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A. Tl. Bemexmun MUHEPAJLOTMA TOCYAPCTBEHHOE U3RATENbCTBO TEOMOPMYECKOM AMTEPATYPHL MOCKBA—1950 Crp. 20 95 190 192 209 219 463 561 om 718 795 cocrour cance epanOrIRD 43 o6ulel (reoperuyecroa) 9 B o6uel actu, xpome ucropieckoro 0630; Minepaaorin wee snavernin, nonaozaten oenoome nee KpHcTaaaOxHMa H KOAMONAHOR xHMH B MpHMEHEHHM Koa Panorni, OcoGoe BHHMaNHE yaeneHO xiMMHVecKHM H(husHNecn ee cvohicraaM mutepanos ux OGvacHeuNiO B eBeTe aaxonoD Giere Ku, XU, KpHCTaAAOXHALIY, KonsONAHON xHMuH H dhocereh Xunun, B saksiosureroiol ‘raze pacewazpusaioren’ npoucces S6pasosanua muwepaaon B npHpone” Onucareasnan acts Haunuaeer ¢ o6weh uaepanos. Onvcaume x. veacten mo epyainan “oestene, knaccam © yieTom xumuveckoro coctasa’ iH KDICTeanOGaeNe eKHX ocoGeHHocTell Miiepa.roD. B coorsercratm ¢ noausma nporpaymann sys08 - Pasoren 8 xitire aeraioHo onucano 246. mmcpaneare, O6 ocranpuux ssecriux 8 Hacrosutee spema Muluepanar (cosme 1200) nanu anus xparkie coenenus, Kuura paccwtana wa cryzestos wysoa wt Bryson SHAKOMNX C O6uIeR Teonorue, udiKOh, xuMncd eee HorpapueR. Oanospemeniio ona Mower cayxir cnpaBounnKon 249 Feozoros, paGoraiounx 8 Hayuio-HeenenoBATeAMCKHK HHCT ‘TYTaX MH reonoro-paswesoUMHX yapexneHuAX S3AMEYEHHBIE ONEYATKK Crpoxa Hanesarano Toxano 6wr» 8 cnepay (1891) (1890) 22 cepxy suautembHoMy nesnayuTeabHomy 4 cpepxy L83L°3PC L2133PC 17 crepxy 193L23PC 13 espe 9 csepxy (43—54° 60.) (45-54° a6e.) 21 epepx; CuS.3Aj cc ” PY E25 CttgS-3AggS 6 cpepxy H[O H,0 29 caepxy 5H,0 25140 13 cnmay Tlanrar Aancut ur. 496 ° {001}.me{111}, n{110} {001}, m{110}, nfitt} 23 enepxy MarnesnTonom MarnerHToBoM Saxes 1985 UPELUCHOBHE Orpomnere ycnexd » pasBHTHH HaponHoro xosaficrsa, cnoco6cTBOBaB- Ue HeObiBatoMy 9KOHOMHYeCKOMY pacuBeTy Hauielt PoxMHET, TecHO cBa- SaHBI C WHPOKHM pasBHTHEM Hay4HO-HCCAeLOBATETBCKHX HM MOHCKOBO- PasBexownLX paGoT No BbIABTERMIO H pacuMpeHMO MUHepasbHO-cbIpbe- Bolt Gasn1, JleratbHoe usyveHHe reonorHH OGUIMpHEIX. TeppHTOpHR Coserckoro Cosa MH OTKPBITHE B CBASH C 9TUM MHOTOSHCHENHBIX MecTO- POXKACHHH PasHOOOPAsHLIX BMNOB MOMeSHLIX HCKONaeMBIX HeObLualiHo OGoraTHaAM sHaHHA B OGAACTH MHHepaorHM Hawelt crpanus. C apyroii cropous, sa nocaeaune 10—15 met Kpynnbe mara Bneper Chena Te TOUHBIe HayKH (u3HKa, XHMHA, KpHcTanAOXMMAa H Mp.), Ha, KoTopble Onupaeten Muliepanorua np yrayOneuHoM Usy¥eRHM MpHpomHtIx semecra, JlocrixkcHns sTHxX HayK BHECAH MHOTO HOBOTO He TOAIBKO B ODAC, HeHHE pasa CBOIICTS, CBASAHHBIX C KPHCTAJJIHYECKHM CTPOeHHeM BewLecrBa, HO HB NOHHMaHHe B3aHMHOL CBsIsH Mey CBOlCcTBAMH, XapaKTepu3y10- UMMM OTIEAbHBIE MHHEpautEt. . DTH oGcrontenbeTBa, a TAKE HEMOCTATOUHOCTH HMeIOUIUXCA yYeOHBIX Noco6uit no MuHepazorMH MOGyaHaM aBTopa BATE Ha ce6A paboTy TO cosqaHHlo HOBOH KHHTH, oTBeYaioulel coppemennuM TpeCosanHsM, HaykH. TIpx coctapnenH naxHoro pykonoactsa aBTop HME B BHAY raaBHAM O6pasom eTyeHToB BTOporo Kypca, YCBOMBIIHX Ha Mepssix cemectpax o6- MLY!0 TeonOrHio, XHMHIO, QU3HKY HM KPHCTaamorpadulo, B cBA3H c STHM He- OOXOAWMO CReHATH HECKOMDKO saMeuaHMit OTHOCHTeADHO cORepKAHHA A Xapaktepa u310KeHKA MaTepHama B ONNCaTeNbHOM YacTH Kypca. Tipexxme pcero, ecrectBenHo,, Obii0 OGpalileHo BHHMAHHe Ha cocTaBsle- HHe PauMonamLHol KuaccusHKANHM MuHepanoB, T. €. Ha pacnpexenenne HX Mo rpynnam ¢ yueTom HanGosee cyulecTBeHHLIX O6WHX MpH3HaKOB (xpuerannuueckoit ctpyxtypsl H xHMH3Ma), B coorseTcrsHH ¢ THM B STO Knire onicaHbl Bce U3BECTHBIE K HACTOSMLEMY BPeMeHH MHHepasbHbIe BAABL 4 HX pasHosnqKocTH. IIpH 3TOM cBemeHiA, oTHOCAUINecA K MuHepanaM, ykasanubiM B nporpaMMax reosOrO-pasBeAOUNBIX H reoNOrHYeCKHX Paky.tb TeToR YHHBepCHTeTOR H BTY30B, B KHATe Wa6pansl HOPManbHBIM LPHGTOM H Goace nozpoGHo onucaribl, OnucaHte Ocrambiix MUHepatos, cRenenust © KOTOPLIX CTYAeHTAM MOTyT MPHFOAMTeCA MPH NpOXoKAeHMH NAyUHEIX ANCWUTANH a crapwHx Kypcax MAN MpH CaMocToRTeABHOH paboTe, HaeTCA KPATKO, C YKasaHHeM JMU BaXKHLMX HX cBOlicTB, M HAGpano netutom, Onucarne orgempinix Muanepatos cosepulento coanaTepHo cTporo MOUnHEHO ONpPeAeAeHHOMY NOPALKY M3XOAKEMHA, NPHYeM HAsBAHHA BaK- Helumx cpolicra HaOpanst noay2xnpuim wpudptom. Tpusikuys K sToMy 4 Tpenuczoane MOpaaKy, yyauluficn B ONMCaHMH KaxKMOrO MMHepata Ges Tpyza MoxeT HaliTH CBefeHHA, HEOGXOAMMBIe eMy NPM COCTABACHHH KOHCMeKTOB H Ip MpakTHYeCKHX 3aHATHAX. Tlockompky mpenonazanne MunepatormM craBHT raaBHow sanauelt HaYUHTb CTYAeHTOB NpaBHAbHO ONpesedATh MUHepaTH B NomeBOlt H za- GopaTopHoh o6cTaHoBke, aBTop ocoGoe BHUMaHHe yAemHa ux cBOlCTBAaM W MIpHsHaKam, HMeIOMIMM AMarHOCTHYeCKOe sHayeHHe H HaGmMOMAeMLIM HerO- CpenCTBeHHO WAH YcTaHaBIUBAeMLIM ¢ NOMOLLDIO TeX HIM HHEIX NpHGOpoB. B waapaemol KaWre onylieHa Tak HasbiBaemaa «reHeTHueckaa MHHe- panorua»!, uanucanHan B Bue CaMOCTOATeNbHOM! YaCTH B Kypce MeHUATpan- cKux apropos 8 1936 r, Tam 97a acts, B cyWMocTH, saTparuBaer yueHHe O MeCTOPO:KMeHHAX NOTeSHBIX UCKOMIaeMBIX, T. e. AMCUMMAKHY, cnenuambHo mpenomapaemyio Ha ctapumMx Kypcax By30B, Kak noKasaaa HpakTHKa mpellomabaHua, cTyMeHTLI BTOporo Kypca 6e3 OcHOB netpo- rpacuw, staemoit wa TpeTbemM KYpce, He B COCTORHMM MpaBHabHo YCBOHTS oTY BaakHelituylo Orpacu reosornuecKolt HayxH. Béecto storo B py- KoBoneTBe ymereHo ropasqo Gombile BHUManiAa ycaosiam o6paso- BaHHA CaMOrO MHHepata B Npupome, ero Aambuedwei ucTOpHH cyule- cTpopanus, yrayOxenHOMy MSyHeHHIO mapareveTHuecKHx cOoTHOWIeHAA MUHepaOB C WeNbIO BEIACHEHMA GusHKO-XHMH4eCKOM OGCTAHOBKH MHHe- panooOpaszopanua u T. 2. Upesperuaiino BaxKHO Take O3sHaKOMAeHMe CTyZeHTOB ¢c HOBefilMMH, Gomee TOUHBIMA MeTOAHKaMH HCCae@OBaHHA MuuepaabHoro BeulectBa. Tpennaraemaa BHuMaHHio yyamuxca «Munepanorna» BKsIO¥aeT Heopra- ammecknte coequHenus. Opranutiecke mpnpoaHbte o6pa3zonarua B TOM BAe, Kak 9TO Hamaranoch B NpexKHHX Kypcax (KaMeHHBIe yrnv, HedTH, CMOmE 4 Ap.), No cyiecrsy npencrasnmioT cc6ok He MHHepanbHLe MHAMBHAD, @ MeXaHHYeckHe CMECH CIOKHBIX, 10 KOHUa elle He pasralaHAbIx opraHH- SecKUX coeRHHeHH H TakHM O6pasoM ABNAIOTCA npeMMeTOM Kypca KaycTO- Gvomutos, Tax Kak MHHepamorHa KaycTOOHOHTOB HaXOMHTCA elle B 3aNa- TOUHOM COCTORHEH, aBTOP He CHEN MeNecOOSpastibIM MPHBOAHTb OTPHBOTHEIE cBeMeHHA NO ycTaHOBeHHLIM K HACTOAUeMy BPeMeHH MUHepasLHbIM BLAM, K TOMY 2Ke, PeslKo BCTpedalOMMMCA B NpHpoRe. Hakonent, caemyer ykasatb, 4TO aBTOp NPM cocTaBreHMH Kypca HMeA B BHA TaKKe OFPOMHBI KoMTeKTHB reomoroB, pa6oTaromMX Ha MecTax 4 sHaKOMLIX ¢ MHHepamoruel no craps mporpammam. B Hx MuTepecax HeKOTOPHIe BOM|POCH KPuCTaMIOXHMHM sTOXKeHM Gomee MoxpoCHO H ZaHO KparKoe ONMcaHHe BCeX OCTAMbHLIX MHHEpaxos. B sakqiovenve aBTop C¥HTaeT CBOMM HONTOM BHIPAsHTs rnyOoKyi0 npH- sarenbHOcTh useny-Koppecnonmenty Axazemuu nayx CCCP H. B. Bemony 8a WeHHBIe ykasaHHst, HCHOAbSOBANHLIe MPH cocTaBTeHHM Kypca. K coxKa- menu, ero saMevarerbuan KHHra BHlina 43 nevaTH yxKe Nocne cain pyKoniicn B u3naTeNb- creo, Bomiyio OnarogapHocrs aptop npunocut take T. A. Kpytosy. KOTOpOMY OH MHOrHM OGA3aH IPH NOLTOTOBKe pyKonHCH K nevaTH. TB. H. Bepuanckni np obcyxmeann Aannoro Bonpoca cosepmenHo cnpasenmnBo KpRTUKoBan sTOT TepMilH, YKAIHBAR Ha eTO HeNPABHADHOCTS H HeleMecoo6pasHOcTs, BBENE- ast B auteparypy. YCAOBHHE OLOSHATERMA : ——— A anrerpew = 10-* cu mp MnsauMuKpoH = 106 aa abuc xpucraaaorpapuseckue ocu: {100}, [010] « [001] Gq, By Cy | aaumu peGep sxemenrapuon suefixn a A ary | aaa pe6pa po6osapuueckot suelixn » A; a—yroa | © pondosapa z wicao MoaeKya 8 gneMeHTapHolt avelixe Bnan a, BY Yrabi Mexay KpucraazorpadmyeckHMn OCAMH B MOHOKAWH- HOH Hai TPuKAMHHOM CHATORNN: f — yroa Memy @ MC} a—wmexay 6m ¢; 7—Mexny au b (100), (010)... cumpoan rpaelt xpucraaa0n 4100}, 111), (210)... cHwpoze rpoctsix opm Kpucraaon N MoKasareas Mpedonaenust ONTHNECKH HSOTpONHBX MIHE- pasos Ng, Nm u Np cH saauncovaa onTuYecKo MHAHKaTpHCH—HanpanAeRHA raaBHXx MoKasaTerel MpeaovaennA (waKcHMasbHOrO, cpeattero u wiuHMaabHoro) B OnTHYECKH AByOCHNX munepasax Ng « Nm wan Nm # Np | wanpayaenus raapuux nokasatexei npeaoaenua B onsit- YecKH OANOOCHLX MEHepanax Ng—Np xpynpeaomaenne NeNp naocKocTs ontuveckux ocell B omtHueckH AByocHBX | wamepazax av yroa ontwveckHx ocett r>v naw ro (nocae | xucnepca ontaseckHx ocell; 8 mepBom caynae 2V B Kpac- yraa ontavecknx ocel | Hos cuere (r) Goabime, Nem B (pHOmeTOBOM (¥), a BO 2Vv) Bropou—naodopor Ng, Nm yrab norecanua (yrab MeKAY HanpanzennaMM KpACTaAAO- rpahaveckux oceli m HanpapaenHamn ocek saaumcona ontiseckolt uuankarpicti —Ng, Nm n Np) c cunrouns, Boe, BHA cHMMeTpin To, Teepaoc th Ya. sec yaeaunuii nee Ten. p. nepen nasavnoit tpy6xoi CHHCOK TPEYECKHX CIOB, YACTO HCHOABRYEMEIX B MUHEPAOPHECKOM TEPMHHOAOrUH aepos —aspoc @doe —aaaoe ahs (ado) — rane (ranoc) eps} —anrpaxe avy — nxn apydos = —apritaoe apo: —6apoc Baas ase Bios — Guoe yews «= —rentueroe nm are aq = — pao Bevrepos — nelitrepoc Biayevecrs — aHarenesne evbalev — — sunoren, efwdey — — oxsoTen Seppo —Tepmo tue —nauoe to0¢ —uso¢ wave — Kanno xpos — Kpnoe didos —autoc oqo —a0roc ean —warme peta wera papet —mophe opiox —oproc rape —napa sept —nepu rerpa —netpa mysuuato; © — mHeBMatoe oho — non | prs «= — mporoc. pos —nupoc oibypss © — eepoe copa —cowa ‘ono — rote ‘ponos = — Tpomtoc vahos — nance | vtup — rnnop vonep —rnnep yes —xuoe pos = — xpottoe pes, Ypoua — xpoc, Xpowia fevb —ncenzo posayx apyroll, Hiro cone, ope yroms mpumepxo, nowTH Geaas ranna TaKecth octiosanue aust poraematit seman mauty Bropiruttt nepepoxaenne usenyTp#t wssite narpeparo esol, co6crsennei panini, onunaKonsi HakaoHAI wea Kamen yuenue aamewlanwan macca Mpuctaska, osHavaioman HSMeHeHHe, nepemeny opma mpawoh Bosze, moase (Horna mpucrapKa— nepe-) Boxpyr Kawens, cana ras, petep sunoro panuni, navansnent orons 2keAe30 reao Mecto, crpana nepewtexa, npeopasozanue cresao bona way, HaBepxy cuer spens user OKO, HenepHHo OBMAA YACTH BRELEHHE Manepasorna H nonaTHe 0 mumepare Munepaxorua npunannexut K uHcIy reonOrHYeCKHX HayK, H3y- gajoiuux semnyio Kopy. Ha3eatve stow HaykA B GYKBaNbHOM — cMBICae osHauaet: yuenue o Munepanax. Tepmu MuHepaa nponcxonuT OT CrapHHHOro cHoBa <«mHHepa> — pyqHIii wTyd, KyCOK pyabl. STO yKa- SbIBaeT, YTO FO NlOABNeHHe CBAZAHO C PaSBHTHEM TOpHOrO NpoMbicaa. B wactomulee BpeMa MON MuHepanaMH mMoApa3syMenaioTca cocTaBHLIe ‘wacTH 1OpHBIX NOpox H PYA, OTAMYaIOUIHecA Apyr OT Apyra NO XHMHYeCKOMY cocrasy H @uanyeckum cBoiicrsam (useTy, GulecKy, TBEpLOCTH HT. ZL). Hanpumep, rpaHur Kak ropHan nopoma cocTouT W3 AByX TwaBHBIX MBHe- pasos pasmuunoro cocrasa: nomesoro wiata uM KBapita. Sta Munepase oranuaiores Zpyr or Apyra TakxKe Mo BHeLIHeMy BHY, OcoGeHHO Ha NomH- POBAHHEIX naocKoctax. Berpevaiorcs H MOHOMHHepambunie (T. e. cocTo- aujue M3 OAHOTO MuHepata) TOpHLIe MOpogLl. K ux YHCAy OTHOCHTCA MpaMop, MIpecTaBaeHHLtt TOHKOSepHUCTHIM arperaToM KaabuMTa (yrae- KucaOrO Karbus). Munepam mnpencrapnsoT coOoh npupoaune XHMHYeCKHE coemuHeHus, perxke caMopoaHble snements!, Onn BOsHHKaloT B pe- SymbTaTe pasHooOpasHbix TeonorM4ecKHX MpoueccoB, copepulaioMnxca B semHol Kope, H BCTPevaioTcH NpeHMyulecTBeHHO B TBepLoM, a HHOrAa B >KHAKOM H Ta3006pasHoM cocTomuH. Tgepable MuNepasw o6mamaior onpegencunimu dbusnueckumn Mu xHMHuecKHMA cBolicTBaMM, o6ycaoBneH- HBIMH KPHCTaJIHYeCKHM CTPOeHHEM H XHMHYECKHM COCTaBOM CJaraioMero ux Bemectsa. B muvepanax xKHAKHX (caNopomHaa pTytb) H ras0o6pasHEx (yrnexncauit ra3, cepoBoxopoa ¥ Ap.) Takad 3aBucHMoCTD cBolicTB oT cTpOe- Hus _BelllecTBa, ecTecTBeHHO, oTcyTcTByeT. C uapectHol creneHbio MpHGAMKEHHOCTH MOXKHO CUHTaTb, YTO Karki MHHepadt, He3aBHCHMO OT ero PasMepos, B Mpeenax cBoero MpocrpancTweH- Horo Orpannvenua oGaagacT o_uOpomHO! cpenoi?, TBepaLie MuHepambt, KpoMe Toro, HepemKo GuiBaloT npencrasreHti XOpoulo OSpasoBanHeIM KPH crawiaMH, XOTA NosaBasIOUlan Macca HX B NpHpose pacnpocrpaneHa B BHAe KPHCTAWIMYECKHX 3epeH C HEMPABMJIbHBIMH BHELIHHMH OUepTAHHAMH. } PaswooOpasnefiinme cRTeTHYEcKHe MpORYKTH, T. e. HeKyccTaeItHO noayyaemue B naGopaTOpHNX H B SABONCKAX YcnODHAX XIMIMYECKHE COERHHEHHR, He MOTyT Ha3L- Bateca winepanamH, Quel mHOrHe M3 STHX CoeAMMeMA He BCTpeyaIOTeA, Aa H He MOTYT Berpevathen B NPHPORKEX yenoBHAX. YenosHO HaswsaloT MHHepasaMH ‘AMINE Te HCKyc- creenmsie coemHHenna, KoTopwe MO cBOeMy cocTasy H KpHCTanANYecKOMy cTpOeHINO oTpeyaoT npnpoamm coennmennam, 2 AGconoTHO —XHMHTECKH mM GHeHYECKH ORROPONHNX MiTRepasos B mpmpone ne eymecrayer. 10 Brexenne Takum o6pazom, MuepasaMH HaabiBalor omHoponbte mo coctaBy 4 eTpoenmio coctasuble YacTn TOPHEIX NOpOA H PyA, NPescTasaniomMe cob! MpHpoaHBe XUMHUECKHE COeAHHeHHA (Hu SAeMeHTBI) a1060rO arperat- Horo cocToRHUA (TBePLOTO, 2kKHAKOTO, raz0oGpasHoro) HM sBAMOIIMECA ecrecTBeHHEIMH TIPOAYKTaMH pasaHUHBIX TeOMOTHYECKHxX TIpOLleCcoB, copepulaiouluxca B geMuOil KOpe, BKMOYAR CloLa M MPOAYKTHI JKHSHe- qenTebHOCTH OpraHHaMos. Tlouatue 0 MuHepase , COOTBETCTBeHHO, 3amayH MHHepasiorHH CKasBI- paauch ucropHyecku. [pexcrasaeiua o mplpone MHHepasion MenAAucE 10 Mepe passuTHA suauni B OOMACTH TeomOrHH H ecTeCTBOSHaHUA B WeAOM. Bamnoiimue moments w ucTopHu pasnurHa muHepasorun Tlepuox 3apoxaenna munepasorum. Hurepec K MuHepazaM KaK K nO HeaHbIM HCKONAeMBIM SapOAHACA B PMYOOKO! ApeBHOcTH, elke Banoo 10 Havana ucTOpH¥ecKoro (nHcéMeHHOro) NepHoga. Pacumpenue MuHepasorn- ueckHx SHaHHM TecHO cBA3AHO ¢ HCTOpHeH PasBUTHA MaTepHasbHO Kysb- typhi venoBexa, B KOTOpOl! BeCbMa CyllecTBeHHy!0 Poub urpan ropHBih Mpomsicent, ocoGeHHo B GpoHsoBHi H xKenesuBIi Bexa. Cyan no apxeono- THUCCKHM ZaHHLIM, K YHCHY HadGonee APeBHUX KYABTYpHBIX Hauuil, 3aHH- MalOUIWXCH TOPHKIM NPOMbICHOM, NPHHagNexamH KHTaMUB, BaBHAOHAHe, erunTaHe, rpekH H ApyrHe Hapoaw MpHGpexwoi nosocu Cpeausemnoro ‘Mops. TlomHMo caMOpomHEIx MeTamJI0B — MeiiH, som0Ta, cepe6pa, nepBoOniT- HBIe JOMM 3HaTH WH YMeIH HaXOZHTb pyAbl, GoraTle coeAHHeHHAMH MeAH, onopa H 2kenesa. OH ocTeneHHO HaySHANCh O6HIBaTs 9TH PyAb, BLINTAB~ AsTb H3 HHX META H HSTOTOBAATh BHaTame yKpalleHHA, Sate OpyrKHe, cTom HeOGXOAUMOe B MOCTOAHHOH GopLOe 3a ZKH3Hb, HK, HaKOHeU, OPyAHA tpyaa. B Te BpeMeva, NOMHMO MeTasm0B, 3HaIH H COGHpaJH pasiHdHEIe ‘perHule KaMHH, H3yMaABIMe CBoeh KpacoToh H nopoxqaBulMe cyeBepHA. Hecomuenvo, To ApesHHe OGuTaTeMH NpakTHNecKHM nyTeM y3HanH He- KoTopule CBOMicT#a OTAENLHLIX MONeSHLIX HCKONAeMBIX. 3HamH OHH HM SMM puyecKHe SaKOHOMepHOCTH pacnpucTpaHeHHA H 3averaHn pyA, CTHMy.H- PoBaBuHe NONCK U paspa6oTKH HOBLIX MecropoxsenHit (pur. 1). Hays HBX Mpedcrastenii 0 NPOHCXOXKAeKNK PYA H MHHepasoB TOrga eule He oro Obits. TlockoabKy B Te BpeMeHa MHCbMeHHOCTH MOUTH He cyuLecTBO- Basta, HakaniiBaeMble C TeveHHeM BpeMeHH 3HaHHA H OMbIT PyOKONIOB Tepenapaavich yeTHo oT OHOrO MOKOseHHA K APYTOMy HC OgHO Teppa- TOpHH Ha Apyrylo. \Tlepapie aiMtepatypHiie yNOMHHaHHa M TlOMbITKy KaaccHHKayMH HeOpranHueckHX MPHPOAHBIX Te MBI HAXOAMM y rpeyeckoro yueHoro a dusocopa Apuctoteas (384—322 rr. no Wawel sppi). Manepasb- nBle OOpasowana, NOLOGHBIE MeTasaM, OM OTHOCHA K rpynne «meransod- op», Ero yxenux Teotppact (371—286 rr. 20 Haulelt 9pst) Bonpocam MuHe- Pasorun noceaTHA cneivanbHBii Tpaktat ), MpeA- CTABNABUMIX eQUNICTBEHHYIO MUHepanorHueckylo aNTepaTypy Toro BpeMeHH, MIpHBOMUAHCS TaaBHBIM OGpasoM caWracTudeckue .onucaNNa MarnueckKHx Baxwefimue momenta 8 ucropum passHTHa Muuepamoran = ul cpoiicrs Kamneli, 3a stor mepHon mbt HaGmonaem mporpecc Hay4- HOrO MbIUITCHHT AML B apaGcKHx crpanax BoctoKa, BOCNpHHABLIMX Apepuerpeveckyio natypcbutocoduw. Kak BLIACHHAOCh B CaMoe nocaea- Hee BPeMs, BLILAIONLUMCA ecrecTBOMeNbITaTemeM B Ha4ane XI BeKa Obi BenuKui yuentiit ai-Bupyxu (972—1048), ypoxeney Xopeama (Ya6e- Kuctax). B csoefi paSoTe o zparoyenniix KamHax OH MaeT 3aMeuaTenb- HDI€ AIA CBOeTO BPeMeHH OMMCAHHA MHHepaTOB H, YTO OCOGEHHO BarKHO, BepBEle B HCTOPHH MUHepatOrHH MPH ONPeAEMeHAA MUHEpAbHBIX BAAOB MpuMeHAeT TOUHLIe USHYeCKHe KOHCTAHTH, KaK TBepAOCTh H yAeaBuBIit sec. [[pyruM npescrapwTeteM BbiqalOUlMxcH yueHbIX TOrO BpeMeHH apanetca Apnuena (980—1037), Take ypoxene Xopesma, Ou B cBoeM BKTHH Beex oTpacsieit ectecrsosHanus. Yposers pasBuTua pala wayk cram pesKo TOBLIUIATECs, OCOSEHHO MaTeMaTHKH, USHKH, XHMUY, GHONOTHH, reomorHH. EcrecrsoucnbitaTesm cTaqu HakanauBate HayyHbIe (paKTbl, H3y4aTb 3aKOHO- MePHOCTH B ABJCHHAX MIPHPOAL H HaYaqH CosHaTeMbHO NpoBoAUTD Hayy HBIe_SKCTepHMeHTEI. Ye p XVI nexe B esponelicxoli smtepatype nonpuacn pan BaxKuBIx pa6or no munepasorun. Tak, uraabanen B. Bupwurywuno (yMep B 1538 r.) H OcoGeHHO AXHMOBCKHi neKapb Teoprui Arpukona (1490—1555) B Uexo- cmoBakHH He3aBHcHMO pyr oT Apyra MalH cComepxaTebHBIe TO TOMY BPeMEHH CBONKH MHHepagOrHuecKHX 3HaHHii, HaKONTeHHbIx B TOpHoH npak- Tuke np paspaGorKe pyaHsix mectopoxnenuii Caxconum, Yexun (Pyannie ropa), Mraaua 4 apyrux crpan Esponut, Orpewmsuinch or aaxumun, ArpuKona cnenam muoro TouNBIx Ha6mose- nui B OGsacTH ycnoBuii HaxOxKAeHHA H OOpasoBana pasiH4HLIx MHHe- padOB B pyAHEIX MecTopoxenuax. B pesyabtate cBoux pa6oT on co3far KjaccupHKauMio MHHepanoB, KOTopad B OOUleM BUe XOTA H HeMHOrHM ormmyaercn oT Kaaccuukawan Apunenbl, Ho mpopaGorada uM ropasno rayOxe. Munepanbutie o6pazopanun ArpHkona nenum Ha ropiouHe HCKO- TaeMbie, SCM, COAM, ApaTOUeHHEIe KaMHM, MeTaqIL H MHHepasbHBIe cMecu. BaxkHO OTMeTHTb, YTO HM MOAPOOHO ONMCaHBI AMarHocTH¥ecKHe TpH3HakM MHHepasoB: Wet, MPospayHOCTb, GACCK,” BKyC, 3aMax, Bec, TBEPAOCTL H Ap. OsHAaKO WaHHble XHMMYECKOrO COCTaBa MHHepadoB y Hero ee otcytersyior. B cBoux pa6oTax OH KacaeTcA M BONpOCoB reHeanca PyaHbIx MecTopoxsenvit. Tpyan ArpHkomb OKa3amH Godbuloe BAMAHHE Ha Munepamorwueckwe HCcHeOBaHHA pana MOKOAeHHI. K cepeaune XVII p. Bbimennysace rpynna mBexcKux Muepanoros, na Hux cjlenyer ynomanyT® aus o JIuaHee u Kponmrente. K. JIunnet (1707—1778), astop usnectHoro tpyna «CucreMa npxpoabi», costan ABOil- yo HoMenKwaTypy (pon H BHA) B CHCTeMaTHKe pacTeHHil H 2KMBOTHEIX. Ty %e HOMeHKsaTypy OH MPHMeHAN K MHHepanaM, HO 3fecb OHA BNocsIen- cipun He onpapgasa ce6a. A. Kpoxurrexr (1702—-1765) mbitazca cosnaTe KuaccubuKanio MuHepasos no xXHMMNecKOMy coctany. Hy:XHO cKasaTb, NTO XHMH B STO BpeMA clenaa Nepasre KpynuBe warn. M3 92 xHmuye- CKHX SzeMeHTOB OLiT0 ycraHoBeHo 17: C, P, S, Fe, Ni, Co, Cu, Zn, As, Ag, Sn, Sb, Pt, Au, Hg, Pb u Bi. [ipa u3 mux (KoOaabT m HuKemb) Oxia orxpuiti Kpoxuireatom. Tpapna, paspatne xuMuH, a BMecTe C Hej H MH HepaJOTHH, elle TOPMOSHTOCS CYLMECTBOBABUIUMH MHCTHYECKUMH npecTaB- aeHunMHn 06 . Hocne yaanenua daorncrona nyTeM mpoKarHBantin Ha MecTe AoMKHa ocTaBaTecA MeTam- auyeckan WsBecTs (T. e. oka, KoTOPAR, Kax MM 3HaeM, Molyyaercn myTeM OKKeAeHHA Meraaaa). B to pei 0 kicaopone eute nuvero He sHam. Kucaopoasan Teopia rope- bia Ouaa cosaana p Kone XVIII». qypanuyscxum yyewnm JIapyasne (1743—1794). ocHonatenem conpeMenHom xistit, Baxwefimme Moment 8 RCTOpHH pasBHTHA MuHepanoraa so Kpourent cymectseHio HaMeHHA MunepasorunecKyio TepsuHororno, McKMOGNA HS OOACTH MHREpasOrHM HCKONaeMBIe OpranHsMbl, WPOKO TPH MEH MeTOR NaslbHol TpyOKH pH HayueHuM caolicTB HM XxHMHYeCKOrO coctana pyaHBIX Muxepaaon. XOTA B TO BpeMA eule He O10 NpaBHaBHLIX npenctapreniil 0 XHMHYECKHX PeaKUMAX, TeM He Meiee OH Ha H3y¥eHHe MHHepasicn, MpencrasaiouHx MpHpomHBIe coeaMHeHHsa, cMoTpem, KaK Ha nayuenHe xHMuH emi. Onguaxo HanGoxee apKok urypoit B To Bpema Ovim pyccKni yuernit axag. M. B. Jlomonocos (I711—1765). Stor uckmounTenbio Onapen- ubiii MH BCeECTOPONHE OOpasoBaNHNii ueTOBeK, CHIH MpocToro KpecTEAHHAA Apxauresckoii ryGepuun, He TOABKO TORT BIE YueHBIX-HeMueB, pa6o- TaBUX B AKaeMHH, HO HaMHOro onepeana 4 ayumne yas Enponw. Hcxona w3 cBoel «xopnyckyaapHott qusocodun>, ou BEICKa3aN Teopiio crpoewia KpHCTammHyecKoro BeUte- crBa, paseHa KHHeTHYECKyIO TeOpHIO ra30B, MeXaHHYecKyi0 TeopHio Ten- JOTH, B Hem MOUTH Ha CTO aeT yes BHEpeCA OT CBOHX coBpeMmeHHAKos. Kak TamantauBbiit XUMHK, OH TpHMe- HHA KoauuecTBeHHE anaans XHMH- 4eCKHX Mponeccos, ycTaHoBAA poab Bosayxa B TOpeHHH opranuuecknx neulects w sagoaro yo Jlapyasbe . OSpasoBanne HaTeuHLIX opm MHKepambHBIX BeUleCT OH MpercTaBIAT ceGe KaK pesystb- TAT OTMOXKEHHA «BarycTeMBIX COKOBY HT. J. B nanucanuux uM na pyccKom sabe reonoruueckux tpynax («C1080 © poxkleHHH MeTamon oT TpACeHUA Sema», «O cnomX SeMHBIX» H Mp.) OH AaeT MHOTOWHCReHHBIe MpakTHueckHe ykasaHAa mo TOMcKaM py; Hyokuo sameruTs, 470 JloMonocos Oxia TecHO cBasaH c ropHonpoMBIMMTeH- HBIMH NPeMPHATHAMH, Ha PASBHTHe KOTOPHIX OKagaT GombWCe BaHALHE. CBOHMH HiccueRoBanHAMH. B xonue XVIII 8, c pasbuTHem npoMeluseHHoro KanuTasa, npoucxo- AUT HeoOslaliHo MOUIHBIi TombeM BO BCeX OGMACTAX KYABTYPH! H HaYKH. Baaronapa pay Kpyniedimx us06perennii sToro nepona TexHuKa nepe- akHBaeT HacToAunit MepeBopoT. JocratouHo ynomaHyTh xoTA 6st 06 R306pe- TeHUM NapoBow MauMHE, OGycroBMBUIeH GeIcTpEI POCT caMBIX pasaHy- HBIX OTPacuei MPOMBILUCHHOCTH. B cass ¢ ycnexaMa xXHMHH HM QH3HKH, B passHTuM MuHepanoraH Ha- 6Smonaetes Hositi, Gonee spko BEIpaxeHHE mporpecc. B Goratoh pas SAGHEIMH METAIIRYCCKHMH TOeSHBIMH HcKOMaeMBIMH CaKcoHMM, Hapay 14 Boeneaue ¢ pasBHTHeM ropHol mpomsimennoctu, B TexeHHe XVIII B. HenpepysHo HpoxomKancs HW MuHepanoruueckHe HccuenoBaKHA. Buia cosaana Dpell- Geprekaa wiKona Muxepasoros Bo raase c A. T. Bepnepom (1750—1817) u satem H. A. Bpelitrayntom (1791—1869), okasapiuaa cpoe BAHAHHe RB pasBHTHe MuHepasorHH B PALE COMpeMeMbHEIX CTpaH. ‘Cam Bepxep MpHsuunuambHo HoBOrO B MHHepaOrHio BEC OTeH Mazo. Ero sacayra JIMUlb B TOM, ¥TO OH H €fO YYeHHKH, HCNONESOBaB BCe AOCTH- OKeHHA MpeMWeCTBEHHHKOB H COBPeMeHHHKOB, YReNHTH MHOTO BHAMAHHA ReTasbHOMy ONHCaHHiO MHHepanoB, HX BHEWHHM MpH3HaKaM, BKsOYaR JaHHble KpHeTanaorpadaH, Havaxo KOTOpo MonOxKUTH COBpeMeHHHKH Bepuepa — cpanuyscxue yuentie Pome ne lub (1736—1790) uP. IK. Patou (17431822). BepHep aenaa Munepanormio Ha pag pasgesos: 1) opuKTo- THOMA (OpHKTa — MO-rpeueckH «HcKOTIaeMOe>), OL KOTOPO! noapasyme- Balch OnncaTebHaN MHHepasorHa H KAACcCHpUKAUHA MUHEpanoB.no BHeL- HUM N'pH3HaKam (xHMHNECKHX qopMys MHHEpasOB B TO Bpema eule He cymecrsosaso); 2) XHMMYeCcKan MHHepasorua; 3) reorHosHa (B OcoGeH- HOM cMbicMe CORA — Hayka 0 seme); 4) reorpapuyeckan muHepasnorua, H 5) sKOHOMHYeCKaa Manepasorua. OTH pasmeas NpenonpenenanH H 3anaqH MHHepanorHH Kak HayKH Toro BpeMeHH. C umenem Bepiepa B HcTOpHn MiHepanoraH M yYeHHH O pyAHBIx MecTO- poxmeHHAX CBNZAH BeCbMa HaNps>KeHHBIA cnop Meaty . H &MYTOHHCTaMH>, QAHBUHiicA B TeveHHe HeCKOMbKHX AecATHNETHA. Bep- Hep, BosraasansuMi , B cBoell paGore (1788), B KOTOPO! OH MOcNeAOBaTeNbHO Pa3BHBaM TEOPHIO BOSHHKHOBCHHA ByJIKa~ HuyecKHX O6Paz0BaHH H rayOHHHOTO H3MeHeHHA TOPHLIX MOpos, ABHAACE HauaaoM YYeHHA O CBASH MECTOPOXAeHHH C H3BEpKeHHLIMK NOpPoaMH. M. B, Jlomonocos eme 8 1737 T. npoBomun TY 2Ke MBICAb B CBOE! CTATLE . TlomoxeHua, BHCKasHIBABLIHecd Tol H Apyrof cTOpoHOA, npoBepAAHce na akrax # axe akcnepumentampubim nytem (J. Xona). Muorne nocae- gosareau Bepuepa nog nasaenvem dakros npunyxnens OulaK OTKAsATRCR or cBoux sosspennii. Stor HayyHbi chop cbIfpaM NOAOKHTEAbHYI POAb: OH NocayKHA TOsYKOM K H3yYeHHIO TeHesHCa TOPHBIX MOpOA, PYAHKIX Me- cropoxKmenuii HW MHHepasos. Yeunenvoe pasBuTne TOpHol MpoMbiuimeHHocTH B Haulefi CTpate, OCO- Geno va Ypaae, cpasano c uMenem Tlerpa Tlepsoro, B camom Hayane CeMMICOTEIX TONOB, T. @. OxONO 250 ser TOMy Hasam, On MpHctan Ha Ypar tyabcknx Kystenos Jlemugopex. Hx yeuaunmn Guat coznaum nepBee ykenegonlenatembuble sanonbt Ha Cpeniem Vpane (Kamencxuii, Heusar- ckuii H ap.) H OTRPHIT pa PYAHHKOB Ha %KeTeIOPYAHDIX MeCTOPOARACHMAX, HeKOTOpbie H3 KOTOPHIX paspaGaTBaIoTca HB HaCTonMce HpeMs (ipur. 2). Yposenb reomornyeckoli MBICAH Toro BpeMeHH Gia ete HACTOAbKO NN30K, TO HACTOILMX TeOMOPHYCCKHX HCCHEAOBAHHH GakTHYCCKH He NpPOHIHOAKS gocs, OHM HatasH passHsarecn auub B camoM Kone XVIII a B sto BCMA Guin OpranHsoBaH pad akaneMHYECKUX myTeuecTHnit No pAasHBiM MpOBHHUMAM CTpaHbt, TaBHbIM O6pasoM M0 Ypaay 4 Cu6upH; nonBHanch Baxueliume MomeWTH B McTOpHH pasBuTHA MuMepanorHK 15 nepsbie onucanns ee Gorarcrs — II. C, Manmaca (1773—1788 # 1799—1801), VW. W. Jlenexuna (1772, 1802), H. ©. Pepwana (1789-1811), B. ..3yena, B. M. Ceseprana 4 ap. C umenem pyccxoro akanemuxa B. M. Ceseprana (1765—1826), npomomkatena JloMoHoCoBa, cBa3aHO HaYaso pasBHTHA pyCcKoll onHCa- TenbHO MuHepanornu. On ocymlecTsHa Hseio o cosmaHAH «OGulel cHCTEME Munepanoran Poccuficxolis, wanoxennyio JIOMOHOCOBEIM B mpoeKTe, m0- WaHHOM B ceNaT Hesagomro 0 emepta (1761). ur. 2. Bun cospemewitx paspaGoroK xenesopyaHoro MecTopoxneHna a rope Bucoxofi oxono r. Huaxsero Tarnza (Ypaa). Mo H. H. Stxonaeay B 1809 r. Cesepran ponYcraa a caer apa Toma . OrpomHoe sHayenne 8 fene nponaraiaN MuepamorMveckux sHanui uMemO TaKKe H3qanHe «, KOTOPbIi peryaNpHO Haan BEIXOAUTH B cBeT c 1825 r. B stom >xypuane napaay c nyOauxanueit crareli no Bonpocam ropuoro W TOPHO3ABOACKOTO Aesa UIMPOKO OCBelLaHCe pesy.LTaTHI MHHepanoraye- KHX MCcTenOBaHHit, TIpamepno 8 cepeaune XIX B. munepanoraa oKoH¥aTenbHO Hayana oopmaatic Kak HayKa o Munepanax. Lleauit pan Haspanuii ropHBix no- Pom, CHHTaBLIMXCA jo Tex NOP MHHepasaMH, MOCe MHKPOCKONHYECKHX HecHeqoBaHnit Oba USbAT WB MHHEpanoruyecKoll HOMeHKaaTypHL. Mune- paxbt Bce Gombe H Gombule cTaaH NPHBAeKATL BAMMaHHe HCcMeMOBaTeteft Kak KPHCTaqAMYecKHe HANUBHAL, OGranalouIMe onpenereHMEIMH cBof- crpamu. Bamegto MpexKHMX MHOTOCTOBHEIX paccyxeHHii 0 MHHepanax no- cnegopatere uikomst BepHepa cramu NOaBAATECA TOUHLIe ONMCAHHA KpH- crannorpadwueckux opm, cbusnueckux mM XUMMYeCKHX ocoGeHHOcTelt ¢ TOAHDIMH XHMHYCCKMMH aHanH3aMH MHHepasoB. SIpkum mpeqcraBHTenem H OCHOBaTeNeM aTOTO HOBOTO HanpaBreHHa 8 MHHepamorM y Hac aBHacn akan. H. HW. Kokurapos (1818—1892) C ero uMevem cBa3aH pacuBer pyccKoi MHHepasorHH, LIMpOKO npHsHaHALit u 3a rpanuuel. HM npogenaia orpomian paGora no TOWHOMy usyyeHHiD Wi CHCTeMaTH3aMH MuepatoB Hallux MecTopoxgeHui. Ero mHorowncaeH- Hble HO CHX Mop HenpeBsoligeHHble Mo TOMHOCTH OMMCaHHA wu H3MepeHuA KpHcranios, raasiuiM O6PasoM Ha YpambcKoM MaTepHase, MPOuHO BOUL Bo Bce yueGHHKH H CIpaBO¥NHKH 0 MHHepasoruu. O ero Tpynocnoco6- HOCTH MOXKHO CyqHTS NO BBYZaioMIemyca I1-ToMHOMy Tpyay «MaTepHaau aaa Munepanoraa Poccun> (1852—1892), rue on cBen Bce dakruyeckue Ranawe B stoi o6nacta. Bonbuiat sacayra B STOM OTHOWeHHH mpHnas- BexuT takxe nocneosaremo Koxuaposa xpynuelimemy munepanory aka. II. B. Epemeesy (1830—1899). Emy mii oGasanbt Knaccu¥eckHMit HCCACAOBAHHAMH BECbMa MHOTOWHCEHHBIX MHHepasioB, KaK HM JIHYHO CO- Opaniibix, Tak H MpHcmaHHEIX ero YUeHMKAMH C Pa3IHYHBIX KOHUOB Haule crpanbi, Lennbii skai B Hayky Mpefcrapnaior m ero HCcHenOBaHn Mu- HepasbHbix tceBgomop(pos. Tlo Mepe HakonaeHHA NomHBIX XHMHYeCKHX aHanN30B MuHepasoB, Mpo- BOMBUIHXCH MHOrHMH HccaeqoBatenama (Knanpor, Boxeaen, Boamacrou, Jho6apcxui, Tepman, Pose, Enpenuos, Tennant m ap.) BHHManHe yse- HBIX CTAdq MPHBJeKaTh BONPOC O CHCTeMATHKe MHHepadtoB Ha XHMHYeCKOA ocnose. Ho pauwonanbHad KiaccubuKalua MHHepasOB OKAasamacb BOSMOX- Hof TOMbKO nocte NoABaeHHA NepHomMYecKO CHCTeMI XHMHYECKHX du1e- MeHToB, CosqaHHoi renHanbuLiM pycckuM yueHLM JL. HW. Men geneenbm (1834—1907). OrpomHoe sHayeHHe mepHoguYecKoro 3aKOHa Nos4epKH- BaeTcA TeM, YTO OH Jer B OCHOBY MHOFHX COBpeMeHHIX BeTMVAlLHx j0- cTHKeHHi B OOTACTH eCTeCTBeHHEIX HayK. Mpica 0 TOM, YTO MHHepasb npexcTasnaioT coOoH mpomyKTst XHMHYe- CKUX peakunii, copepmaioMUxcn B geMHOf Kope, HaNGoee mpKO OTpaxKkeHa B MHOFOWHCHeHHEIX Tpyax xKpynueliurero pycckoro ecrecrsoucnbiTaTena akag. B. WH. BepwamcKoro (1863—1945). Ox yunnca y TaKHX KOpH- gees pycckoit nayxn, Kak J. H. Mengenees, H. A. Menwyrknn, B. B. Jo- xyuaes, A. TI. Kapnuncxui, « mo mpapy cuntaetca pedopmatopom Manepasorua HH. Koxuapos (18181892) H. Mesaexees (1834—1907) Baxmefume MomeHTs 8 MCTOpHR pasnuTHA MmNepaxOrHH 1. B. Epemees (1830—1899) B. H. Bepaanckui (18631945) 18 Buenewne orevecrseHHOk MuHepasoruu. PaccmaTpuBaa MuHepanormio Kak , Kak HX Hagan B CBoe BpemMa Bombdrant Ocreanbq (1927), urpator rpoManHyio porb He TOKO B KOpe BHIBeTpH- BaHUs TOPHEIX nopox H PYZ, HO H B MpOUeccax, CBASAHABIX C MarMaTHue- ckol AeatenbHoctbio. Bo MHorax cayyaax, oco6eHHo Mpa w3sy4eHHH pyd, YAAeTCA yCTaHAaBJMBATS JHUIb PeMUKTOBLIe NPUSHAKH MePBOHAYA/IBHO cylle- CTBOBABUIKX KOANOHAHNX BEUECTB, OHAKO OHH HMEIOT OFeHb Gonbuoe 3Ha- Neue qa1 MOHUMaHHa Mponeccos MHHepaxoopasoBanus Boome. He mevee BaxkHBI 2A MHHepanorHH ROcTHKeHHA B OOAaCTA dusHIeCKOH XHMHH, B YaCTHOCTH, B Y4eHHH O chagax (B pUSHKO-KHMHYECKOM cMbICsIe STOO copa) Ho paBHOBecunx uSHKO-KUMHYECKHX CHCTEM, KOTOPBIMH MBI OO#3aHBI Halley BbIqalouleMyca yyenomy — akan. H. C. Kypuaxkosy. C ero HMeHeM CBAAHO TAKKe COsLaHHe TepMMYecKoro aliamW3a Mo MeTOMy nlaB- KocTH. Tipuaomenue melt dusuyeckow xamun K Munepanoran Ha¥asocs no cylecrsy B camoe mocaenHee BpeMA H OGemlaer OuITS BeCbMa MLIOROTBOD- nM. TIpencrapmenne 0 MuHepamax Kak 0 (agax NpMpOMABIx (pASHKO-xHMH- MecKUX CHCTeM HMeeT Gombilloe SHaveHHe Jia PeambHOTO TOHUMaHHA mIpo- neccos O6pasoBaHHA KPHCTaJJHYeCKHX MHHEpaNbHMIX arperatos H KaayeT ocHoBy sapoxsaiolleficn B HAIN JHU TeopeTMuecKol MHHepamoraH. Konen XIX u navano XX p, o3HaMeHoBamHCb paAOM OTKDLITHi -B 06- acta ¢H3HKH, pHBeAINUX K nOpasHTeMbHBIM AOCTIDKEHHAM COBpeMeHHO! HayKa. B 1895 r. B, Pentren (1845—1923), usysaa KaToquble ny4H, OTKPbIT X-nya (Hassiwaemble Teneps peHTrenoscKHMH AyTaMH), nonOKUBUINe Ha- Yano pasBuTHO HOBO MeTOAHKH MCCHeMOBAHHA MnHepambHoro BemlecTBa. Orkppimue B 1912 r. HemenKum usaKom M. Jays senenua nubpaxnun PenTreHoBCKHX sy¥el NPH NPOXOKeHHH HX Yepes KpHCTam H RaxbHefiumMe Hccuenosanua B STOM HanpaBxeHMH pyecKoro yuexoro T. B. Byawba, 7B. M, Toasaumnnra we caenyer cMemmsats c uspectnum xpHcranmorpadom B, Tonsaunmnatom” (18531933), aaBumm MHoroToMHBA , Bannehume moments 8 ReTOpHH pasBiTHa A. BE. epenan (1883— 1945) B. JI. Bpsrr Munepanoran ‘ 8. M. oapauimnat (1888-1947) EC. Senopos (18531919) 19 20 Baeaenue H.B. Beaopa, BI’. Bparra u B. JI. Bpsrra (orna w conta), JI. Tlayamura wap. NOSBONNH CBAZAT BHYTPEHHCe KPHCTAMIMYECKOe CTPOeHHe MHHepamOB ¢ HX XHMMHYECKHM COCTaBoM H @USHYCCKHME cBOlicTBAMH. ITH vecTeROBAHHA AO- Ka3aqH MpaBHAbHOCTS TeHHAMbHbIX ZorayoK JlOMOHOCOBA © KPUCTaNMMaecKOM CTpoCHMH H MOATBEepAUAK TeopeTHecKHit BEIBOR 230 saKOHOB pacnososxKeHKA ATOMOB BHYTPH KpHcrasmos, caeanubtit WaulM BeMMKUM yueHDIM akan. E, C. Pegopospim B ero Tpyaqe «CuMmerpua lpaBiJbHbIx cuctem (pH- ryp» (1891). B pesyabrate stHx jocTHxKeHHit 3apoainach HOBan Hayyian OTpacitb — KPHCTAsIOXHMHA. Tlpounxuosene s Talli Buyrpennero crpocHia KpHcranmmueckux Be- lecTB M03BONHTO OTKPHITE paA BeCbMa BaxHX noNOKENM. Bo MHOrHX Tpylmax MHHepaioR YAax0ch YCTaHOBUTb CTporo 3aKOHOMepHoe pacriono- XeHHe KATHOHOB H AHHOHOB, Yaep»KHBAeMBIX B KPHCTasJMH4eCKHx HocTpol- KaX 9CKTPOCTATHYCCKUMH CHJIaMH B COOTBETCTBHH C OOILHM 3aKOHOM XH- MitecKoi BaseHTHocTH. Braroapa STHM HccsleqopaHAAM npeacTaBnaace ROMOKHOCTL YTOWHTh XHMUYECKHE OPMYNH MHOTHX CHOXKHBIX coeRHHe- nmi, UTO, B CBOIO O¥epens, OTKPHin0 MYTH JIA CosMaHHA pallHoHaTHOA KaaccaukanuH MHHepanos. OgHako Ala Hac CaMoe TaBHOe TO, 3TO 2 YHKUMOHAAbHOM saBuCUMOCTH oT OcoGeHHOCTel KPHCTaNAHYeCKOTO cTpOe- HUA XHMHYECKHX CoeMHeHHI HAXONATCA He TOMBKO BHeLHHe (PopMBl KpH- cramioB, HO Take TakHe CBOMCTBa, Kak ONTHYECKHe, sTeKTPHYECKHe, MeXa- mueckne (reepnocts, cnaftocrs, ympyrocts) u ap. B pate 2Ke cayyaen To XHMHYecKOH KOHCTHTYNHH, USHNeCKHM H XHMNYECKHM CBOACTBAM MHHC- pasa MoxKHO MpeslcKagaTs Tun ero KpHcTaaaHYecKoH crpyKtypyl. B. H. Bep- Hanckw® B ORHOH Ha cBOUX pexeli B 1927 Fr. Kacasich pentreHoMerpHueckoro HayseHHS MuHepatos, ToBOpus: «Io oAHO HS BeTHYalINMX OTKPBITAH TOU HBIX Hayk OMICTPO CMBHTaeT MHKepanorMo Ha HoBEI NYTe H OTKpHBaeT Hepea Hei Herajannule orpoMHble MepeneKTuBbI>, Takum o6pasom, ycnexH KDPHCTaMMOXHMHUCKHX HCCHeLOBaNHii BMeCTe C APYHMH MOCTHKEHHAMH QUSHKH, XHMHH HM reomOrHH npeonpexenHaH HoBbIi, coBpeMeHHBIt 9Tan B pasBHTHH MHHepasorHn. B 1896 r. cpanuysckai gusnx A. Bexxepens (1852—1908) caenan Apyroe KpyNHoe OTKpbiTHe, YCraHOBMB paqHoaKTHBHOe HaayyeHHe Cosel ypaua. Bexope iocae sroro (1899) xuwuku M. Kropx-Cxnogoacxaa it Tl. Kiopy orkpaumm nossiit xumivecknii snement — pajnit, o6nanaiomui HeOOLYAAHOH paHOAKTHBHOCTHIO, T. €. ABICHHEM CaMONPOH3BONbHOTO BEI- jemenuf sHeprHH B BAe OCOGLIX ayueli ( 2, 6H 7). SaxenHa panMoaKTua- HOCTH CKITPAH BaXKHYIO Pos B paspadoTke CoBpeMeHKOH TeOpHH Oo cocrape H CTPOeHHH aTOMHBIX sep, NPeBPAleHHH XUMHYECKHX STeMeHTOB HB yye- HuM_06 H30TOMaX. B 1938 r. cbvauxw Xan w Llirpacman oGuapyxuam eue Gonee 3ame- waTenbHOe ABXeHHe: OHH YCTAHOBMAM, ITO T1pH GOMOapmMpoBKe ypana Helt- ‘TPOHAMM MPONCXOAUT ero Ha jBa ALpa c OGpasoBakHem sneMeHTOB, 110 cBOlicTBaM CXOMHBIX C OapueM H C KPHNTOHOM, COmpoBOxk- jalomeecn BReMeHHeM OrpoMHOro KomH¥ecTBa SHepruy. B HalwH HH, Kak W3BeCTHO, MpOGeMa HCMONbIOBAHHA BHYTPHATOMHO!, WAH, npaBHuTbHee, BHYTpHAIepHOl, SHeprH HMeeT UCKMONHTeMbHOe suayeHHe. TIpapaa, HeNO- cpeacrseHHo K CaMoll MHHepaNOrHH HCKYCCTBeHHOe pactiensmeHHe aTOMHBIX salep MpaMoro OTHOWIeHH| He HMecT. Yenexn Muwepasorwy sa nocaemHee croneTHe OveHS MHOrAM O6A3aHEI TaKKe PasBHTHMIO CHemMaNbHDIX METOAK HCCHeMOBAHHA KpHCTasAMYECKOTO pemecrba. Hawuwaa c 1857 r., Kora I. Cop6u (1826—1908) mpumenna K MHKPOCKONy MOmApHsaNWOHHMe yeTpoficTsa, HayYeHHe MHHEpasoB, MpO- Spa4HLIX B TOHKHX WaAMiax, Cpa3sy NOABHHYMOCh AasteKo Brepen. Hag YcoRepUleHCTBOBAHHEM MeTOMUKH ONTHYECKUX HecHeOBAHHH B CXORAMeMCH Baxkweliume Moment 9 wctopaa paseutin wunepamorun 21 ere Hemamo norpyausuch MHorHe yuenbe (JInkpya, Bexke, Paiir 1 ap.). DaHako HcKMOGHTeNbHOe sHaYeHHe NpHOGpes NpeqOxeHHBI sHaMeHHTHM ayceKuM KpHeTannorpahom akan. E. C. Degoposum (1853—I1919) WeTO H3YYEHHA TOHKHX ulMOB B MapasenbHOM cBeTe c NOMOUIBIO cre iabHoro ycrpolicrsa, NOAYYHBUerO HasBaHHe yAHBepcanbHOTO cemopon- 2koro cros#ka. MorysuM cpeneTsoM 6 pyKax Munepamoros H TeOXHMHKOB 2Taslo TakXKe HCCAeLOBAHHE MHHEPAABHLIX BeMLeCTB C MOMOMKbIO CllekTpadtb- 4oro, peTrenoctpykrypHoro H peHrenocnexrpambHoro aan3os. Haxoxen, 3a MocmeqHee TpHAUATHAeTHe Sombie ycnexH cielaHbl B HCC1eqOBaHHH HenpospayHBIX MHHepatoB B MOMMPOBAHHEX wMhax B OTpaxKeHHOM cBeTe (mmHeparpaduseckuii Meo HccneqoBaHHa). Hapsmy c wsy¥eHHeM MpupomHbIx OObeKTOB BeAHCh H 9KCHepuMeHTasb- HBIe HCCHeROBAHHA TO CHHTeSsy COeMHHENHi, BCTpeYaIOMMNxXCA B NpHpoze. VickyccrsenHsim nowyyenvem MHuepastos sanHMamach eme B XVIII B., HO cHeTeMaTHYeCKHe ONSITE 10 CHHTesy MHHepaslon HavanH NpOBOAHTSCA THUS B cepenune XIX cTosetus. Bowbumie yenexu B 9Tof O6aacTH Gem nocTHT- HYTEI HawHM pyccKiim yuenuim K, JI, Xpyutoppim, a rake cbpanuyscxann yaenumnn T, odpe (1814—1896) u , Pyke (1828—1904), Takum o6pasom, 3a cpasilteabio KOporkuit mepHom BpeMenH, HayaB- umticn c sox Bospoxnenus, t ocoGenHo 3a nocaennue 150 ner mutepa- NOTHA, Hapsay ¢ APYTHMH ecTeCTSeHNBIMH HayKaMH, Cnenata Combo; war Bnepen. Baxvo roguepKHyrs, ¥7o STOT mporpecc BO MHOTOM O6s3aH LOCTH- DKeHHAM XHMHH H QUSHKH, KpHCTaTAOXHMAM UM KOAOMAHO! XHMHK, Hi, HaKO- nen, puswveckoll XHMHH, T. e. TeX TOYHBIX Hayk, Ha KOTOpble onMpaeTca MUHepasOrHs MPH HSYYeHHH NPHPOAKLIX BeLLeCTB, COcTaBAAIOUIAX 3eMHYIO kopy. Meronukn munepasoruyeckux uccenopannit HacTOsbKo yCoBepuleH- CTBOBAAHCb, YTO Telleps He cocTaBaser GombUOrO Tpyna W3ydeHHe Aa%Ke cKpsiroKpucranamueckux Macc. K npexnum cnoco6am onpeseneHHa MHHe- PaTOB NPHcoeMHAWACs Gosee TOUNBIe H GxICTPHIe MeTONDI HByTeHHA Be- ijectBa. Ha cMeHy npexkHHM, YaCTO (OPMAJbHBIM, ONHCAHHAM MHHepaTOB UPAWAH WexeycTpeMAeHHEIe HCCEMOBAKHA MHHEpaAbHBIX Bemyects. MuHe- paslorop nepecrasia HHTepecoBaTs OfHa JIL SCTeTHUeCKam CTOpoHa MIpH- PORHEIX MHHepa/bHEIX Tesl H XOPOUIO O6pasoBaHHBIX KpHcTasasos. PaaBHoe BHAMAHHe HavaNH YAeIAT HsyYeRHIO OCOGeHHOCTeH cocTaBa HM pagsmHUHBIX TOHKHX CROHCTR MHHepamLABIX BeUICCTS, CBOMCTB, KOTOPbIe MoryT ObITh Tak HJIH HHaYe HCHOIOBANBI ANA HAY4HLIX H MpakTayecKHx weeit. B Bonpo- CAaX, CBASAHHBIX C YCOBHAMH OGPASOBAHHA MHHEpasoB, BMeCTO CTPeMJCHHA kK THMOTeTHYECKHM, YaCTO HHYEM He JOKa3aHHBIM BBIKIaqKaM, HCcTeLOBa- Teseli cTazoO HHTepecoBaT peasbHoe NoAOKeHHe Beulel B MpApoge. Hayarn paspaGaTeipatacd HayYHBIe MeTOMB aHasusa Maperenesuca, MMHEpatoB C MpAMeHeHHeM 3aKoHOB TepMOAHHAMHKH HW CAsHYecKOH XHMHH. Muuepasorua B Hactosiiee Bpema npouno aera B ocHOBY MHOTHX reo- nOTHNeCKAX AUCKNAHH, H NpexAe BcerO— nleTporpadHM H Muneparpadun. OGsextamMu Msy4eHHs STAX HaYK SBAGIOTCA TOPHBIe MOpoABI wu PYABI, T. e. Te MHHepasbHBle arperaTsl, KOTOPHIe KaK CaMOCTOATeTBHBIe COCTABHBIE va- CTH caaraioT semny10 KOpy. B passaruu oTevecrseHHol MUHepaaOrHH, Kak H BO BCeX ApyrAx Hay- xax, pesknii nepesom Hactynuin nocae BeanKoi OxraGppcKoi penosiouuit. IllMpoKo passepHyBiuMecd B TOMB CTANMHCKUX MATHMeTOK reomorHYecKHe HCCELOBAKHA H MOHCKOBO-pasBeOUHble PaGOTs! B CAMBIX pasTHYHBIX paiio- wax Col3sa HeoOpmaiino OGoraTHaH HallH 3HaHHA, OcobeHHO B OOmaCTH perHoHambHOH MuHepasoruH. 3a cpaBHHTeTbHO KOpOTKHit cpoK Obisa npone- wala orpoMHas pa6oTa no cHCTeMaTHYeCKOMY H3Y¥eHHIO He TOKO CTApEX paiionos, HO H WesOrO pala HOBDIX O6UIMPHBIX O6nacteli Coro3a, nonce He OcBeILeHHBIX MH CiaG0 SaTPOHYTEIX NpeABILYNAMH HCCTEAOBAHTAMH. 22 Beegenne Hexoropnie 43 HHX OKaSQIHCb HCKIIOYHTeTbHO HHTepecHEIMH B MHHEpa- HOTH4eCKOM M ApyrAx OTHOUIeHHAX. Bes jleTaIbHAX MuHepaxorHue- CKHX HCCHeROBAHHH ObIO Ob HEMBICIUMO OTKPHITHE BecbMa MHOroUNC- AeHHBIX MecTOpoAMLENHi TIOAESHBIX UCKOMAeMBIX, SBMBILHXCA cHIppeBO! Gasol AXA MOUIHOTO PasBHTHA CAMBIX PaSTH4HBIX OTPacael HapomHoro xosslicTBa. Boubuian sacayra B TOM OTHOUeAHH, HoMUMO AKanemHH Hayx CCCP, ApHHagAeKHT NeNHETpancKoH MuHepamorMuecKOK KOTe, BOsTMaBAABUIElICA A. K. Boaaupesum (1883—1946), GamxaliuuM yseHHKOM akan. E. C. @enoposa. Ero nompoOutiii «Kype onucateabioh munepanorun> & A. K, Boaanipes C. C._Cnproe (1883—1946) (1895—1947) (B Tpex Bbinyckax) H Ba H3AaHHA Kypca MHepasOrMH aM BbICMIMX yueO- HBIX. saBeReHHil, COCTABAeHHOTO MOA ero PYKOBONCTBOM KOAMeKTHBOM npenogapatenei JlenmarpagcKoro ropHoro MHCTHTYTa, OKasaTH OrpoMHoe BIMSHMe Ha pacnpoctpaHeHHe MHHepasorMueckuX sHaHHit B Halel crpane, Hemasian poms B stom OTHOMIeHHN npHuanTeKWT TAKKe yauBepcH- TeTam H HHCTHTYTaM ApyrHx ropogos (MockBwl, CeepasoscKa, Juenposer- poscKa H ap.). Ouetb MHorHm Mbit OG#3aHEL TaWKE GesEpeMeHHO CKOHYaBLIeMYycA KpyN- xeliieMy mpeactapntemo coneTcKHx Munepasoros akag. C. C. Ci p- HoBy (1895—1947). Cnoumn vccreaOBaHHaMH MHOFONMCTEHABIX PY/HBIX MeCTOPOXKMeHHH OH BHEC HCKMONHTeENBHO BaXKHBI BKNAa B COBETCKYIO uayky. H3 onyOaukosanweix wm pa6or ocoGoro BHHMaHHA sacmyxKHBaer KjaccHYeckas MOHOrpadus, MOCBALeHHad MHHepanOrHH 30H OKHCREHHS cymbiunibix mectopoxnennii. Sra paGora oKasaqa BecbMa GombIlly!0 Tlo- MOlb MHOTHM MOHCKOBHKAM H pasBeLUMKAM B OLeHKe MepBHYHOTO Opyme- HEHHA TO BBIXOMAM Ha MOBEPXHOCT OKHCHEHHLIX pydl. Konoccanpuii (bakruyeckuii Matepuas, HaKonupulHiica 8 pesyxbTaTe oOumpHBIx TeonorH4ecKHX HCcTeAOBaHHll, OcoGeHHO 3a MocmeAHHe 20 eT, ALISBAT HEOOXOAMMOCTS OGOGILHTS PaCCesHHble B MUOTONHCAeHHBIX MepHo- Swaveume wnnepanon npomumnennocra os AMMECKHX H HOBPEMCHAX H3ZaHUAX cBeMeHHA MHHepaOrH4ecKOrO XapaK- Tepa H TeM CaMBIM NOWTOXHTS HallM 3HaHHa NO MHKepanoruu Colosa. B nocnenuee spema Axagemua Hayx CCCP wavana sBunycKaTs B cBeT MuorotoMHoe H3maHHe <«Muxepam CCCP», a Takxxe monorpadun, nocBa- MeHHEe OTJeMbHEM perdoHaM,—«Munepanoran Ypana», «Munepanorua Kppimas u up, Stu pa6otst apKo MaMOCTpUpyiT AOCTHKeHUA COBETCKOM Hayku B 3TOm OOwacTH. Suaxeune munepatos B upomuumtennocTH Her uu ogHof orpacan npombimiennocta, roe Obl He MpHMeHAAHCS Te HJM HHBIe MogesHBIe HCKONaeMLe, HOO HeMOCpeACTBEHHO B CHIPOM BHILe, wm6o 8 BHZe MpomyKToB cooTBeTcTByIoMlei nepepaGorKu. Beem H3BeCTHO KONOCCaTbHOe SHAYeHHe B XKHSHH YeMOBeKa 2%eNe3a, MOOLIBaemoro H3 60- TaTbIX STAM S/1eMeHTOM PYM NYTeM MeTasyprHyecKo# nepepadorKM nocmen- HHX Ha pasmHuMe copra uyryHon H crane. Keneso—rnasnnit HepB NpomsnntennoctH. Oxo siBaneTca ocnosoi metanaypruu, MaulHHocTpocHAs, cyMocrpoenus, 2KenesHBIX fOpOr, MOCTOB, 2KeNes06eTOHHEIX coopy2KeHHil, OCHaLeHHA BOCHHBIX apMHii, HSTOTOBeHHA TOBapoB WHpoKOTO noTpeOse- Hua HT. 2. B cBow ovepens, MeTanAyprHa OMHOTO TOMBKO %ese3a NOTTO- maer oKon0 40% s0GiBaemoro TBepqoro MHHepambHOrO TonaHBa B BAe KaMeHHBIX yraeii, nepepaOarbibaeMUX Ha KOKc. ['‘poMagHy!o pomb B pas- BUTHH MPOMBILINeHHOCTH HEpaeT H XKHAKOe MHTepambHOe ToNAHBO — KebTd H Mponykrsr ee nepepaGorku. Bee Gombilee snayeHHe npxoOperaior ropio- 4He Tage. B pasBarau wpeTHoi Meraanypruu, sieKTponpoMBluenHocTa, cys0- CrpoeHHa, MalIMHOCTpoeHHA HM APYrHX OTpacaeli NPOMBIIAeHHOCTH Kpyn- HY!O PO HPpaloT TaK HAasbIBAeMBle UBETHEIe MeTA/TH, ROOLIBAeMEIe HS PYA MemH, UHHKa, CBHHNa, amOMUNHA, HHKena, KoGanbTa. icKkmounTembHoe OOoponHoe sHaveHHe HMeloT Tak HasHIBaeMBle PenKHe MeAIB: BOALipAM, MOJHOREH, BaHanHii, XpOM H Ap. PasBuTue cebcKoro xossiicTBa TeCHO CBASAHO C HCHOMb3OBaHHeM MHHe- panbuBIx yno6pexni: KamHessiX MuHepasos (KazHiinsx conel), Munepa- XOB, conepxanax ochop (anatat, @ochopur), asor (ceamtpa) m Mp. XUMHYecKan NPOMAILIeHHOCTS B SHauHTeMbHOH Mepe GasMpyeTcA Ha MHHe- PanbHom cpippe. Tak, ANH CepHOKHCOTHOTO MpOusBOACTBa HCHOMBSYIOTCA Gorarsie cepok KomeMantt (NMpHT); MHOTOWACHeHHBIe MHHepas ynorpeb- ARIOTCH J MPHTOTOBNeHHA XHMHYeCKHX - nperapatos — cepa, cenATpa, nslaBHKoBplii wnat, MHHepa Gopa, Kass, HaTpHa, MarHHA, PTYTA H Ap.; B Pe3HHOBOM MpOHSBONCTRE HCHOMBsyIOTCA Cepa, TANK, GapuT; B HSTOTOB- NCHHH BSPBIBYATHIX BellecTB— cepa, CeMHTpa, HHy30pHaa seman; AAA HPOHSBOLCTBA KUCAOTOYMOPHEIX H OrHeYNOpHIX MaTepHasoB — ac6ecr, KBapl, TpauT 4 AD.; B KPaCHJbHOM ene HB HSTOTOBEHHH 9MasqM HW Tma- 3ypH—rasmewut, chameput, apt, MUHepamb ‘THTaHa, MeqH, 2%«eNe3a, MbnUbAKa, PTYTH, KO6asbTa, MHHepambi Oopa, KPHOMHT, OpTOKIas, UMPKOH; 8 NMCHeOYMaXKHOM MPOHSBONCTBe — TALK, KaOuMH, cepa, KBACKB, MarHe- BHT HT. Kamenuaa # nopapenaa comb cayxkatT HeOOXORHMOR cocraBHOM YacTHIO nmuH venoBeKa. Pax MHHepasos H NpORyKTOB HX XuMHYecKOH epepaboTKU IpaMenaerca B BUe JeKapers (MUpaOuHT —Taayeposa comb, MHHepamb- uble BoB — Hapsau, OopxKOM H Ap., COMM BUCMYTa, Gapus, Gopa, Hoya). flan sexe6usx wenek ucnomsylotes TaKKe MHHepasbHBle HCTOUHHKH (cepd- BOMOPOMHEIe, YIeKHCABIe, XKeME3HCTHIe, CONAHBIE H Mp.) H MpaporHbie rpasH, B MemHuMHe npuMenaioTca pamMoaKTHBHBle BellecTBa, AOOKIBaeMBIe 43 panMoakTUBHEIX MHHEpanoB. 2 Baenenne Bowbuy posh B 2KUSHH NenOBeKa urpaioT H TOReNORBIe KamuH. Tlo- MaMo paroleHHBIX Kamel, HyMMXx Goubulell YacTbIO Ha YKpalleHHa # XYNOKECTBEHHBIE H3NCAA, MNOTHe UBETHEIe KAaMHH HCMONBsyioTcA AA O6- aHNOBKH cTeH. JlyammMe coopyxenua Hawei PoguHst yKpamaioTca poso- BEIM POOHHTOM, pasHoupeTHOH LUMO‘, MpaMopom, KBapuTamm. KBapu, McmaNAcKuii wmat, ca0qa, TYpMaqHH, cawopHt HAYT maa HaroTOR- seHuA onTHuecKHx npuGopos, M3 arava, KopyHaa, WHPKOHa HM Apyrux TBEPABIX MHHEPAIOB WSTOTOBIAIOTCA MOAWMIHHKH JWI YaCOB H Npy- THX TOUHBIX MpHGopos, Aumas (Kap6owamo), KOPYHI, rpanat, KBap ynorpeGamotcnh B KayecTBe aOpa3HBHBIX MaTepHaaoB mpH waMdoBKe M MloMMpoBKe npenmeros. Markve w %KHPHEle MHHepasti (TanbK, rpadut) MpaMenmorea B Kayecrse HanommuTeneli, ana cMasKH Tpyuuxcs yacrell MexaHH3MOB HT. Tl. Vs npnpeyennoro qazexo He nonoro nepewHA npHMeHeHHA MuHepaoB H MlomyyaeMBIx U3 HHX MpoxyKtoB MepepaOoTKH BHAHO, HaCKONbKO BeAHKO aHaveHwe MHHepasbHoro CbIpbA B HapoAHOM xosmiicTee HB eTOBeYeCKOM Gury. FHpommumennocrs uapcxoit Poccuw, Kak u3BeCTHO, cToana Ha HHSKOM YPOBHe H BO MHOTOM 3aBHCesa OT HHOCTpaHHOrO KanHTasa, KOTOPOMy MpH- HammexkaaH wan6onee KpYnHble NpoMbleHHNe TpeaNpuaTHa B crpatie. Tlocae Oxra6packo# pesoamounn nepea Coperckum Co1osom Bctaa sanaua Guicrpeliuel MARycTpHamMsalMH CTpanBt H COsMaHHA BEICOKOPAsBUTEIX B TeXHHYECKOM OTHOWeHHM ApyrAx OTpacmel npombIuTeHHOcTH. 3a nocaen- He ABaUaTb MATH HeT Samacbl MHOTHX PaHee HSBECTHLIX MOeSHKIX HCKO- TAeMBIX MOBERCHEI NO pasMepoB, HEOGXOAMMEIX aA OGeCreyeHHA pasBATHA TeX HAH HHBIX OTpacael npomutuenHocta. Hemano MecropoxseHnii, co- AepxKAallHX BaxXHBIe B MPOMBILIeHHOM OTHOWeRHH NonesHEIe HCKONAeMEIe, bio oTKpuITO Bnepabie, TakoBu, HanpHMep, MecTopoxmeHHe Kanuiinex W MarHHeBbIx cone B ComuKaMcKom pafione, 6opa B Cesepxom Ipaxac- nuw, 3o70Ta w om0Ba B Bocrounoit CuOmpu, Mema 8 Kasaxcrane, nepra B 3anaznom Tpuypasve u wa ExponeiicKoit pasnune (Bropoe Baky) u 7. B pesyasrare CCCP nosnocreio ocso6oauaca or HMMOpTa MeraJioB Hl MH- HepaxbHEIX MpOmyKTos, OstaKo, 8 CBASH ¢ HEOOXORUMOCTHIO ManbHeltulero pacuIMpeHua cbIpBe- soit Gasi, Mepem COBeTCKHMH TeosOraMH ellie cToaT orpomHbie 3amauH. Ha WX OGABAHHOCTH JeKUT He TOMBKO OTHICKAHHe HOBKX MecTOpOxneHHi 1 YBeAHYEHHE 3aMaCOB MOTeSHBIX HCKOMAeMBIX B HOBBIX MPOMBINITEHHBIX paiionax, HO H Y4acTHe B OCBOEHHH OTKPHTHX MHHepanbHbIx GoraTcTB. OcoGoe sHateHHe HMeeT BONPOC O KOMNIEKCHOM HCNOAIOBaHHH MH- HepambHoro ceIpps, T. e. 06 HSBCNCHHA Hapamy c TaaBHBIMH nomesHBIMH HCKOMAeMBIMH BCEX WEHHBIX KOMMOHEHTOB ChIPbA, ECAH MOSBOMAIOT 3TO OCY- WI€CTBHTb TEXHHKO-SKOHOMMUeCKHE YCHOBHA. 3naHe Munepasorua HMeeT Gomblloe sHaveHHe npH mponeneHun pas- BENOUHBIX H OCOHeHHO MOHCKOBHX paGoT. [nA YerleulHOrO HX BbINOTHeHT mpexse Bcero HeOOXOMMMO YMeTb TOWHO ONpesemAT MHHepabl, 3HaTb YCHOBHA HX HAXOKMEHHA B NPHPONe, SaKOHOMePHOCTH HX coyeTaHHa JpyT © apyrom HT. 2. Visyyenue kayecrseHHol xapakrepHcTHkH pyn 9KcnOaTHpyeMBbIx MeCTO- poxknenMii—onHa ua rnapHelimmx sama pyaHauMbx reonoros. He suas MBHepasOrHH, HEBO3MOXKHO pellMTh STy sanayy. Bo MHOrHx cayyaax LO6bIBaeMbIe pyob 20 NAaBKA H TexHOTOrHYeCKOA nepepaGorkH NogBepraiorcn MexanuuecKomy oGoramenmio wa cneumambubix ba6puxax, T. e. oTmeaenMéo MOeSHEIX HCKONAeMEIX OT MYCTOH NOpom HAH PagienenHio PYM Ha PasTH4HBIe NO cocTasy KOHUeHTpaTHT. OOoramenHe € MpeneapurenbiLiM ApOOMeNHeM H UBMembUCHHEM py MPOMSBOAHTCA Ha Suavenne mamepazos 8 npommmaenxocts ‘ 2 cheuwasbuex yerpolicrsax, mpHvem ucroab3yiotea pasaiaibie caoficraa MHHEPatOB: YEAbHEI BCC, MATHHTHOCTS, 91eKTPOMPOBOAHOCTS, OTHOMIENHE K @soraMouHeM pearentam H Ap. Bosibuoe sHaveHve HMeIOT TaKWKE pas- Mepbi sepeH MuNepasos, caaraiouux yas, H Xapakrep Hx cpacranus Mexmy coGol, B pewreunH Bcex THX BONpOCOB GomBIYIO porb uTpawT cneuambHBie MuHepanornueckHe HccaeoBattis.. ‘TaKHM oGpasoM, MHHepamoruyecKoe usyyeHHe MecTopoxKAeHHl ores HBIX HCKOMeMBIX HMeeT BECbMa BaKHOe SHAYCHHE HE TOKO uA MOHCKOS H pasBemKH HX, HO H gan ropHosoOsiBaioMlel H ropHooOpaGaTHBawuLel otpacaeii npombinutennoctH. Taaca L 3EMHAA KOPA H OCOBEHHOCTH EE COCTABA Crpoenve semnoro wapa. Taapapim O6beKTOM reomOrHuecKHX, B TOM uHCHe H MHHepanoruyeckHx, HCcHeLOBAHHi ABIAeTCA Be MHA KODPA}, Noa KOTOpO NompasyMeBaeTCA caMaf BepXHAA O6OM04KA 3eMHOrO Ulapa, OcTyMHas HeMOcpexCTBeHHOMY HaGmOZeHMI0. Cloxa OTHOCATCH: BHDKHAA uacrb atmochepst, ruapocbepa H BepxHAa YacTb aMTOChepsI, T. e. THEP- no vaca 3emmH, Haum qaxruveckne snanua o crpoeHHH H XHMHYeCKOM cocTaBe semHol KOpBI OCHOBHIBAIOTCA NOTH UCKMOHTeMbHO Ha HaGMOReHHAX Hag CaMBIMU NOBepXHOCTHEIMH YaCTAMH Haulelt naHeTbl. Mecramu, Oxarogapa WaxTHEIM paspaorkam MecTopoxkneHHi MoslesHbIX HCKONaeMBIX, HSBeCTHHI HM Gomee ray6oKHe YacTH seMHoii Kopbi. B somoropyqHom mectopoxjenun ButBa- repepang (B IOxnoi Adpuxe) xanOombiaa ray6una maxt xoctarna 2330 4, Came rayGoxne Hedranbie cKBAKUNB! MpOHMKaioT BrayGb Bo 4—5 Km. Topoo6pasyiouue mpoweccst, conepuiasuiecn B pasmuYHEIe reonorMue- ckue ST0XH H MpHBOAHBINHE K OOpasoBaHHio BBICOKHX TOpHBIX xpeOTOB, Towa C PAYGHH CaMbe PasTHYHEIe NOpomL, He OSpasyiomluecs BOSH nogepxnoct Sema. Onwako H 3fecb, KaK MOKAaSbIBAIOT TeoOTHYeCKHe Ha- GmOLeHHA H MOLCIETHL, MOXHO MOTYYHTS Gosee HAH MeHee DeasbHOe npen- crapjeHHe 0 cocraBe H CTPOCHHH 3eMHOTO Wapa TOAbKO No rayOuHL 16—20 xm (pamuyc xKe ero mpeBpumaer 6300 Kat). O crpoeHuu H cocrae ray6oKHXx Hep 3eMHOro wapa MO2XxHO cyquTb JMU Ha OcHOBAHHH KocBeHHLIX gannix. Kak noxKastipaer comocrapsenue ngoTHocTet Bcero semuoro wapa (5.527) M semHoH Kops (2.7—2.8), BAYTpeHHHe wacTH Haulell MAAHeTEL NOKHY. O6aaTs sHayuTeHO Gosb- ue naotHocrsio, vem noBepxHoctatie. Kak npeanosaraior Ha ocHoBaun PAsMHYHBIX AHHLIX (reopusHueckKHe HaGMOReHHA, ManHsle cpaBHeHus Sena ¢ RPYTHMH KOCMHMECKHMH TemaMH, COCTAB MeTeOpHTOB M Mp.), TC O6cTosTeNbcTBO O6YeTOBNeHO He TOKO yBenHYcHHeM c ray6uHol naBse- HHS, HO HM HSMeHeHHeM cocTasa BHYTpeHAUX Yacreli Hamel nsaHeTEI. HanGombum mpu3Haunem B HacTosiee Bpema nosbsyeTca runoresa B. M. Toapgummrta o crpoenum semuoro wapa. TMocaeguuit, no ero mpea- cTaBJeHHAM, COCTOHT H3 Tpex TABHEX KOHIeHTPHYECKH Pacnomor%eHHEX gon (reocipep): 1) napyaxnoit — anrociepss, 2) mpomexyrounoit — xabKo- ccbepsi, Soratoit OKHCHaMH HM CePHHCTIMH COeIMHEHUAMH MeTasTOB, mpe- AMyllecTReHHO 2esesa, W 3) WeHTpanbHol — cunepocdepsi, npeacranzen- 1 Haspanne seman Kopa maNo coBepltentio ycnosHo—o#o HMKaxoro @THOMIeRUA We uMeer K MepBHunof Kope ocTwBaHA seMoro waa. Cocras semHofl Kopst : Holt xxene3o-nuxesestim aapom. JIurocepa, B cBoi0 ovepenb, nompasae- aseTcA Ha ABe YACTH: BepXHAR OOoMOUKA 10 rayGuHE 120 Km, cnoxKeHHaR B OCHOBHOM OGBIUHLIMH CHIHKATOBEIMH TlOpORaMH, HM HEXKHAR — SKIOrHTO- Baa OGo104Ka (120—1200 xx), MpeNcraBieHiad CHAHKATOBLIMH NOpoza- Mu, oSoraileHiBiMH MarHHeM. Tio B. M. Tonsammnnty, oraenbune reocipepsi xapakrepusylorea cxe- AYIOUWMMH JaHHbIMH: . Mouiocrs ——_‘THaovwocr Cocras (ow) Armochepa... . . - Heckoasxo 0—0,0015 Nz, Oz, HO, COs, 6aaroponnue cor aan Buocbepa....... 0-11 Okoxo 1 Opranuiecke sewectsa m wumepanut cKeaeTon, Tuapocepa...-.- 0-1 1 H,O wap. (oxeanw, oruactt Buytpex- Hue Boab, CHET H Aen) Bepxnaa cuaukatonaa o60n0%Ka . see 60-120 2.73 SIMroduauustel stementu: O, Si, Al, Ca, Mg, Na, K, Li, Rb, Ba'u ap. Sxaorutosaa o6osouKa. +1109 3.64 Ciuankatit, raasubim o6pasom Mg u Fe Cyasduano - oxucuan o6onowwa ss es — 1700 5-6 — Xanbxodiasusie? snemenrut: S, Se, Te, Fe, Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd, Hg, Sd, Bi, As, Au, Ag i 3] dKeneso- 1K tes0e ampo 3509 S10 Cunepoditasaise® snementot: Fe, Ni, Co, rpynna naatauu, Mo, P, Cu ap. Cocras semHoii Kopsi. Cpenuii xumayecknit coctap noctynHoit Ha- Gmoxenni0 semHoi KOpEI ycOBHOH MomHOCTHIO B 16 KM, BKMOYAR clOna ragpochepy, 6uocdepy u npuseraioulyo yacth aTmocipeppl, NOACUATEI- Balch MHOTHMH yueHtimu, Breppiie cocTaB TBepoii uacTu 3emHOii KOpBI B RECOBEIX NpOolleHtax MoACHHTaAT aMepuKaHCKHil HccuexoBaTenb Kaapk B 1889 r. Boabutan pa6ora mo yrounenuio nomyyennux undp Grima mpo- gexana H. u B. Hoanaxamu, I. Peseum, B. M. Poabaumugztom, B. H. Bep- nagcKuM, A. E. epemanom u ap. Tlo npennoxenmo A. E. @epemana cpennne umdpn coxepxannit OTMeAbHLIX SIeMeHTOB B seMHOf Kope cramH HasbiBaTs HAH MpocTo «KslapkamH». On Xe NPeYMOKUA BUPAKaTb 9TH BETHYMHEL HE TOKO B BECOBLIX MPONeHTAX, HO H B aTOMHBIX. V3 epauocta mByx XUMHYECKHX 9JleMeHTOB, npuBeeHHIX B HepHomU- ueckoit Ta6mHue szeMenTon Menaeneesa (Taz. 1), Juli HeMHOrHe TodIb- aylorea WHpOKHM pacnpocrpaHenuem B seMHoi Kope. Takue saeMeHTH B Tasuue pacniouarawren B BepxHell ce 4aCTH, T. €, OTHOCHTCH K HHcay STeMeHTOB C MANLIMH MOPARKOBLIMH HOMepaMH. Kak Buavo 13 muarpamMer (pur. 3), HaH6omee pacnpocrpaneHHiimn anementamu apssiorea: O, Si, Al, Fe, Ca, Na, K, Mg, H, Ti, C u Cl. Ha goaio octaamunx 80 sxeMentos mpixosuten Bcero anim 0.71% (no pecy). Tlomapasioulee GonbUIMNCTBO STHX SJeEMeRTOB B SeMHOH KOpe MpHcyT- crByer TOUT HCKMONHTesLHO B Bue XHMHYeCKHX coemHMeHHi. K aKCay DNEMeHTOB, BCTPeYAIOWLHXCH B CAMOPOAHOM BAe, OTHOCATCA O¥eHb He- muorse, Te m Apyrie BOSHHKaIOT B pesyabTaTe XHMUYeCKHX peaKUUii, KOTO- pele Nporekalor B 3eMHOM Kope MPH PasTHYHEIX FeoMOrHYeCKUX npoueccax, IpHEOAAMMX K OSpasoBanHIo CaMBIX PasHOOOpasHbIX NO COcTaBy MAaCCHBOB TOPHBIX TOPOL H MeCTOPOX EHH: NOTesHBIX HCKOMAeMEIX. 1 Or rpeweckoro copa autoc—. Hexoropue ocoGenoctt pacnpeneneuua TwKeNuX MeTaanoB 31 0100- Gein 0075 coomad =| | semua kopor l (aurnocarega ¢ § ¢ 2080- H 100% & TiaH% O35 % ¢ 2) e & 025 s ¢ ® P tin Bo sr zr Ni 8 Sn Li Go Mo Br Gd U Ra AU fe Ag PL Nb Se SF N Ge V Zn Cu W Be Pb Cs Th As Ar fe Te dn i Ta Sb Go Hg ur. 3, Twarpauma pacnpoctpatenna raanuefimnx saemexTos B semnoh Kope (anrochepa + runpocepa + uacts atwoceps)) B Becosux mpouentax B Gonosiex KOAONKaX NepuiuMh CTOXGHKEMH NOKASaNM BaAlefuine MeTaaaH Hekoroppie ocoGentioct pacnpenenenus TmKeNbIX MeTamoB. Muorue W3 YKaSaHHBIX PeMKUX B SeMHOM Kope SMeMeHTOB MOM BAHAHHeM COBep- waiomHxca B MpUpome TeOXHMHYECKHX MPoweccon HepenKO oGpaayioT HCKMOWHTEIBHO GOraTHle CKOMMeHHS MUHepambHoro wBellecTBa, HOCAIIHe HasBaHia PYyAHLIx MecTopoxnenui. Econ 6b He cyujecrBoBano npo- WeCCOB, NPHBONAMAX K OGPasoBAHMIO TAKHX MecTOPOxeHAH, KOTOPEIe HMe- 40 Gbi cMbICH paspaGaTEIBaTS C HeTBIO HIBTEIOHMA LeHHBIX jJA MPOMBIMI- ACHHOCTH MeTaJIOB, TO MOXKHO C YBePeHHOCTHIa CKagaTb, YTO He Guin OW H CTONb MOULHOrO pa3BHTHA TeXHHKH M KYJIbTYpbI, KaKoe HaGmojaerca B Macromulee Bpema. Torga Obl MHOTHe MeTasIb, USBTeYeNHBIe H3 NOpoR B maGopaTOpHEIX YeHOBHAX, OTHOCHIHCS K HCKMOUHTENHO MOPOTAM MeTadt- aam. BecbMa xapaxrepo, To KapKH TaKHX MeTasOB, KaK BaHafuil, we- sui, ramHii M Ap., BO MHOrO pag BLILIe KAapKOB PTyTH, BACMyTa, cepeOpa, Sonora ap. Ho, Hecmorpa Ha Hx BeCbMa WeHHBIe CBOMCTBa, OHH B esO- Beveckom ObiTy He pacnpocrpanensi, Tak Kak HX MeCTOPOXKeHHA c Mpo- MBULJCHHEIMH KOHUCHTPalMAMH B TIpHPOme Kpaline perkH. TIpmpomube coenmienia TwxenixX MeranioB npencrasanior co6of B OCHOBHOM cpaBHHTebHO MpocTare coemunenus. Uacre ua Hux (Fe, Mn, 32 Semitaa Kopa # ocoGenocTh ee coctana Sn, Cr, W, Nb, Ta, Th, U) mpenmymectsento pacnpocrpaneva 5 Bie KHQHOPOAHEIX CoeMHHeHHi, HO 3aTO MHOrHe ApyrHe sueMeuTEt (Fe, Ni, Co, Zn, Cu, Pb, Hg, Mo, Bi, As, Sb, Ag u ap.) Berpevaioren rnapueim oGpa- 30M B BHAe CKONAeHHi CepHHCTHIX, MBINIDAKOBHCTHX M CYPbMAHHCTEIX ii. oer ombauunant ykasnipaer, To pacnpocrpastemioeTs saemenToa 8 semHoll Kope mo Mepe yBemMyeHHA HX MOPAIKOBBIX witcem (puc. 4) yMenD- hiaeres. 970 npoucxonur Goabiielt yacrbio no mpapuay: pactpocrpanen- Hoch OGparHo nponopunouanbua 7-f—8-+i crenewm NopsaKonoro ucua Onuako Gpocaiorca s xasa orkxoneHum aan Tpex suewenToD: suTHs, 6e- praaua u Copa (ur. 4), uMeiouuIx HHsKHe MopsnKoRHe wucta 3, 4H 5. Tlit HeKoTOpEIX suleMentos HaGmogaloTeA OTKsOHeHHA B CTOpoHy yseAH- venus (:KeTes0 © NOpA/LKOBBIM HoMepom 26). a EF 2 40 ww 6 0 0 f Aopadiobne romepa snemenmad (2) ur, 4, Pacnpoctpaniennocth smementos 6 sepxHel sacra autocpeps. To B. M. Tomxumuzry He anorpaune nant aorapupuu arounix xonenrpa (1) KaK ibynst Inopmaxowore NoMepa (2), Mpuvew KNCAOPOR tpaNKT 32 eaMHHIty Eca cpapuur pacnpocrpaHexiocTs XHMHYECKHX SJleMeHTOB B SeMHOA Kope B ATOMHBIX Kslapkax € CMH MuHepatOs, B KoTOPE OHI BxORST, ro, Kar ykasaa 11. TI, Fhiauneako, Mewny HittH 32 NeGombUHM HCKONe: lem, yeraHapsusaerca HeKoTOpan mpaMaa (cHMOaTHaa) saBiCuMOCTD. mMeer MecTO MpeuMynecTBeHHO jn SuleMeHTOB, OGnasalouMx MauLiMH aTOMBbIMH BecaMH!; Sremewr Aroma KxapK —Hacao Semone Aron Ksapy nena ottepanon 53.39 1221 Fe 1.31 170 a 17.25 798 K 1.05 43 Si 16.11 377 c 0.51 194 Al 4.80 268 Ti 0.22 30 Na 1.82 100 cl 0.10 67 Mg 1.72 105 F 0.07 50 Ca at 194 Tax muorax TmxeswIx Merson noxoSHa aBKcHMOcTS He YeraHas- ausaerea. Tak, Tenayp, aTowHBili K4apx KoTOpOTO B seMHOHL Kope MPHNEP- wo n 100 pas’ menbule, ew K4apx cezeHa, B MpHponHx yenoBuaX OGPa- aye OKOTO 40 caMOCTOATENIDHLIX MUHepasoB, B TO BPeMA KaK nuH ceNen2 WX ASBeCTHO BCero 28 H TO TaBHBIM O6pasom B accouManuH c cepoit. Tas muna ¢ atomibiM KaapKoM, » 50 pas Odapimm no cpaBsientio ¢ aap. KOM cBHHNa, Mat HMeem 26 MUHepamoB, Tora Kak JA CBHHa — OKO. 130 8 Ta. ; 1B avicno MuHepanos He BKaIONeHIA MUI pasHoBHAOCTH, B KOTOpHe AaHHIA sae Ment BxoMuT B Bide WOMoppNO npusectt Hexoropwe ocoGeuuocra pacnpeneneiiun Tuxenwx MeTanaos 33 Yeasamme pasanyua HeCOMHeHHO BHgHBaIOTCA XHMUYECKUMH cBOd- crBaMH CaMHX SuIeMeHTOB, OGYCHOBEHHLIMH CIPOCHHEM HX HOHOB H ompe- HEAZEMBIMH TONOKEHHEM STHX saeMeHTOB B mepHomUYeCKoH cHcTeMe Menzeacena. Jun sneMentTos c¢ omHHaKOBbIMU cBOiicTBAMH, aHamOrM¥HEIMH CrpoeHHeM H pasMepaMH HoHOB, HO ¢ PagTHTHBIMH KOHUCHTpAlHsMH B RaH- HOM pacTBope WIM pacruiane, ecTecTBeHHO OxKNLATs, YTO MPH KpHCTamH- all SueMeHTEI C MeHbUtel KOHWeHTpaNMell GyayT BXOAUTD B KPUCTaT- AMYeCKHE PeUIeTKH, OGPasyeMBIe TOCHOACTBYIONIMMM SteMeHTAMH, KaK Oot Pacpopssch B Hux. Eca xe Janubtit sueMeHnT B OKpyxaloulel cpene He HaxOAMT aHaOTHUHBIX ceGe MO pasMepaM M CTPOeHHIO MOHOB ApyrHx aue- MeHTOB, TO, BKaKOM Obt KOJMMeCTHE OH HH MIPHcyTcrBOBaT B PACTBOpe, NPA KpHCTasMgaiWH OH OsDKEH OGPasoBaTe CaMOCTOKI ebHOE CoeRuHeHHe. Bec- Ma MoKagaresbHo, YTO ABYXBaJIeHTHBIT MapraHen B TaBHOH cBoeH Macce BXOJHT B COCTaB MHHEpatOB B Bile HBOMOpiHOH NpuMecH K ABYXBaJleHT- HOMY 2ewe3y UM KaNbUHIO, HO 3aTO YeTHIPeXBaneHTHui Mapranen Bcerma oOpaayer BHO HHAHBWIYaNHsHpoBatHbe coenuHenna. Stu xe oObAC- waeTCA, YTO TaKHe sueMeHTH, Kak py6uanli— Rb, cKauauit—Sc, ran- anii— Ga, rahaui—Hf, uugnii—In, peauii—Re u ap, o6aanaomme FGKHMH ATOMIBIMM K1apKaMH, B MpHpONe coBepulenio He Opasyior camo- CTosTeAHBIX MHHepasoB, a HaXOMATCA B pacceaHHIOM cocTosuMM, mpucyT- cya B Bue HaOMOpiHOA MpHMecn K xpyrHM sneMeHTaM, B sxauurenbHolt Mepe 9T0 OTHOCHTCA HK TaKHM, Gosee pacnpocrpanennbim SseMeHTaM, KaK cenen — Se, panagnii—V, uesuhi—Cs, Kaxunii—Cd u ap. Hao6opor, SUeMeNTH C OMENS HHSKUMH ATOMHBIMH KsapKaMH — TesAyp, 30N0TO, rpyn Mla NaaTHHOBBIX MeTa.I0B, BHCNYT H Ap.— cCPpaBHNTenbHO YacTo yeraHaB- ANBAIOTCA B BAe CAMOCTOsTEABIEIX MUHEpastoB. Bako ykasaT», Yo OGMLee UHC NPUpOAMHX xuMMECKHX coemH- senni HeCpaBHeNNO MeHbUe, YeM HX MOKNO NOMYYHTH HcKyC- eTpexsbim nytem. Uxen0 onHHX TombKO HeopraHHueckux coemuHenHi, nony- NaeMBIX B AaGopaTOpHAIX YCHOBHAX, BEIPAKAeTCA MHOTHMM COTHAMH THCAY, B upupone xe usBecTHo Bcero JHU oKoT0 1700 MuNepamoB, BKmOTAT U HX PasHOBHAKOCTH, Dt HH B KOeM ciY4ae HemA OGbACHATH cabo uSy- ‘eHHocTbio cocrapa semuofi KopH. 3a TlocseAHMe ecATHAETHR HHCTO exe TOXHO OTKPHIBAMBIX HOBEIX MHHepamop Mepecrao mpepziuate 20—-30, HecMOTpa Ha COBEPUIEHCTBOBAHHE MeTOAUK M TWATEMHOCT! NPOBOAMMBIX HecueqoBanui. Bosmoxnocri xe cHiTesa MckyccTBeHHDIX coenuHeHit Bce GSoaee u Goaee pacumpsiores. YeranonacHo, HanpuMep, ¥To SueMeHTH rpyn- Mk NaaTHHMI CHOCOGUEI RAT OFPOMHOe KosMUECTBO CaMBIX pasHOOGpasHAX A CHOXKHBIX XHMHYECKHX coeMHHeHHi, a B MpHPOMMLX YerOBMSX NSBeCTHO GykBabHO He GoxbUIe Tpex ReCHTKOB MuepasoB, H TO NDeuMYmMecTBeHEO B BHe CaMOpomHHIX MeTasmOB. Takum o6pasom, npnposvaa xXHMUs, HAH TreoxHMHA, ocobenO rayGuH- HbIX ‘acTeii 3emuoit KOptt, MO cpaBHeHo c aaGoparopHoh xuMue sHauE- TeAbHO Mpoule No TeM KOWEYHBIM MpomyKTaM, KOTOpbIe MBI H3yUAeM B Bie Munepason. Muorie mpupoguibie xHMHecKKe peakuMn mporeKator mpi BEI- COKHX Temnepatypax H RaBAeHHAX, HepenKO B TBepALIX cpemax HB Teve- Hie BecbMa quitTeabHoro BpemenH. MuHepanorua caMoi nosepxnoctHol ‘acTH aHTOCHepsI, OCOGEHHO SOHbI BLIBETpHBAHHA, Me rocHoneTByIOT HNSKHE TeMmepatypbl u jaBaeHus, Topaszo caoxKuee. Ho sce xe KoHueHTpanuH MHOTHX XHMIMECKHX KOMIOHEHTOB B NOBEPXHOCTHEIX pacTBOpaX CTO. HUS- KH, YTO OOulee KosMYecTRO OGpasyioUMXesH sNeCh cOeMMHeHHi SHAHTETSHO yerynaer ToMy, Yro MoxXeT OxITb HoayeHO B sa6opaTopBA. 3 Munepasorns Taaea II CBOLCTBA MHHEPAJIOB 1, OBINHE CBEXEHHA Koraa Mat ocMaTpuBaem MuHepasn B My3efiHbIx BHTpHHax Han JioTKax co cilelHasbHo Mo_oOpantsimd OGpasiamu, TO NaC HEBOHO NOpaxKaeT TO pasHooGpasHe BHeUIHHX MpH3HaKoB, M0 KOTOpiIM OHH oTaMYaloTca Apyr or apyra, OANH MuNepamt Kaxytca mpospaumuin (ropHuit xpycTasb, KaMeliiad coub), ApyrHe — MYTHEIMH, NOMyNPospauuIMH HK COBepUIEHHO He mponyckaromumu cseta (MarHerar, rpapur), Bamevatestbioi ocoGeHHOcTHIO MHOTHX MpHpomuBix coemuHeHHit cary 2KHT HX oKpacxa. [jk pAja MUHepanoB OHA MOCTOAHHA H BeCbMa Xapak- repua. Hanpumep, KHHoBapp (cepuucraa pryrb) Berna o6manaeT KapMH- HOBO-KPACHEIM UBETOM; JUIN MamaXHTa XapaktepHa APKoseneHaA OKpacKa; kyOu4eckHe KpHcTaaHKH MUpHTa JerKo y3aHafoTeA No MeTamHYeCKA-300- qucromy upery HT. a. Hapaay c sTHM OKpacka Gompuloro KoaMuecTBa Mutiepason HaMeHula. TaKoBbL, HanpuMep, pasHoBHyHocTA KBapua: Gec- ugerabie (npospambte), MomOWHO-GesbIe, 2enTOBATO-Gyphie, MOUTH Yepubie, quonerossie, pososste. Baeck—Takxe BecbMa xapakrepHbiii Mpv3Hak MHOTHX MuHepastoB. B omHux cayuaax on OveHb NOXOK Ha Oneck MeTasoB (rameHHT, NHpHT, apceonuput), B Apyrux—na 6ueck crekna (KBapu), nepaamyTpa (My- ckosut). Hemano u TakHX MHHepasoB, KOTOPHIe AaKE B CBEKEM HaOME BBITIAAAT MATOBBIMH, T. €, He HMeIOT Ou1ecKa. Yacro MHHepamb Berpevaiotes B KPHCTasax, HHOrAa ONeH KPYMHEX, HOTA IpesBEliaiHO MEJIKHX, YCTAHABIHBAeMBIX JIM C MOMOMIbIO AyTBL un Mukpockona. JIna pana MHHepasios KpucramsuYeckHe (opMBl BecbMa THnMHE, HANPHMeD, AJA NMpHTa— KyOuvecKMe KpHCTasmB, AK Tpala- ToB—PoMGo-MoneKadmpEr, Aan Gepuana—mecturparninte MpHsMEt. OLHAKO B OOAbUIMHCTBE cIy4aeR MHHepambHble Maccbr HaGmO_aIOTCA B BHILe CIOL HBIX 3€PHHCTEIX AFperaToB, B KOTOPHIX OTMeNIbHBIe 3epHa He OGAaqaloT Kpieragsorpaduveckuma ovepranuawn. MuorHe muepasbHere BeuecTaa pacnpocrpauewa TaKxKe B BHAe HATCUNEIX Macc, HHOTRA NPHYYAAHBO! op- MBI, HuNero OGulero He HMeIOWUX C KpHcrassamH. TakoBbl, HampHMep, NOYKOBHHBIe MaCCBl MaaXHTa, CTasJaKTHTONOLOGHDIe O6pasoBaHna JIHMO- Huta (rmApooKncnoB 2enesa). Munepanst pasamuaiotcr # mo Apyrum dusiieckum csoficrsam. Onna 3 HUX HACTOMBKO TEepAL, YrO JeTKO OCTABAMIOT WapamHH Ha CTeKTe (keapu, Tpavat, nMpHt); Apyrue caMH WapanaioTca OGJOMKAMH cTeKsa HJ ocrpHem Hoxka (KanbUHT, ManaxHT); TpeTbM OGxamaioT HacTombKO HUSKOR TBepAOCTBIO, YTO werKO YepTaTea HOrTem (Func, Tpadur). OnHH MHHepamb MpH pacKambBaHH JerKo paciiienasioTea nO ONpexeneNHBIM TMIOCKOCTAM, oOpasya OGAOMKH MpaBHAbHOl GopMbL, MOXOXxKHe Ha KpHcTasm (KaMen- Has COub, TaTeHHT, KaNBUT); APyrHe aioT B H30Me KPHBBIC, «paKOBH- erbie> nosepxnocra (xpapr). LlupoKo Bapbupylor w Takwe cBojicraa, Kak YienbHB BeC, WLABKOCTs Hp. Crom 2Ke pasmminet H XHMMUYeCKHe cBolicTBa Muepanos. OxHA aerko Pactsopalorca B BoNe (KaMeHHas CoJlb), APYrHe PaCTROPHMH JMU B KA- caotax (KambuHT), TpeTbH YcToiyHBE ake oO OTHOUIeHMIO K KpenKAM KucnoTaM (kBapu). Boxbullicreo MuHepastos xopoulo coxpaniaerca B BO3- aywuolt cpene. Onwako HSBeCTeH pak MPHPOAHEIX CoeRHHeHHH, TerKO MOR- BEPralOUHXCH OKHCHeHO HM pasTO%eNMio 3a cueT KHCHOpoRa, yrneKH- cuore M Baar, comepxamuxes B Bosayxe. Taio ycrasioBneHo TaKKe, 470 HeKOTOpHIe MHHepadbI TOR BosmelicTBHeM CpeTa MCHMOT cBOIO OKpACky. Bee stu caoficrpa MuHepasos HaXOmATCA B MpHUMHHOL saBHCHMOCTH OT ocoBeHHocrelt XHMHYecKoro cocraBa MuHepasoB, or KpucrasmiuecKoik CTpYKTYpst BeMlecTSa H OT CTPOCHIA aTOMOB HAH HOHOB, BXOAMUMHX B CO- cras coeauienui. Muoroe, 470 panbwe . Ka3Q10Cb 3araQOUHbIM, Tenepb, B cBeTe walk COBpeMeHHEIX AOCTIKEHHH TOUNDIX HayK, Ban ocoGenHo HIHKH H XHMHM, cranoBnTes nce Goalee H Gosee sicubiM. B casau ¢ sTHM BCHOMHHM HexoTopute BaxHeiUMe jt Hac MomOKeHnA gusHKH, xuMHM, DusnueCKOH xHMUM, KpucTanao- XUMHW H KOAIONANOH XUN. Arperatnpe cocroaHHa MuHepasos. Kak yoxe ykasimpanoce, cormacho cyme- CTBYIOWWIM TpeM arperaTAbIM CocTOsHHAM BeMlecTBa, pasAMyaioT MuHeEpadbi TREpALIe, HIKE H TasooOpasunie. JhoGoe neutectao Heoprannueckott npH- POABI B 3aBHCHMOCTH OT TeMMepaTypb H AaBACHNA MOET WaXOANTECA B JIOGOM arperaTHom cocrosHHH, a IPH HaMeHeHHA THX akTOpoB MepexoqATs H3 OOO aa cocTosHHa B Apyroe ae Us dusnveckoii xunimt ussectHo, wo ace xua- ur, 5. Mwarpamma TP oguo- Kue W TEepable BeMecTBA OGAaAOT CHOCOOHOCTHO —_KOMMOHEHTHO cHeTeMit —HyO uenapateca, ysennunaaouciica mpi narpewannn, (cxema) {pu Kexaol Rannoit resmepatype aoGomy weute- — ‘7—rewneparypa; P—aanaenne; K—xp ctay caoiicraeuua onpereaeunan ympyrocre (nazae- —Tuveckae Towra’ (vanecena Me B Mace we) napa, Hacuiueiomero oKpyxa¥utee mpocrpaH- Irae awarpaus) Tso H HaxoAmmeroca C sTHM BEU\eCTBOM B paBiO- nec, Jl1m TBepabx Tes, O6aanawulNx BECOKIME TennepatypaMH nsaBxeuun, 9ra ynpyrocts Mapa mpl HUSKNX-TeMnepatypax cToms AUYTON- na, ro MpawTaveckH panna novTH Hy.H0. OGpatustea K paccMotpenitio ooKOMNONeHTHON cucreNtx HO, us0SpaxenHION B ange Anarpawsit Ha nr. 5. Bee note pHcyHka wa ocione OmMTHLX HaHHLX pasoNTO Ha TPH OGnactH yeToluboro cymectBoBatMA Napa, BonM H abna. [pm Temmepatype, GaNsKod K KomHaTHO!, M pHeMHeM RaBAeHHH, pasHOM omUOR atMocbepe, cocromaite Hamel cH crews GyzeT’ Bupakateca urypaTteHoh TosKoh m, 7. e, Haul ceTeMa Oyxer npem crapnena soxoit (xuaKoi dasoil). Mpa stux yenonkax yapyrocrs MAN AaBneNHe nape, Racuuaomero oKpyxKaioutee mpocrpancrao, GyseT waMepaTueA orpesKom cd. TIpn noswieni Texneparypys, Ho up coxpanenin MOCTORNHOTO BKemMHero Rapaenia durypatisuan toxka’m Oyster mepemewatoca Kaepxy no npAMol mb. [Ips STOM ynpyrocts Hapa BOAM, Kak MOXHO BIuLeTe no noBeReMO KpMBoH AK, GyaeT NO erenenio pospactars, 910 osavaer, uO ANA HacwMeHHA NapaMH npocrpaucrsa notpe Gyloren nonosmuTenbute KoaMectBa, BeseRCTBHe vero GyseT UMeTS MecTO YaCTHIHOe Henapennte nos. Econ durypatasian Towka, oTpamaroMman cOcTonnile cHcTeMs, AOCTHT- Het Touku 6, nexkamefi Na KpHBoR AK, to ‘ww Gyzem uMer> cayval, Korna HzO omm- 3 36 Ceolicrsa muxepanos. Ooume cueneHas Haxoxo ycrofiuiipa KaK B KIKOM, TaK H Tas0oGpasHOM coctosHnA. B stom caysac, KaK Mondo BUXeTL U3 pHeyHKa, ynpyrocr® napa sons Gyzer pasHa BHeMHeMy, aTwoCbep- Homy nasaenmo. Tp na‘witeluen ‘noamuenxn Tevmepatypa ympyroct ‘napos ye NpepkcuT nileuiiee apne, uTO BuSOBeT Bcem HoBeCTHOE sBAEHMe KiNeHHA (GYpHOTO Henapenun) 2KUAKOCTH Oo MoMHOTO ee HovecHoneHHA (parypaTHBHag TOUKa onazaeT Ye B Apyry!0 OGs1acTS, A HMEHHO B OGnacT ycroluMBorS MapooGpasiioro cocromMNA 11,0), npuiem nprox tena Gyger pacxonosatses Ha npouece mapooSpasonanua (cKpH- aa Tenora xarienna) }. Tip nowmxennn ‘tewneparypa Guryparuanan rouKa m GyaeT nepememarsca KHRaY, npusem u3 nosexenua xpusoi AK BuxHO, To ynpyrocrs mapa BORK, a cAexoBaTesbHO, 4 cTenewa wachmeuna us npoctpancrsa, npH stow nanaeT. CaemcroMeM sToro sBHTCA wactuunan KoNaeHcaufin 3a cer m3GuTKa mapa, Sto Aue HAM XOPOWIO maBECTHO NO OGpasosaHMo pocsi B HOUHCE BpeMs, Ecau Gurypatuaiian Towa gocturHer TouKH nepeceyenHa c KpHBOR AC, To Hacty- nar panionecne xiixKol x Teepaoh das (r. e. soam H mbla). Tip qambKeltiten oxaam- AeHHH MEL TonanaeM yxKe B OOaAcTS yeTohuuBOH TRepAOh hasM: BOR AHAKOCTS UCueSHER, HocreneHHo npespamancy 8 «ex, Mpitien Gyzer Meth MecTO BuAeeMMe TeMLla, KAK OB erpemameces ocraviosit» npouece amepaaiinn Bont. Ecau we Teneps Mu MemTaem amy cHtcteny mp mocTORHBOR TemuepaType, Ho mpl mewmomemen sHemHeM nanmenHH, TO Syne naGmoaaT sium’ oTvacTa anaaoruumme xe sinnenua, Tip’ nonmxennn Bieumero Aanzenna duryparusniax TouKa GymeT NepememaTsea B1eD0 nO AHHH mc, MpHieM GyaeT MMeTh MecTO YacTHYHOe eMapeHNe >KUAKOCTH. B tom, s70 wenapeie xeficersHrensHO uMeeT MecTo, MomHO Gu0 Ou yOeaursen ‘ua exexyiouem npoctom ombte. TIpexctasmm cee 2axpuTai ¢ | Omforo Konna unamHp co cKOASaAINHM B HEM MOPUIEM. 1 MeKOTOPIIM. KOMH- hi uectsom ponw (ur. 6), B paBHUBecuM ¢ KoTOpol HaxogMTca Nap, Hacumlalo- uti npocrpancrso nan Hef. Eau met yneM yMenbmars BHeuHee naBrenve (ortsribar opie Koepxy), TO OGvem mpocrpanicrea ax nonoh OyaeT yeemmunbarses. Tak Kak ynpyrocrs napa px oaKol m ToR wKe TeMMepaType (ur. 5) noarkna Our rloctommHOl, To ecrecrseHHO, WTO AAA KoMMeHcaiHH HowwsuBwerocn AaBsenin napos YacTs BOM MpH sTOM ROTKHA cooTaeTCT- BeHHO HenapuTbes. Tip gocrinKenHM TouKH d HactynHT moMeHT onMHaKoBOR yerofiuupocrH AMAKO! H ras0o6pasHof das. Ecan apnenie cpasy yMenb- mires nacrossKo, uo urypatieHas TOuKa mepefixer sa ToKy d, Cymer HaGmonaTocr KiineHKe ¢ mlorsomenHem Tena a napoo6pasosaatie., Sto BUBOBeT OxAARAeNHe cHCTEME, a cAeLOBATERLMO, H KONeHCAUMO Napa, “noKa He HacTYMMT ODOe pasHovecte MpH YcranosHoueca AapzeWH. K TaKoro : Pona ssneHnaM oTHOCHTes, HanpuMep, fesTebHOCT reiigepo: cHABHO Ha- Pur. 6. pperize sox, HlomxoAT K OBepRHOCTH aeMaH OA GOABILHM AaBMeKHEM, pH Hwawna- puesaniom octaGaeHun pHelMero AaBeHUA Gucrpo Npespauiaiorea B map Pueckull yc cnnof BuGpacstearoTes AReDX. craKan ¢ Tip yoetnsennn snewnero ‘nanneniia (Ko mp coxpanennn temnepary- NOpWHEM pya) urypatuBuaa TOHKa m, BMparKaloulaN cocTORuHE cucTeMu, GyseT CMe UaTecs 0 ropHsoNTaABHOR AMM Bupano. C yseauyenNeN Dueumero zaBae- ‘Hua, TO paBHOCHASHO, HaMpHMep, YserHYCHEIO TAYOHHE D SeMUOR KOpe, Kak 970 aerKo BiixeTs m3 ANarpaMMts, YMPYrocTb’ Mapa, HacuMaIoMero Mpocrpaucrso (oTpe- a0K ed), ocracren nocTOsuHO!; MenAcTeH ANI» OOweM mpoctpaxcTea, HaculeHHOrO napoM. ‘Bro Gwi10 GM HeTpyAHO MOKa3aTs ¢ MOMOMBIO TOFO IKE MLIHHAPA, 0 KOTOPOM M2a pede sume (pur. 6). Ecit ws Oyxem yscmrumpars Beumes xaBmenite, wae ronops, nABHTe Ha mopuiens, TO Oem npocrpaucrsa Hon BOLO, ccTecTBeHHO, Oyret YMeubllatbca HB TepBHe MOMENT KOKIeHTpauA Mapos, a cHenOBaTeDHO, M Ynpyrocts ux OyayT ouMe, eM 970 osaraerea npH AaUHOR Temmeparype. Tlostomy Hs6uTOK napos GyseT KouneteHt- PoBatses, nepexont B BORy, NoKa cicTewa ne Gyzer OGaaqaT npemneh ynpyroctiio apa, Takna o6paa0m, mp HaMeweMHm nueuHero AanAeHHs, HO MpH mocrosawoll Temnepa- Type D Hamel cHcreMe GysleT MeNsTSCH Jl COOTHOMeHMe MexAY OObeMaMH, sanHMae- MMH Mapom BonOK. Ha aHarpamme 970 cooTHoMeHHe OyzeT Bupakanben cooTHOUIe- uuem_ mam orpeskos cd : dm. Eca janiente m Teneparypa Oymyr Meusrect onHospemento, To nepeentexne coctonitiit ciictent Ha MYTH K pabuoneciio Gyner mponcxomuTD He nO npAMiM JMHHANM, KaK 9TO HMeNO MeCTO HO cHx nop, a NO HeKOTOPHM KpHBEM. Hanpanaenne Wx sanncHT or saka HaMeneuH# Teumepatypy H AaBaenus, a opMa—OT cooTHoMeHHIA cKopocTef kamenenHa otix aKropos. Bee, 70 Gui ckasaio npo Boay, cnpaBeAAMDO H AA sAbAA © TOA pasHMel, uTo yapyrocts napos, cocymectayiouuex c TeepaKM Testom (xpusaa AD), sHawuTeMDKO AHR, + Benomium npxinun Jle-lMlatense: ecam chcTema, Haxomsmasca B MCTHHOM paBHo- Bec, Moasepraerca Bosaciicraitio, To sto BosmelicTEMe BuIWBAeT peaxuiio, KoTOpaR Gyner crpemuteea ocaaGuTs nonysaiounlicn sppext. Arperarawe cocronuua munepaion j ar em 2knAKorO tena. TIpH Harpesanum durypaTHeHam ToWKa nm Mepememtaercn KRepXy, a ynpyrocrs napa np sToM, Kak BRAM 3 HoReNeHHs KpHBOR DA, HecKOmbKo yRenn- qubaeTcn, TO BHABaeT YacrHNHOe HcMapeHMe WAM, KaK TOuOpAT, sosroHKy (cy6mMMa- mio) aba, 7, €. Mepexon M3 TBepsorO cocromuus cpasy B nap. Tipu RocTInKeHM TORKH epecesennt ¢ Kpuso AC Twepioe Teno GyxeT womRepratscd MAaBxeHMo ¢ MoFTOMe- unem_ tenaa. Tipu yMenbwennu xasnenn mpi MlocrossiHofl Temnepatype cocromMe cuctemm cMe- maeren pileso H conpoRomaaeTca YacruMHOMl cyOmmmaniel mbna. ECan Om Ham yaanoce ROCTHTHYTS CToMb HBKOTO AABMeHHA, YTO CuryparusHaa TOXKA Nepewaa Oi TOUKY TO Becb eX UeHKOM Mepeled Gx B TapooGpasHoe coctomiue. B semuofi Kope cron WHOKHE | AABACHUS MIpAKTHECKH He HMeIOT MecTa, HO MpH CHAbHNX BeTpax y caMoh HoBepxHOcTit sibLa 6UBAIOT, ONeDUAHO, MOMENT aHauNTeNbHOTO paspeKenHA BOSAYXA, ¥TO BUBMBACT HACTHYHYIO CYOOHMAMHIO kH/KOTo RelllecTBa XOWKHA NPOHCXOgATS pH Toi 2%e TeMMepaType, TO H IlaBAeHHe TBEP- woro Tesla TOTO 3Ke COCTaBa, HO OODINHO OHA HactynaeT MPH He KOTO POM NepeoxnaKAEHUH %KUAKOCTH, HTO BCerLa HeOOXCAUMO HMeTb B pany. Tsepable xHMHUeCKH HCTBIe BeilecTBa, xapakTepusyiommMecn Gecro- panounolt etpyktypoll, 7. e. oTCyTCTBHeM 3aKoHOMepHOro pactonoxeHHis ATOMOB, HOcaT HasbaniNe aMop Hb x (cTeKT0OOpasibix) Ten. OnM mpH- HaliexaT K YHCAY H3OTPONHDIX RelLECTE, T, e. OOMALAIOULHX TO BCeM Ha- NpapnewHaM coBepilenHo onuHaKoRBIMA dusHueckHMH cpoficreamH. Xapax- TepHOl OCOGeHHOCTSIO aMOPHBIX BeIMECTB, B OTINUNE OT KPHCTAMTUIECKUX, aBseTeH TAKE NOCTEMeHNMT MePexXOA oMNOro arperarHoTO co- CTOMHHA B Apyroe Mo naaBHo® KpHBOH (cbur. 8B) moq0GHO cypry4y, 38 Caoiicraa _munepanos. Ooume caenenna KOTOpHIii Mp HarpeBaHAM NOCTeNeHHO CTaHOBHTCA THOKUM, SaTeM BAaKHME M, HAKOHeH, KarlembHO-KHAKUM. Amopéuble pelllecTBa yacTO NomyualoTcA Mp gaTBeprenaHHH pacmaaB- ACHHBIX BASKHX Macc, OcOGeHHO Kora OXTaKeHMe paciaBa npoucxoAUT oven Gticrpo. [Ipumepom MoxeT Cay%kuTb OGpasoBaHue Muepasa srela- Teabepuita — aMopduoro KBaplleBoTO cTeksa — Mpa yzape MomHH B KBap- uepile Kpucrazmmieckue nopogbi. Tepexon amopdunix pemecrs 8 Kpucraa- auyeckHe Maccht MoxeT mpoxsoliTH JMU pH MpomomMkUTeAbHOM BELLEp- XMBAHMH HX B PASMATHCHHOM COCTORHHM MPM TeMMepatype, GaUIKO; k TOUKe mapzeHHA, —+ Teanepomypa / —— Speus —= lemnepamypa —— bpeua A . & ©ur. 8. Kpuoite arpesanua xpucranauyeckoro (A) am axopuoro (B) pemects Caenyer fo6aBHtb, ¥TO AaneKo He Bce BeMlecTRa MoryT GLITS zerkKo nomyueHb! B aMOpHOM cocTOAHuH. TakoBbl, HaNpyMep, MeraambI, KOTOpHIE naxke pM BaKaake ne O6pasyloT creKnooOpasHbix eulecTs. Crpoenne Kpucraaamueckoro wemectea. CrpoeHie KpHcraaa ompe- MeNAeTCA: YHCIOM CTPYKTYPHBIX eLHHHL (ATOMOB, HOHOB, MomeKys1), COOT- HOUeHHeM HX pasMepOR H HX MOMApHAMOHHBIMH cBOfcTBAMA (OCHOBHOR Kpucranmoxamuvecknit npanuun B. M. Tombaumusta). ATOM, Kak HapecTHo, npencrasaser coGoh croxHyIO sueKrpoMarHuTHy.O cucreMy. cocrommyio’ Hs: 1) NOOMHTeMbHO SapsKEHKOTO TAKeKOTO ANDA, B KOTOPOM MIpaKTHYeCKH cocpenoToveria Bea Macca aToma, H 2) OTpHllaTeMbHO SapsKeHWAX serKNX seKTPOHOB, GNCTPO BpaMaIoUUNXcA TO OPOHTAM Ha PasHHX ypoRNAX BOKpyr snpa. CrenosatenbHo, ATOM MO CBOEMY CTPOeHMO aBumOTeR Kak OM MHAMATIOPHAIMM KOTMAMM MLaiteTHAX cucrem. Tak KaK aTOM B MeHOM RBAReTCR SaeKTPHYECKH HeliTpaAbHM, TO sapAN AMpa Aon- wen GtiTh paseu cyMMapHoMy sapany saeKTpoHos. Umenentioe Bupaxenne sapala AAPA Y PasHUX ATOMOB HAXOAHTCH B COOTHETCTOHR ¢ MOMOKeHHeM SueMeHTA B NepHOANHECKoH cucrene I. 1. Mengeneesa a onpeneaseten mopankostim Homepom snementa (dur. 9), KOTOPOMY paBHO ‘iicMO SMeKTPOHOB, CBASAHINX C ALPOM: B aTOMe BOLOPOAA CORepKUTCH Beero ANU OHH STeKTPOH H 3apAR spa, cnenoBaTenbHO, pasen +1, B aToMe remiA— Apa sieKTpoHa, B aTOMe JNTHIA— TpH SAeKTPOHA HT. fl. 20 Yala,’ B atoMe KoTOPOTO conepmuten 92 saexrpona na paswNK ypoBHax noKpyr sixpa. Yneno saeKTpoHANx yposHel HAH OGOAONeK, KaK HaSEIBaIOT AMA ymOGcTBa paccy>- nenuf, xoneGaetca ot 1 m0 7. Hs auarpannnt (pitt. 9) MOAKHO BHZETE, WTO 9TO HHCHO pH Bospacrausn mopanKoBoro HoMepa KaxksUit paz, KaK TOKO MBL AOCTHTaeM sleMeHTA nepsott rpynns (Li, Na, K «7. a), yaemuinaercn wa enunmiy. Bee xHMuYeCKHe CBOMCTBA sTeMeHTOS, OOYCIOBINBAOMMe ux moBeReHHe MPH XUMMYECKHX peaKWIAX, CBNIAHM He € MAPAMM ATOMOB, a CO CTPOCHHEM HX Hap YAAK wacteii, cocroniux Ns snextponos. TIpH stom ocoGyio poxb ErpaioT nasenTHBe SueKT- POHL nepudeprieckix oBonoveK. Tlo Mepe ospactanus nopsnxonoro HoMepa sueMeHTa, Kak 9TO MOXHO BHMeTH M3 Toh me xHarpamnur (cp. KoHONKH WHp y KaxNOTO omeMenTa cnpawa), B MepBsIx Pex Cipoenme xpweranmmyeckoro veuecrs Sag Sew el ye of OY BORZOR a aie. 2(Owel BON SOs FC S| can ete MEE £22803203 eae Sites SSRN ee see) 8(0)a SO)BEOR [8@)g 2308 wen’ Seten seaten| sO)x s-O)8 EO)8 es O SUR . eo SOx 808 FOR 55: OHO} gO ORLOs Inca PSSen ~SAeo, ORs CREE eon rss ZO. SOsgO8 SCs ene [ates ~atiieen| 2£©Os\zO. 8O BOs FO, 20, Besos Sate BEOXFO 203 Ben Repen seseonf SEE] ~ a 5©s|2Ox =Oal-O8 78g ay 8 ee g FR Soe Bes ES =. 5 Oa sl>@si2Os FOR 2 A = Oge OpR@ge Sess V/A (Se en face vette ed 2 Og 8 g\8(O)x 2O)<\E(O)X | Og PO gE Og tae SBS ee : OMNOON 0) ON 2 ke 28 8 So a a, ~e S 2 @y2Os8(O)4O)4 oO fe FR SR on ome pein ur, 9, Feoxmmaeckan ta6amua snementos. Mo A. H. Sanapauxomy ey riwoMMacisaGe; = paSMepaM HAOKOS. i i : ‘orwessior pasMepam #rowon” 8 aah (epene KETWOHOS, & KPYMKM, WORASSHNME MYUKTHPHMIM g 5 a 5 i 2 iaor ix HOPRAKORME HOMEPA: NOAOHKH HNO)P Mocae suAKa SeMeHTA—ANcaN BneXTpOHOS "Kpyackiy 3 g i a : ‘msoopaneimiue Xi Linge neper waspanen ugpil noa Kpy xKaMl ex 40 Csoficraa musiepanos. OGuiMe caenenus NepHonax Kaxkxui Hopuh sTeKTpOH saHMMaer MecTO B camofl noBepXHOCTHO! oGosONKe. B verseprom, iaTow Mm ulectow Gombilx nepHOLAX, a TaKKe B cebMOM, HesaKOHeHHOM Repoue (8 arowax suementon Ni 21--28, 39—46, 72-78 wn 89—92) npxOasamommecs SHEKTPOHH TOCTPAHBaIOT He caMYIO BHEUMHIO, a cHeryIoMyio 9a Hell BTOpyIO OGoTONKY. B wecrom mepitore B aromax azementon Ne 57—71 xoctpofika nponcxomT aaxKe Ha TpeTbeM oF MepupepHH saeKTpouHOM ypoBHe. HauGorce npowsmn # YcTOfsHstimi sBasIOTCR ATOM, B KOTOPNX HapyxHan O60- Houka mocrpoexa x3 8 sueKTpowos. Stomy yesonmo, Kak BHO M3 AnarpaMMis (dur. 9), ynosnetsopmot atoms Gnaropomiux Tasos: Ne, Ar H ap. (BKmovag coma i He, Kotopuiit maeet scero 2 saexrpoua). Atoms xe GoabitmicTba SiemenToa OOnanaioT HeycroiianBoi Koudurypannel amextpoHos 80 BHemmHel OGonouKe. B npupone penko cosnaioten yc0BHA, H TO He JA BCox sueMeHTOS, KOrNA MOryT OGpasoBarsen outioanemenTitie aroMmue ‘ocTpofixn (TaKOB, RanpHmep, cawopomuue merany). OOWYHO aTOMM pasHHNX mo xHMUYeCKHM cBOMcTBaM SNeNeHTOD, BsaHNO- nefictaya pyr ¢ apyrom, ctpemster O6pasosars ycrofiunByto, BocbMusaiexrponKIy!O Hapyxiyro OGonouKy Tana Gaaropoaux rasp, [pH stom ATOM OMX s7eMeHTOB OTaloT Yacth CROHX HapYAKHHX SHeKTPOHOB, MpyrHe, HaoGopor, TpHoemMNMOT. K cebe HenocTutoulee to 8 yHeO sueKTpoHOB. HanpaMep, atom Harp (ur. 9) Teper onMR Wapyxnuit («Baseutauis) snextpor, TepAA mph 9TOM HeKOTOpy!o YacTh SHEprHE, HO 3aTo NpHoGperaer yetoMuitsoe crpoeHne, OAHHAKOBOe co crpoeHitem aToMa Heona, Atom Xaopa, HaoGopor, npkoGperaer stor HenocTaIoMIM emy JANG NOJMOTO KoMMeKTa SJeKTpOH H TOXe craopitte allamOruMBM MO CTpOeHIO aTOMY aproua. ATOM KaltbitHA cTocoGeR ‘Tepat Asa HapyKHHX saeKtpoHa. Een TyT 2Ke MpHcyTcrayioT aToMM (ropa, 70 OHM oxorHo TpHoGperawr stH axekrponm M CtallovATea No cTpocHiNO axanorHiHKMH aToMaM neona (fur. 9). [Ip stom kaxxauih atom, Tepaiomni orpiuatensuo sapaKeunue sneKt- pony, MpHoOpetaeT HoMORMTEABNNA sapAR, a atom, mpHcoeAMHmMOMME K ceGe saekrpouy, craopatca OTPHMATeADHO 3apaKeHHH MH, TakHe sapmkelue atom HocnT Haspaute MowoD, Tloaoxmtemto sapmKenmnie now HasusaoTer Katnonamn (Nat, KI, Mg, Cat, Al, Sift, PS* u_ap.), a otpititaterbuo sapaxennne—annonama (Fr, ‘Cir, O%, S* 4 ap.). TaKnw oGpasom, BaneHTHOCTS HoHOB OTECIaeT UReAY OTHATHX Halt’ npHOGpereHMAX HeliTpamHAM aTOMoM ‘saeKrpoxo B HapyrxHOH OGoAONKe, 7. e. aNeay sapanon woHa. C xHMIIeCKOH TOUKH spel ofa OTBevaeT YHCAY xMMHYeCKHK cBAseh cC MOHAMM MpoTHBOKORO‘HOTO sHaka npH O6pasosannu Heltpansuoro coeannenus, nanpumep: NaCl, CaF2, FesOs m7. 2. B npunuine xawzuit anement, nocxoabky on m cucreme J V1. Menseneesa pac- Nonaraerch Mexky ABYMA GxaropOARWMM TasaKH, MoxeT OOpazopaTe ycromuNBNe no eTpoeHItO HOHE ABORKiIM crOcOGOM: MYTeM HOTepH sulekTpOHOR 11 MpHOOpeTeIiA Toso 2kHTeABHOTO sapALa, AGO NYTEM AOCTPOKH HApYRHOR OOOOVKH HM TOnyYEHHS oTpHUA- TenbHoro sapata. Hanpumep, mtn cepa MM side KaK xaTiton SS (p cymsatax) co erpykrypoli Heoua, Tax m anvon S* (5 cyabdnaax) co crpyktypoh aprona, [ep- BMH MOKeT O6pasoBatocn, HaNPHMEP, B yCAOBUAX jAOCTATONNON KOHILeHTpANNN KHcOpORa, Herko BocmpHHiMaIOMIerO' AMHHIe SieKTpOHM (B NpHpOAMMX yenoBHAx OCEAN O6pa BYeT TOALKO AHHON), BTOPO!, HaoSopot,— NpH HenocTATKe KHCMOpoRa HB MpHcyTCTBMA THKEMLX MeTA/MMOB, He BCTPYAIOWUXcA B BAe AKHOHOB, TO ecTh seTKO OTRAIOMNX wacTh BORK sneKTpOHOB. Oniako 5 mpnponmux yenopunx caywan oOpasoBaHiin OnNHM uM TeM xe SaeMCHTOM KaTHoHOS MH aRHOHOB OVENS pemkH Kpowe cepti, Taxoh cnocoHocTHIO OGiaxaioT aituIy cere H Texayp (bir. 9). BooOme oe Noaaaamiontan Macca XHMMYeCKX smeMeHToB BeTpe- YaeTeA B coeAHNeHHAX JNGO B BHAC KATHOHOB, «IGO B BURe aNHOHOB, Vs reoxumuveckohi ra6annh sxementos’ (bar. 9) aerko BumeTb, To sneneHTM rpynn IV sceraa oGpasyiot To“bKo KaTHOWN, a anWONM HapecTHM’ saa smeMeHTOB VI VIE rpynn m Hapenka a1 Boxopona (a Komnaexce NH,). Stu reoximmueckne oco- GeHHOCTH smeMeHTOB Bcerta BAKO HMeTh D BURY, Hexorope s7emewti o6pasyioT HOH HeCKONDKHX PaneHTHocTel, anpumep: VS, Ve, Ve (a mexycernenmisx coeaHenuax Taxe V4): Mn, Mn 1 Mni (s"wexycersennbx coemuneniax, Kpome Toro: Mn+ u Mni4); Fet, Felt (n ncxye~ crBeHHBx coemuHenHax TaKxe: Feo u Felt) ut. a.!, Qaemewts 'sTHx woHOB pac- Hlonaraioren B cepenune Ta6muuw (pur. 9). Crpocnue Xx aToMoB ‘TaKOBO, WTO RAR o6pasoBanua ycToHBNX HoHios ¢ S-seKTpORHOA HapyxkHO KoMpirypaunell uM MPH XoWITCA OTLABAT SHAUHTENSHOe KOAHUECTeO SMeKTpOHIOR, xn vero Tpe6yeTen KH 3Ha- aureapianit pacxox aueprist, TlocaemHee ovesiaHo ne Bcerla OcyUecTBHMO, TaK Kak 9TH | XapaxrepHo, ufo W Apyre smemenTi cepequmM mepHogHyecKoi cHcTemM, BCTpe NalouMHech B MpHPOXe TOKO B ple HaNGonee ycTORUNBUX HoHos ¢ 8-31eKTpOHHOR siteumieh ooa0uKoi, 8 taCopaTOpANX YesOBHSX cNOCOOHML aRaTs HOM PASHBIX BasTeHT- noctel, wanpumep (‘pur. 9): Nb, a ickycermenno raroKe Nb% u Nb‘ a sate Mo, 2 MexYccrseHHo, KpoMe Toro, Mo, Moi, Mott a MoS nt, 2, Srim s skauireap: Hof Mepe oOnsicHserca, MOYeMy “HCO MHHepanOB HecpaBHeHHO ¥iDKe Mena HCKyC- eToeHKO MOnyuaeMNX XHMMYeCKHX coeReHUA, Crpoenne xpucrananyeckoro pelitecTBa ‘ au anementH B npHpoxe pacnpocrpanemu 8 piule HoHOB Mente CHMMeTPHYHOR KoNMrypauAA {avicn0 snextpoHion B HapyxKHOR OGonouKe ormMaeTer OT BOcbMH). B XxHMHYeCKHX CoemH- HeHMAX, a cTa20 OUTS, MB KPHCTAMAMYECKHX pellleTKAX STH pasHoRANeHTHWe HORN BenyT CeOa He OmHKaKOEO. Tpynna penkix semen TR (Ne 57—71), Kak MH yxe yxasiBans, xapakrepH- syeren Tex, ‘TO MpHOaBAmioMuecs sAeKTpOHM JoctpanBawT Tak HasweacMyi N-060- AOUKY, TpeTso oT nepabepmt, CpenM wlecrord nepHona TaOaHus suesteHToR ova OOpa- ayer Kak 6M caMOcTOnTembHYIO ManeNBKYIO MepHoMHuecKyIO cucremy. Becoa mHTepecHO 10, ¥TO Bce 9TH OMeMeHTH, TepAd MBA BHEMIMUX S7eKTPOHA H OMUH SMeKTPOH H3 BTOpOR oGonoxxn (pur, 9), cTaNopaTcea ycrofiuNouiMn TpexsaneHTHNMN OHAMH, cOneprKa- nui 8 BHeWHIX SneKTpoHOB, T. é, MlooGHo GxaropoaHuM rasam. B npaMoii cpa” ¢ STHM HaxoAHTCA 70, WTO OHM STHX SeMeHTOB YAMBUTEDHO CXOAAM APYT ¢ ApyrOM no cBONM XAMHYecKMM cBoficTRaM, B MHHepavax BCerna peTpewaioTcA COBMECTHO H Np xHMHNeCKHX aHaamsax upeaBHvaiHo TpyAHO oTzeaNME Apyr OT spyra. To oOcTon- TeNBCTBO, YTO OHM neTpevalOTeT BMeCTe, MOIBOAHTD HOBOALHO TOwHO WsyUHTh KOAHYe- Crbewubte cootuomienta pacnpocrpanenHoctH wx B seMKOR Kope, BKMIOYaN cioga Hl GaNs- Ko pogcracHHii Hm TrpH (Ne 39). [pH momomt peurretocnexrpatHoro aNaiisa MuMepasion YcTaHosseHO caemyiomee SaKOHOMepHoe siBxenNe: sneMeHTN C MeTHHM nopankossim unenom (pur. 10) nerpexawtea p sHaYWTeALHO GoubleM KoaHiecTBe, "eM snemenTa cocenuHe c HHMH ¢ Hever HM OpAAKOBEM —HOMEPOM. —TIpHyeM vaHGonee pacnpocrpaveiit saemexTis © MeHBUINMH NopamKoBUMH YHeaaMH: — JMC Cem Ndt Tlocaeanuit nepwon cxetems sze- mentoa Jl. H. Mengeneesa oOanmaet saMeuaTelbHe 0 cBoHM cBOficToaMt neycrofiumpwe patwoaxTHpnye s7eMen- Tw, KOTOPHe TO cTpoeltiD aTOMOB He ormmaworer oT axementos V a VI ne- pionos ciictems (3a ucKaloyeHHeM rpynma penkHx semen H anemeHTos gg npasoro Kowa TaOsuus). Ha cyme- ctse pannoakTHeREX npespamennh wi octatonunten Tose, Szecb 2K AMID yKaxem, TO HckyccTBeHHNM fytem > Guan MonyweHs HORNE. «TpAlcypayo- 575650 60 OF 2 63 BF 6S 66 87 66 69 70°71 aues szeMente: tentyanf—Np (Ni 93), cayrommh Pu QW OH), exeruuirh Lo Ge Pr Nd Sm u Gd Tb Dy Ho Er Tu Yu Cp (Ne 95) xiopwi (Ne 96). Bee ont ur, 10, Pacnpoctpatennocrs xanrannzmux sMecTe ¢ ypawom o6pasyior anazorny- gmteMeHTOB nyto TR camoctorremsayio masenbKywo cuctemy (axtunnaes). Conepinentio ocoOumn caoficrnamn oGaanaior sxements, crenyiome sa Ni, Pd, # Pt, Tak HasbiBaemHe Kynponons:, ¢ 18-saeKTpORKOM HapyxHo! OGonoWKOR (pir, 9). To- erpoente noBo# rpynna sxeKxrpoHOB npoticxoaHT BHOBE B camo HapyxKHO o6ox0%Ke (Ne 29-35, 47-53 i 79-85). Xapaxrepuefiel ocoGentocrsio gtx saeMewToR mBaneT- cA 70, 470 YcTORYHBHE KaTHOMBI B HapYXHOH OGoAoKKe Melo 18 sAeKTPOHOB (cpeAH GnaropoxHsX TasoB MM He 3HaeM aToMOB ¢ HONOGHOA KoHAurypauNell saeKTpoHOR). Zina camo mes#, xpome Katvoua Cul, cymecrayer Tawxe vow Cu, 7. ¢, arom ee B MDHPORAHK yenonMAx cnocoGeH TepsTs eme omNN saextpoR. Jaa azementos Kpalinix MpaBHIX KOTOHOK waBecTHu cHaGo pactpocrpaHeHMe 8 MpHpone attuouN, B nenom ace STH yaeweHTH npexcTaBamoT KaK GM caMoctostembHNe moaynepHons 8 IV, V a VI NepHonax MeHzereescKoh cicrexts. OcoGeHHocTH cTpoeHitA HapyxKHOfl sneKTPOHHOR o60- 1 Tian sanommuanua waspanuh WeKoTOpHX peMKHX seme nosesHO MpHBecTH aH Hue oO npouexomnenn nx. SHavHTeNbHoe KONHYECTBO HOBEX seMetITOB G0 OTKPMTO B muepanax ogNoh mermar#rosot Konn Mrrep6a (Gans Croxronpma 8 Useust) Orciona uponsouut Take HasBanHa: urTep6alt—Yb (Ne 70), tepoui—Tb (Ne 65), sp6ni—Er (Ne 68), a taxxe urrpuli—Y (Me 39). B npemuux pykosoncrsax pacnpo- etpaeno HasBanne ‘qHauM—Di, Ho nosKe Gws0 AOKasaHo, ¥TO TOA sTIM HasBaHHeM ekpuBaioten Ba SHeMenTa, KOTOPHM OMA AaHS HeCKOABKO TIOKOKHE Haspaitia: Heo- aum—Nd (Ne 60) H mpaseoamm— Pr (Ne 69). Haapantte esponui—Eu (Ni 63) nano Mo erpate cera, tyaHli—Tu (Nb 69)—no crapomy ckanauHtascKomy Hassaniio Hlse- um 4 Hopseria, camapnfi—Sm (Ne 62) —no munepaty camapcKHTy (nasBanHoMy Tak ® uecth noakopiiNka CamapcKoro); smement ranoamul—Gd (Ne 64), TakKe snepaue OTKpuTiit B camapcKHTe, HazBaH B vecrs MuHepasora A. B. Tanommua, 8 Crpoenne xpuctazauyecoro seutectsa 42 — ~ at 5 2 : AOWKH CHIDHO CKaIHBAIOTCA H Ha MOBeMCHHN STHX SNeMeHTOB MIpH XxHMHYeCKHX peaK- 2 as 8 el 5 Wuisx, wx MUCPAWHH MPH TeoordueckHX NpOoweccax m OGpAsoBaHKIh OcoGUE wMimepaToD = ze = z 2 Bee ‘ont siaamorea stemenTaMn npeliMyntecraenio pyanux MecTopoxkxenii, 0. KoTopIx ei ze 2 & 3 STH SJeMeHTH, HECMOTpA Ha HX HH3KHe KAApKH B SeMHO! KOpe, HepemKo oOpasyior G6o- ° z 3 Fatwe ckorWeHnA, HaswBacMule pysamn. B stom oTHomeltHN MHOTO OOtLeTO c RHMH HMeIT < aks +8 Bs a ‘SNeMCHTH, MpuMbIKaloulHe K HMM caeBsa (cur, 9); Fe, Co, Ni, orvacta Mn, a TawxKe = . os —o ee @ Mo, W a saeMenta rpynmy naaTHHM. 2 w£f pas ce = 83's ge ae | 2 O6o6man cKasanHoe, MEI NOWKHEI pasmMYaTD CaeayioulNe rpynnbl npo- ea i. 2 CTX HOHOB, pacpocTpaHeHHDIX B NPHPOAHBIX coemUHeHUAX. ats 38 2& 8 I. Anwouw, xapaxrepusyiomuecn uckmouuTesbHO crpockuem Gnaro- af af

P sete 254 S25 44 | EE 82 oy y a a 3 S2Ee 2% DD oda nw Wy _ zs KOMMMEKCH Ee HOH (npeHMYLeCTReHHO aHHOHBI), KOTOpHe B KDH- . % ALS 2222248a8eaR | § 2 8E CTANAHYECKHX peUleTKAX CHOXHBIX coemMHeHHi (conelt) HTpawoT pomp Ta- & P KHX 2KE CaMOCTOATENBHBIX CTPYKTYPHEIX EMMHHU, KaK H MpOcTBle HOHBI. g = Ed K uncay ux oTHocaTcA, Hanpumep, [NO,]*, [SO,)®, [PO.}- a ap. Kataonst E 2 es a2 8 92 seasel e = & N, S a P, o6naqaioume ManbiMi pasMepamH H OoubUIMMH 3apaqaMu, pac- a o Bee ie os eee) oe Mogaraoren B cepemline STAX KOMMWIeKcoB. TakHe KOMTWICKCHbIe HOHBI al + ##¢+ o% £ = E454) & 4 5B BXOUST B PeUIeTKH B BHC KOMMAKTHEIX, MPOwO cBAgaHAEIX rpynn. Banext- 2 & GES 85 S G& ERREE ZG 88 HOCTb KOMIVICKCHEIX HOHOB, KaK CaMOCTOSTeJBHEIX CTPYKTYDHBIX eMHHHL, 3 25 ONpemenseTCA PAaSHOCTbIO MeXKUY BaJICHTHOCTLIO KaTHOHa H BAaJICHTHOCTHIO oe 22 aunoxa 8 Kommuiexce. Hanpumep, aaa (NH,]* sanewtHocrs Komnex- 2 2 Ss 88 2&R «SS eee 8s ca=5—4=-11; gaa (SO, pasentnocth =6—8—=—2, nan [PO,]- iS 3 Be a OS Boe Eo BasentiocTs = 5—8=—3 u 7. 2. B1=] 2 £4 «8 ¢ 4 “_t ate §8 PasMepm HONOB HAH ATOMOR HrpaloT BecbMa Gombulyio poab g ® =3 68 % se ae kez 3% pH o6pasopanHM KpHcTammHuecKHx CTpyKTyp. OT HHX SaBHICHT HE TOKO z Ban TOT WAH WHO MOpaLoK pacnomOrXeHHA B MPOCTPAHCTBE CTPYKTYPHLIX CAH- <= 22 Hill, B COOTBETCTBHH C HX SapsALaMH, HO TaKXKe, YTO OCOGeHHO BaxKHO AA = es 82 2 58 $55 eas §4 Hac, OTOOP TeX HH HHBIX XHMHYCCKHX STeMeHTOB, NPHTOAMEIX nad OOpa- _ a ee as 4 45 25 com 8s 30BaHUA LanHoit ycToiuMBo KpucTamM4eCKO CTpPyKTYpEI. = a RA ae & we 4, mite 424, BE B mponecce o6pas0Banua KpHcTasuM4eCKoro BellecTBa COMMKAIOMIHECA a 20 SN 6 00 axrZ ood ae TOMEI (HOHBI) CHJA@MH OTTATKMBaHHA YCTAaHaBAUBaIOTCA Ha OMpeNeseHHEIX — ae paccrosumax apyr or mpyra. [IpH cHMMerpHuHOM pacnonoxenun BOKpyT Be Kaxkqoro aToMa (WoHa) coceqHHX aToMoB (HOHOB) B NlepsoM MpHOmWKe- BS BR RBRS FR BSS 2 2188 HUM 9TH CTPYKTYpHEIe CAMHMUBI PaccMaTpHBAIOTCA KaK COMPHKACAIOUIMeCA a r—~—“—SONCCCC_CCssC—sM ce 4! HeCKUMaeMBbIe Uapbi, OBTaRaioMue onpeerenHof jut KarKMOrO aToMa at 4s ast oe 42% & %-['e ma 2M ee aoe ° {uowa) wenutunoit paguyca. PasMep aTOMHBIX H HOMHBX Panu g YCoB B KpHcramanueckux crpykTypax MpuBeneusi B Tau, 4 4 Croficrsa minepasos, OSume cBenenis BeauHia paguyca cuabHo saBHcuT of aHaka HM BeNHUMHLL sapana wowa, KarHonbi, norepaBiine suexTponst napy2xHou O60T04KH, no cpaBHe- Hiio © ATOMAMH, ECTeCTREHHO, HMeIOT MeHBIHe pagMepsl pasHycoR, auMoMED 2ke HaoSopor. Hanpumep, aTomHniii panuyc cepst S9= 1.04A, S*— 0.34A, S*=1.81A. Yem Ooapuimit 3apam HeceT HOM ZaHNOTO |zeMenTa, Tem Gombe Gyner orauvarecn BenmuHa paquyca oT pasMepa atomHoro pasmyca. Tipumep: Mn°=1.29A, Mn%=0.91A, Mn**=0.70A, Mn‘ == 0.52 A. Eca o6paTumet K nepHoauueckol cucreme saemenTos (pur. 9), To YBUUM, YTO B BEpTHKaTeHO pacnoaoxeNHbIxX rpyrmax pasMepbl aTOMMBX it Honmex pamuycon yeemmnBaioTcn B COOTRETCTAHK C yBemNYeHHeM HCH SNeKTPOHHEIX OGomOueK B aTOMaX!. B ropHsoHTambHLX Ke pALaX no Mepe nepexona K cuemyiomemy aueMenTy, T. €. nO Mepe yBeauYeHHA BaeHTHO- CTH, pauycbl HOHOB, HaOGOpoT, yMeHbIllaloTca. Koniiinekcbie HOoHbl, MpuiuMaembie 3a CTpyKTYpHbIe eMUHMNE B KPH cramaax, YeIOBHO ynoxoGusOTeR chepiuecaum Team c OnpeneseHHbIME paguycamu. Tax, Hampumep, paaayc [NH,J*=1.53 A, [SO,J*=2.95 A [PO,}* = 3.00 A, [WO, =3.52A2, a pasmepit panuKaxos caoxesrx yenel # Komen opranHueckHx coequHeHMit z0cTHra‘oT 20—30 A. B 3aBucuMocTH of BeAHYHHBI aTOMHBIX (HOHHBIX) paqMycon HaxonuTca sueno OawKaiiumx coceseli wi, KaK ToBOpsT, KOOPAHHALHOHHOe uneno. Hanomuum, 4ro B HOHMBIX KPHCTasqHYeCKHX CTpyKTypax Tog KOOpAH- HALHOHHBIM YHCTOM Berga caeyer NOApasyMeBaTH YHCMIO OKPYAKAIOLEX HOHOB MpoTHBoHONoKHOro sHaKa. Jlna coeaunenMii Tana AX Koopanta- unontioe Heo atomon X woKpyr A paso uncay aromos A BoKpyr X. Hanpumep, 8 crpyxtype ZnS (c KoopauHaunonutim uncaom 4) KaxKaKtit aTOM UHAKa OKPYKeH YeTsIpbMA aTOMAMM CepsI NO BePUlNHAN ‘TeTpasap2. a Kaxkqbili aTOM cepbl— YeTLIPLMa” avoMaMH MuHKa. B crpyxtype NaC! (c KOOpaHHauHOHHBIM wncTOM 6) KaxkabIi HON HATpHA OKpyxaeTes WecTBIO HOHAMH Xs0Pa, PacnoTOKeHHIMH 110 BepUINHaM OKTa9Apa (TO 2%Ke H AAs HOHOB HaTpHa BOKpyr HoHa xuopa). B erpyxtype CsCl KoopamnannomHem unenom Gyner 8 Kak aaa Cs; Tak u aaa Cl (no Bepuimuam Ky6a). Das coeguuenii tuna AX, (um A2X) mur uMeem xBa KOOpAMHALMONHEIX UHCI: Kaxkabiii atom A oKpyken BAe Gobi ducioM aToMoB X, YeM YHCAG atomon A poxpyr xaxnoro X-aroma (au coeaunenua A,X — Ha0Gopor). Hanpumep, 8 crpyxtype CaF, kKoopauHaumoHHoe uncao KaabunA 8, @ropa 4m. a Yeroiunsocth uonuoi Kpuctanmmeckolt crpystypst HaxonuTcA B 3a- BHCHMOCTH OT OTHOCHTeLHLIX pasMepoB KaTHOHA H aHuoHa, Jaa cylecTBO- Bada HalGoulee ycrofunolt CrpyxTyps! HeOOXOAUMO, qTOObI Kar MBIT Ka- THO ConpHKacanca ¢ OKPY2aOUlNMU aWOHaMH, MpHYeM KacaHHe caMuX OKPYKAIOMNHX HOHOB He OOsgaTembHO, Ecam, B CHY Kakux-0M60 NpHYHR, aHHOHBI, OXpy2aiomNe fanMBti KaTHOH, BollAyT B ConpHKocHoBeHHe apy © ApyroM, a CaM KaTHOH npH 3TOM He GymeT KacaTbCA BCeX OKpy>KalOWLAx ero aHHOHOB, TO cTpykTypa cTaHeT HeycTOi4HMBO! HB pesyabTaTe TIPOH3OH- Het neperpynnuposka alMonos c yMelbileNHem KoopaMMayHOHHOrO Wea W OGpasoBaiivem HoBoli MoAHGHKauN KpuCTasMecKOrO BeULecTBa. 1 Banepaxa m ysemmiennn na6monacten su» B peayavTare TaK HaaMBAeMOrO aH TauNAHOTO CRATHS Jn MexOTOpHX saemenToD VI nepuoj. HanpHMep, Mo¥TH onNHaKo- sie paniycs MMewr creayioume napw: Zr v Hi, No w Ta, Rh u Ir, Ag w AU 7 37H pasmeps mpugenent no A. E. Depemany. Jawnwe, noayvermue 13 KoMnaeKe- Hux coeAMHeNHi, HecKoABKO HiDKe THX BeNHTINE Crpoenne xpuetanamuecoro semectsa 45 Takum o6pasoM, pH pasuH4HBIX KOOpAAHANHONNEX sHeax ycToiMMBLE KpHCTamMYecKHe peuleTKH MOTYT CyULCCTBOBATh NPH onpemexeHHEIX 3Ha- SeuHax OTHOMeHHi WoHMIX panuycos. TpemenHtie sHatenun oTHoMeHHA PAaMHyCoB Ask PagnHGHLX KOOPMMHANMOHHBIX YHCeM COTMAaCHO BbTUNCEHHAM Mariyca cgossten K csrenyrontemy: Kooprmmannontoe were @opaa oxpy¢ennix Omoweme 2 :RA 2 Suna 20 0.15 3 Tpeyroasanx 0.15--0.22 4 Terpaaap 0,220.41 6 Oxtasap 0:41—0.73 8 Ky6 0.73—1.37 2 Ky5o-oxrasap 1 Dru panupie MosBouKOT NOHATE MHOrHe OCOGeNHOCTH crpoeHHa KpH- ‘eTagMHYECKHX BeIeCTB, OCOGCHHO OGNaZaioUX BECOKOCHMMeTpHUHBIMA KOOPAUHANHOHHIMH peweTKamu. HanpuMep, cTaHoBHTcA sCHBIM, mTlo¥eMy B KpHcTaslMYecKoH CTpykType KaMeHHo comm Kaxxmuit Hox Na oKpy- oxen 6 Honamu Cl: orHowenHe HoHHEIX paguycos Na n Cl=0.98 : 1.81==0.54. TowHo Tak K€ B KHCHOPOMHBIX COeMHHEHHAX, K KOTOPbIM NPHHAIeKHT GONbUWIMHCTBO MHHepasOB, YHCO AHHOHOB KHCHOpOa BOKpyT MaHHOrO Ka- THOHA sBNseTcH XapakTepHoll BenW4HHOi. Tak, Jaa KaTHoHa B* 9To aucno == 3 (Rc: Ra =0.17), gan Si#=4 (Re: R4a=0.31), aaa P= 4 (Re: Ra =0.26), ann S§*=4 (Rx: Ra=0.26) ut. a. Ecam ornowenne HOHHBIX paswycos 61H3KO K NOPpanHYHbIM SHaYCHHAM, T. e. K TaKHM, NpH KOTOPBIX MOryT OGpasoBaTbCA pasHble (OPMbI OKpy2KeHHA, TO B KPHCTaJ- SMUECKHX pelUeTKAX MOTyT HMeTb MeCTO pa3HbIe KOOPAHHAUMOHHBIe UHCMa, Hanpumep, aaa Al 3 oKpyxenun anvonow xucnopona Rx :Ra =043 (GamsKo K 0.41). Jeficrsntensuo, B Oonbumucree caysaes HoH Al oxpy- DKEHBI LECTbIO HOHAMH KHUCHOPOAA, HO B HEKOTOPBIX CIOKHBIX COCAMHEHHAX (wanpumep, B amomocusmKatax) Berpeyaioren rpyna AlO;, nono6ume SiO,. Heo6xogumo scerta HMeTb B BHAY, ¥TO HOHHELe paaHyc! He ABIAOT- cs TOUHO ONpeMeTMMBIMH USHYeCKUMM KOHCTAKTAMM; OHH CyukecTReHHO 3a- BHCHT KaK OT BIAHMOMeNCTBHA C COCeLHHMH HOHAMH, TAK H OT (HSHKO-XH- Muuecknx axropos. XapakrepHo Takixe, wro aHHOHE, pacHosaraioutecn BOKpyT KaTHOHOB, oco6enHo | Mambix no pasMepaM, Bcerma oOpasyioT mpaBHababie opmnt OKpyKeHHA, MaKe B TeX CHYYARX, Korda STO He TpeOyercn cHMMeTpHel kpucraasa. OGwscHaetca 910 TeM, urO aHMoNLL, KaK Topasq0 Gouee Kpyn- HBIe CTPYKTYPHBIE eMHHHUE (B CpexHeM NpAMepHO B ABA pasa GoubUTe, eM KaTHOHBI), 3aHHMaIOT TaaBHOe NpocTpancTBO B KpHCTasAU4eCKUX CTpyK- tTypax H Mp NTOTHO ynakoBKe, ecrecTBeHHO, GyAyT crpemMuTEcA K Mpa BUAIBHOMY pacromoxKenmo. KaTHOonbI xKe B CHaY MeHBUIHX pasMepoB nO- Memmalored B NpoMexyrkKax Mexay anHoHama. Ha dur. 11 moKasaHo, ¥To oueHb MasteHbkue KaTnonst N*, C* nu B* cnoco6ubl saHHMaTb MecTa MexJY TpeMaA aHHOoHaMM KHCMOpOsa; KaTAOHM SS, Cro, WS, PS, Asi, V5, Si* 4 wHorna Al*—B Terpasapuueckux nycToTKax Mexay 4 aHHOHaMH KHCTOpOta, PacnomOxXeHHLIMH Mo TeTpasapy; KaTuount Lil, Mg?, Fe, Fes, Al, Sn, Tit, Nb®*, Sb**, US u apyrue, o6nanarurne Gonee Kpyn- HBIMH pasMepaMH, KaK MpaBHso, pactogaraiorea B OKTASAPHYCCKHX mycTotax, OGpasyeMbIX WI€CTbIO IIPHMBIKalOUlMMH Apyr K Apyry aHHoHaMH Kucnopoza (0 BepulMHam OKTasmpa); eme Gomee KPYNHble KaTHOHB Haxoqatea B OKpyxcHuM 8 aHHOKOB KHCHOpowa—Mo BepuIMHaM KyGa, H, HaKOHeN, KaTHOHEI, NO CBOHM pagMepaM y2Ke O.H3KHe K pasMepaM aHuoHa xucnopoga, MoryT HaxonUTBCA B OKPyKeHHH 12 aHHOHOB KHcsOpona. 46 Coolicrea munepanos, OOume caenenna Heo6xoaumo 3amerutb, aro B pate cayvaen cyilecrBenHoe paHAHHe Ha KOOPANHaNHOHHOe YHCHO OKAsMIBAIOT ABICHHA NOAAPHSALHH HOHOB. Tak, HanpuMep, J CHbHO Noaspusyioulero KaTHORa Zn?+ B OKpy2KeHHH aHKO- HOB KHCHOpOfa HAH Cepbt MO pacteTy MbI AO/DKHbI HMeTb KOOpAHHaNMOHHOe acto 6, OHaKO Ha caMoM Jee OHO paBHo 4, . stor (*) a fos w (cd, Cokes; (2) 6 a ssog® fra nae wr) oh, Poa [asa fv) CDA ees 6 (2) ALDs 905 CUR)» eke. it 1 Lin, Wad, vp. a Nas CeO OnE: Kg Cay Pb0y Toaapusauaa wona pupa dkaeTeH B TOM, NTO moX xelicTBHeM BHeUMero amexrpoctaTHHecKoro T0- Js, CO3RaBACMOTO COCEMHHMK HOHA- MH, B HEM MOHCXOAUT cmeuleHHe TOMOXKEHS Apa 10 OTHOUIeHHIO Kk MeuTpy TwKeCTH OTPHUaTerBHO BAP MACHHBIX 9TCKTPOHABIX OGOMONEK, B pesyzbrare wero oGpasyerca AM noab. Tipu oxHocropounes zeficram HoaApHsauHH MpoHcxonsaT 1epopma- WHA H KaK Gut YacTuMHOe BHERpeHHe HOHOB {pyr B Apyra, a B CBAgK ¢ STHM—ywenbuleuue paccrosuua menay HoHaMH. YeratopseHo, uo KaTHoHbI, xapaK- Tepusyioumecn ‘Masbimu pasMepamn u OoubulNsH sapanaMu, cam noaapH- ayloTca c1aG0, 10 O6aaLaI0T BLICOKOH cHlocoGuoctsIo MoAApUsOBath OKpy- 2KAIOUIHe “MX AHHOUBL, MpHuem Tem cunbuee, vem Gombule ux sapsq uveM Menbule x paguye (Ta6a. 5), Hane Goabuielt ckonHoeTbIO K MomapusaLtHH oGaajaion HOH THNa KYMpo, T. uontt ¢ 18-s1eKTpoHHo! BucuIHel O60 souKolt. Hix oriocurembunie Beansustt Tosspuganiin (71, Kax BAZHO U3 TAGs. 5, 5 10 paz Goubule, vem BesuaHEDI 10: Japusaiin HOHOB Tuna GaaropoqHDx T1394557 49 08 ULLT rasoB. Our, li, Pasmuume tam xoopaunaunn Haoopor, Manopanenruste anuo- ee na, O6salaiomme CombuM paanycom ut MastiM 3apamoM, Topaszo cHaBHee cau noaapusyiorcs, mpHuem TeM Goublle, YeM BHIllle "UX BapAX WH YeM Gombe Hx panuyc (TaGa. 5). B cayvanx ocoGeHHo cuabHO MOMApHsyIOMNHX HAH HoTApHsyeMBIx HOHOB Tpouexoqur oOpasosane MpowHO CBAZAHHBIX B HeOe HOHHBIX rpynm (pa- qUKa10B Had KOMMMeKcHEIX HoHOR): [COs}", [SO mp. B TakHx KOMMeKcax paccTomHMe Mexjy aTOMAMH YacTO 3HAyHTEbHO MenBule, YeM STO Mosarasocd Out MO MpaBHaly MOCTORUCTRA HOHMEIX pamHy- cos. Hanpumep, 8 panuxane [CO3}- (pur. 12) ssicoKosaentHnrit matenb- kit KaTvon C HacTombKo cHabHO nOMspuayeT OKPyxaionne cro MasIO~ RaaeHTHite anuonst OF, To paccrosuHe C—O, wsMepenHoe B KaabUNTe, coctasaaer 1.26 A (rorma Kak pamuye OAHOrO TOubKO HOHa KHCIO- pona = 1.32 A). BaxkHo 3aMeTHTb, ¥70 B BBICOKOCHMMETpHYHBIX HOHNLIX CTpyKTYpax nonspuaallus HOHOB MpaKTHYeCKH He Laer AULiOWell, TAK KAK KAKI ANHOH CO BCeX CTOPOH CHMMETPHYHO OKPYXKeH KATHOHAMH (HanpuMep, B pemteTKe Cua cease 8 KpHcTanaHuecKnx pemerKax 47 NaCl). Tlostomy p rakux caysaax cokpamenue Bee KpucrananyecKoli pe- WETKH B WeIOM OBIBaeT HeSHAYHTeMbHOe, 3a UCKMOYeHHeM Tex cay4aes, Kora cOexUHeHMe MpexCTABIEHO CHALHO NOMAPHSYIOMNMMH H WOMspHsye- MDIMH HOKaMH (Hanpumep, AgCl). Oxuako B nocnenuHx enysaax dusn4e- cKHe H XHMHYecKHe CBOIICTBa KPHCTaJMYeCKHX Be- ulecTB CYLIeCTBeHHO OTTHYHET OT axanorHuHEIx no cocTaBy MuHepagoB, KpuCTaIMSYIOMLNXcA B Tex 2KE cTpyktypax, 10 oOpasosannuix c1a6o nosapusyio- a uuwimn ~wonam. Hanpumep, raaur (NaCl). serko pacTBopuM B Boge, OOaqaeT HHSKHMH MoKasaTe- ASIMH TIpestoM.enua cBeTa, CoBepmienHoit cnaiHOCTBIO 4 T. A, Torma Kak Kepapruput (AgCl) nowrn Hepa- crsopum B BORe, XapakTepHsyeTcA BLICOKHMH T1o- KagaTessMH f1penOMJenHst, CHABHEIM amMasHnim Hf. 12. Crpoette Kom- 1 Bnexcworo axuoua CO; Gneckom, orcyTcTBHeM cnaiiHocTH HT. A. Ta6anna 5 OrwocuTeasHue ReAMMAM HOAApHsyeMoeTH (2) H nOAApREANME (ARTHEHOA—~B), no Bopny m @aaney ules Toler a | 0.06; 9.03) 0.01 | | 3.1 | 0.91 Re) teze: | 100) Ll | 0.6 Na] Mg] AL] Si cu | zn] Ga} Ge] s_ | a a | 0.19] 0.11 | 0.07| 0.04 (7.25)| 3.06 8 | 1.0 | 3.3 | 9.2 | 26.0 10.0 | 33.0] > >? [0.7 | 03 K | ca| Se} Ti Ag | Cd | In | Sn | Se | Br a | 0.91 | 0.57 | 0.38 | 0.97 6.4. | 4.84 8 | 06 | 1:8 | 44 | 98 6.0 | 18.0} ? ? | 0.5 | 0.3 Zt Au) Hg | Tt | Pb} Te a 0.80 9.6 8 5.3 5.0 | 120) 2 | 2 | os ce! Th « 1.20) — | B 3.8 | 3.3 i Cuaw cosseli eB kpHcrasanyeckux pemeriax. Kaxum Gut nyTem HH oSpasvaaancs KpucTaqMYecKHe Tea, OHH B KOHedHOM cyeTe mMpeacraB- AMO? pesyabTaT BaaHMOZeICTBMA CH CHeNAeHHA MeKAY aTOMAMH, HOH MH HJIM KOMIMIeKCaMH, MpO¥HO yaepAHBAeMbIMH STHMH CHaMH B yccolqH- Boll KpHerastuecKoi nocTpoiike. Takne noctpofikn o6saanaior MHHUMaJb- Holl noTenuuasbuow sHeprued. Cuabt caaseii, KoropuMH crpykTypHBe enHHMUN B Kpucrammax yaep- OKUBAIOTCA B PaBHOBECHH, B PaSJHYHLIX COeAUHEHUAX He O/MHAKOBLI NO ceoemy Tany. Cytecrayior caenyloulle Yerbipe TaBHLiX Tuna cBasel: Merammmueckas, KOBaeHTHaa (roMOnOaApHad), HOUiat (reTeportommpHan) H BaHmepBaanbcoscKan (ocraTowHas). 1. Metaaanueckaa CBa3b. ror TH cBagH, cBolicTBeHHBIT MeTamsaM, BeCbMa OpHTHHasen. CormacHo COBpeMeHHEIM NnpescTaBCHHAM, OCHOBaHHEIM Ha WeoM pale aBnenuil, MeTasuIbl MpeNCTABNAIOTCA ‘KAK BEUIeCTBA, B KOTOPbIX HMcIOTCA OOmIMe IA BCeX aTOMOB CBOGORHEIC HapyxKHBIe 3eKTpoHBI, cnocobuBIe non gelicranem nocToanuol aueKTpoABWKyIWel CHB K HeNpepEIBHOMY Apuxennio. TakuM OGpa3oM, sjlpa aTOMOB BMecTe CO CBASAHHLIMH ¢ HUM BHYTPeHHHMH SsleKTPOHAMH, MO CylecTBY, ABsAIOTCA KAK GH NOTOXKH- 48 Cnofiersa munepanos. O6ume cuexenna TenbHO sapskeHALIMH HoHamH. OT THIHMHBIX HOHOB OHH oTuHMaIoTCA TeM, WTO HegOcTaloMlan WaCTb BAVCHTABIX SMeKTPOHOB’ y HX He OTHATA KaKHMH-2n6O aTOMaMH jpyroro copra, a IplcyrcrByeT TyT 2e, B MpoMe- 2XKYTKAX Mexny chepaMM, OOpasya CBOeTO Poa BCe aTOMBL, H CO3aiOT TO, ¥TO HasbiBaior “MeTaswmuuecKoil cBa3bi0. TIpouHocTs TBepAoro cocTosHUA oGy- CuOBsMBAeTeH, KAK nlOMaraioT, PeSOHMpYIOWLMH KAK OMHO- TAK H ABYX- SNCKTPOHHBIMH CBASIMH, TOLOGHKIMH KOBATeHTHEIM. Takum o6pagoM, B Te1OM Momy4aeTca aTOMHad CTpyKTypa ¢ BAICOKUMH KoopAMHaNWOHMBIMH uNeTaMH (12 Han 14), OGmanaioman ocoOKMH cBoli- cTsamu, mpHcyuiMn MeTaswam. K TaKHM CBO/cTBaM OTHOCSTeH: BHICOKaA SNeKTPONPOBOAHOCT, TerIONPoBoAHOCTS, cusBHEI MeTammHecKHH Gneck (BBICOKad oTpaxkaTembian cHOCOOHOCTS), KOBKOCTS HT. 2. Cxemaruyeckm Kapruva pacnpeneneHia aapaqop B MeTanaHyecKoit pe- wierke ugo6paxena ua dur. 13, Tonoxurenbible sapaast anep oTMeveHLL KpecTHKaMH, a OTPAMATembHbIe Hs06parKeHBL B BIe MYHKTMPHBIX 9KBHMOTeHUMANDHBIX aH nui, Cruiomiaa anu wa06paxaer KpuTaye- ckHe TOdO2KeHHA, 3a KOTOPLIMH cileLyeT Mex- aToMHoe TIpoctparicTzo co cBOOOAHBIMH saeKtponamn. Cun cessefl pooSue He spamorea Ha npassenutima, Tlostomy GosbumMHeTRO Mera. HOB KPUcTasausyerch B OUeHb MpOCTEIX crpyktypax: B MuoTHelimel: KyOutecKoit H TeK- carowanbHoi ynaKopKax wapos. [laa 9THx crpyktyp MoWATHe «aToMAB pamuyc», KaK nuuier Bparr, wacrombKo 2Ke BaKHO, Kak Wh ilounTHe B HeopraHHueckux ur. 13. Tpeanonaraeman xap- rua pacnpexeaenua nosoxe- HOHHEIX COCAUHEHHAX, Tene He orpmuaremimnx sa =. KopamentHasn cBa3b. Mu mpy pazos 8 Meraimmeckoh = BLK RYMATb, YTO MpHTATMBaloTCA H CBABKI- peuerke. To Jlennapay BaloTcd pyr C Apyrom passH4HO sapsxKeHHBIE voubl, C TOuKH speHHA KAaccHYECKOH sneK- ‘poctaTuueckoii Teopun Kaxkerca eTpaHHbiM, KakuM o6pasom Moryr o6pasoBatb mpOwHyi0 cBASB, HAlIpHMep, Ba aToMa Boqopoga c BOSHHKHOBeHHEM MogeKyse He, Oguako noqo6Haa KoBastenTHaa cbs, HasbiBaeMan TaK:%Ke TOMOMOAApHOM HAH ATOMHOH, GeccHopHo cyuLe- orayer. OOsacisiercn 9ta cBa3b KBANTOBOM MexanMKOlt «aK mBTeHHE peso- HaHCa, HO, BBALY TPYMHOCTH H3q0x%KeHHA ec Ges ee CHenMaIbHBIX BRIUHCTeHHH, MBI He OyZeM ocTaHaB- 2 6 aupatbcA Ha 3TOM BOMpoce. F Kopanenruaa cpaab o6ycnopnena oGuel TeH- ¢ ° aewuHeii aTOMOB OG6pazoBbIBaTb ycTOMuHBy! s1eK- 6 TPOHHY!O KOHHTypAuHio BO BHELIHE! OGosOUKe, HO ova ocymecTaameTcn ocoGsIn cnlocoGoM, Ha- Hr M4. Cxea erpocina npumep, ana «topa (pur. 14) Heo6xogum snmp ae ee OHH LOGaBOuHEI SneKTPOH, YTOGEL O6pasoBarach 8-saekrponHaa KoNurypauna. OnHako ecm Ba aToMa (propa, cOmMsuB: WHcb, O6pasyioT jByxaTOMHy!o MoueKyry ¢ Napok OGuHX, 7. ©. MPHHAn- HeKAILUX OAHOBPEMCHHO OGOUM aTOMAM, SJeKTPOHOB, KAK 9TO CXeMaTH- Heck TOKagano Ha dur. 14, To KaxkAbI H3 BUX GyseT MMeTb 8-91eKTPOH- Hyt0 ycrofiunpyio KoHurypanuio Bo BHEUIHeH OGoOUKe (B STOM cry4ae HE Cush ceaseit B Kpucraaauseckux pemerax 9 HY KHL! ZOGaBOuHDIe sseKTpoHBI). EcrecrseHHo, ¥T0 B TaKoii AByXaToMHOl MoweKyse paccTosiue MexAY WeHTpaMH aTOMOB GyzeT MeHBUIe qBOIi- Horo aTomnoro payuyca (ropa. Yncao nap oGuX szeKTpoHOR saBHcHT oT MOMOKeHHA ZanNoTO ae Menta B Toli iim uHoit rpynne nepnonmueckolt cuerems JI. H, Meneae- eBa: Ain Kuciopoda 6yeM HMeTb ABe Napst OGWIHX 3eKTpOHOB, AWA a30- ta 3, aaa yraepoxa 4. Coasb B KpHcraqamyeckKHX pellerKax MoxeT OcyIeCTBAATLCA TOKO wepes RemapHbie 2ACKTpOHEI H MOTOMY OOHapy:KUBAeTCH TOKO B HEKOTO- puIX OnpeAeTeHHBIX HanpaBscHHax BoKpyr atoma, Oru romonosspuoie CoemuHeHua cyMecTBenHO oTMYaloTeR OT TeTepononapHLIx (uowHBIX), THe SueKTPOCTATHYeCKOe MpHTAAKCHUe PACHpOCTpanseTca Ha BCe COCemHHe HOHE MpoTHBorosoxHOrO sHaxa.. KoopyuHaituoutine wucnO romMononspHErx KpH- CTANINYECKHX PeUleTOK sHauNITeTbHO HIKE, YeM B MeTAJUYECKHX, H SABH- cuT or wncaa H Hampasnenuit KoBanenTaLIx caasei (axa asMasa ONO panno 4). Takum o6pa3oM, B KpHCTaJMHYECKHX peMleTKax ¢ KoBageHTHOl cBASBIO Tepmlor cBoe sHayeHNe B cHay 3Ha4yHTestDHOrO orkaoxenus (opMa! atoMoB oT WapoBoil. Mbl MOxKeM TOBOPHT TOTbKO O PACCTORHUAX MeXK/Y WeRTpamy aToMos. TIpuMepst 3TOM CBASH MEI HAXOLUM B MomeKysax Hs, Fs, Cla, 8 aTOMHBIX peuleTkax yrnepona (amMa3, rpa- bur) Hap. Cyulectayior take CoenHHeHHsA C HOHKOI. CBABHIO, B KOTOPEIX B Kakoli-ro Mepe mpuHHMaer yuacTHe H KoBanenTHan cBas». TIpexue Bcero STO yCTallaBaMBaeTed B HeKOTOPBIX ramO“AHLIX coemuHeHHAx (AgCl, CuJ uw ap.), o6pazopanniix custeno noxIpusyloNUMM HM nonApusyrommEMueR vowamu. Oua xe YeMarpupaeres B KOMMeKcHEIX paquKagax, B YaCcTHOCTH B TaKUX anMonax, KaK [COs?-, [NOs], [SO,}*, [PO u ap., uentpare- HBe KaTHOHM KOTOPEIX OO7aTaIOT MaJHINH pasMepamu u Gombummm sapsizamn. Bo unx TaKKe HMeeT MECTO COKPamlenHe paccrosmnit MexXLY HeNTpamu HoHOB (cM. (HT. 12), o4e- BUAUO B CBABH C OGPasonannem OOMHX map Hapy2xuBIx aeKTpoHoB, HaKouen, ona 4O- nyckaercs 411 MHOTHX coeguneHHii MeTaa- J10B C MBIMNbAKOM HU cepoii Hapaay ¢ meTar AHYECKOM CRAabIO. Tpouuocrs Konasentnoit cpasH xoTa H HaMeuneTcA B IHpOKUX mpeaeaax, HO B oOulem ne HIKE NpOWOCTA HONHO! cBASH. 3. Honnan cpa3y, Sra cpasy Tum Ha Jaa nogaBamomero SombUMHCTBA Heopra- uHYeCKAX KPHCTaAANueCKHX BeUleCTs. a Ona xapaxrepuayerea tem, ato cHam i. JGpuetanameenan expe: CASH OOyCHOBAeMH MPOCTHM S1eKTpoCTaTH- Nal, cepbie— Cl HECKIM MpHTHMKCIHEM MexLY CamMOcTOATeAb Ho cyMlecTBYIOMANH NpOTHROMOAOKHO saps- 2KeHHEIMH HOHaun, Kpucrasamueckue cTpykTypst ¢ HOHHOR cBASKIO MoryT Obits OGpasoBaust u6o TomBKo MpocrEIMH HoHaMH (pur. 15), aHGO B KOMGn- HauMH HX c KOMMcKcHBIMH HOHaMM [COs], [SO,2 u ap. IIpu stom cym- Mapubili noxoxuTembubI sapay nosocTbIO KoMMeHcHpyerca oGMuM OTPH- UaTeMbHbIM 3aps10M. OAHaKO 9TO WOcTHraeTCA He TeM, YTO MoJOXKUTEMBNBIE H OTpHuaTeTHbIe ATOMBI CoemHHCKDI Apyr c Apyrow B Monexysnut (BonpeKH SpexHum mpeqcrapaennaM, B HOHHBIX pelleTKaX IX He oKagast0ce), 4 Munepasorna

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