum planners to address the problem about the

new curriculum. The finding also negated the study of Andreoli (2011), which stated

that with students in Day and Night shifts, the morning students got higher scores.

Relationship between Mathematics Anxiety and Mathematical Resilience to


the Mathematics Performance of the Grade 9 Students

Table 4 shows the model summary for mathematics anxiety, mathematical

resilience and mathematics performance for Day and Night Shifts of Grade 9 students.

Table 4. Model Summary


DAY SHIFT
Adjusted R Std. Error of the
Model R R Square
Square Estimate
1 0.387a 0 .150 0.141 7.98544
NIGHT SHIFT
Adjusted R Std. Error of the
Model R R Square
Square Estimate
1 0 .405a 0 .164 0.102 7.35686
a. Predictors: (Constant), Resilience, Anxiety

From Table 4, for the Day Shift, the multiple correlation coefficient R is 0.387

which is quite a low level of predictor of mathematics performance. The coefficient of


30

the correlation 𝑅2 explains the proportion of variance in the dependent variable

(Mathematics Performance) that can be explained by the independent variables

(Mathematics Anxiety and Mathematical Resilience). From the data above the 𝑅 2 of

0.150 means that mathematics anxiety and mathematical resilience explain 15% of

the variability of students’ mathematics performance. For the Night shift, the multiple

correlation coefficient R is 0.405 which suggests a marked level of correlation. The

𝑅2 of 0.164 means that 16.4% of the variation in mathematics performance can be

explained by the two independent variables, mathematics anxiety and mathematical

resilience of the students.

For statistical significance, to test whether the overall regression model is a

good fit for the data, the analysis of variance is presented below.

Table 5. Analysis of Variance


DAY SHIFT
Sum of Mean
Model Df F Sig.
Squares Square
1 Regression 2320.953 2 1160.477 18.199 .000b
Residual 13199.827 207 63.767
Total 15520.781 209
NIGHT SHIFT
Sum of Mean
Model Df F Sig.
Squares Square
1 Regression 286.135 2 143.067 2.643 0.089b
Residual 1461.332 27 54.123
Total 1747.467 29
a. Dependent Variable: Performance
b. Predictors: (Constant), Resilience, Anxiety

Based on the model generated, for the Day Shift, the F-value at 𝛼 = 0.05 with

(2, 207) df = 18.199, p<0.000, hence, significant. For this shift, some variables

statistically and significantly predicted the Mathematics performance of the students

(i.e. the regression model is a good fit of the data for the Day Shift).
31

On the contrary for the Night Shift, the F ratio of 2.643, p>0.05 was not

significant. Hence, the regression model is not a good fit of the data for the Night shift.

Table 6 reveals the coefficient of the multiple regression.

Table 6. Coefficient of Multiple Regression


DAY SHIFT
Unstandardized Standardized
Model Coefficients Coefficients T Sig.
B Std. Error Beta
1 (Constant) -.656 6.204 -.106 .916
Anxiety -1.231 .862 -.092 -1.427 .155
Resilience 8.322 1.463 .367 5.690 .000
NIGHT SHIFT
Unstandardized Standardized
Model Coefficients Coefficients T Sig.
B Std. Error Beta
1 (Constant) -5.230 14.578 -.359 .723
Anxiety 3.500 1.765 .357 1.984 .058
Resilience 5.524 3.566 .279 1.549 .133

From Table 6, for the Day Shift, only the students’ mathematical resilience with

computed t of 5.690, p<0.000 proved to be a significant predictor of students’

mathematics performance. The unstandardized coefficient B indicates how much the

mathematics performance varies with the students’ mathematical resilience. Thus,

the resulting regression equation is:

Mathematics Performance = -0.656 + 8.322 × Mathematical Resilience

The equation above signifies that if mathematical resilience changes by one

point, there would be 8.322 increase in the mathematics performance of the students.

Students’ mathematical resilience, therefore, significantly affected their performance


32

in Mathematics, thus, rejected 𝐻𝑜2 . The more resilient the student is, the higher

his/her performance in Mathematics.

This result confirmed the study of (Fg'Dcec, 2014) which revealed that

resilience improved academic performance and enabled students to experience

success in school, and also, in life, which means that building resilience in turn can

lead to improved academic achievement.

The Growth Mindset Theory which suggests that students with growth

mindset are willing to put effort even if they struggle academically, and stay focused

on what they learn, that when students believe they can get smarter, they understand

that effort makes them stronger, thus, they put in extra time and effort that leads to

mathematics higher achievement which can attribute success to learning, was

affirmed by the findings of the study.

For mathematics anxiety as an indicator of mathematics performance, Ho was

not rejected for both Night and Day Shifts. This means that students’ mathematics

anxiety was not a potential determinant of their mathematics performance. This

negated the studies from many countries (see for example: Ashcraft et al, 2007; Legg,

2009; Brunye et al, 2013; Karimi (2015); Alcover, 2018) which showed that there is

a negative correlation between students’ mathematics anxiety and their mathematics

performance.

The results of this study did not confirm the Reciprocal Theory which states

that there is a bidirectional relationship between mathematics anxiety and

mathematics performance, that mathematics anxiety might cause decreased

performance and poorer performance might elicit mathematics anxiety.


33

CHAPTER 4

SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

This chapter presents the summary, findings, conclusions and

recommendation of the study.

Summary

This study utilized descriptive method using regression analysis on

mathematics anxiety, mathematical resilience and the Grade 9 student’s mathematics

performance of Bankal National High School and Bankal Night High School, S.Y. 2018-

2019. It answered the following subproblems:

1. What is the level of mathematics anxiety of the students for both day and

night shifts towards

1.1. mathematics test;

1.2. numerical task;

1.3. mathematics course; and

1.4. as a whole?

2. What is the level of mathematical resilience of the students for both day

and night shifts in terms of

2.1. value;

2.2. growth;

2.3. struggle; and

2.4. as a whole?

3. What is the level of mathematics performance of the Grade 9 students in

the
34

3.1. Day shift; and

3.2. Night shift?

4. Is there a significant relationship between the mathematics anxiety,

mathematical resilience and mathematics performance of the students in the

4.1. Day shift; and

4.2. Night shift?

Findings of the Study

1. The level of mathematics anxiety for both Day and Night Shifts students,

towards mathematics test, numerical task, mathematics course anxiety, and as a

whole, were all categorized as Moderately Anxious.

2. In the scale of Value and Struggle, both Day and Night Shifts students

were More Mathematically Resilient. For Growth scale, Day Shift students were

More Mathematically Resilient while the Night Shift students were Moderately

Mathematically Resilient. Overall, both Day and Night Shifts students were More

Mathematically Resilient.

3. The mathematics performance for both Day and Night Shift students

were BELOW AVERAGE.

4. Mathematics anxiety for both day and Night Shifts students were not

correlated with the mathematics performance. There was a significant correlation

between the Grade 9 students’ mathematical resilience and their performance in

mathematics for the Day Shift, but no correlation for Night Shift students.
35

Conclusions

Basic mathematical skills are used regularly in everyday life and factors

affecting them such as mathematics anxiety influence individual’s well-being. It is

important to address mathematics anxiety to enable the students to overcome

personal stress and fear. In essence, it is vital to support students in developing their

mathematical resilience in order to promote overall success and have positive results

on the performance in Mathematics.

Based on the findings of the study, mathematical resilience is a potential

determinant of students’ mathematics performance but not mathematics anxiety. The

more resilient the student is, the higher the student’s performance in Mathematics.

Dweck’s Growth Mindset Theory was affirmed by the findings of this study, which

suggests intelligence can be developed through hardwork, time and effort. However,

the Reciprocal Theory which states that mathematics anxiety might cause decreased

performance and poorer performance might elicit mathematics anxiety was not

affirmed.
36

Recommendations

The following recommendations were suggested based on the findings and

conclusions of the study, that:

1. students need to learn about believing on their capabilities to improve

performance in Mathematics, such as having mindsets that represent challenges as

things that they can take on and overcome over time with effort, new strategies,

learning, help from others, and patience;

2. mathematics teachers provide fun and interactive learning activities and

facilitate learning in an approachable and cordial way;

3. prospective mathematics teachers develop a more conducive friendly

learning environment for students to develop their own personal mathematical

resilience in a safe and collaborative environment;

4. the Department of Education organize and conduct seminars focusing on

content and strategies in teaching mathematics;

5. the Department of Education adapt a resilience training program to

promote resilience to students; and

6. future researchers who wish to replicate this study investigate anxiety and

resilience of students in other subject areas.


37

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40

APPENDIX A
Transmittal Letter to Schools Division Superintendent
of Lapu-Lapu City

December 10, 2018

MARILYN S. ANDALES, Ed. D., CESO VI


Schools Division Superintendent
Lapu- Lapu City Division
B. M. Dimataga St. Lapu- Lapu City, Cebu

Madam:

Greetings!

I am a graduate school student at the University of the Philippines, Cebu, taking up Master
of Education in Mathematics. I am currently in the process of gathering data for my
research study, that aims to determine the relationship between mathematics anxiety,
mathematical resilience, and math performance. This also aims to know the difference in
the mathematics anxiety and resilience of the students in Day and Night shift classes.
Knowing the relationship could help in discovering new approaches to mathematics
education, in order to inspire more students of all ability levels to persevere in
mathematics.

In the light of educational research, I would like to seek your consent to conduct my
research study with the Grade 9 students of Bankal National High School and Bankal
Night High School as partial fulfillment of my requirements at the University of the
Philippines. Rest assured, information and the data will be held with ultimate
confidentiality and to be used for academic purposes only.

I hope that my request merits your approval. If you require any additional information,
please do not hesitate to contact me. I hope to hear from you very soon.

Thank you very much and more power!

Respectfully yours,

LYRA C. BITAYO
Graduate Student, UP Cebu

Permission Granted:

(SGD.) MARILYN S. ANDALES, Ed. D., CESO VI


SDS−Lapu- Lapu City Division
41

APPENDIX B
Transmittal Letter to the School Principal
Of Bankal National High School

December 10, 2018

FERNEL B. GERALDES
Principal IV
Bankal National High School
Bankal, Lapu- Lapu City, Cebu

Sir:

Greetings!

I am a graduate school student at the University of the Philippines, Cebu, taking up Master
of Education in Mathematics. I am currently in the process of gathering data for my
research study, that aims to determine the relationship between mathematics anxiety,
mathematical resilience, and math performance. This also aims to know the difference in
the mathematics anxiety and resilience of the students in Day and Night shift classes.
Knowing the relationship could help in discovering new approaches to mathematics
education, in order to inspire more students of all ability levels to persevere in
mathematics.

In the light of educational research, I would like to seek your consent to conduct my
research study with the Grade 9 students of Bankal National High School and Bankal
Night High School as partial fulfillment of my requirements at the University of the
Philippines. Rest assured, information and the data will be held with ultimate
confidentiality and to be used for academic purposes only.

I hope that my request merits your approval. If you require any additional information,
please do not hesitate to contact me. I hope to hear from you very soon.

Thank you very much and more power!

Respectfully yours,

LYRA C. BITAYO
Graduate Student, UP Cebu

Permission Granted:

(SGD.) FERNEL B. GERALDES


School Principal IV
42

APPENDIX C
Transmittal Letter to the School Principal
of Bankal Night High School

December 10, 2018

VICENTA G. INOC
Officer-In-Charge
Bankal Night High School
Bankal, Lapu- Lapu City, Cebu

Madame:

Greetings!

I am a graduate school student at the University of the Philippines, Cebu, taking up Master
of Education in Mathematics. I am currently in the process of gathering data for my
research study, that aims to determine the relationship between mathematics anxiety,
mathematical resilience, and math performance. This also aims to know the difference in
the mathematics anxiety and resilience of the students in Day and Night shift classes.
Knowing the relationship could help in discovering new approaches to mathematics
education, in order to inspire more students of all ability levels to persevere in
mathematics.

In the light of educational research, I would like to seek your consent to conduct my
research study with the Grade 9 students of Bankal National High School and Bankal
Night High School as partial fulfillment of my requirements at the University of the
Philippines. Rest assured, information and the data will be held with ultimate
confidentiality and to be used for academic purposes only.

I hope that my request merits your approval. If you require any additional information,
please do not hesitate to contact me. I hope to hear from you very soon.

Thank you very much and more power!

Respectfully yours,

LYRA C. BITAYO
Graduate Student, UP Cebu

Permission Granted:

(SGD.) VICENTA G. INOC


Officer-In-Charge
43

APPENDIX D
Permit to Use the Research Instrument
44

APPENDIX E

Mathematics Anxiety Scale


(Adapted from Alexander & Martray, 1989)
(Modified by Mary Jale Alcover, 2018)

(Each of the statement of this questionnaire expresses a feeling which a person has towards
Mathematics. Please indicate the level of your anxiety in the following situations. Please choose by
checking ONE on each line.)

Mathematics Anxiety Scale by Alexander & Martray


Not Less Moderately More Most
(1989) at all Anxious Anxious Anxious Anxious
(Modified by Mary Jale Alcover, 2018)
1. Studying for a math test.
2. Taking an exam (graded assessment) in a math
course.
3. Taking an exam (periodical test) in a math course.
4. Picking up math textbook to begin working on a
homework assignment.
5. Being given homework assignments of many difficult
problems that are due the next class encounter.
6. Thinking about an upcoming math test 1 week
before.
7. Thinking about an upcoming math test 1 day before.
8. Thinking about an upcoming math test 1 hour
before.
9. Realizing you have to take a certain number of math
classes to fulfill requirements.
10. Picking up math textbook to begin a difficult
reading assignment.
11. Receiving your final math grade in the 3rd Grading
Card Distribution.
12. Opening a math or statistics book and seeing a page
full of problems.
13. Getting ready to study for a math test.
14. Being given a “pop” quiz in a math class.
15. Reading a cash register receipt after your purchase.
16. Being given a set of numerical problems involving
addition to solve on paper.
17. Being given a set of subtraction problems to solve.
18. Being given a set of multiplication problems to
solve.
19. Being given a set of division problems to solve.
20. Buying a math textbook.
21. Watching a teacher or a student work on an
algebraic equation on the blackboard.
22. Signing up for a math course.
23. Listening to another student explain a math
formula.

24. Preparing for a math class.


45

APPENDIX F

MATHEMATICAL RESILIENCE SCALE


(Adapted from Janice Kooken, 2016)

(Each of the statement of this questionnaire expresses a feeling which a person has towards
Mathematics. Please indicate the level of your resilience in the following situations. Please choose
by checking ONE on each line.)

SD – Strongly Disagree D – Disagree U – Undecided A – Agree SA– Strongly Agree

Mathematical Resilience Scale (Adapted from Janice


SD D U A SA
Kooken)
1. Math is essential for my future.
2. Math will be useful to me in my life's work.
3. Math courses are very helpful no matter what I decide to
study.
4. Knowing math contributes greatly to achieving my goals.
5. Having a solid knowledge of math helps me understand
more complex topics in my field of study.
6. Thinking mathematically can help me with things that
matter to me.
7. It would be difficult to succeed in life without math.
8. Math develops good thinking skills that are necessary to
succeed in any career.
9. Everyone struggles with math at some point.
10. Good mathematicians experience difficulties when
solving problems.
11. People who work in math related fields sometimes find
math challenging
12. Everyone makes mistakes at times when doing math.
13. Struggle is a normal part of working on math.
14. People in my peer group struggle sometimes with
math.
15. People who are good at math may fail a hard test math.
16. When someone struggles in math, it doesn't mean they
have done something wrong.
17. Making mistakes is necessary to get good at math.
18. Math can be learned by anyone.
19. If someone is not a math person, they won't be able to
learn much math.
20. If someone is not good at math, there is nothing that
can be done to change that.
21. People are either good at math or they aren't.
22. Everyone's math ability is determined at birth.
23. Some people cannot learn math.
24. Only smart people can do math.
46

APPENDIX G

Level of Mathematics Anxiety of the Grade 9 Students

NIGHT SHIFT
Mathematics Numerical Task Mathematics
Student # As a whole
Test Anxiety Anxiety Course Anxiety
1 3.64 3.80 4.00 3.75
2 2.93 2.40 2.40 2.71
3 1.57 1.20 1.40 1.46
4 2.57 1.60 2.60 2.38
5 2.29 2.40 1.40 2.13
6 1.86 1.40 2.60 1.92
7 2.86 2.00 3.60 2.83
8 3.21 2.00 1.60 2.63
9 2.57 2.60 2.80 2.63
10 2.36 2.60 2.40 2.42
11 3.14 3.00 2.40 2.96
12 3.57 3.40 3.40 3.50
13 3.07 2.60 3.60 3.08
14 3.36 4.00 3.60 3.54
15 2.93 3.40 3.40 3.13
16 3.57 4.00 3.80 3.71
17 4.07 1.80 2.80 3.33
18 4.29 4.60 4.80 4.46
19 2.93 3.00 2.80 2.92
20 1.79 2.00 2.40 1.96
21 3.57 2.40 3.40 3.29
22 2.79 2.60 2.40 2.67
23 4.00 4.20 5.00 4.25
24 1.93 2.60 1.80 2.04
25 1.57 1.60 1.60 1.58
26 2.21 2.20 2.20 2.21
27 3.57 3.20 2.40 3.25
28 1.14 1.00 1.00 1.08
29 2.29 3.20 2.40 2.50
30 2.71 3.00 3.40 2.92
47

DAY SHIFT

Student Mathematics Test Numerical Task Mathematics Course As a


# Anxiety Anxiety Anxiety whole
1 1.79 1.40 1.20 1.58
2 3.57 1.00 1.60 2.63
3 2.57 1.60 1.80 2.21
4 2.71 2.60 2.20 2.58
5 3.86 3.40 3.80 3.75
6 2.36 3.40 2.00 2.50
7 3.07 1.00 3.20 2.67
8 2.43 1.40 2.40 2.21
9 3.64 3.40 3.40 3.54
10 3.64 2.20 3.20 3.25
11 2.07 1.00 1.40 1.71
12 4.14 1.00 2.20 3.08
13 4.36 3.20 3.20 3.88
14 3.07 3.60 2.40 3.04
15 1.71 1.00 1.00 1.42
16 3.64 2.80 2.40 3.21
17 2.50 3.60 4.40 3.13
18 2.64 2.00 1.40 2.25
19 3.14 2.00 4.00 3.08
20 3.14 2.00 3.80 3.04
21 2.57 2.40 2.80 2.58
22 3.36 1.80 3.00 2.96
23 3.50 2.00 1.60 2.79
24 3.07 2.40 2.80 2.88
25 3.57 4.00 4.40 3.83
26 2.93 2.00 2.20 2.58
27 2.29 2.00 2.60 2.29
28 2.93 2.00 2.60 2.67
29 3.71 4.00 4.40 3.92
30 4.14 3.60 2.80 3.75
31 3.93 3.60 4.20 3.92
32 2.21 1.20 2.00 1.96
33 2.71 1.20 2.00 2.25
34 2.64 4.00 2.40 2.88
35 3.29 1.00 2.80 2.71
36 2.79 1.60 4.00 2.79
37 2.57 3.60 2.20 2.71
38 3.21 2.20 3.00 2.96
39 3.50 3.40 3.20 3.42
40 3.64 2.40 3.00 3.25
48

Student Mathematics Test Numerical Task Mathematics Course As a


# Anxiety Anxiety Anxiety whole
41 3.57 2.60 3.20 3.29
42 3.00 2.00 2.40 2.67
43 2.93 3.20 3.00 3.00
44 3.14 3.40 2.80 3.13
45 3.79 3.60 4.60 3.92
46 3.07 3.20 3.20 3.13
47 3.14 4.20 3.40 3.42
48 3.00 2.40 2.80 2.83
49 3.14 3.00 4.80 3.46
50 2.71 2.00 3.60 2.75
51 2.79 2.00 2.00 2.46
52 3.93 1.80 3.00 3.29
53 3.00 3.20 3.20 3.08
54 2.36 2.40 3.60 2.63
55 2.43 1.60 2.40 2.25
56 2.29 2.60 1.60 2.21
57 3.64 2.40 4.20 3.50
58 2.93 1.80 2.40 2.58
59 3.43 3.40 3.80 3.50
60 2.14 2.60 3.20 2.46
61 3.43 1.60 2.80 2.92
62 2.71 2.20 3.80 2.83
63 3.36 2.40 4.00 3.29
64 2.93 2.40 2.60 2.75
65 2.64 1.20 2.40 2.29
66 2.79 2.00 2.80 2.63
67 3.36 2.80 2.60 3.08
68 2.29 2.00 2.00 2.17
69 1.57 1.40 1.40 1.50
70 2.71 2.20 1.80 2.42
71 3.50 2.80 3.40 3.33
72 3.93 1.40 2.20 3.04
73 3.00 2.80 2.80 2.92
74 2.50 1.60 2.00 2.21
75 2.93 3.00 2.80 2.92
76 2.36 2.20 1.80 2.21
77 2.29 2.40 1.40 2.13
78 3.57 1.80 3.40 3.17
79 3.14 2.00 2.00 2.67
80 3.29 2.00 2.80 2.92
81 3.14 1.40 2.00 2.54
82 4.00 4.80 3.80 4.13
83 2.21 2.00 2.40 2.21
49

Student Mathematics Test Numerical Task Mathematics Course As a


# Anxiety Anxiety Anxiety whole
84 2.79 2.40 3.00 2.75
85 2.00 1.80 1.80 1.92
86 1.93 2.20 2.00 2.00
87 2.50 2.60 1.60 2.33
88 2.07 2.80 1.60 2.13
89 2.71 2.60 2.80 2.71
90 2.64 1.20 1.80 2.17
91 2.29 2.40 3.00 2.46
92 3.50 2.60 3.40 3.29
93 2.21 1.40 2.20 2.04
94 3.21 2.00 3.80 3.08
95 3.79 2.80 4.80 3.79
96 2.43 2.20 1.80 2.25
97 2.71 1.60 2.20 2.38
98 2.07 2.60 2.40 2.25
99 2.43 2.60 3.60 2.71
100 2.79 3.00 3.20 2.92
101 2.50 2.60 2.20 2.46
102 2.57 3.40 3.00 2.83
103 3.57 3.00 3.20 3.38
104 3.36 1.00 2.60 2.71
105 3.00 3.60 2.40 3.00
106 3.43 2.20 3.80 3.25
107 3.21 2.40 2.80 2.96
108 2.86 2.80 1.80 2.63
109 3.00 4.40 2.20 3.13
110 4.00 3.40 2.00 3.46
111 2.71 3.00 3.00 2.83
112 4.14 3.00 3.60 3.79
113 2.79 2.40 2.60 2.67
114 3.93 3.60 3.60 3.79
115 3.29 1.20 4.20 3.04
116 3.43 3.00 3.20 3.29
117 3.29 2.20 3.40 3.08
118 3.64 2.20 2.40 3.08
119 4.50 3.00 2.60 3.79
120 2.93 3.00 2.80 2.92
121 3.14 3.00 2.60 3.00
122 3.36 2.00 3.00 3.00
123 3.07 1.40 3.00 2.71
124 3.07 2.00 2.20 2.67
125 3.43 2.80 2.60 3.13
126 4.21 3.40 4.20 4.04
50

Student Mathematics Test Numerical Task Mathematics Course As a


# Anxiety Anxiety Anxiety whole
127 2.43 2.60 2.40 2.46
128 2.86 4.60 3.20 3.29
129 3.29 3.00 3.00 3.17
130 3.86 3.20 2.80 3.50
131 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00
132 3.21 4.40 2.80 3.38
133 3.64 2.60 3.40 3.38
134 3.43 1.80 2.80 2.96
135 1.64 1.20 1.20 1.46
136 2.29 2.20 2.40 2.29
137 3.21 2.80 2.40 2.96
138 3.50 2.00 3.20 3.13
139 3.07 3.20 2.80 3.04
140 1.50 2.20 3.00 1.96
141 3.00 2.80 2.80 2.92
142 1.93 3.00 2.80 2.33
143 1.93 3.20 1.80 2.17
144 3.36 2.00 2.60 2.92
145 1.71 1.80 2.00 1.79
146 1.36 1.00 1.60 1.33
147 1.57 2.60 1.60 1.79
148 2.14 3.40 3.40 2.67
149 3.50 3.40 4.00 3.58
150 2.14 1.60 1.60 1.92
151 4.00 4.40 3.60 4.00
152 3.14 2.40 4.00 3.17
153 1.93 1.60 1.80 1.83
154 2.79 1.60 3.60 2.71
155 2.50 1.40 1.60 2.08
156 3.14 1.20 3.20 2.75
157 2.93 1.60 2.00 2.46
158 4.07 1.00 3.40 3.29
159 2.43 4.00 3.40 2.96
160 1.36 1.00 1.00 1.21
161 2.50 2.60 2.40 2.50
162 4.14 4.40 3.80 4.13
163 3.50 3.20 3.60 3.46
164 3.07 2.20 4.00 3.08
165 2.93 3.20 3.00 3.00
166 3.07 3.40 3.20 3.17
167 1.29 1.00 1.00 1.17
168 4.43 3.40 4.00 4.13
169 3.50 1.80 1.00 2.63
51

Student Mathematics Test Numerical Task Mathematics Course As a


# Anxiety Anxiety Anxiety whole
170 2.86 3.00 1.00 2.50
171 3.07 2.20 3.20 2.92
172 3.29 4.00 4.60 3.71
173 1.29 1.40 2.80 1.63
174 2.14 1.80 1.40 1.92
175 1.86 1.00 1.20 1.54
176 2.07 2.40 1.40 2.00
177 1.93 1.00 1.20 1.58
178 3.07 1.20 3.40 2.75
179 3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00
180 3.14 3.40 3.40 3.25
181 2.14 2.00 2.00 2.08
182 4.07 3.00 3.60 3.75
183 4.50 4.00 3.60 4.21
184 2.57 2.00 2.20 2.38
185 2.29 1.20 1.40 1.88
186 3.36 2.60 3.00 3.13
187 4.07 5.00 1.60 3.75
188 3.57 3.40 4.20 3.67
189 2.36 2.60 2.20 2.38
190 1.93 1.20 1.80 1.75
191 1.86 1.60 1.60 1.75
192 1.86 2.00 1.60 1.83
193 2.29 3.80 5.00 3.17
194 2.93 3.00 1.40 2.63
195 2.93 3.20 3.20 3.04
196 3.43 4.80 2.00 3.42
197 3.43 3.60 3.00 3.38
198 3.07 3.00 3.80 3.21
199 3.29 2.20 1.80 2.75
200 3.14 2.20 2.40 2.79
201 3.50 2.80 3.20 3.29
202 2.71 3.00 3.60 2.96
203 3.07 1.80 2.40 2.67
204 4.00 1.80 3.60 3.46
205 4.07 5.00 1.60 3.75
206 4.43 4.20 4.20 4.33
207 1.79 3.60 2.80 2.38
208 3.71 3.60 3.40 3.63
209 2.07 1.80 1.80 1.96
210 2.43 3.40 3.40 2.83
52

APPENDIX H

Level of Mathematical Resilience of the Grade 9 Students

NIGHT SHIFT
Student # Value Struggle Growth As a whole
1 4.13 4.00 3.00 3.75
2 4.63 4.11 4.00 4.25
3 4.75 4.56 3.86 4.42
4 4.50 4.56 2.14 3.83
5 3.50 3.67 2.86 3.38
6 3.88 3.67 3.71 3.75
7 4.13 4.11 2.43 3.63
8 3.63 4.00 4.29 3.96
9 3.38 3.00 2.86 3.08
10 3.63 3.44 3.00 3.38
11 3.13 3.56 3.00 3.25
12 2.00 3.78 2.00 2.67
13 4.25 3.33 2.43 3.38
14 3.25 3.33 2.29 3.00
15 3.63 3.33 2.86 3.29
16 4.13 4.00 3.57 3.92
17 3.63 3.78 2.86 3.46
18 4.25 4.00 3.00 3.79
19 2.75 2.89 2.86 2.83
20 3.88 4.00 2.29 3.46
21 2.75 3.56 2.71 3.04
22 3.63 3.78 4.00 3.79
23 3.75 3.67 4.43 3.92
24 4.13 3.22 3.57 3.63
25 4.00 4.00 2.29 3.50
26 4.00 4.00 2.86 3.67
27 4.13 4.00 3.00 3.75
28 4.38 3.67 3.43 3.83
29 3.75 3.78 3.00 3.54
30 3.38 3.67 3.71 3.58
53

DAY SHIFT

Student # Value Struggle Growth As a whole


1 4.00 4.56 4.14 4.25
2 3.88 4.11 3.57 3.88
3 3.50 4.22 3.86 3.88
4 3.63 3.78 4.57 3.96
5 4.13 4.11 4.14 4.13
6 3.75 3.44 4.14 3.75
7 4.25 4.22 4.71 4.38
8 3.50 4.00 4.00 3.83
9 3.88 4.11 3.86 3.96
10 3.75 4.44 3.71 4.00
11 4.38 4.00 4.43 4.25
12 3.25 4.11 4.14 3.83
13 3.00 4.11 4.43 3.83
14 3.88 4.11 4.00 4.00
15 4.38 4.00 4.43 4.25
16 4.00 3.56 3.43 3.67
17 3.50 3.89 3.29 3.58
18 4.50 3.89 4.43 4.25
19 4.63 4.11 3.43 4.08
20 4.00 4.00 3.71 3.92
21 2.38 2.22 2.71 2.42
22 3.63 4.44 3.57 3.92
23 3.75 4.67 4.14 4.21
24 2.25 2.67 3.14 2.67
25 4.00 4.00 3.14 3.75
26 4.13 4.22 3.14 3.88
27 3.75 3.56 3.14 3.50
28 4.50 4.33 3.43 4.13
29 4.00 4.00 2.57 3.58
30 4.50 3.89 3.57 4.00
31 3.38 4.00 3.29 3.58
32 3.63 3.89 4.29 3.92
33 4.50 4.56 3.29 4.17
34 4.00 3.56 2.43 3.38
35 4.13 4.33 4.00 4.17
36 3.63 4.00 3.86 3.83
37 4.50 4.44 3.14 4.08
38 4.13 3.44 3.14 3.58
39 4.38 3.33 2.57 3.46
40 5.00 4.11 2.71 4.00
41 4.63 4.33 3.86 4.29
42 4.13 3.89 4.00 4.00
54

Student # Value Struggle Growth As a whole


43 3.25 2.33 3.71 3.04
44 4.00 2.78 4.43 3.67
45 3.88 4.67 2.29 3.71
46 4.00 4.00 3.29 3.79
47 4.00 4.00 3.29 3.79
48 3.88 4.11 4.14 4.04
49 3.75 4.00 3.00 3.63
50 4.00 3.78 4.00 3.92
51 3.75 3.56 3.14 3.50
52 5.00 4.33 4.00 4.46
53 3.13 4.00 3.86 3.67
54 4.25 3.67 2.86 3.63
55 4.63 5.00 5.00 4.88
56 4.25 4.11 3.57 4.00
57 4.13 4.56 2.43 3.79
58 4.38 4.56 3.43 4.17
59 2.88 3.56 3.00 3.17
60 3.50 4.00 3.14 3.58
61 4.13 4.11 3.86 4.04
62 3.50 3.78 3.00 3.46
63 4.25 4.44 3.86 4.21
64 3.50 3.00 2.86 3.13
65 3.63 3.44 4.29 3.75
66 3.50 3.89 3.00 3.50
67 3.63 3.67 3.43 3.58
68 3.75 3.78 3.14 3.58
69 4.00 3.89 2.57 3.54
70 4.63 4.78 3.43 4.33
71 4.00 4.22 3.86 4.04
72 3.63 4.78 3.86 4.13
73 3.38 3.33 3.14 3.29
74 2.63 2.78 3.57 2.96
75 3.63 3.56 3.57 3.58
76 3.75 3.44 3.57 3.58
77 3.75 4.22 3.86 3.96
78 3.75 4.44 3.71 4.00
79 4.00 4.44 3.57 4.04
80 3.75 3.78 3.43 3.67
81 3.50 3.33 3.14 3.33
82 4.13 4.44 2.86 3.88
83 3.25 4.22 4.43 3.96
84 4.25 4.33 3.00 3.92
85 3.25 3.89 2.00 3.13
55

Student # Value Struggle Growth As a whole


86 3.38 4.44 2.00 3.38
87 3.75 4.11 2.29 3.46
88 3.63 3.33 4.29 3.71
89 3.38 3.89 4.14 3.79
90 4.13 4.67 3.57 4.17
91 3.63 4.33 4.00 4.00
92 3.50 3.22 4.86 3.79
93 4.00 3.89 2.57 3.54
94 4.50 4.22 2.71 3.88
95 4.50 4.33 2.71 3.92
96 4.00 4.44 2.71 3.79
97 4.38 4.22 4.00 4.21
98 3.25 3.00 4.00 3.38
99 3.75 4.00 2.57 3.50
100 4.50 4.11 2.29 3.71
101 4.25 4.44 2.43 3.79
102 4.25 4.22 2.86 3.83
103 3.88 4.22 3.29 3.83
104 3.13 3.78 3.43 3.46
105 3.25 3.89 3.57 3.58
106 3.50 4.44 3.57 3.88
107 3.75 4.44 2.71 3.71
108 3.50 3.89 3.00 3.50
109 3.63 4.67 3.29 3.92
110 3.88 3.78 3.86 3.83
111 4.00 3.89 3.86 3.92
112 3.75 4.22 4.14 4.04
113 4.38 3.89 3.14 3.83
114 3.38 3.89 3.29 3.54
115 4.13 3.78 2.57 3.54
116 4.50 4.33 3.57 4.17
117 3.63 4.22 3.71 3.88
118 4.38 4.22 2.86 3.88
119 3.63 3.78 3.00 3.50
120 3.50 3.56 3.71 3.58
121 3.88 3.78 3.14 3.63
122 4.88 4.11 4.43 4.46
123 3.63 3.78 3.71 3.71
124 2.88 4.89 4.86 4.21
125 4.00 4.56 3.71 4.13
126 4.00 4.22 3.71 4.00
127 4.13 4.33 3.14 3.92
128 4.38 4.56 2.71 3.96
56

Student # Value Struggle Growth As a whole


129 3.13 4.44 4.29 3.96
130 3.50 5.00 3.00 3.92
131 3.38 4.00 2.57 3.38
132 3.75 4.00 3.57 3.79
133 3.88 4.00 4.43 4.08
134 4.63 4.00 2.57 3.79
135 4.00 4.11 3.57 3.92
136 3.25 3.56 2.57 3.17
137 3.63 3.67 2.86 3.42
138 3.38 3.67 2.43 3.21
139 3.38 3.78 3.00 3.42
140 3.63 3.33 3.86 3.58
141 3.25 2.78 3.29 3.08
142 3.25 2.89 3.57 3.21
143 4.13 3.89 2.14 3.46
144 3.75 4.00 3.71 3.83
145 4.00 3.89 4.14 4.00
146 4.25 3.78 3.29 3.79
147 3.88 4.00 3.57 3.83
148 3.75 3.44 4.43 3.83
149 4.00 4.11 3.86 4.00
150 3.50 3.89 2.86 3.46
151 3.75 4.44 3.71 4.00
152 3.38 4.11 3.71 3.75
153 4.50 4.78 4.14 4.50
154 3.25 4.11 3.14 3.54
155 3.75 4.56 3.00 3.83
156 3.63 3.78 3.57 3.67
157 3.25 4.00 3.71 3.67
158 4.00 4.44 4.00 4.17
159 3.75 4.00 3.14 3.67
160 4.63 4.11 3.71 4.17
161 2.63 3.33 4.00 3.29
162 3.75 3.89 2.86 3.54
163 2.63 3.33 3.43 3.13
164 3.25 3.22 2.86 3.13
165 3.63 3.44 2.29 3.17
166 3.13 3.11 2.86 3.04
167 3.13 4.22 4.57 3.96
168 3.38 3.44 2.71 3.21
169 3.88 3.56 3.14 3.54
170 4.00 3.56 3.29 3.63
171 4.25 4.78 3.43 4.21
57

Student # Value Struggle Growth As a whole


172 3.13 2.00 4.43 3.08
173 3.13 3.56 3.71 3.46
174 3.38 3.33 4.00 3.54
175 4.75 4.56 3.43 4.29
176 3.75 3.78 4.14 3.88
177 4.63 3.89 4.57 4.33
178 3.75 3.89 3.57 3.75
179 3.75 3.67 3.14 3.54
180 3.63 2.89 3.14 3.21
181 3.75 3.78 2.57 3.42
182 3.25 4.44 3.57 3.79
183 4.13 4.11 2.71 3.71
184 2.25 2.33 3.43 2.63
185 3.63 2.89 4.14 3.50
186 4.13 3.78 3.43 3.79
187 4.00 4.00 3.29 3.79
188 3.13 3.22 2.86 3.08
189 2.63 3.89 4.43 3.63
190 3.63 4.00 3.14 3.63
191 4.75 4.56 4.00 4.46
192 4.50 4.44 4.43 4.46
193 3.50 4.00 2.57 3.42
194 3.88 3.89 3.14 3.67
195 4.00 3.44 3.00 3.50
196 2.75 3.33 4.00 3.33
197 3.38 4.00 3.43 3.63
198 3.00 2.11 3.57 2.83
199 3.00 3.89 3.43 3.46
200 2.00 2.11 4.14 2.67
201 2.63 4.00 3.71 3.46
202 3.63 2.44 3.29 3.08
203 3.88 3.22 3.57 3.54
204 4.00 4.22 4.14 4.13
205 3.00 3.11 3.57 3.21
206 3.38 4.44 3.71 3.88
207 2.50 3.89 3.14 3.21
208 2.50 4.00 3.43 3.33
209 3.13 3.00 3.71 3.25
210 4.63 3.33 3.71 3.88
58

APPENDIX I

Level of Mathematics Performance of the Grade 9 Students

NIGHT DAY
Student # Scores Student # Scores
1 18 1 46
2 37 2 44
3 16 3 39
4 27 4 40
5 43
5 24
6 41
6 22 7 48
7 16 8 43
8 13 9 38
9 14 10 38
10 20 11 45
11 24 12 44
12 27 13 38
13 21 14 40
14 16 15 48
15 35 16 45
16 30 17 20
17 24 18 20
18 36 19 32
19 10 20 21
20 26 21 22
21 37 22 18
22 25 23 46
23 36
24 25
24 22
25 19
25 15
26 26
26 19
27 14
27 30
28 13
28 35
29 30
29 24
30 25 30 34
31 16
32 38
33 36
34 22
35 22
36 36
37 23
38 17
59

Student # Scores Student # Scores


39 13 82 34
40 12 83 29
41 29 84 20
42 39 85 20
43 27 86 13
44 23 87 24
45 16 88 29
46 21 89 20
47 21 90 35
48 36 91 29
49 25 92 28
50 32 93 23
51 37 94 32
52 21 95 30
53 20 96 23
54 21 97 25
55 44 98 28
56 42 99 21
57 19 100 15
58 40 101 23
59 29 102 26
60 23 103 33
61 34 104 33
62 27 105 27
63 32 106 36
64 13 107 27
65 22 108 32
66 18 109 18
67 19 110 27
68 12 111 29
69 21 112 37
70 38 113 35
71 15 114 13
72 27 115 33
73 17 116 34
74 19 117 34
75 12 118 34
76 43 119 34
77 28 120 34
78 30 121 31
79 38 122 36
80 19 123 35
81 19 124 34
60

Student # Scores Student # Scores


125 36 168 20
126 34 169 14
127 32 170 20
128 37 171 24
129 27 172 28
130 24 173 26
131 29 174 40
132 37 175 29
133 20 176 27
134 26 177 37
135 36 178 27
136 21 179 30
137 17 180 19
138 32 181 27
139 13 182 28
140 24 183 14
141 13 184 24
142 21 185 30
143 22 186 22
144 29 187 19
145 16 188 19
146 18 189 28
147 20 190 19
148 28 191 24
149 28 192 22
150 17 193 18
151 10 194 17
152 28 195 24
153 30 196 23
154 15 197 23
155 27 198 16
156 20 199 36
157 25 200 33
158 24 201 25
159 18 202 24
160 37 203 27
161 28 204 21
162 17 205 34
163 28 206 21
164 31 207 23
165 15 208 22
166 26 209 19
167 26 210 23
61

CURRICULUM VITAE

LYRA CASINILLO BITAYO


Soong Center, Mactan, Lapu-Lapu City
Cebu, Philippines 6015
lcbitayo@up.edu.ph
+639336479248

I. Personal Information

Age : 22 years old


Date of Birth : December 18, 1996
Place of Birth : Lapu-Lapu City
Sex : Female
Height : 1.52 m
Weight : 44 kg
Civil Status : Single
Nationality : Filipino
Religion : Roman Catholic
Languages Spoken : English, Filipino, Cebuano

II. Eligibility

Licensure Examination for Teachers (LET)


Status : Passed
Date of Examination : September 2016
62

III. Educational Background

Graduate Studies
Educational Institution : University of the Philippines
Professional Schools
Masters Program : Master of Education in Mathematics
Year Level : Second Year, Third Trimester
Academic Year : 2018-2019
Address : Cebu South Road Properties, Cebu City
6000

Undergraduate Studies
Educational Institution : Cebu Normal University
Degree Program : Bachelor of Secondary Education
Major : Mathematics
Date Graduated : March 2016
Address : Osmeña Boulevard, Cebu City 6000
Major Awards Received : Cum Laude

Secondary Level
Educational Institution : Bankal National High School
Date Graduated : March 2012
Address : Bankal, Lapu-Lapu City 6015
Major Awards Received : Class Salutatorian

Elementary Level
Educational Institution : Soong Elementary School
Date Graduated : April 2008
Address : Soong Center, Lapu-Lapu City 6015
Major Awards Received : Graduate with Honors

IV. Work Experiences

Professional Teacher
Educational Institution : Bankal National High School
Department : Senior High Department
Subjects Taught : General Mathematics
Statistics and Probability
Address : Bankal National High School
Inclusive Dates : August 2016 – present