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Discovery 3 - Chapter 3 Reading Organizer

After completion of this chapter, the student

should be able to:
• Compare the types of switches used in an enterprise
• Explain how Spanning Tree Protocol prevents switching
• Describe and configure VLANs on a Cisco switch
• Describe and configure trunking and Inter-VLAN routing.
• Maintain VLANs in an enterprise network.

1. Explain in detail what a content A CAM is a MAC address table maintained by a

addressable memory (CAM) is and switch and is recreated every time a switch is
1 activated.
how it is used by a switch.
There is no set standard for how long a switch
2. How often does a switch delete
holds entries the user specifies it with an
entries from the MAC address table?
aging timer.
3. As a unicast frame enters a port,
the switch finds the source MAC
address in the frame. It then searches
If the MAC address is not there it adds the
the MAC table, looking for an entry
address and port number to the aging timer
that matches the address. What
happens if the source MAC address is
not in the table?
Microsegmentation is a division of a network
4. Explain the term into smaller segments usually with the
microsegmentation. intention of increasing aggregate bandwidth
to network devices.
Asymmetric is when a function on a network
5. Switches can support either
takes a greater length of time than the
symmetric or asymmetric switching.
reverse function.
Explain each term as it relates to
Symmetric is when a function on a network
Symmetric -
takes an equal length of time then the reverse
Asymmetric -
6. List the differences between how Layer 2
routers and switches use different Hardware Based Switching
techniques for processing and Wire Speed Performance
forwarding traffic. High Speed Scalability
Layer 2 Switching - Low Latency
a. Uses MAC addresses
b. Low Cost
d. Layer 3
e. Software based packet forwarding
f. Higher Latency
Layer 3 Routing - Higher per interface cost
a. Uses IP addresses
b. Security
c. QoS

Discovery 3 - Chapter 3 Reading Organizer
7. Explain the store and forward The frame is read and stored in memory
method of switching in detail. before being sent to the destination device
8. What is the advantage of store and
It makes sure that frames aren’t damaged
forward switching?
9. What is the disadvantage of
advantage of store and forward It introduces high latency
10. Explain in detail the two
Fast Forward- forwards all packets without
different cut-through methods of
reading the CRC value
Fragment Free- forwards a frame after the first
Fast-forward –
64 bytes are received. Very high latency.
Fragment-free -
Store and forward because the speed of
11. Which switching method do most
today’s technology is as good as cut through
Cisco Switches rely on? Explain why.
12. What basic security features
should be applied to switches to
ensure that only authorized people Physically secure devices
access them? Use Secure Passwords
a. Enable SSH Access
b. Monitor access and traffic
c. Disable HTTP Access
d. Disable unused ports
e. Enable port security
f. Disable telnet
13. Explain why physically securing
networking devices is important and Physically securing them limits access to
what steps can be taken to accomplish authorized network staff
this goal.
Complete Lab Activity 3.1.4 Remember to answer lab questions!!!
14. Redundancy refers to having two
3. different pathways to a particular You can connect switches together with two wires
2 destination. How is redundancy into two ports on each
accomplished with multiple switches?
15. What advantages are gained by
this redundancy between switches? Reduces congestion
a. Supports availability
b. Balances load
16. Explain what switching loops are Causes duplicate frames to be sent throughout a
and how they can create problems in a network. A switching loop happens when there is
redundantly switched network. more than one path between two switches.
17. Explain in detail how Multiple MFT’s destination hosts can receive multiple copies
Frame Transmissions and MAC of frames and can waste: bandwidth CPU time and
Database Instability can negatively potential duplication of transaction traffic.
affect a network. It is possible for switches in a redundant network to
learn the wrong information about the location of a
Discovery 3 - Chapter 3 Reading Organizer
Multiple Frame
host. If a loop exists, one switch may associate the
Transmissions - destination MAC address with two separate ports.
MAC Database Instability -
Complete Packet Tracer Activity
Remember to answer lab questions!!!
STP is a protocol that disables redundant links in
18. Explain spanning tree protocol
switched networks providing redundancy without
(STP)? creating loops
19. Explain what is required to set up
Cisco switches start looking for loops from the
Spanning Tree protocol on a Cisco beginning when they start up
20. List what STP does to prevent Forces certain interfaces into a standby or blocked
switching loops. state
a. Leaves other interfaces in a forwarding state
b. Reconfigures the network by activating the
c. appropriate standby path, if the forwarding path
becomes unavailable
21. The Root Bridge is the primary
switch or focal point in the STP
topology. The root bridge Network topology information sent to all other
communicates with the other switches switches from another
using Bridge Protocol Data Units
(BPDUs). What are BPDUs?
22. What information is contained in a
BPDU? Identity of the source switch
a. Identity of the source port
b. Cumulative cost of path to root bridge
c. Value of aging timers
d. Value of the hello timer
23. As the port cycles through these
states, the LEDs on the switch change
from flashing orange to steady green. 50 seconds
How long does it take for this cycle to

Discovery 3 - Chapter 3 Reading Organizer
24. As a switch powers
on, each port cycles through a series of
four states: blocking, listening, Blocking
learning, and forwarding. A fifth state, Steady Amber
disabled, indicates that the Receives BPDU’s
administrator has shut down the switch Discard Data Frames
port. List what takes place during each Does not learn addresses
Takes up to 20 seconds to change to listening state
of the first four states.
Blocking –
Blinking Amber
Listens for BPDU’s
Doesn’t forward frames
Doesn’t learn MAC Addresses
Determines if switch has more than one turning
Listening –
port that might create a loop
-if loop returns to the blocking state
-if no loop transitions to learning state
Takes 15 seconds t transition to learning also
called forward delay
Blinking Amber
Learning –
Processes BPDU’s
Learns MAC addresses from received traffic
Does not forward frames
Takes 15 seconds to transition to forwarding
Blinking green
Forwarding –
Processes BPDU’s
Learns MAC addresses
Forwards frames

25. Complete the activity but DO NOT

screen or hand in your results.
26. For STP to function, the switches in
the network determine a switch that is
the focal point in that network. STP
uses this focal point, called a root
bridge or root switch, to determine
which ports to block and which ports to
put into forwarding state. The root The bridge is chosen based on BID values plus the
bridge sends out BPDUs containing MAC addresses
network topology information to all
other switches. This information allows
the network to reconfigure itself in the
event of a failure. Explain how the root
bridge is chosen.

27. STP designates three types of Root Port- port that provides the lowest cost back
ports: root ports, designated ports, and to the root bridge
blocked ports. Explain each: Designated Port- a designated port is a port that
Root Port - forwards traffic toward the root bridge but does not
connect the least cost path
Discovery 3 - Chapter 3 Reading Organizer
Designated Port -
Blocked Port- forwards no traffic
Blocked Port -
28. Explain in detail why a network
technician should plan and evaluate A network technician needs to plan the order so he
the network in order to select the best can allow for optimal use even when he makes the
switch to become the root of the network larger
spanning tree.
Complete Lab Activity 3.2.3 Remember to answer lab questions!!!
29. How often does STP send out
Every 2 seconds
BPDUs by default?
show spanning-tree - Displays root ID, bridge ID,
and port states
30. List and briefly explain useful
commands used to verify spanning show spanning-tree summary - Displays a
tree operation. summary of port states
a. show spanning-tree –
b. show spanning-tree summary show spanning-tree root - Displays the status and
configuration of the root bridge

c. show spanning-tree root – show spanning-tree detail - Displays detailed port
d. show spanning-tree detail – information
e. show spanning-tree interface
– show spanning-tree interface - Displays STP
f. show spanning-tree interface status and configuration
blockedports –
show spanning-tree blockedports - Displays
blocked ports
Complete Lab Activity 3.2.4 Remember to answer lab questions!!!
31. Hosts and servers that are Switches flood broadcasts out all ports, which
connected to Layer 2 switches are part consumes unnecessary bandwidth. As the number
of devices connected to a switch increases, more
of the same network segment. This
3. broadcast traffic is generated and more bandwidth
arrangement poses two significant
3 problems. They are:
is wasted.
Every device that is attached to a switch can
a. forward and receive frames from every other
b. device on that switch.
It allows an administrator to group together
32. What are virtual local area stations by logical function, by project teams, or by
networks (VLANs) created to do? applications, without regard to physical location of
the users.
33. VLAN’s have two major functions,
Contains broadcasts
these are:
a. Groups devices
34. What is required for traffic to move
A layer 3 device
from one VLAN to another?
35. What is required to set up a static
Assignment of ports from an administrator
36. Explain in detail what a Dynamic it requires you to be in a VMPS server to connect
VLAN membership is and how it you to the certain VLAN and it acts like you are in a
operates. certain branch of a network
37. Complete Activity.
38. What is the purpose of the default It is used to access and configure the switch

Discovery 3 - Chapter 3 Reading Organizer
VLAN1? remotely and to exchange information with other
network devices
show vlan
Displays a detailed list of all of the VLAN numbers
and names currently active on the switch, along
with the ports associated with each one
Displays STP statistics if configured on a per VLAN
39. Explain the purpose of the
following commands. show vlan brief
show vlan - Displays a summarized list showing only the active
show vlan brief - VLANs and the ports associated with each one
show vlan id id_number -
show vlan name vlan_name - show vlan id id_number
Displays information pertaining to a specific VLAN,
based on ID number

show vlan name vlan_name

Displays information pertaining to a specific VLAN,
based on name
Complete Lab Activity 3.3.2 Remember to answer lab questions!!!
40. A VLAN has three major functions.
These are: Reduce Load
a. Logically group devices
4 b. Minimize broadcast domains
Access Port- pathway to a device that does not
41. Explain the following terms: create loops in a switched network
Access Port - Trunk Port- a port on a switch or router that
Trunk Port - connects a switch to another switch router or
42. Explain how does Frame tagging
work? Identifies the VLAN a frame belongs to

Complete Lab Activity 3.4.1 Remember to answer lab questions!!!

Special VLAN that accommodates untagged traffic.
43. Explain in detail what a native
Trunk links carry untagged traffic over the native
VLAN is and how it operates. VLAN.
Complete Lab Activity 3.4.2 Remember to answer lab questions!!!
44. One method for providing Switch
connectivity between different VLANs Configure the switch interface as an 802.1Q trunk
requires a feature called subinterfaces. link.
Subinterfaces logically divide one
physical interface into multiple logical
pathways. Configure one pathway or Select a router interface with a minimum of a
subinterface for each VLAN. 100Mbps FastEthernet
List what is required o support inter- Configure subinterfaces that support 802.1Q
VLAN communication using encapsulation.
subinterfaces on both the switch and Configure one subinterface for each VLAN.
the router.
Switch -
Router -
Discovery 3 - Chapter 3 Reading Organizer
Complete Lab Activity 3.4.3 Remember to answer lab questions!!!
45. VLAN Trunking Protocol (VTP) is a
provides a method for the distribution and
3. Layer 2 messaging protocol. What management of the VLAN database from a
5 does this provide? centralized server in a network segment.

46. VTP has three modes: server,

client, and transparent. List the Server
Creates modifies and deletes VLAN and VLAN
characteristics of each.
config patterns for entire domain
Server – Saves VLAN config in NVRAM
a. Sends VTP messages out all trunk ports
b. Transparent
c. Forwards VTP advertisements
Transparent – Ignores information contained in the VTP message
a. Does not modify its database when receiving
b. updates
c. Doesn’t send out an update that includes a change
d. of its own VLAN database
Client –
Does not create modify or delete VLAN info
a. Modifies its own database
b. Sends VTP messages out all trunk ports
47. By default, all switches are servers.
Why is it a good practice to have at It is good to do so to provide backup and
least two switches configured as redundancy
servers on a network?
48. With VTP, each switch advertises
messages on its trunk ports. Messages
a. Revision
49. VTP messages come in three Summary advertisements contain the current VTP
varieties: summary advertisements, domain name and the configuration revision
subset advertisements, and number.
advertisement requests. Explain each A subset advertisement contains a list of VLAN
in detail. information.
Summary Advertisements - Advertisement requests are required if the switch
Subset Advertisements – has been reset or the VTP domain name has been
Advertisement Requests - changed.
50. What are the steps involved in
when adding a new switch to an Step 1: Configure VTP off-line (version 1)
existing VTP domain?
Step 2: Verify the VTP configuration.
Step 1:
Step 2: Step 3: Reboot the switch.
Step 3:
Complete Packet Tracer Activity
Remember to answer lab questions!!!

Discovery 3 - Chapter 3 Reading Organizer
Complete Packet
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Tracer Activity
Complete Packet Tracer Activity
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51. What are the recommended best
practices for configuring VLANs in an Organizing server placement
enterprise network? Disabling unused ports
Configuring the management VLAN as a number
other than 1
b. Using VLAN Trunking Protocol
c. Configuring VTP Domains
d. Reboot any new switch entering an established
e. network
Complete Packet Tracer Activity
Remember to answer lab questions!!!