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BSN -3

SOCSCI031 – P01/X01/Y01 – AP1


1. Why and how did the war in the Pacific breakout? Was Japan justified in bombing the
Pearl Harbor?
- Before the Pearl Harbor attack, the tension between the US and Japan were already
mounting for about a decade. During the Great Depression, Japan wanted to solve
its economic and demographic problems by forcing its way into China but the
invasion was condemned. Japan began another war when Japanese forces carried
out the Nanjing Massacre. In light of such atrocities, the US began passing sanctions
halting Japan’s expansionism, this stirred up the anger of the Japanese. Destroying
the base at Pearl Harbor would mean Japan controlled the Pacific, defending their
status as a major world power. The Pearl Harbor attacked looked like a success for
Japan, but then it failed its objectives to completely destroy the Pacific Fleet.
Japanese bombers missed a lot of war crafts of the US. This failure came to haunt
the Japanese as US forces won the Battle of Midway, turning the tables of the war in
the Pacific.

2. Why did McArthur declare Manila an Open City?

- An open city is a settlement announcing that a city had abandoned all defensive
efforts, generally in an event of an imminent capture of a city to avoid destruction.
Once a city has declared itself an open city, the opposing military will be expected to
peacefully occupy the city rather than destroy it, aiming to protect a city’s civilians
and cultural landmarks from the destruction of war. Manila was declared an Open
City by General Marshal Douglas MacArthur on December 26, 1941 in an effort to
spare the city and its inhabitants from damage and harm amidst the threats of the
Japanese attack. All military installations were ordered removed as local policemen
were left to maintain order. This was however ignored by the Japanese as they still
dropped bombs on the city, causing mass destruction and damage.

3. Explain, why April 9, 1942 declared as Araw ng Kagitingan?

- The Battle of Bataan was a battle fought by the US and the Philippine
Commonwealth against Japan during World War 2. The battle represented the most
intense phase of the Japanese invasion of the Philippines during WW2. In January
1942, forces of the Japanese Army and Navy invaded Luzon along with several
islands in the Philippines after the Pearl Harbor Attack. American and Filipino forces
managed to fight the Japanese for three months despite lack of supplies. In the
morning of April 9, 1942, after several hours of negotiation from the American and
Japanese General, the remaining weary, starving and emaciated American and
Filipino defenders on the battle-swept Bataan Peninsula surrendered. Bataan has
fallen. Soon afterwards, the US and Filipino prisoners of war were forced into the
Bataan Death March. Araw ng Kagitingan, also known as Bataan Day or Bataan and
Corregidor Day, became a national observance in the Philippines commemorating
the fall of Bataan during the World War 2.

4. What was the reaction of the Filipinos to the Japanese rule as implemented in the
- The Japanese invasion divided the nation into pro-Japanese groups and anti-
Japanese groups. Some Filipinos were pro-Japanese in mentality because they
believed that the Japanese came as liberators who came to free their Asian brothers
from the western imperialists. Many poor farmers sided with the Japanese because
to them the Americans and rich Filipino politicians were oppressors. On the other
hand some were anti-Japanese side because of nationalism. The Japanese were
invaders and they should be driven out. The most devastating effect of the Japanese
invasion was that it ruined the moral fiber of the Filipinos to be kind and helpful and
to be honest and law-abiding citizens. It gave birth to a mentality to stay alive at all
costs. During the occupation cheating the Japanese such as selling substandard
goods and scrap metal as well as stealing supplies was considered a patriotic thing.
Thus the Japanese started calling the Filipinos dorobos, meaning thieves. During the
Japanese occupation the need to survive prompted people to cheat others.

5. How important Douglas McArthur’s returned in the Philippines in 1944 after he left in
- MacArthur served as chief U.S. military adviser to the Philippines before World War
II. The day after Pearl Harbor was bombed, Japan launched its invasion of the
Philippines. After struggling against great odds to save the Philippines from Japanese
conquest, MacArthur was forced to abandon the country under orders from
President Franklin Roosevelt in March 1942. Left behind at Corregidor and on the
Bataan Peninsula were 90,000 American and Filipino troops, who, lacking food,
supplies, and support, would soon lose to the Japanese offensive. He was deeply
disappointed of his forces trapped in the Philippines that he issued a statement to
the press in which he promised his men and the people of the Philippines, “I shall
return.” Meanwhile, in the Philippines, Bataan fell and then soon after the
Corregidor surrendered. The Philippines was lost, and the US Joint Chief of Staff had
no immediate plans for their liberation. MacArthur returned at the head of an
American army in 1944 and freed the Philippines from Japanese control. “I’m a little
late,” he told them, “but we finally came.”